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Baltic Crossroads Examining Cultural Social and Historical

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					5/22/08                                                                                             1


                                Baltic Crossroads:
                 Examining Cultural, Social, and Historical Diversity
                            May 29 to May 31, 2008
                               Indiana University


Paper Abstracts. Note panel abstracts are at end of the list.

AKERBERGS, Ilze (2-3) "Ideology in Life Stories through Film: Themes and Reflections
in Dzīvesstāsts Documentary in Latvia and Brazil's Musea da Pessoa Documentary"
         This paper will explore the themes that occur in two documentaries created from life
stories, one in Brazil and one in Latvia. I will examine the points of emphasis in both
documentaries, as for example, the role of humor, attempts at reconciliation, the ways of survival
under difficult circumstances. The documentaries show the point of view of the producers of the
films, telling their stories about two different nations through the stories of other people.
Through narration and visual clips, they create stories of their past, which, at the same time,
reveal the differences in the character and culture of these two countries.

AKSTINAVIČIŪTE, Ieva (4-3) "Models of Lithuanian Transmigrant Identity:
Expectations and Reality"
        Compared to the current wave of economic emigration, Lithuania experiences infrequent
repatriation, or "return-home" phenomenon." My interest is mainly in the political wave of
emigrants, who retreated from Lithuania to the Central Europe during World War II, stayed at
the "displaced persons" camps and then moved to America, Australia, Great Britain, etc.. For 50
years, they were clearly defined as diaspora, exile people (they expressed the same social
memory and articulated the same Lithuanian identity, based on the enculturation in the Saturday
Lithuanian school, songs festivals, and preservation of traditions). Then were called returnees,
now transmigrants – each of these terms has its own connotation.
        The data for this presentation were collected during 2005 – 2006, using anthropological
field research methods.
        The object of a presentation is Lithuanian transmigrants and their children, who have
either returned to live to Lithuania, or are "on the move" between different countries. The main
question is the following: is there any continuation of self identity from activities in the West to
now (before and after repatriatation)? In response to globalisation, the contemporary world is
called a "global village with porous borders" (Kockel, 2002). So identity becomes changeable
and unattached from space (Gupta; Ferguson, 1992).

ANDRONOV, Aleksey and Everita ANDRONOVA (6-1) "Latgalian in Soviet Russia: A
Pilot Model of the Linguistic Corpus of Printed Texts"
     Latgalian minority appeared in Russia in the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th century
due to the resettlement in pursuit of free lands supported by the state. Cultural development of
national minorities was paid great attention to in the first years of the Soviet rule. Latgalians had
about half a hundred national schools, a Latgalian department in a pedagogical college in
Achinsk (Krasnoyarsk region), a national theater, Latgalian sections in the party and soviet
government establishments. In 1937–1938, however, Latgalians were severely suppressed
together with other national minorities of Russia.
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     In 1917–1937 more than a hundred Latgalian books and periodicals were published in
Moscow and Novosibirsk, but initially in Pskov as well. Most part of these texts is of political
and propagandistic content, however original and translated fiction, textbooks and readers for
Latgalian schools were also printed. Collecting the whole set of the Latgalian printed texts of this
period and arranging them in a linguistic corpus is a project of the Baltic department of St.
Petersburg State University supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (reg. nr. 07-04-
00208a). The intended corpus would be a memorial to the culture of later neglected nation and a
great instrument for a researcher of Latgalian language and its variant spoken in Russia.
     A pilot model of the corpus to be demonstrated at the conference is based on one source — a
reader “Padumiu cims” (Moscow, 1930), compiled by V. Daškevič (212 pages). The book can
serve a good sample as it contains both original and adapted Latgalian texts, translations from
Latvian and Russian, political texts and pieces of fiction. A multilevel corpus is built which
contains several aligned versions: 1) original text, 2) text with corrected misprints,
3) representation in normalized orthography, 4) morphological annotation, 5) translation into
Russian. Each level is intended for specific tasks of linguistic analysis. More levels can be added
later (syntactic annotation, Latvian translation, etc.). The sample of a corpus allows making first
observations about the structure and development tendencies of the variant of Latgalian used in
Russia in 1917–1937.

ARENS, Olavi (6-3) See panel abstracts.

AUERS, Daunis (7-4) "The Electoral Failure of Far-Right Movements in Latvia"
        Far-right parties have achieved significant electoral success in the Central European and,
to a lesser extent, West European region in recent years. This paper considers why this electoral
success has not been replicated in contemporary Latvia. After defining “far-right” movements,
the paper considers the background conditions for the increased electoral success of far-right
parties in contemporary Europe (Anastasaskis 2002; Mudde 2005, 2006; Rydgren 2005). The
paper then maps rising levels of mobilization in both ethnic Latvian and Russian-speaking far-
right wing movements, and considers the subcultures, non-party organizations, and political
parties that make up the far-right political family in Latvia. The paper argues that while these
two ethnic groups were at loggerheads in the 1990s, they now share many characteristics, and
even cooperate in certain spheres. Nevertheless, despite the increased activity, and profile, of the
far-right, the movement has achieved no significant electoral success in modern Latvia. This is
explained by two hypotheses. The first - institutional - hypothesis considers the laws that govern
party financing and electoral campaigns, and finds that the current legislation makes it difficult
for outsider groups to challenge the more sophisticated electoral activities of the elite parties.
The second - competition - hypothesis argues that the far-right’s two major contemporary policy
platforms in Latvia – ethnic-nationalism and opposition to gay rights – have been largely adopted
by both Latvian and Russian-speaking mainstream parties in their electoral rhetoric. As a result,
while far-right parties have had no electoral impact on Latvian politics, they have had a
significant ideological influence on the contemporary political discourse.

BELDAVS, Aija (8-2) "Integrating Indigenous Knowledge Systems the Baltic Way"
In the question of common Baltic regional identity, I argue it takes but a slight tightening twist
by key movers to appreciate the strength and beauty of an emergent complex adaptive distributed
social network structure, neither centrally fused nor randomly dispersed, composed of strong
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individual identities, while flexibly co-operating on important projects and common purposes. A
measure of social network robustness and sustainability is capacity for different components to
have flexible interchange dependent on negotiation of instrumental goals, relationships, and
identities. Starting with interaction in common E. Baltic time-space of Finnish, Baltic, and
Scandinavian peoples following the Mesolithic, each people built its traditional identity on its
own transformative experiences. I argue the integrative commonality is resistance to attitudes
that marginalize fluid alternative knowledge systems based on local experience as necessarily
inferior. Survival developed not just by Great Men, but in the longue durée of ordinary people’s
cultures builds support for ecologically sound principles; the oldest layers of animism have been
transformed in a Lithuanian pagan site to a modern philosophy of “respect for the ancestors, the
sacredness of nature, and the search for harmony,” (Dundzila, A., 1992) with open ways to
practice these. Key movers have been creative people from almost any field who seek out,
transform, transmit, mediate, guide, heal, harmonize new configurations, and bring new
circumstances into dialogue with the guiding mythology of a group, thereby participating in the
evolution of concepts with both a dynamic and continuing aspect.

BERESNIOVA, Christine (5-5) "Tolerance Education in Latvia and Lithuania"
         The interconnectedness of a globalized world has increased the frequency and intensity of
cultural interactions. Diverse populations and multiple languages may contribute to social
instability and conflict, especially when one ethnic group begins to dominate other groups in
society or geographic location. Human beings, not always instinctively tolerant, frequently look
to educational programs to promote cultural tolerance, but national identity, memory, and history
often affect the success and influence of tolerance education programs. This paper examines
theories of social interaction and education, such as the group threat hypothesis, and moral
exclusion theory, in the context of comparative educational case studies and in-country
interviews from Lithuania, Latvia, and Japan. Research has identified evidence of intolerance,
historical omission, and promotion of exclusive identities incongruous with the national
discourse supporting education initiatives for tolerance and multiculturalism in Latvia and
Lithuania. Lithuania, a nation still coming to terms with its past, has committed considerable
resources to reforming many aspects of its educational sector, such as history and textbook
revision, but it still embraces a national identity that is occasionally at odds with historical
realities. Similarly, Latvia’s programs support a social status quo of two separate, occasionally
intersecting, cultural and linguistic worlds, and it fails to discourage segregation or encourage
interaction within their multicultural society. Yet, successful paradigms for tolerance education
do exist, such as those in Japan. Japan has made significant contributions to the field of peace
education by allowing social discourse on history, education, and identity included in Japanese
textbooks, curriculum, and museum programs. Japan’s example demonstrates that continuing
discussions over these topics can actually encourage societies to accept a painful past as
legitimate history, and to use it to promote more tolerant individuals. Further deconstruction of
identity, memory, and tolerance in Lithuania and Latvia will help to sustain their positive
developments of independent democratic consolidation and liberal governance.

BLUĶIS, Uldis (6-3) See panel abstracts

BOND, Dzintra (5-4) Some Phonetic Characteristics of Latvian in the Film Zvejnieka Dels"
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        One of the earliest recordings of spoken Latvian is the sound track of the film Zvejnieka
Dels, released in 1939. The two lead actors, Peteris Lucis (1907-1991) and Nina Melnbarde
(1912-??), represent the speech of Latvians during independence. A film script does not
necessarily represent ordinary language, and trained actors may not use ordinary pronunciation.
As a first attempt, I have examined long and short vowel durations in one scene. On the basis of
300 measurements, we can draw several conclusions.
   • The two talkers employ very similar vowel duration ranges.
   • Vowel durations in function words and content words do not differ.
   • All vowels in stressed position are longer than comparable vowels in unstressed position.
   • Long vowels have about twice the duration of short vowels.
   • Both talkers omit some short final vowels.

BROWN, Kara (4-5) "A Challenge to the Nation-State? Regional Language Identity and
Education in Estonia"
         In many parts of the world, the cultivation of regional identities and languages signals a
distancing from the majority population, lack of loyalty and, possibly, impending civil war.
Examples of this regional development and reaction span Europe, from the Basque Region in
Spain to the Caucus border of the Russian Federation. This paper considers the case of the
development of Võro identity and education in southeastern Estonia as lens to view the
interrelated issues of national identity, regionalism and the state. I argue that unlike regional
groups interested in greater autonomy or political separation, the Võro regional activists attempt
to advance greater state protection and recognition for their language and education programs
through explicit identification with the national majority and proximity to its political and
cultural interests. Since the 1990s, Võro activists have framed the regional-language
revitalization squarely within an “enrichment” discourse; this is essentially a "two in one"
language-protection reasoning, which posits that investing in the development of Võro also
protects Estonian by enriching the Balto-Finnic language sphere in Estonia and by providing an
additional linguistic buffer for Estonian in the international arena. This is a domestically driven
and politically acceptable approach to the cultural development of regional languages in Estonia.
This “enrichment” strategy has come at a cost, however, as some Võro-language activists have
discovered in the last six years. As the efforts (1) to promote juridically Võro as a “language”
and (2) to incorporate Võro as a mandatory elective in the southeast have revealed, the
enrichment strategy has its limitations. Most significantly, domestic critics claim that these two
activities could weaken Estonia economically and undermine state foreign policy and
international concerns. As a result of this regional situation, I conclude that the challenge to the
Estonian nation-state, in essence, is to decide what level of homogenization and diversity it
envisions, tolerates and allows in the twenty-first century.

BRYANT BERTAIL, Jessica (4-3) "Lithuanian Emigration after Accession to the
European Union and Its Impact on Lithuanian National Identity: Transnational Public
Spheres and Social Remittances"
       Since Lithuania gained independence, at least 447,000 of its residents have left, a
decrease of 11% from the estimated 3.6 million of 1990. More than 108,000 have left since
2004, most of them young and educated. Lithuania’s human resource sector is in crisis mode.
The majority of Lithuanians emigrating seek work in England, Ireland or Spain, countries which
allow citizens of newer EU member states to legally work, and where salaries are three to four
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times higher than at home. Migration specialists estimate that wages in Lithuania would need to
increase three times before most émigrés would return home.
        Most research on recent emigration from Lithuania focuses only on the economic impact,
weighing the benefit of émigrés’ financial remittances against the cost of the labor crisis at home.
There is little research on the impact of increased emigration on Lithuanian cultural identity. In
fact, emigration significantly affects how citizens view themselves and their country. The
emigration of younger people can be especially threatening to the concepts of ethnic or national
identity, because the youth represent the very future of the nation. This idea that increased
emigration is a serious threat to the nation is reflected in the tone of many recent Lithuanian
news articles.
        This paper analyzes the relationship between increased emigration since 2004 and
changing Lithuanian cultural identity, using the conceptual frameworks of transnational public
spheres and cultural remittances. It compares the current transnational spheres with those formed
through previous Lithuanian emigration movements – at the end of the 19th Century and
following World War II. This project aims to provide some insights on how transnational
networks formed through emigration impact the identities of Lithuanians in the homeland and
throughout the world.

BULA, Dace (1-3) "Narrated Past: Competing Truths, Discourses, and Genres"
        The paper is based on the interviews conducted in a former fishing village, now a suburb
of Riga. It deals with stories about the local past told by Mangaļsala inhabitants, emphasizing
narrative aspects of the past and of place. The analysis arrives at several conclusions. First, the
Mangalsala interviews reaffirm the notion that the history of a place is an essential context not
only for people’s personal histories but also for their present lives. It was quite obvious that
narrating the past events served as a means for constructing personal attachment to place and
structuring its contemporary social landscape. Second, the vision of local history that was created
during interviews manifests itself as a multilayered and multivocal discourse of competing
explanations, interpretations and personal truths. Narratives about Mangaļsala’s history not only
contain contradictory facts but also reflect a history of questioning and debating those ostensible
facts. Third, the fieldwork material reveals a quite complex relationship between local
knowledge and forms of discourse that cannot be easily reduced to the genre of narrative. In the
repertoires of different informants, the same ideas could prompt lengthy legends as well as
concise, almost proverb-like statements. If we think of local knowledge as a shared cultural
resource we should recognize the diverse ways in which people creatively use it for their own
unique performances.

CAPLES, Matthew (7-2) "Estonian-Hungarian Cultural Relations between the Two World
Wars"
         After the collapse of empires following the First World War, Estonia and Hungary
became fully independent states. As two of Europe’s linguistically isolated Finno-Ugric peoples,
both nations sought to strengthen and broaden the cultural ties linking their two peoples. Much of
this activity took place within the framework of the so-called “kindred peoples’ movement,” the
goal of which was to foster a sense of kinship and solidarity among the various Finno-Ugric-
speaking peoples. Although prior to independence contacts between the two peoples had been
restricted largely to scholarly contacts, from the early 1920s a growing network of cultural
institutions evolved that served to popularize the idea of Estonian-Hungarian kinship among the
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general public of both states. An ever increasing body of informative works was published, a
wider selection of literature was made available through translation, and more and more
Estonians and Hungarians visited each other’s countries and learned each other’s languages.
Significantly, as the nurturing of pan-Finno-Ugric ties became official government policy in the
1930s, relations were gradually elevated to the state level, a process culminating in the signing
and ratification of a comprehensive and wide-ranging cultural convention in 1937. Although the
extent of these endeavors was limited to some degree by geographical distance as well as
differing foreign policy goals, relations between the two peoples remained warm throughout the
period.

CARA, Olga (5-5) "Acculturation Strategies of Ethnic Russian Adolescents in Latvia:
Three Years after the Education Reform"
        After the collapse of the Soviet Union 25 million ethnic Russians were left living outside
Russia. This paper presents some research findings exploring acculturation strategies of ethnic
Russian adolescents in Latvia: looking at the most and least preferred strategy as well as
interrelatedness between choice of acculturation strategies and the Latvian language knowledge
and perceived discrimination.
        The research uses John Berry’s two-dimensional acculturation model, based on four
different acculturation strategies for ethnic minority and immigrant adaptation in the host
society. Data comes from a longitudinal study of adolescents from schools with Russian as the
language of instruction in Riga. Same schools were invited to participate in the survey in 2000
and 2007. Comparison between acculturation processes in 2000 and 2007 will be made in the
paper.

ČAKARS, Jānis Kent (2-2) "CNN at the Barricades: Western Media and the Latvian
Struggle for Independence"
        1991 was an important year for CNN, the Baltic states and thinking about media-state
relations. In that year, the cable television channel from Atlanta rocketed to prominence
primarily through coverage of the Gulf War and enhanced continuous international news
coverage. The year began in the Baltics with attacks in Lithuania and Latvia and ended with the
reestablishment of independence. In January in Latvia the legend of CNN at the barricades was
also born. The four crews dispatched to Riga in anticipation of action similar to Vilnius is now a
feature of the lore of the time. Attendant to the rise of CNN as a sign of ubiquitous, international,
real-time news flows was a claim that media might have new influence over foreign policy (a
reversal of the understanding that journalism follows rather than leads in this regard), the so-
called CNN effect. While initially referring to the new mega news company, the term has come
to more broadly denote Western, particularly American, media and its alleged power to motivate
governments to intervene abroad.
        This study employs the wider understanding of the CNN effect and considers the place of
Western media in the Latvian independence movement. Western media were important to
Latvian independence-seekers. They actively sought media attention and attempted to monitor it.
This study examines what that media looked like, what Western newsgathering in the Baltics
was like, and what that press meant to those in the movement.
        Most studies of the CNN effect focus on whether, how, to what extent and under what
circumstances media might influence US policies of intervention. This study, however, changes
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the direction of inquiry and highlights what media attention meant to Latvians in the struggle for
independence.

CLERC, Louis (7-2) "Suffering What They Must? Harri Holma’s Diplomatic Carrier in
France (1927-1943) as a Case Study in Small States’ Relations with Great Powers"
        When considering the international position of the Baltic region’s smallest states, the
most striking feature is their dependency on Great powers’ politics. From Estonia to Norway, the
20th century brings enough examples of small Northern and Baltic nations being trampled upon.
If might dictates right, and the international position of small states depends solely on Great
Powers’ politics and geostrategic situations, why to study small states’ foreign policies at all?
        Building on that, the starting point of this presentation will be that, while limited and
depending on the broader international context, the capacity of small states to influence the
policies of Great Powers through diplomatic action is real.
        The presentation aims at illustrating this point through the study of Harri Holma’s
diplomatic carrier. The Finnish ambassador to France from 1927 to 1943, Holma will be used in
order to exemplify the possibilities open to a small state from the Baltic Sea region to influence
the policies of a Great Power. Holma’s action will be studied in the context of French foreign
policy, and of contacts between France and Finland.
        The presentation will deal at first with Harri Holma himself, his diplomatic carrier and
position in France. It will then present the main lines of French foreign policy in the Baltic Sea
region. Holma’s action in France will be studied through three chronological periods: 1927-
1933; 1933-1938; and 1939-1940. The presentation will study his relations with the French
foreign policy decision makers, his attempts at influencing France’s perceptions on Finland, and
his actions to promote Finland’s image in France.
        From Holma’s action in France, the presentation will conclude on his capacity to
influence French foreign policy related to Finland. Keeping in mind the peculiarities of France’s
foreign policy, the specificities of France’s relation with the Baltic, and trying to avoid the
dangers of generalization, general conclusions will be drawn on the capacity of small
international entities to use diplomatic action in order to influence their fate. The presentation
will especially emphasize the need for researchers to take into account both the context of great
powers’ politics surrounding small states, and the possible margin of maneuver allowed by
routine diplomatic contact, the actions of their diplomatic representatives, lobbying or the use of
propaganda.

DAHLANDER, Josefin and Jonas MÅNSSON (4-3) "Swedish Attitudes towards Labor
Immigrants from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland"
        The Swedish government has recently put up immigration of labor as a new objective for
the migration policy. Since integration between the Baltic Sea countries is another policy of the
Swedish governments, we believe it is of certain interest to focus upon possibilities for increased
labor migration from the adjacent new EU-member countries.
        We have chosen to focus upon the attitudes in the Swedish society that the labor
immigrants face, as one important aspect of integration. The study illustrates the topic in
accordance with which prerequisites for labor immigration from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and
Poland that exists in the light of domestic attitudes. In a long-term perspective it concerns the
ability of society to integrate the immigrants, which according to various theoretical perspectives
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affects their willingness to take up residence in Sweden and also establish on the Swedish labour
market.
        The significance of interaction between the inhabitants and the immigrants are being
sketched through a natural experiment. In 2005 a storm struck Kronoberg, a region in the south
of Sweden. The labor immigration to the region from the adjacent new EU-member countries
that followed after this occurrence made it possible to focus upon two different employer´s
groups, namely the ones that interacted directly with the immigrants and those who did not. The
survey consists of 500 forestry owners in the region and their attitudes when exposed to different
expressions of prejudices regarding labor immigrants. The aspects of relevance were chosen on
the basis of existing literature upon the subject and accepted variables concerning degree of
interaction as determining for attitude formation.
        When comparing attitudes between the groups of employers, we have found important
differences when it comes to aspects of attitudes concerning working capacity and reliability.
Those who have interacted with the immigrants in daily life or in job situations have more
positive attitudes than those who have not had that kind of close interaction. In a broad sense, the
findings are in line with theory, but the methodology serves with a different and more micro-
scaled base for testing attitude formation that hopefully can be applied and useful in larger
settings.

DAUKSTE-SILASPROĢE, Inguna (4-2) "Some Cross-Points in Latvian/Estonian Prose in
Exile in the 50s and 60s of the 20th Century"
        Like Latvian authors Estonian writers in exile wrote about their experience as refugees,
they expressed their sadness, dreams and longing, they outlined glimpses from refugees’ or
exiles’ life in their new lands and new circumstances, they reflected on the peaceful social life
and people’s destinies during the time of independent Estonia or Latvia, these authors could not
help showing the severe and tragic time of changing powers in Estonia or in Latvia. Looking for
the crosspoints and differences in prosa writing of both nations one can find the answer in the
texts themselves and clearly see the resemblance of themes. Another aspect foe evaluation is the
relationship of the person in exile with time (present/past). Being in exile and life in a strange
environment resulted in similar themes in Latvian and Estonian literature, feeling and
atmosphere.
        The research of the similar and the different in the novels in exile of the two nations
emphasizes two aspects – 1) the past, refugee’s life; 2) exile and life in the new home country.
        The 1st aspect is connected with past and wallowing in the bygone times, but the
reflection of life in the new home country dominated by present time, past is saved only for some
short reminiscences. However, Estonian novels that depict the present Estonian society in exile
mainly return to the past of the characters and this depiction occupies the biggest part of the
novels.
        Side by side with the thematical points of intersection there are similarities concerning
the time of action – time is dual (past enriches present, present adds to past, they exist as parallel
entities). Estonian literature in exile developed in a similar way as Latvian. The different points
are seen in accents in the narrative. This literature creates a peculiar ‘microworld’, this is a kind
of literature that “had originated in a country where the state language is not any of those this
literature is written in”.
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DAUTANCOURT, Vincent (4-4) "The Hasselblatt Law : Historiography and Polemics,
1925-2005"
         As the authorities of the post-soviet Republic of Estonia have to deal with the national
minorities on the Estonian territory, especially the Russian-speaking one, it is important to
remind the specificity of its legislation toward those minorities. Passed in 1993, the Law on the
Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities has been to a larger extent inspired by the law
elaborated by Werner Hasselblatt in 1925. During the 1930’s, this law was even a reference for
other legislations outside Estonia because of the original system it settled.
         This law had been a target for criticism because it was either too strict or too liberal.
Beside the political appreciation, the Hasselblatt law was equally analysed by scholars mostly in
Europe. Chronologically, this research can be divided in two periods. The first one concerns the
initial studies, when the Estonian law was nearly a unique example of legislation on national
minorities. As such, it was the subject of the French scholar Louis Villecourt’s thesis in 1925.
Other European experts contributed to this discussion: H. de Chambon (1936) and J. Cathala
(1937) in France, M. Laserson in Latvia (1931), O. Angelus in Germany (1951).
         Then, as the new legislation was drawn up after the second Estonian independence,
scholars showed a new interest for the minority issue in Estonia and especially for the cultural
rights. But the context had changed since the 1920’s with the drastic increase of non-Estonian
residents and the will of Estonian authorities to join the European Union. But despite the
dramatic changes, the Hasselblatt law, as the basis of the law of 1993, remained a subject of
interest. The present paper tries to present the typology of studies concerning the Hasselblatt law
as well as to analyse the evolution of (often controversial) trends within this field of research.

DEAN, Laura (5-6) See panel abstract

DEVYNCK, Annick (3-5) "Between Adaptation and Resistance: Latvia's Naturalization
Policy in an International Context"
        The break up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990’s permitted the re-establishment of
independent statehood in the Baltic States. Relying on the rules of international law, Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania determined their citizenry on the basis of their pre-war legislation. Yet an
important question remained: which rules should be determined for naturalization? The issue is
easier to solve if the immigration has been small (like in Lithuania) but takes on another
dimension in presence of a large Russian speaking population. This paper aims to discuss the
case of post-Soviet Latvia.
        The population of Latvia changed fundamentally during the post-1940 period. Soviet and
Nazi occupations, deportations, losses of war, and the 1944-45 exodus of people fearing Soviet
rule each entailed a major blood-letting of the nation. Large flows of Russians moving in
followed as a result of the policies of industrialization, russification and sovietization. After
independence, however, persons who came to Latvia after June 17, 1940 and their descendants
were, by virtue of the enforcement of the citizenship legislation, now turned into non-citizens,
who had to fulfil a number of requirements before naturalization.
        Taking a look back on the citizenship legislation of pre-war Latvia, the paper will
examine the impact of perceptions of history and of international law on the citizenship issue in
post-Soviet Latvia. It will be shown that as a small state and a neighbour to a large power, Latvia
had to abstain from using to the full its competence under international law, and rather adapt its
policies so as to retain the backing of its far-away supporters among Western powers. The paper
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seeks thus to explain the contentions surrounding the citizenship issue in post-Soviet Latvia
through the prism of international relations by emphasizing the thin connection between
domestic and international affairs.

DONECKER, Stefan (3-2) "An Itinerant Sheep, and the Origins of Livonia: Friederich
Menius' 'Syntagma de Origine Livonorum'" (1635)
         The proposed contribution intends to present, contextualize and evaluate one of the lesser
known texts of 17th century Livonian historiography, Friedrich Menius’ Syntagma de Origine
Livonorum (Dorpat 1635). The Syntagma is a comparatively short treatise, consisting of 98
octavo pages in the original print. Its author, Friedrich Menius (ca. 1593-1659), belongs to the
most colorful and eccentric figures of Baltic intellectual history. In his adventurous life, Menius
had been an esteemed professor at Dorpat, an alleged bigamist, an unsuccessful mining
entrepreneur and a convicted heretic, among many other things. He seems to have viewed his
erratic lifestyle with a certain irony; at one occasion he is known to have characterized himself as
vagus agnus, an itinerant sheep.
         Despite being included in the classic collection of the Scriptores rerum Livonicarum
(Vol. II, 1848), the Syntagma has received comparatively little attention among modern scholars.
It is one of four preliminary treatises which Menius published during the early 1630s, in
preparation for his – ultimately unsuccessful – project of a comprehensive Livonian chronicle.
Menius embarks on a discussion of Livonia’s most distant past, trying to identify the first
inhabitants of the country and the ancestors of the Estonian and Latvian peasantry. It is a
genealogical exercise, embedded in the methodological framework of Swedish Gothicism –
which constituted, at that time, the dominant historiographic discourse in the Baltic region.
Menius’ hypotheses on the indigenous Livonians’ ancestry seem to suggest that he viewed the
peasants with more sympathy and respect than most other contemporary scholars. In fact, some
of his considerations could be interpreted as an attempt to bestow a particularly honorable
heritage upon Estonians and Latvians, which would entail the need for an improvement of their
social position.
         In accordance with the conference’s topic, the proposed presentation would devote
special attention to Menius’ views on historical diversity. Ethnic plurality is the underlying
notion that dominates the Syntagma, at times bordering on the obsessive, as Menius tries to
identify dozens of putative Livonian aborigines. In his exuberant imagination, Livonia appears as
a historical crossroads of an epic scale.

DROST, Alexander (5-1) "‘Baltic Borderlands’: An Interdisciplinary Approach towards
Region-Building Processes in Europe”
       Considering the historical change of political systems experienced in Europe during the last
decades by the growing importance of the EU and the fall of the iron curtain, the meaning of
borders and boundaries was questioned. Historically, Europe’s political borders were always
dynamic zones which periodically shifted through war, dynastical change and religious
difference. Transcending the political borders of Europe, boundaries of mind and culture were
often forgotten by scientific research as the enduring marker of spaces and localities. This
presentation offers an overview on the innovative research project "Baltic Borderlands" and
its basic research questions regarding the construction of the Baltic Sea area by culturally
determined boundaries (linguistics, psychology, communication issues) besides its political
borders. We will refer to the research concepts of the creation and dynamics of historical
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contact zones within the Baltic region, its cross-border action in borderland areas, its
economical permeability and the creation of border regimes. By doing so, it will be shown
how the Baltic area is defined and constructed as a European region. This implies a
demonstration of forces which keep this region together.

DUNDZILA, Vilius Rudra (8-2) "Domas Šidlauskas-Visuomis and His 'Univeralism'"
        Domas Šidlauskas-Visuomis (1878-1944) was a Lithuanian cultural activist in the first
half of the twentieth century. He is currently inaccurately credited with reviving Lithuanian
Paganism. In reality, he unsuccessfully sought to create a New Religious Movement called
Visuomybė or “Universalism.” It was supposed to be a perfect world religion for the new era of
humanity. It reiterated some tenets of world religions in its own unique way, all the while
propagating eugenics and an extremist nationalism. He gained some followers in Lithuania and a
few in the United States. He attempted to establish a Romuva sanctuary. He eventually sought to
create a Lithuanian National Catholic Church independent of Rome Catholicism. This paper
analyzes Visuomybė as an NRM.

EAMETS, Raul and Kaia Phillips (9-1) "Benchmarking Baltic Countries against the
Danish Model using Flexicurity Framework"
        The key issue of renewed Lisbon strategy is the urgent need to increase competitiveness
of European economy. One potential way to achieve this is increased labour market flexibility,
which should be combined with workers’ social protection. The balance between labour market
flexibility and social security is labelled with new concept of flexicurity. In this paper we present
short overview of different interpretation of the concept. Usually Danish or Dutch models are
referred in literature as benchmark models for flexicurity. In our analyses we use Danish model
as benchmark for Baltic and other EU countries. The purpose of this paper is to find out what is
the current state in implementation of flexicurity policies in Baltic countries. We use principal
component analysis in order to map different aspects of Danish “golden triangle” and see how
EU25 member states relate to this triangle. Countries are classified into a particular group
according to an overall measure of “distance” between countries reflecting the scores obtained
for the principal dimensions that characterise flexicurity systems. Three factors identified in
model are social protection, labour market adaptability/flexibility and social inclusion. In our
cluster analysis we grouped countries into three major clusters. Most successful country group is
Nordic group, least successful Mediterranean group and new member states from Central
Europe.

EASTES, Victoria M. H. (7-1) "The Illusion of Peace: The Fate of the Baltic Displaced
Person 1945-1952"
        Following the end of World War II, the Allied forces faced an immediate large-
scale refugee crisis in Europe. Efforts focused on returning the millions of refugees to their
homes as quickly as possible. Though the majority did return home, nearly a million refugees
from Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe refused to do so. Reclassified as Displaced Persons (DPs)
and placed in holding camps by the Occupational Authorities, these refugees demanded that
Allied leaders give them the chance to immigrate and resettle elsewhere.
        Immigration historians of this period have focused mainly on the experiences of the
Jewish refugees during the Holocaust and the establishment of Israel. Other studies depict the
chaos in Germany immediately following the war, describing the DPs as an unstable factor in an
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already unstable situation. While important, these works tend to ignore the fate of non-Jewish
refugees who would not return to their homes. Additionally, these works overlook the many
immigration and resettlement schemes put in place to solve the DP situation and stabilize
Europe, focusing instead on economic forces and growing Cold War tensions.
        This study looks at the experiences of the Baltic DPs, those from Latvia, Lithuania, and
Estonia. Beginning with a brief history of the three countries and their people’s experiences
during the war, this study also looks at their lives in the DP camps and explores their reasons for
not returning home. It also recounts the Allies’ decision to promote resettlement rather than
repatriation as the solution to the refugee problem by focusing on the immigration programs of
the four main recipient countries, Britain, the United States, Canada, and Australia. This study
argues that the majority of the Baltic DPs came from educated, middle class backgrounds and as
such, they were widely sought after by the recipient countries as the most suitable for
immigration. A final argument is that disagreements over their fate between the United States,
England, and the Soviet Union, fueled the Cold War.

EGLĀJA-KRISTSONE, Eva (5-3) "Why Do Latvians Call Judita Vaičiūnaitė a 'Poetry
Princess""?
         Judita Vaičiūnaitė is considered one of the leading female voices in Lithuanian poetry in
20th century. Her poetry was also very well-known and widespread in Latvia. She was extremely
popular as well as poetess as fascinating personality through Latvian intellectuals and writers.
Her first poetry translations into Latvian appeared in 1957 (her verse was first published in 1956
in Lithuania). We can speak about several Latvian poets and translators who were enchanted by
Lithuanian female poetess and her very emotional and impressionistic poetry. In 60s when
Latvian poet Māris Čaklais had met Judita Vaičiūnaitė in some international seminar he started
translating her poetry (e.g., the four portraits from "Odysseus"—Circe, Calypso, Nausicaa and
Penelope was very popular also in Latvia). The other Latvia-dwelling translator and poet
Hermanis Marģers Majevskis who was also spouse of J. Vaičiūnaitė had translated a great
amount of her poetry. Posthumously published poetry collection Zemei pieskaroties = Žemes
prisilietus (2002) was parallel in Latvian and Lithuanian language. Her friends and critics in
Latvia called her a Poetry Princess and this paper will trace the most important episodes of her
way to this title in Latvia.

EELLEND, Johan (8-1) See panel abstracts

ELLIS, Joseph M. (6-2) "The Rise of the Flat Tax: Policy Diffusion in the Baltics"
        How can we account for the rise of flat tax policies in Eastern Europe, specifically in
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania? Traditionally in the discipline of political science, policy change
has been understood in a number of ways: the role of power to determine political outcomes; the
necessity of institutions to develop policies; or the rise of political elites to guide politics. Often
time policy change is understood as an isolated event that occurs in one country for particular, or
unique reasons. The cases of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania provide a test of the theory of
“policy diffusion,” however. Policy diffusion is the practice of learning and emulation that exists
when one country adopts the policies of another. Often times, these countries have regional
proximity and adopt the policies within a limited time frame. For example, the advent of flat tax
policies occurred almost simultaneously in the period 1994-1995 in the three countries, with
Estonia adopting the flat tax in 1994, and Lithuania and Latvia in 1995. In the course of
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investigating policy diffusion, I am interested in the ways that policies diffuse (if indeed they
do), and also the role that economic and political ideas play in crafting policy decisions. The flat
tax was an unheralded, if not altogether unknown, policy alternative to progressive or gradual tax
schemes. The fact that the flat tax was pursued with such veracity despite its known effects
might indicate the ‘significance of ideas’, rather than simply power, institutions or elites alone.

ERIKSSON, Friedrich (8-1) See panel abstracts

FENNELL, Trevor G. (4-1) "On the Masculine Plural Ending –ee in Liborius Depkin's
Latvian-German Dictionary"
        Liborius Depkin (1652-1708) is the compiler of a very extensive Latvian-German
dictionary manuscript, which runs to well over 3,000 pages. It contains many of the oddities
associated with the traditional usage of the early Baltic German pastors, such as postposed
genitives, use of -a instead of -u as a verb ending, inconsistencies in the use of h to indicate long
vowels, and the use of masculine endings on feminine nouns, especially in the plural.
As far as we have been able to determine, some of Depkin's idiosyncrasies, while not being his
alone, occur rather more frequently in his work than in texts by other authors. Even so, caution
needs to be exercised in attributing to Depkin any particular responsibility for the forms he cites,
most of which are copied (although not always faithfully) from other sources, such as Mancelius,
Adolphi and especially Glück's Latvian Bible.
        One such phenomenon is the use of the ending -ee in the nominative plural of masculine
nouns, as opposed to the otherwise ubiquitous ending -i. Even in Depkin the use of -ee is very
much a minority pattern: the ending -i is overwhelmingly preferred. Ee, however, recurs with
sufficient regularity to warrant something more than a footnote in passing.
        Apart from certain pronominal forms such as tee (modern tie 'those ones, they'), the
ending -ee is associated with the masculine nominative plural of adjectives in their definite
declension: masee behrni 'the small children', wezzee kohki 'the old trees', as opposed to masi
behrni 'small children' and wezzi kohki 'old trees'. In the early grammarians, these definite
adjectival forms were poorly understood: usually the ending -i was retained after an inserted
suffix -aj-. The use of -ee by Latvians led grammarians to such pseudo-explanations as attempts
at galant speech or a desire to give special emphasis to an unpleasant remark.
Under such circumstances, misconstructions are hardly surprising, and the transfer of a
misunderstood adjectival ending to nouns may derive from such misguided speculation.

FRANKLIN-RAHKONEN, Sharon (4-5) "A Brief History of Secondary Education in
Finland: A Success Story"
        With the coming of the Reformation and the idea that every person should be able to read
the Bible in his/her own language, Finland, along with other Protestant countries, took the first
big step toward universal literacy. However, education for most people was quite limited and
did not go beyond functional literacy as we know it today. Only the upper and middle classes
had access to expensive, private schools. The 19th century ushered in educational change in
Finland, as well as many other social and economic changes. As Finnish nationalism was born,
the development of a true literary language came into existence. More and more upper and
middle class people began valuing the Finnish language, in literature, the theater, and in
education.
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        Shortly after Independence in 1917, all children were required to attend school, including
the large working class population. As the general Finnish standard of living steadily improved
from the 1920’s until the 1960’s, another gain in educational levels accompanied it. More and
more people had financial access to the private schools, where they would receive academic
schooling leading to a profession, rather than the vocational schooling that was free of charge. In
the 1970’s Finland adopted a system whereby all Finnish children would have the same public
schooling with the only limits imposed on them being their interest and ability.
        How successful has this policy been? One way to judge is by international standardized
testing. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED) has recently
conducted surveys to assess the reading, mathematical and problem-solving skills of 15 year olds
in a variety of nations. On these exams Finland scored #1 in both reading and mathematical
literacy. This paper will address the history of how Finnish education has become more and
more successful over the course of the past century.

FURMONAVIČIUS, Darius (7-4) "Lithuania in American-Soviet Relations, 1990-91"
        After the Declaration of Independence on March 11, 1990 Lithuania’s question became
the top priority in the agenda of the American-Soviet relations. The United States emphasized
the policy of non-recognition of the incorporation of the Baltic States into the Soviet Union. On
the other hand, the administration of Pres. George H. W. Bush attempted to discourage the
Soviets from using the military force in Lithuania and in the other Baltic States.
        The Soviet economic blockade of Lithuania which followed the declaration of
independence was eventually terminated by the help of the signing of the American-Soviet trade
treaty with the silent condition that the Soviets will lift the blockade immediately after the deal.
However, the general rule can be established and it was followed: as soon as the Americans
made some concessions or even the Kremlin perceived that the concessions can be made, the
Soviets applied pressure on Lithuania. Thus, the Soviet Union used the military force in Vilnius
in January, 1991, despite the opposite promises were given to the United Stastes.
        Pres. George H. W. Bush stated then that he had found “the turn of events deeply
disturbing,” that United States “remained committed to helping the Baltic States” and asked the
Soviets to withdraw troops. Privately, he wrote in his letter to Pres. Gorbachev on January 23,
1991: “I would have no choice but to respond. Thus, unless you can take these positive steps
very soon, I will freeze many elements of our economic relationship including Export-Import
credit guarantees, Commodity Credit Cooperation credit guarantees, support for “Special
Associate Status” for the Soviet Union in the International Monetary Fund and World Bank; and
most of our technical assistance programs. Further, I would not submit the Bilateral Investment
Treaty for Consent to ratification when and if they are completed.” The Secretary of State James
A. Baker announced that “the use of force by the Soviet government in the Baltics fundamentally
and tragically contradicts the basic principles of perestroika, glasnost, and democratization.”
        This American support of peaceful process was vitally important to Lithuania’s liberation
from the Soviet occupation and also to the peaceful collapse of the Soviet Union.

GIMBUTAS, Zivile (5-3) "The Artist and the Anima in James Joyce's A Portrait of the
Artist as a Young Man and Vincas Mykolaitis' Altoriu Sesely [In the Altars' Shadows]
        Joyce's Portrait and Mykolaitis' Altars are novels of psychological
growth toward an affirmation and realization of artistic vocation. Both involve a conflict or
choice between the path of priesthood and that of poet/writer. In Joyce's Portrait this conflict
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occurs and is resolved in Stephen Daedalus' adolescence; in Mykolaitis' Altars it is protracted in
maturity, once Liudas Vasaris has entered the Church, and is resolved with more difficulty (as it
were a complex sequel to the former). What Stephen Daedalus experiences in a momentary
epiphany by the sea toward the end of Joyce's novel, Liudas Vasaris recognizes gradually in
the murmurings of his inner voice and recurrent images of the Unknown Woman in the
cathedral. Although Stephen's encounter with the anima is a culmination of his acquaintances
with several women, and Vasaris' vision of the Unknown is a pre-figuration of her multifaceted
influence, the experience is essentially the same. It is an awakening to vocation, for the
anima stimulates sensuality, self-expression, and daydreaming: all that is instinctive, irrational,
subconscious, and natural in the bookish, intellectually-oriented would-be-Jesuit, seminarian or
vicar.
        In this paper I focus on the women in Mykolaitis' novel -- Liuce, Baroness Rainacke, and
Aukse (Goldie), a fairy-tale threesome that animates the poet. Parallels are drawn with the
women in Joyce's novel (and a few other representations of artists), suggesting the universal
dimension of the anima and supporting a few psychological theories, but primarily shedding light
on the nature of the artist (so prevalent in Baltic countries).

GRINBERGA, Iveta (2-1) "An Apple, A Ball, and Early Exposure to Latvian as
Influential Factors in Latvian as Second Language Acquisition"
        Second language acquisition (SLA) always has been considered a complicated and multi-
layered phenomenon. There are many separate but interrelated factors that influence SLA.
Researchers examining different areas of the acquisition process attempt to answer questions
such as, what conditions are essential for successful SLA or why do some people fail to learn a
second language. These researchers try to add something new to an integrated understanding of
the principles of SLA.
        In my research, I have chosen to focus on the acquisition of Latvian morphosyntactic
categories, such as noun gender, noun-adjective agreement, accusative case - the direct object
marker, in order to investigate why some of these, and especially the accusative case, seem to be
difficult for some learners to acquire. My hypothesis is that early exposure to Latvian might
make a difference in the ease with which the learner acquires these morphosyntactic categories
when formally learning a second language.
        This study is based on four English speakers of Latvian heritage, ranging in the age from
late teens to mid twenties, studying Latvian at the University of Washington. This is a
longitudinal study of students who have taken first, second and third-year Latvian and all have
received the same input. These conditions allowed close monitoring of their interlanguage
development.

HAAS, Ain (2-4) "Ethnic Identity and Social Networks in Baltic Return Migration"
       This study is based on some 150 interviews, conducted in 2005-2007, with people of
Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian heritage, who relocated from the West to the Baltic countries
during the last 20 years. It examines their sense of ethnic identity, social relationships, and
organizational involvements—before and after moving. Special attention is paid to differences
by generation, place of upbringing, language ability, and time of relocation. The overwhelming
majority of the respondents are World War II refugees or their children and grandchildren, but a
few grew up in the Baltic lands in the Soviet era and then emigrated to the West for a while.
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The latter tended to have views quite similar to the former. Balts who had lived in various
Western lands had basically similar experiences there, but relocation and adaptation to the Baltic
countries was easiest for those coming from Europe and hardest for those coming from Australia.
The local populations in the Baltic countries were reported to be generally quite welcoming to
the returnees, but fundamental differences in outlook were noted, especially with regard to the
middle-aged locals who had spent the longest portions of their lives under Soviet rule.
Respondents often reported a certain degree of estrangement or exclusion, as well as
some conflicts over patriotism, property, and politics. There was also a certain degree of
estrangement from their Western countries of origin, as well as from the exile communities there.
More tolerance of Russian-speakers tended to develop after relocation, although interaction with
them tended to be limited to those who had learned the local Baltic languages.

HACKMANN, Jörg (5-1) "Baltic-Baltisch-Balticum: Conceptualizing the Baltic Region"
        Starting from the observation that “Baltic” has comprised differing regions and notions in
different languages, this paper discusses diverging spatial conceptualizations and their historical
background. It will be shown that following Russia’s “move” from the North to the East on
mental maps of Western Europe, the Baltic region began to “shrink” in regional terms to its
northeastern parts (first of all in German discourses), and then in social terms to the German
elites of that area. Against this tendency, however, relics of the broader notion of “Baltic”
remained alive in international political and social discussions until the mid-20th century. This
tension may also explain why there is until now no unanimous consent to refer the Baltic region
solely to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The place of “Baltic” in the broader sense is now,
however, challenged by notions of the “North”, which tend to refer to the same agenda: looking
for a conception that comprises the rim of the Baltic Sea.
        See also panel (1-4)

HAMP, Eric P. (4-1) "Balto-Slavic + Albanian-Messapic"
       Five years ago I presented in brief form my evidence for the closest surviving relation,
though at great chronological depth, for Balto-Slavic to be with Albanian; in other words,
Albanian must be a branch of North European IE, but separate from Thracian and Prehellenic,
which moved south. Features of grammar include shared Winter lengthening and reflexive
formation on the addition of passive voice; I now add the specification of deixis to the marking
of verbal 3rd person vs. 1st and 2nd, and to negatives. I add some important lexical equivalences.
I now adduce undeniable Albanian and Messapic equivalences.

HANSEN, Morten (9-1) "Latvia: From Overheating to Portuguese Disease?"
        Within the past few years Latvia has held several records in the European Union. Highest
economic growth (double digits for three years), highest inflation rate (reaching 16.7% in
February 2008), highest credit growth (60% in 2006), highest wage growth (in excess of 30% y-
o-y), highest money supply growth and the Union’s by far largest current account deficit (22.8%
of GDP in 2007). Even the most skeptical pundit agrees that the economy has been severely
overheating and an avalanche of recommendations and warnings have been forthcoming during
2007, be it from rating agencies, commercial banks, the IMF, EU Commissioner Almunia or The
Economist – among others.
        An anti-inflation plan was suggested by the Latvian government in March 2007 but
already now seems insufficient to address the huge imbalances of the Latvian economy. But
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where is the Latvian economy heading? Local discussion has focused much on “soft landing”
versus “hard landing” without being very precise about what it means but may Latvia be heading
towards the experience of another EU economy? Portugal, heading towards the eurozone in the
late 1990s, experienced a massive credit boom, which helped increase inflation and deteriorate
competitiveness. The country still suffers as it at an agonizingly slow speed tries to regain cost
competitiveness. The result has been a lack of convergence for several years with Portugal now
being bottom of the EU15 in terms of GDP per capita and even being overtaken by EU
newcomers such as Cyprus, Slovenia, Malta and the Czech Republic.
        This paper addresses the Portuguese experience and tries to analyze similarities and
differences between Portugal and Latvia to try to address in which direction Latvia may be
heading now that the unsustainably high growth rates have started declining – will Latvia
continue to converge, albeit at a more modest speed, towards EU income levels or will it
experience ‘Portuguese disease’?

HARTMANN, Nicholas (7-5) "'You're Not French, Are You?' A Comparison of the Paris-
Based Novels of Jack Kerouac and Tõnu Õnnepalu"
         Throughout history, Paris has served as an alpha city, one with major global presence.
As the primate city of France, Paris provides a political, economic and social heart for the nation.
One of Paris’s biggest spheres of influence, however, is its cultural impact on the world as a
literary haven; the city has brought inspiration to famous people such as Dickens and Proust.
More recently, however, Paris has brought inspiration to two other major authors: the first is Jack
Kerouac, who wrote his 1966 novel Satori in Paris as a semi-autobiographical reflection on his
experiences within the city, and the second is Tõnu Õnnepalu, one of the first post-Soviet authors
in Estonia to gain international acclaim. Õnnepalu’s 1993 novel Border State (Piiririik), written
under the pseudonym Emil Tode, was a look at the experiences of a Soviet-raised Estonian man
living in Paris following the fall of the Iron Curtain.
         In spite of journeying to Paris nearly three decades in the future, Õnnepalu shares many
common bonds with Kerouac. Both authors are dealing with the disappointments of a city that is
heavily romanticized in popular culture; at the same time, both main characters are working to
fulfill a personal agenda during their time in France. In both Kerouac and Õnnepalu’s texts, the
effects of the past on each of the main characters are very visible; while Kerouac’s protagonist
has been living a life of transient wandering and alienation from his true identity, Õnnepalu’s
main character finds himself haunted by the memories of living in the era of the Soviet Union.
Through this essay, we can see that Kerouac and Õnnepalu are indeed strangers—foreign ones,
at that—in a seemingly strange world, and their narratives work to express this struggle in an
unintentionally yet interestingly similar manner.

HINKLE, Maija (2-4) "Creating a Collective Narrative: Latvian-American Identity and
Myths in Group and Individual Interviews"
         In this paper I will describe, compare, and evaluate two different oral history approaches
to obtaining memories about past events and motivations of members in the Latvian-American
community: individual life story narratives and group interviews on specific topics. In our case
the group interviews proved to be especially useful and revealing. The group setting not only
facilitated the telling of most remembrances, but also furthered one of the goals of the whole
project: to create a collective narrative of the emigre experience for compatriots in Latvia and for
future generations of Latvian-Americans. Most surprisingly, it also elicited a deeper, more varied
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and more critical discussion of certain controversial or significant issues than had been voiced in
individual narratives.
      Since our funds are limited and Latvian-Americans live in communities scattered across the
United States, obtaining, training, and keeping competent interviewers has always been a
problem. One of the ways that we have developed to overcome the shortage of interviewers has
been to hold group interviews. Since the late 1990’s group interviews had been part of the
training sessions and addressed only the question of the participants’ own ethnic identity and
possible return migration. In the last three years, however, we have used the week-long cultural
immersion camps that Latvian-Americans hold each summer to hold much more extensive
sessions on the most important and controversial topics in Latvian-American emigre history,
each day covering a different topic. A total of about 150 people have participated in the group
interview sessions.
      This paper will present the results of these interviews, taking the question of Latvian-
American ethnic identity and prevailing collective narratives as the prime topics for detailed
comparison between group and individual interviews. The influence of the interviewer, the
previous context and group dynamics on the content of individual stories will be evaluated and
discussed.

IJABS, Ivars (4-4) "Strange Baltic Liberalism: Paul Schiemann's Political Thought
Revisited"
        Young-Estonia burst on the scene in 1905 as a powerful literary and cultural movement
that sought to modernize Estonian culture and raise it to the level of European standards.
Dedicated to the principle of art for art’s sake and focusing on cultural transformation, it tended
to avoid the political and social debates of the day. Nevertheless, Young-Estonia could not and
did not exist in an ivory tower, and it was, as the Finnish writer Aino Kallas noted, both a
product of the society it appeared in as well as a protest against it. Gustav Suits, the leading
ideologist of Young-Estonia in cultural matters, was also its most important voice regarding
political and social affairs. In addition, during World War I Young-Estonia sponsored a new
journal, Vaba Sõna (The Free Word), which became fully engaged in the contemporary political
and social debates.
        This paper will offer an analysis of the political and social thought of Young-Estonia,
focusing especially on Suits and the Vaba Sõna group, and it will place their views in the context
of the dominant ideologies in Estonia in the early 20th century (national liberalism and social
democracy). Young-Estonia represented youthful protest (its leading members were all born in
the 1880s), but it could not ignore the challenge of interpreting a rapidly and somewhat
chaotically modernizing society. In contrast to the prevailing view among traditional Estonian
nationalists, Young-Estonia fully embraced the vigorous urbanization process that was occurring,
and it rejected the position that the Estonian people–given its small numbers–should play a
quiescent role in all-Russian affairs.

INGVOLDSTAD, Bjorn (2-3) "Do Baltic National Cinemas Exist? 'The Most Important
Art' in Lithuania"
        My paper investigates the notion of Baltic cinemas in the context of post-socialism and
globalization. When discussed at all within cinema and media studies, Baltic film is referred to
within broader discussions of Eastern Bloc or Soviet cinema. More often, however, the
cinematic output of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia are hardly ever discussed outside the
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individual countries themselves. However, if we take a closer look at film’s cultural circulation
within these nations, we find a scenario that calls for no less than a rethinking of our
understanding of the notion of “national cinema” itself.
        At first glance, the term “national cinema” appears unproblematic; however, recent
scholarship emphasizes the contested and dialogic nature of national cinema, as well as the very
efficacy of the nation-state in the era of globalization. In this paper, I propose to discuss not only
about how the term “national cinema” might be applied in cases where the nation-state is a
structuring absence, but also how this national cinema loses its potency upon the re-emergence
of its nation-state. Using the case of Lithuania to illustrate, my theoretical argument is that
Lithuanian national cinema per se existed and functioned while Lithuania as a nation-state did
not. Further, I argue that upon the regaining of independence in an increasingly globalized
context, this national cinema collapsed from both internal and external causes. However, there is
room to speculate that as Lithuania becomes more interconnected within European Union
structures, the opportunities for its national cinema to return once again paradoxically increase—
and with it, perhaps, the opportunity to broaden discussion of Baltic cinemas beyond the Baltic
States.

JOHNSON, Jeff (3-4) "Modes of Recovery: Solving the Crisis of Relevance in
Contemporary Baltic Theater"
          After 1991, Baltic theatre experienced a period of depreciation, and the current theatre is
still in the process of what we might call a “recovery.” This collapse created a crisis of relevance,
when political action and life in the streets seemed far more interesting than staged productions.
And whereas the moral impetus of the pre-independence theatre was clear and fairly unified - as
a counter-force to the dictates of a party-line run by ideological commissars - the social issues
during the early post-Soviet years were more confused and diverse. The excitement and
possibilities of independence seemed to trump any negative critiques of the sudden switch to a
capitalist market-based economy and the opening of cultural conduits from the West. With the
influx of new media, many of the traditional aspects of theatre seemed stale, irrelevant and
suffused with an aesthetic too closely associated with a repressive past. Young adults today -
including theatre patrons and professionals - have no direct experience of that life-in-transition
experienced by the citizens of the Baltic states during the last decade of the twentieth century.
Issues that once stirred passion - exposés of deprivations, deportation, censorship, the serious and
petty absurdities of totalitarian ideology - are for the most part settled and no longer incite
citizens to action the old disputes lack the urgency and immediacy - except historically - of the
more contemporary concerns of getting on with daily life. So, what are the new themes that have
sparked this renaissance in Baltic theatre, that unifies the geopolitical concept of the Baltics
while preserving the cultural identities of each country? Answer: an aesthetic response to the
changing social and political situation in each of the individual states that reflects, collectively, a
new didacticism, a moralistic appraisal of what some consider an erosion of ethical values in a
culture that stresses materialism and acquisitions at the expense of equality and social
conscience.

JÜRIADO, Rein (6-2) "Scandinavian Estonia? Government's Role in the Economy"
        A few years ago the former Estonian foreign minister managed to provoke a minor
political scandal when he claimed that Estonia should focus on becoming a Scandinavian
country, rather than continue being clustered together with the two other Baltic states.
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        Inspired by the discussion that followed this declaration, this paper studies how
Scandinavian Estonia has become in terms of the government’s role in the economy.
Scandinavian countries are legendary for the government’s considerable involvement in the
economy through high tax rates, ownership of large enterprises, trilateral governance of the
labour market, and highly sophisticated regulatory measures that guide businesses in the region.
Although Estonia chose shock therapy path characterised by large-scale privatisation, attracting
of foreign direct investments and low corporate and personal income taxes in the early 1990s, the
more recent trends suggest that Estonia might be on verge of a new era.
        The paper employs multiple sources of data to address the research question. Both macro
and micro level data are used to capture the changing pattern of the government’s role in the
economy. Data from a survey among Scandinavian and Baltic businessmen collected by the
World Bank, along with official statistics, comprise the macroeconomic data. In addition to that
interviews made for the author’s forthcoming doctoral dissertation offer more in-depth insight to
the developments in Estonia.
        Three important topics emerge from the discussion on the diversity of the government’s
involvement in the economy: labour relations, consultation processes between the government
and businesses, and the provision of public services and assistance to the private sector. The
findings of the study suggest that the diversity across countries concerning these three themes is
not as major as might be expected. Especially in terms of the perceived quality of public services
and helpfulness of the government, Estonia appears to have become similar to its Scandinavian
neighbours.

KAUPINS, Gundars and Nina RAY (3-1) "Baltic Tourist Industry Marketing Perspectives:
Two Part Analysis"
        Part 1: The first reason for this research is to compare and contrast tourist industry
websites in the Baltic States. Sites based in the Baltic States (.ee, .lv, .lt) such as travel agencies,
airlines, tour agencies and cruises will be compared in terms of marketing features each site
provides. Key features include languages, interactive capabilities (e.g., blogs, transactions), and
features such as video, slide shows, and animations. The target market for each site will be
compared by an analysis of the purposes of each organization. In general, Estonian websites
tend to have the most interactive features. The native languages and English are common.
        Part 2: The second reason for the research involves a three-year, more than 500 person
sample of “legacy” tourists (those who travel to find or maintain their “roots”). Responses of
those of Baltic descent are compared to respondents of other European heritage such as Basques,
Irish, Scots, and the Welsh, regarding their motivations for such heritage travel. While travel
motivations are fairly consistent across groups, Baltic descendents tend to place importance on
maintenance of their heritage versus rediscovering it. The self-reported role that Estonian,
Lithuanian, and Latvian languages play in respondents’ personal identity is discussed.
Suggestions for ways to market tourism (and whether to do so in the Baltic languages) to the
Baltic Diaspora will be provided
        In general, both studies not only look at the tourist industry in the Baltic States but they
also analyze the marketing from the tourist company and the tourist perspective.

KELERTAS, Violeta (9-2) "Gavelis's Seven Ways to Do Postcolonialism"
       Ricardas Gavelis (1950-2002) was the foremost literary chronicler of the postcolonial
condition in Lithuania. In his seven novels from "Vilnius Poker", his first (1989) to "Sun-Tzu
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and the Holy City of Vilnius", his last (2002), Gavelis, more than any other Lithuanian writer,
gave a panoramic, yet intimate, picture of Vilnius and its inhabitants under colonial, postcolonial
and finally neo-colonial domination. Emphasis will be placed on the writer's attempts to place his
work into a frame of Western discourse by way of intertextuality, philosophical argument, and
universal reference to the problem of evil.

KIVIK, PIIBI-KAI (2-1) "'There Are No Monsters in Lithuania': The Baltics as a
Conversational Resource for American Learners of Estonian"
        American learners of less commonly taught languages often have previous knowledge of
other languages. It is not uncommon for students enrolling in university-level Estonian courses to
know Latvian or Lithuanian. The reasons have to do with either the learners’ Baltic heritage or
family relations or their research interest in Baltic studies.
        This paper is motivated by two current areas in second language acquisition. The socially
oriented research in SLA is interested in the social and cultural factors involved in the
acquisition process, such as learner identity and power relations in the native-non-native speaker
interactions. At the same time, L3 transfer, or more widely, interferences in learner language
from other non-native languages is an increasingly important issue.
        I will analyze spontaneous talk in audio-recordings from Estonian language conversation-
table by learners who have personal connections to Latvia and Lithuania and know the respective
languages. I will show how they use their cultural and linguistic knowledge of the Baltics to
bring expertise to the conversation where they lack linguistic expertise. Latvian and Lithuanian
references serve as resources for talk, but they also provide a neutral topic to explore for
American learners and their native-speaker Estonian instructor. These learners often prefer to
display their expertise in the Baltics and not in the United States, downplaying their identity as
Americans.
        Talk about geographical places and cultures is a much-exploited resource in the
conversation-table, because it allows for the use of familiar vocabulary in new contexts and
provides opportunities to participate. The extensive use of references to the Baltics in the
conversations analyzed serve not only the local aim of producing talk but also reinforce the
speakers identities as learners of Estonian: they are motivated to learn the language (and
therefore participate in the speech event as incompetent conversationalists) because of their
Baltic connection. Also, using the “strange code” of Estonian relaxes the social norms somewhat
and sensitive topics, such as ethnic relations and cultural stereotypes can be discussed more
easily than in regular conversations. I will also suggest how features of the Baltic languages may
have influenced their interlanguage.

KĻAVIŅA, Elīna (4-2) "Picaresque Novel and Its Features in Latvian Literature of the 20s
and 30s of the 20th Century"
       The picaresque novel originated in Spain. Lazarillo from Tormes (La vida de Lazarillo de
Tormes), published anonymously in 1554, is considered the first picaresque novel. The
picaresque novel spread from Spain to Germany, England and France. In literary theory there is
an opinion that picaresque novel as a genre ground to a halt already in the 17th century but
according to another opinion, the picaresque novel has gained psychological depth and still exists
(for example, M. Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), J. Hašek’s The Good
Soldier Svejk (1921-1923), T. Mann’s Confessions of Felix Krull, Confidence Man, 1954 a.o.).
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The picaresque novel and its characteristics can be found in Latvian literature starting with The
Times of the Land-Surveyors (1879) by Reinis and Matīss Kaudzītes until this day – Memoirs of
Mr. Von Meerkatze (2003) by Juris Zvirgzdiņš.
         The picaresque novel developed most extensively in Latvian literature during the 20ies
and 30ies of the 20th century. Noteworthy examples are: Along the Rainbow Bridge (1925) by A.
Upīts, The King of Latvia or the Man to Whom Everyone Is Indebted (1928) by J. V. Gregri, The
Kiln (1928) by P. Rozītis, Will-O'-the-Wisps in the Marsh (1929) by K. Zariņš, Brides Hunters
(1940) by Anšlavs Eglītis a.o.
         The picaresque novel is a subgenre of novel with a central character of a rogue. It is an
unscrupulous person who conquers a position in the social hierarchy and gains material wealth
by fitting himself to his surroundings, sometimes taking advantage of the confusion and chaos of
the time. However, in the picaresque novel the character is pictured as a victim of the
environment – his nature and behavior were influenced by social circumstances.
The picaresque novel is usually satirical, contains the domestic comic and sometimes grotesque
which is raised into irreality. Latvian picaresque novel reflects the specific environment of the
time and social criticism. A strong socially political tendency is also apparent.

KRONBERG, Janika (5-3) The Experience of Exile in Antanas Skema's White Shroud and
Karl Ristikivi's All Souls' Night
         Karl Ristikivi (1912-1977) was an Estonian novelist who lived in exile in Sweden after
World War II. Ristikivi has come to be regarded as a writer who renewed the Estonian historical
novel, by exploring in his novels the development and fate of the idea of Europe from the
Crusades through the Enlightenment to the present day. His modernist novel All Souls` Night
holds an exceptional place both in Ristikivi`s oeuvre and Estonian literature as a whole. It
exemplifies and embodies both the author`s personal crisis and a more general existentialist and
theological analysis of the psychological condition of exile. The novel is set on New Year`s Eve,
and represents a strange wandering in „a dead man`s house,“ where the first person narrator, an
exile, is brought to trial with respect to the seven deadly sins.
         Antanas Škema (1910-1961) was a prominent Lithuanian theatre figure and writer, who
lived in exile in German and the United States. His only novel, Balta drobule (The White
Shroud, 1958, Estonian translation in 1992) was innovative in its time, and did not succeed in
finding a publisher until several years after the completion of the manuscript. The title has been
interpreted in various ways, as the burial shroud (of Christ, or in the modern era, of the artist),
the shimmering of the soul, a madman`s straitjacket. The novel depicts the stream of
consciousness anguish of a Lithuanian exile workind as an elevator boy in New York.
         There are many remarkable parallels between the two works.The purpose of this paper is
to compare two novels from different traditions, but which emerged from similar historical
situations and fates, and through this comparison to articulate some formal and thematic traits
shared by exile literatures.

KRUK, Sergei (6-1) "The Impossibility of Social Communication in the Latvian Theory of
Language"
        Three models of language theory were being discussed in Latvia in 1990-2005.
Metaphysical conception treats language as God’s given code. However because of the lost key,
only poets can grasp meaning nowadays. This concept is supported by literati (Berelis, Ziedonis).
In historicist philology there are two trends. Organicists conceive of language the expression of
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nation’s spirit, its structure experiences natural temporal evolution independent of human
subjects (Blinkena, Baltina, Freimane). Language is the closed and self-sufficient system
transparent for all users and faithfully communicating meaning intended by sender. This
paradigm exaggerates the cognitive function of language while underestimating the
communicative one. Since the language is a tool of cognition and expression of people’s spirit,
the described la langue is prescriptive for language users. Positivists are looking for regular laws
and reduce diversity of linguistic facts to uniformity (Skujina, Blinkena). Since there is nothing
inordinate and aleatory, philologists have to describe the natural laws and inculcate the literary
norm. Linguistic enculturation of the common people is to open them access to cognizing of
world and to grant membership in organic community. The abstract language system is detached
from its actual realization, this paradigm does not recognize the notions of discourse, open texts,
multiple interpretations depending on social contexts. The theory presupposes that harmony and
peace reigns in linguistic community, all its members are honest and speak transparently. Social
competition, game, deception, challenge, irony – these functions of language realizing in a
concrete social context are not possible. Sociolinguistic school (Veisbergs, Priedite, Liepa,
Druviete) recognizes the individual language users as social actors and accords them rights to
manipulate with la langue for to achieve certain pragmatic goals in a unique situation of
communication.

KUBILIUS, Ramunė (1-3) "Trans-Atlantic Collaboration: Publication of a Memoir"
        This presentation will be a case study of one book’s publication, for which the presenter,
a librarian by profession, served as compiler. The book, Apie įvykius, žmones ir save (About
Events, People, and My Life), is the memoir, including correspondences, of Canadian Lithuanian,
Bronius Povilaitis, author of two scholarly books and numerous articles. The agronomist and
plant geneticist, an active participant in his profession and in the post-World War II Lithuanian
diaspora community, began work on the book as an outgrowth of his participation as an
interviewee for a Multicultural History Society of Ontario (Canada) project. Recording for the
project, begun in July 1977, included the author’s memories of his life in Lithuania and his early
days as a Canadian immigrant. The author’s personally typewritten manuscript for the book was
completed before his death in July 1985, but the Spring 2007 publication of the book in
Lithuania occurred 22 years after his death, during the 100th anniversary year of his birth. The
presentation will focus on the book’s publication cycle, including some challenges and some
lessons that were learned. This was a trans-Atlantic collaboration, and those involved - family
members, editors, compiler, publisher and others, brought personal and professional opinions
and experience into the process. All played a role during the stages of the book’s publication:
typewritten manuscript conversion, the search for photographs, consensus on editing
conventions, timeline determination, publisher selection, and other decisions. The experience
may have broader application for those in the diaspora community who might want to publish
memoirs. Some questions raised may have no definitive answers: Whose memoirs are worthy of
publication? Who should undertake their compilation, publication?

KUCK, Jordan (7-2) "The Legacy of ‘Vadonis’ Ulmanis: Kārlis Ulmanis, Past, Present, and
Future"
        During the European interwar years, the mixture of authoritarian governments and a ripe
political atmosphere resulted in one of the most volatile periods in history. Kārlis Ulmanis was
the authoritarian leader of Latvia from 1934-1940. He is an interesting leader not only because of
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his political career in Europe, but also because he was a graduate of the University of Nebraska-
Lincoln (UNL). Ulmanis, who fled his homeland in 1905 to escape political persecution,
graduated from the UNL Ag. College in 1908. In fact, Ulmanis is the only University of
Nebraska graduate ever to become a leader of a country. Among other aspects, my research
focuses on exploring Ulmanis’ time in America’s heartland, while also addressing his historical
legacy in both Nebraska and Latvia.
        Taking my cue from the seminal work of Jay Winter, one of the most important aspects
of my work is the discussion of the “historical remembrance” of Ulmanis. In conversing about
the remembrance of Ulmanis, I touch upon such topics as the influence of nostalgia, the effects
of personal and collective identities, and the indifference caused by the “generation gap.”
        This research is especially important today because, as Latvia continues to rehash its
post-Soviet identity, it is important to understand how the memories of Latvia’s first era of
independence are being bequeathed to and inherited by subsequent generations, especially as we
sadly lament the passing of those who were witnesses to those times. Thus, besides examining
primary accounts, I also look at second and third generation remembrances of Ulmanis, resulting
in a unique perspective of Ulmanis and his Latvian and American historical legacies.

KVASYTE, Regina (5-4) "Latvian Proper Nouns in the Lithuanian Press"
 The paper deals with Latvian proper nouns (personal and place names, symbolic names) as they
are given in the Lithuanian press. Therefore, the present investigation focuses on their usage in
national and regional papers and their supplements, culture weeklies and magazines since the
year 2000. Latvian personal names should be spelt following the rules of pronuncation, i.e.
following the Lithuanian standard. What is most difficult when writing in Lithuanian is to reflect
the long Latviam vowels. Personal names that are less frequent are much more difficult to
transcribe, those more widely used are more frequently given in a correct form. A review of
Latvian place names used in the Lithuanian press (names of ethnic regions, cities and towns,
rivers and lakes) has shown that the majority of problems arise due to the violation of
presentation rules. It is not easy to make the place names Lithuanian by adding Lithuanian
flections, which involves choosing an appropriate ending and gender. Presenting symbolic
names, a group of Latvian proper names, in Lithuanian has hardly beeninvestigated at all. The
symbolic names under investigation include names and titles of companies, institutions,
organisations, recreational centres, entertainment centres, sports clubs and teams, newspapers
and other publications etc. The general impression is that the Lithuanian press is not particularly
interested in giving proper nouns in the most precise manner.

ĶENCIS, Toms (8-2) "Creation of Latvian Mythological Space"
        Space and time are fundamental concepts in any mythological system. In academic sense,
Latvian mythology started to gain importance in the time period from the 1920s to 1940s -
during the first Republic of Latvia. At that time, several hypotheses were put forward with
respect to the structure of space in the mindset of ancient Latvians, thus creating the
mythological space within the framework of the scholarly discourse. During the formation stage
of the discipline, viewpoints from methodologies of various fields blended together. Partly
Latvian mythological space was constructed in relation to Christianity, while at the same time
search for older, more authentic models of space was carried out as well. Accomplishments of
different researchers demonstrate that their interpretations of mythological space were created in
line with their disciplinary backgrounds, folklore material selected for research, and according to
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models of space in other Indo-European mythologies according to praxis of comparative
mythology.
        My presentation which is based on research for doctoral dissertation proposes an analysis
of construction of space by the leading researchers in Latvian mythology (K. Straubergs, P.
Šmits, E. Zicāns, etc.) between the World Wars. Of special interest here is a discussion between
Adamovics, Zicans and Straubergs, for in the framework of this discussion surfaced the
argumentation that served as a basis for research, which largely pertains also to other themes in
studies of mythology. Latvian mythological space was constructed within the two branches of
science: comparative folkloristics and religious studies. Both approaches stem from the authors’
respective disciplinary backgrounds, divided evenly among the two branches. The world order
according to Christianity also outlines the problematic of syncretism in Latvian mythology.
My study is intended to investigate research practices of Latvian mythology through detection of
until now unexplored metadiscursive practices and influences on various textual levels.

KLUMBYTE, Neringa (9-3) "Synthetic Bodies, Natural Tastes, and Post-European
Communities in Lithuania's Food Market"
         The expansion of the EU market eastwards was carried out through
harmonization of policies and standardization in support of legislation to create a common
economic space. However, this space has been circumscribed by the new member state
producers who market their products to appeal to local symbolic orders and identities as well as
to consumers who reclaim their identities through alternative food ideologies and tastes.
This paper explores the marketing and consumption of "Soviet" and "Euro" food products to
illustrate how the EU market is being redefined at the local level and reembeded in diverse
symbolic political geographies and histories. It analyzes how political symbols and consumer
social and political sensibilities become integral to the EU economic regimes."Soviet" foods,
namely, "Soviet" sausages, "Soviet" dumplings, and "Soviet" bread, accumulated increasing
popularity in post-EU Lithuania. Associated with natural, healthy, and traditional diet, "Soviet"
brands indirectly challenge the new models of nutrition and health standards promoted by the
EU. The newly rediscovered eastern (post-Soviet) identity and related power, prestige and
authority are at the center of "Soviet" brand consumption. "Euro" brands, namely "Euro"
sausages, "Euro" beer, and "Euro" bread, although not as popular as "Soviet" brands, mark the
identity of different post-Soviet European taste communities recognizing the modernity
of EU food and its nutritional ideologies. I argue that consumption of "Soviet" and "Euro" brands
are examples of taste nationalism, i.e., taste-related sentiments about national community
embedded in a particular geopolitical order. Although consumption of "Soviet" and "Euro"
products constitute geopolitical and symbolic alternatives, they both are examples
of imagining a national community of taste and an ongoing communication
about nation, history, Europe, and self.

KRANKING, Glenn (7-3) "'Our Prayer is for Mother Svea to Take Care of Us': The 1940
Evacuation of the Pakri Islands and the Forced Evacuation of the Estonian-Swedes"
        For over 700 years, Swedish peasants and farmers lived on numerous islands and along
the northwestern coast of Estonia. When the Soviet Union forced Estonia to turn over territory
for the establishment of military bases in 1940, large numbers of Swedes needed to be relocated,
putting the Swedish community and the Estonian government in a quandary – could the Estonian
state protect the cultural, linguistic, and economic integrity of the Swedish minority after
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relocation? With such uncertainty, some of the Estonian-Swedish leaders turned to Sweden for
assistance, raising the possibility of legal emigration for those displaced. The Estonian
government hesitated, however, arguing that they could find a suitable solution. By the time the
government gave tentative approval for 110 Swedes from the Pakri Islands that had applied for a
joint passport for travel, the Soviet Union oversaw border issues, requiring the Swedish
ambassador in Moscow to seek approval from Molotov. On October 17, 1940, the 110 Estonian-
Swedes legally emigrated to Sweden.
        The dialog between the Estonian-Swedes and Sweden highlights the difficulties faced by
the displaced population, and their precarious future if they were to be placed in Estonian-
dominated regions with no access to Swedish-language education and churches, and with little
possibility for economic viability. On a broader scale, this was a first step towards Sweden's
decision to support the complete relocation of the population to Sweden, a decision raised with
Molotov in 1941, but largely accomplished during the 1941-1944 Nazi occupation.
        This paper looks at the discourse between the Estonian-Swedes, the Swedish government,
the Estonian government, and the Soviet government over the displaced Estonian-Swedes.
Source material from Sweden, Estonia, and Russia are used.

KURVET-KÄOSAAR, Leena (5-2) "Textures of Landscape and Subjectivity: The
Contemporary Estonian Life-Writing Scene(ry)"
        Recent conceptualisations of life-writing and autobiography foreground the
contextualized, discursive and situated subject emerging at the axes of various identity
categories, such as, for example, language, gender, class, sexuality and corporeality. Such
envisionings of the narrating subject open a potential line of inquiry into the category of space
and the notion of landscape. Entering the debates from a different disciplinary vantage point, a
number of geographers, among them Anne Buttimer and Edmunds Valdemars Bunkše have
looked at the inter-relationality of landscape and individual subjectivity, highlighting the
important role of landscape in the formation of subjectivity.
        Grounding my discussion on the two above-mentioned theoretical and critical
frameworks, I wish to look into the role of landscapes in the processes of the textual formation of
subjectivity in contemporary Estonian life-writing texts. Rather than attempting a full coverage
of the ways in which landscape and subjectivity are configured in contemporary Estonian life-
writing, I will focus on a variety of different modes of engagement, tropical representation and
narrative strategies of landscapes in the life-writings of four contemporary Estonian authors.
Looking at the Studia Memoria series texts of Madis Kõiv, I will look into the psycho-
topographic paradoxes and dilemmas of the textualization of memory. I will take up Viivi Luik’s
well-known autobiographical novel The Seventh Spring of Peace (1985) as a good textual
example of embodied subjectivity, a text where the physical and mental existence of the
protagonist is grounded in and narrated through landscapes loaded with a grid of socio-cultural
markings. The treatment of landscapes in Käbi Laretei’s life-writing texts foreground issues of
identity, exile, belonging and intersubjectivity, thematically sharing several foci of Bunkše’s
Geography and the Art of Life (2004). Tõnu Õnnepalu’s recent Flandria päevik (The Flemish
Diary, 2007) is a spatially rather than temporally ordered text where landscapes function as cues
to highly fictionalized processes of the construction of subjectivity. By elaborating the various
uses of landscapes in the autobiographical textualization of subjectivity in contemporary
Estonian life-writing texts I wish to demonstrate the amazingly complex textual processes of the
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formation of landscapes and mindscapes that relate to many central concerns of life-writing
studies.


LAMANAUSKAITE GERIGUIS, Lina (4-2) "Rediscovering the Lithuanian Reinscription
of Robinson Crusoe: A Literary Construct of 19th Century Cultural, Political, and
Historical Discourses in Lithuania"
        Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is one of the most internationalized myths that has
disseminated into diverse cultures and grafted onto culturally diverse discourses. One such 19th
century example is the Lithuanian Robinson Crusoe, renamed The Life of Rubinaitis Peliuze. My
discussion of this translation by Simonas Daukantas will focus on why this first and only
Lithuanian re-inscription of Defoe’s colonial paradigm, so central to Eurocentric discourse and
Western literary canon, was relegated to the peripheries of the national literary terrain in
Lithuania. I will examine how and why Daukantas reformulated Defoe’s tale of English
colonialism into an anti-colonial tool thereby placing this text about a hundred years ahead of
other Robinsonades. Most importantly, I will explicate how the text departs from Defoe's
original and arrives at a post-colonial critique as a suppressed creation stimulated and at the same
time silenced by national and international political influences.
        Although written as early as 1846, Daukantas’ translation remained marginalized in the
form of the manuscript until it finally got published in 1984. I will propose that the Lithuanian
version of Robinson Crusoe was the author’s attempt to re-create the text into a piece of national
literature which could have not been received favorably under the pressure of 19th century
Russification and Polonization of Lithuania – forces that suppressed patriotically charged texts. I
will look at how this text functions as a trans-historical and intercultural construct, influenced
and conditioned by international politics.
        Finally, this paper will argue that in the context of 19th century Lithuania, Daukantas’ text
symbolically functions as a counter-discourse that centralizes the archetypal Lithuanian personage,
as a re-creation of Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, marginalized on the historical landscape of
international politics. For these reasons, I will propose that while The Life of Rubinaitis Peliuze has
not yet received the attention it deserves in scholarly discourses, it is a noteworthy member of the
family of Robinsonades.
LANKAUSKAS, Gediminas (9-3) "Sighting and Savoring the Soviet in Lithuania"
          Distancing itself from logocentric methodologies that privilege narrative and text in
memory research, this paper insists on the importance of the senses in practices of social recall.
Through ethnographic analysis of Grūtas Park, an open-air museum commemorating Soviet history
in today's Lithuania, it examines differential ways in which sight and taste are mobilized as
memory media for linking the nation's socialist past with its “capitalist” present. The paper also
argues that this museum constitutes an apt ethnographic locus in which to critique unproblematic
unilinear approaches to the ongoing systemic change in the European East after Communist rule.
LASAS, Ainius (1-2) "Members versus Neighbors: Explaining Divergent Attitudes of the
EU towards the Baltic States and Ukraine"
        The Baltic States and Ukraine are examples of countries with comparable foreign policy
ambitions vis-à-vis the European Union, but very different outcomes. Since the early 1990s,
these former Soviet Union countries declared the EU membership as one of their key goals. By
2004, the Baltic States joined the club, while Ukraine remained an outsider with no prospects of
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membership on the horizon. At the end of the same year, Ukraine went through the Orange
revolution, which brought to power passionately pro-Western Victor Yushchenko. Riding on the
wave of European sympathy and admiration, he attempted to relaunch the “comeback to Europe”
campaign. Surprisingly, the European Union showed no interest in extending future membership
guarantees. Why did the EU treat the Baltic States and Ukraine so differently? How is the
Singing revolution different from the Orange revolution? Is it a matter of bad timing for
Ukraine? Enlargement fatigue has become a common explanation both among politicians and
political scientists. Contrary to these claims, I propose a historically driven explanation, which
focuses on the distinct experiences of the Baltic States and Ukraine during the interwar period.

LATKOVSKI, Leonard (7-3) "The NKVD in Latvia in the 1940s: Structure, Personnel,
and Operations"
        The Soviet Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD) in Moscow played the leading role
in the subversion of Latvian independence and the Soviet Communist takeover of Latvia. The
Latvian NKVD was a creation of the Moscow headquarters and was the basis of Soviet control.
This paper examines the organizational structure, the personnel, and the functions of the NKVD
in Latvia. In particular it looks at the leadership and the dominant role played by non-Latvians in
its operations.

LATKOVSKI, Leonard (8-2) "The Unification of Latgale to Latvia in 1917-1918: The Role
of the Latvian Catholic Clergy"
        Latgale's unification with Latvia's western provinces was a process that occurred between
March 1917 and November 1918. A pivotal role in the process was taken by the Latvian Catholic
clergy in the period from the Rezekne Congress in April 1917. Latgale's union with the rest of
Latvia was not a foregone conclusion because of certain forces that resisted it including the
Polish elite, the Russian minority and Latgalian nationalists who desired
autonomy. Most prominent among the Latvian clergy were Nikodems Rancans, Kazimers
Skrynda, Jazeps Rancans and Peteris Dzenis.

LAWATY, Andreas (1-4) See panel abstract

LEHTI, Marko (1-2) "Small or Smart: How Balts Are Contributing to European Whole"
        This paper asks whether "Baltic" Europe represents a distinctive cross-national political
culture, exhibiting particular shared characteristics in attitudes to European integration. In
particular, it examines how their shared communist past and perceptions of statehood and
market economy has resulted on their understanding and emphasis on Europe and its security;
how their close relationship with the US and conflictual relationship with Russia has impacted
on the broader EU-US-Russia relations. Paper departs from Gerard Delanty's and Chris
Rumford's theory on post-western Europe according to which different experiences of
modernity are meeting and merging in the current Europe and thus contributing something new.
The European Union after eastern enlargement is not same as it was before. It will also critically
scrutinize continuation of "easternisation" of the Baltic States by western Europeans and aim to
"westernize" the Baltic States by the Balts themselves. According to western logic Eastern
Europeans are seen passive, backward and immature when Western Europe is
defining what Europe is all about. However, as Merje Kuus argues in her new book that even if
the Balts are often seen during the era of transition as quick learners and ideal pupils of the West
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beyond that it is possible to recognize smart policy of learning to please to western Europeans
but simultaneously contributing one's own alternative views. Marginal position and smallness are
usually associated in international relations with weakness and powerless but small may be smart
too and power is also ability to introduce new agenda and to challenge prevailing
conceptualizations.

L'HOMMEDIEU, Jonathan (7-3) "Baltic Merchant Ships in the Summer of 1940: Non-
Recognition and Its Impact on Inter-American Trade and Security"
         In the aftermath of a 31 July 1940 declaration by the Soviet Estonian government calling
for all Estonian merchant vessels to return to the ports of Murmansk or Vladivostok, dependent
on their relative location in either the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans, a series of court cases in the
United States, United Kingdom, and Ireland concerning the legal status and ownership of Baltic
ships occurred. Despite Soviet claims that the ships were nationalized when the Baltic States
were annexed by the Soviet Union, the courts generally claimed that non-recognition of the
annexation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania prevented the transfer of ship ownership.
Specifically in American courts, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 8484, signed
on 15 July 1940 freezing the transfer of Baltic properties, was used as legal justification.
         The status of Baltic merchant ships immediately following the Soviet annexation of the
Baltic States has been one of several issues used to demonstrate a practical application and
usefulness of the largely symbolic 23 July 1940 Sumner Welles Declaration. Despite the
relatively small number of ships affected, this paper will look beyond the legal issue surrounding
Baltic ships, and attempt to place the issue in the larger context of American hemispheric trade
and security concerns. Key questions include: What role did the presence of American members
of the ships’ crews play on the formulation of American policy? How did the U.S. State
Department view Baltic merchant ships within the larger trade issue in 1940? Can the State
Department’s position offer greater insight into the general American attitude towards belligerent
European powers in 1940?

LIE, Suzanne S. and Lynda MALIK (1-3) "Gender and Class as Predictors of the Lives of
Mid-Twentieth-Century Estonian Women"
        Gender was by far the best predictor of life events of Estonian men and women in the
mid-twentieth century. During the Soviet and German invasions, each side conscripted the men
into the armed forces. The women were left at home, however the fate of the women was
inextricably tied to social class. In their attempt to revolutionize (Communize) Estonian social
structure, women and children whom the Soviets deemed to have belonged to privileged classes
were deported to remote regions of the Soviet Union. There they suffered untold hardship and
many died. A history of prolonged and onerous Russian occupation of Estonia created a desire
in many of the remaining women to flee to the west along with their children. Of those who
remained in Estonia during the entire period, some participated in passive resistance while others
actively cooperated with and participated in the Communist regime.
        Relying on their own autobiographical accounts, this paper describes what happened to
the three categories of women. In addition to the actual events, we were able to include their
own recollections of their feelings, aspirations, hopes and dreams. Each life story ends with a
look backward by each woman in which she summarizes the events of the past half century on
her life and plans for the future.
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LITVINSKAITE, Daiva (9-2) "Topic of Postcolonial Subject in the Novel Negęsta žvaigždė
paukščio pėdoje [Star Doesn’t Fade in a Bird’s Footprint] by Vytautas Martinkus"
        As many other works written in Lithuania during the years of Soviet occupation, the
novel Negęsta žvaigždė paukščio pėdoje (1988) by Vytautas Martinkus can be analyzed using the
approach of the “national allegory” introduced by Frederic Jameson (1986). According to this
approach, certain texts are best analyzed when looked at as ideologically motivated and,
therefore, written in Aesopian language; this implies that the texts are heavily loaded with
subtext and targeted to the center discourse.
        In the novel under discussion V. Martinkus focuses on Lithuania’s history, memory, and
subject’s anxiety for self expression and agency. To demonstrate the split-minded situation of a
colonial subject, the author works with two narratives which represent two different models of
history. The first is the current time of the Soviet occupation (the time of the novel) whereas the
other narrative is located in the past, going back to the 19th century when the National awakening
movement in Lithuania began. Two discourses play a double function in the text: this method not
only helps to avoid censorship but also creates space for the subject’s freedom to speak out.
Since the conscious colonial subject is left without agency, he transforms his living experience
and his dreams of the future onto another, safer level.
        In my paper I will mainly focus on the “national allegory”, as well as subject’s trauma
and his attempts to find ways for recovery and self-expression. Another point to be examined is
the significance of different forms of discourses found in the novel, the oral and the written. Two
discourses in postcolonial studies are quite significant. Homi Bhabha (1994), for example,
observes that if the nation doesn’t convert the cultural discourse into a symbolic system, the
discourse is condemned to disappear in a flow of time.

LIULEVICIUS, Vejas (5-6) See panel abstract

MACLAUGHLIN GARBES, Heather (1-5) "To the Bards: The Choral Music of Estonian
Composer Ester Mägi"
        Although the popularity of Arvo Pärt and Veljo Tormis have brought the awareness of
Baltic music to a new level in the past few years, there is an immense amount of quality
literature that the music community has yet to hear, study and perform. The choral works of
Ester Mägi represent a genre of music that combines the tradition of folk music style with the
innovation and creativity of contemporary harmonies and voicings.
        Ms. Mägi has drawn from the traditional Setu and folk melodies, but then has used those
formulas as a springboard to compose original melodies. This combination of compositional
techniques brings life, newness and vitality to the old traditions that allows them to continue
through the generations.
        An overview of the history of Baltic Choral music will allow the reader to understand the
emotional and societal aspects of the importance of singing and choral music in this region.
After the general overview, a short biographical sketch of Ester Mägi and her musical influences
will follow. There will then be a survey of Ester Mägi’s choral works with an in-depth look at
the text and compositional techniques of some of her benchmark pieces. The annotated catalog
that follows will list the works with detailed explanations of the voicing, text source, translation,
difficulty and form of each piece. I have also taken the manuscripts and transferred them into
printed music scores for easier study and use.
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MAIER, Konrad (1-4) See panel abstract

MÅNSSON, Jonas and Mikael OLSSON (1-1) "Movement without Integration? A Paper
on Labor Market Attainment in Sweden among Its Post-War Immigrants from Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania and Poland"
      In this paper we approach the issue of integration by looking at the labor market attainment
among all those that immigrated to Sweden from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland in the
period 1944-2004. The questions asked concern how these individuals fared compared to Swedes
as well as other immigrants with regard to: (i) labor income; (ii) employment; and (iii) duration
of unemployment. The logic behind the approach is that if immigrants from these countries have
not fared as well as could be expected – after controlling for factors such as e.g. education – the
signals transmitted to their respective country of origin may serve to reduce the attractiveness of
this particular country as a destination.

MARKELIS, Daiva (4-2) "'My Mister No Vork since Tuesday': Lithuanian Working-Class
Heroes in American Fiction"
       Jurgis Rudkus, the Lithuanian hero of Upton Sinclair’s famous novel The Jungle, is well-
known to readers as the hard-working immigrant destroyed by the greed and corruption of
American capitalism. Although Sinclair’s purpose in writing the novel was to highlight the
abuses of the meat-packing industry, his use of Lithuanian elements—including names, bits of
dialogue, and descriptions of traditions—adds badly needed local color by depicting what
Lithuanian immigrant life in the area surrounding the Chicago stockyards was like at the turn of
the last century. Two much lesser known novels, Margaret Seebach’s That Man Donelaitis: A
Story of the Coal Regions and Phillip Bonosky’s Burning Valley, also utilize working-class
heroes of Lithuanian descent. In Seebach’s novel, the protagonist toils in the coal mines of the
anthracite regions of Pennsylvania. The novel was published in 1909, three years after The
Jungle, and has a polemical purpose, although in this case it’s to convince readers of the dangers
of Catholicism. Burning Valley, published in 1953 and the only one of the three novels to be
written by a Lithuanian-American, shares elements with both novels. The hero, Benedict
Bulmanis, works as a steelworker in Pennsylvania in the days after World War II. Bonosky
criticizes capitalism as well as organized religion, blaming both for the hardships that Bulmanis
and his fellow immigrants encounter. In this paper I will focus on Lithuanian elements in all
three works, comparing each author’s use of ethnicity to delineate character and to highlight
particular political and religious viewpoints.

MAY, Gergana (3-4) "Lithuanian Director Oskaras Korsunova's Engagement with
Scandinavian Theater"
        I am going to examine in my paper the engagement of the young Lithuanian director
Oskaras Korsunovas with several major works by Scandinavian playwrights. He has staged
several works by Norwegians Jon Fosse and Henrik Ibsen, as well as by Swedish August
Strindberg, for theatres both in Lithuania and in Norway. His approach to the drama texts is
highly innovative, rightfully allotting him a place amongst Europe's most sought-after directors. I
have seen a couple of productions directed by him and I have been fascinated by their originality.
The question that I will attempt to answer then is: what is it that makes a representative of the
small European nation of Lithuania who grew during "socialist" times (he was born in 1969) a
cosmopolitan artist? Additionally, what is it in the works of these Scandinavian authors – both
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contemporary and turn-of-the-century – that appeals to him? I am only starting my research now
and have approached several colleagues to help me with suggestions about materials: Milda
Ostrauskaite and Dalia Cidzikaite have so far been of tremendous help. My belief is that as I am
researching the topic, various interesting theoretical and aesthetic issues will present themselves
and invite further exploration. I have done extensive research on the above-mentioned
Scandinavian dramatists, which will help me in my endeavor. Being a native of Bulgaria and
belonging to the Generation X myself, will help me gain better insight into the problematic.

MCKENZIE, Brent (3-1) "From Soviet to Selver: Tallinna Kaubamaja—"Estonia's
Department Store," and Its Role in Shaping Estonia's Retail Sector"
        Tallinna Kaubamaja (henceforth TK), was established in July 1960, and is the oldest
department store, and the largest department store, in terms of sales, in Estonia. TK has gone
through a number of changes over the past forty plus years, both in terms of physical
renovations, but also in terms of management and retail practices. The purpose of this research is
to answer the questions; how TK has managed to succeed, and why TK as a department store that
opened during the Soviet period, did succeed while most did not.
        The Soviet period represented a prolonged period of underinvestment in the retail sector
best exemplified by shortages of desired consumer goods, and an overabundance of low demand,
poorly made products. In contrast, representatives of TK were generally well received when
summoned to Moscow, as company financial documents indicate that in the period of 1960-1985
the store reached turnover plans in all but five years, as well as certain internal performance
measures (TK, 1985). Many retail operations were piloted in TK and then rolled out into other
Soviet regions.
        In the 1960’s Khrushchev saw the retail sector as a way to grow consumerism, and thus
an overt effort to educate consumers in the socialist “culture” of shopping (Reid and Crowley,
2000). By studying the key retail player in Estonia, helps one to better understand both the past
of TK, its present, and the role it has played in shaping of the Estonian retail sector, and by
extension its role in shaping Estonian consumer society as it exists today.

MUKOVSKAYA, Larisa and Oleg MUKOVSKY (6-1) "Estonian Language in St.
Petersburg"
        The Russian city of St. Petersburg has been a center of Estonian language and culture for
a long time. The Estonian population of St. Petersburg started to grow in the eighteenth century,
soon after the city was founded by Peter the Great in 1703. Among the early work migrants of
Estonian origin to St. Petersburg there were three major groups divided on the basis of their
native language, German, Russian or Estonian. The native speakers of Estonian well
outnumbered the other two groups. While resident in Russia they managed to preserve their
national mentality, language, culture, customs and religion. By 1860 the Estonian parish of over
24.000 people included a church, a school and an orphanage; four decades later there were over
37.000 Estonians in St. Petersburg and its region and six churches.
        At the same time the role of St. Petersburg as the major center of the Estonian national
movement started to shape. In 1880-91 Jakob Hurt, a great Estonian linguist, anthropologist and
folklore scholar, served as priest at the Jaani Kirik. The national culture was in the focus of the
student and sports’ societies, secondary and technical schools, numerous clubs and an Estonian
newspaper, now revived. Many Estonian physicians, scientists, lawyers, engineers, cultural
workers spent a long time in St. Petersburg.
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       The Department of Finno-Ugric languages (St. Petersburg State University) started
regular courses in modern Estonian in 2000. In September 2007 the first ever full-time academic
program was inaugurated, thus expanding the oldest existing academic programs in Finnish and
Hungarian in the Russian Federation.

OJAMAA, Triinu and Kanni Labi (1-5) "Music as a Tool Promoting Ethnic Pride"
        Music is first of all a source of emotional enjoyment, but it serves also some social
functions. People of different origins are able to contact each other with the help of music, even
if they are unable to communicate via language (Hargreaves, North 2005.) Music is also a
flexible tool that can be used for creating different identities and images, including those with
ethnocentristic/nationalistic aims to the pan-European and global ones. In 2004 Philip Bohlman
has published a book The Music of European Nationalism. Cultural Identity and Modern
History. This is a history of national music as observed in different European states that reveals
how music has contributed to identity development and the other way around. In our paper we
mainly base on Bohlman's viewpoints developing some ideas and arguing against others.
        The main aim of the paper is to analyse the reception of two music events of state-level
importance, which have taken place in Estonia in the frame of the visit of Elizabeth II (2006) and
of the Emperor Akihito (2007). Reception of music events will be assessed by discoursive
analysis, that is applied for a textblock, compiled immediately after the events on basis of
information from the Internet portals and writing media. This analysis reveals, which topics other
than music (cultural, ethnic etc.) would rise, motivated by the observed music events.
        Relation between national pride and music emerges in the course of the reception
analysis of the concerts. In some cases music can promote nationalistic attitude among the
Estonians (by Bohlman's criterion). However, the foreign audience of the same events did not
perceive the nationalism in musical pieces the extramusical meaning of which was unknown for
them.

ÖNNERFORS, Andreas (5-1) "Imagining a Common Space: Freemasonry in the Baltic Sea
Area during the 18th Century"
      The 18th century has been called the „societal age”. Different kinds of organisations, clubs,
orders and academies were established along with other significant traits of enlightened
culture such as press and book market. One of the most prominent societies in this respect is
Freemasonry. Since its official establishment 1717 in London, Masonic lodges and Orders
spread all over Europe in a ”globalised disparity”, opening up for local interpretations and re-
interpretations. Along with the motives of craftsmen and operative masonry, a new motive
developed during the 1730-ies, the chivalric complex of ideas.
Since the early 1740-ies, but most clearly after 1760 with Berlin as a centre, chivalric Masonic
chapters and lodges were founded in several towns around the Baltic Sea, from Copenhagen
in the West to St. Petersburg in the East. In the year 1764 the system of the „Strict
Observance” was introduced, a Templarian Masonic Order. The Strict Observance divided
Europe into virtual provinces transgressing the borders of the existing territorial states,
following more or less the division into provinces of the Order of Templars. Province VII was
defined as „the lands around Elbe and Oder” and under this rather vague definition also the
chapters around the Baltic Sea were subsumed. In 1780 a Swedish initiative was taken to
establish the so-called IXth Province of the Order, covering Scandinavia and Russia. The
highest degree of the Order was reached by around 1600 Freemasons all over Europe.
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The paper will deal with the spread and development of freemasonry in the Baltic Sea Area
with a special focus upon the period between 1760 and 1790, when a couple of nodes in a
trans-cultural and borderless network were set up along the Baltic shore, trying to find
answers upon questions like: What implications had membership in a Masonic organisation
for the perception of a common space? How was cultural exchange practiced within a
network of a secretive society?

PAAS, Tiiu and Viktor TRASBERG (6-2) "Baltic Countries' Global Competitiveness 2002-
2007"
         The paper focuses on Baltic Sea region countries global competitiveness analyses. The
first part of the paper analyses factors of economic competitiveness and growth. There are
emphasized importance of microeconomic fundamentals and macroeconomic business
environment. After that competitiveness position of different region’s countries will compared
and considered their economic performance during the last decade. The final part of the paper
considers Baltic Sea Region as a attractive destination for business activities and its global
competitive advantages.

PETERS, Rita P. (7-4) "Diaspora/Kin-State Phenomenon in Baltic-Russian Relations"
        With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, over 20 million ethnic Russians became
minorities dispersed among the now independent former Soviet republics. In Estonia and Latvia,
the Russians—most of whom had arrived after these countries had been annexed by the Soviets
in the course of WWII—were not given automatic citizenship when both regained their
independence. The Russians were, however, given the opportunity to naturalize. Moscow,
claiming that the human rights of the Russians were being violated, declared that Russia had the
right to protect the "Russian speakers" in Estonia and Latvia. Thus the Russians in the Baltic
states became part of the "diaspora/kin-state phenomenon" in the sense that the diaspora was
used by Russia as a means to exert political and economic pressure on the two countries.
Historically the phenomenon has been part of territorial expansion by states: Hitler's Germany in
the case of Czechoslovakia and Poland, and more recently Milosevic's Serbia against former
Yugoslav republics. In the case of Russia, it is not the use of force that is in question, but rather
an effort to maintain the two states within the Russian sphere of influence. Part of this was the
effort to undermine the eligibility for NATO as well as EU membership of Estonia and Latvia.
This, as well as the more ambitious effort to impose a two-community system on the two states,
failed, but the exercise of pressure, both economic and political, continues. This paper explores
(1) how Russia has played the kin-state role in relation to the Russian diaspora in Estonia and
Latvia and (2) considers how international organizations, notably the Organization of Security
and Cooperation in Europe and the European Union, function as both a venue and a filter for
Baltic-Russian relations in the context of minority politics.

PINNIS, Marģers (6-3) See panel abstract

PLATH, Ulrike (1-4) See panel abstract

RAHKONEN, Carl (1-5) "The Baltic Psaltries: Bibliographic Problems and Desiderata
Revisited"
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        In 1973 at the Second Conference on Baltic Studies in Scandinavia, Professor Steven
Reynolds, then at the University of Oregon, presented a paper entitled “The Baltic Psaltery:
Bibliographical Problems and Desiderata.” In his paper, Reynolds described virtually all the
published research on the Baltic psalteries up to that time. Since then there has been a large
amount of research conducted by scholars within the Baltic countries, Russia, and North
America. There have also been five international scholarly conferences on the Baltic psalteries:
Tampere (1990), Vilnius (1994), Kaustinen (1997), Riga (2000) and Toronto (2004).
Significant research has been undertaken on the Finnish kantele (Leisiö, Laitinen, Rahkonen,
Saha, Hakala, Smolander-Hauvonen), the Estonian kannel (Tõnurist, Haas), the Lavian kokles
(Jaremko, Muktupavels, Priedite), the Lithuanian kankles, (Apanavicius), the Russian gusli
(Vertkov, Povetkin, Zhoukov and Maraev, Temkin) and the Baltic psalteries in general (Haas,
Temkin). Starting with Reynolds’s work, my paper will examine the current state of research
and publication on the Baltic psalteries to the present time. Many of the bibliographical
problems described by Reynolds have been solved, largely due to the changing geo-political
landscape and the coming of the Internet, but some challenges still remain that impede
international cooperation in research. I will evaluate the major Baltic psaltery studies of the
past 35 years, their significance to one another and to earlier research, and will make some
suggestions as to “where we should go from here” in Baltic psaltery research.

RAUN, Toivo (4-4) "The Political and Social Thought of Young-Estonia"
        Young-Estonia burst on the scene in 1905 as a powerful literary and cultural movement
that sought to modernize Estonian culture and raise it to the level of European standards.
Dedicated to the principle of art for art’s sake and focusing on cultural transformation, it tended
to avoid the political and social debates of the day. Nevertheless, Young-Estonia could not and
did not exist in an ivory tower, and it was, as the Finnish writer Aino Kallas noted, both a
product of the society it appeared in as well as a protest against it. Gustav Suits, the leading
ideologist of Young-Estonia in cultural matters, was also its most important voice regarding
political and social affairs. In addition, during World War I Young-Estonia sponsored a new
journal, Vaba Sõna (The Free Word), which became fully engaged in the contemporary political
and social debates.
        This paper will offer an analysis of the political and social thought of Young-Estonia,
focusing especially on Suits and the Vaba Sõna group, and it will place their views in the context
of the dominant ideologies in Estonia in the early 20th century (national liberalism and social
democracy). Young-Estonia represented youthful protest (its leading members were all born in
the 1880s), but it could not ignore the challenge of interpreting a rapidly and somewhat
chaotically modernizing society. In contrast to the prevailing view among traditional Estonian
nationalists, Young-Estonia fully embraced the vigorous urbanization process that was occurring,
and it rejected the position that the Estonian people–given its small numbers–should play a
quiescent role in all-Russian affairs.

RIMŠĀNE, Inta and Susan GODAR (2-1) "How Is Latvia Teaching Foreign Languages? A
Study of Pedagogical Implementation"
        Since the fall of the Soviet rule in the 1990’s, rapid changes have occurred in Latvia. The
transition to democracy and a market economy brought the significant changes in politics,
economics, and education. Since 1991, the education reforms in Latvia have been very rapid as
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compared to similar reforms in politically established democratic countries, for example in West
Europe and the United Sates of America.
        Latvia developed a new comparable and competitive educational system, a national
accreditation system, a credit system, as well as programs of study at the bachelors, masters and
doctoral degree levels in a very short time (in about less than 10 years). In 1994, the Ministry of
Education and Sciences of Latvia established the higher education quality assurance system that
included the necessity, firstly, to get license and, secondly, accreditation for the new study
programme. The quality assurance system in higher education of Latvia was created even before
Bologna meeting in 1999 when twenty nine European countries decided about creating a
common European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010.
        The EU Member States have identified the improvement of language skills as a priority
in the EU. Turning the EU into a knowledge-based economy requires a strong focus on language
learning. Although the importance of foreign language skills is not new, it is becoming
increasingly important in the EU not only to compete successfully in the job market but also in
everyday life. This is particularly true in transitional economies such as Latvia.
        The pedagogy of teaching foreign languages changed drastically during the 1970’s and
‘80’s in Western Europe and the United States and “best practices” were identified. At the time,
Soviet control kept those changes from infiltrating the Latvian education system. In this study
we have surveyed foreign language students at three Latvian higher education institutions to see
whether these “best practices” have now been implemented. Results will be presented and future
directions for Latvian implementation will be discussed.

ROZENVALDS, Juris (7-4) "How Far is Tallinn"?
         The aim of this paper is to compare current state of non-titular communities, first of all –
Russian-speaking part of population, in Estonia and Latvia in order to evaluate probability
that something like last April - May events in Tallinn may happen in Latvia. In order to answer
this question, the following factors will be taken in account: historical strength and structure of
non-titular communities, patterns of settlement, shape and degree of political integration,
difference in historical memories between titular and non-titular communities, differences in
information spaces, social and economic differences between communities, behaviour of
political elites. The paper will be based on presumption that external impact – role of Russian
Federation as well as the Western countries - may be evaluated as of the same kind in Estonia
and Latvia. .
         The tentative conclusion is that despite higher specific weight of Russian-speakers
within population of Latvia and similar as in Estonia diferences in historical memories between
titular and Russian-speaking communities (especially with respect to the interpretation of the
return of Soviet army to Latvia and Estonia in 1944-1945) probability of such events in Latvia
is lower. This conclusion is based on the facts that social and economic diferences between
representatives of titular nation and non-titular communities are lesser in Latvia than in Estonia,
patterns of settlement of Russian-speaking community in Latvia are more favourable for
communication between communities, Russian-speaking community in Latvia seems to be more
advanced in terms of political organization and representation in legislative body, what, in its
turn, influences behaviour of the leaders of Russian-speaking community as well as behaviour
of political elite.

SAAGPAKK, Maris (5-2) "Lifewriting and the Contemporary Baltic Cultural Scene"
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         For those Baltic Germans living in Estonia and Latvia, the resettlement of Baltic
Germans to the territory of the present-day Poland in 1939/1940 and 1941 brought with it an
extensive and tragic rupture. Umsiedlung was a process that certainly echoed among Estonians
and Latvians but for the Baltic Germans it meant simultaneously both the loss of homeland on
individual plane and the collective „end of history.“ Resettlement and settling down abroad is a
topic that has found more systematic and thorough consideration in the memoirs of Baltic
German women than in those of men. More extensively than men, women have also recorded
details relating to the practicalities of everyday life that, in turn, make visible the wider
organizational framework of Umsiedlung and make it possible to perceive the difficulties relating
to settling down abroad.
         Changes in the arrangement of everyday life also brought with it a transformation in the
system of values in the postwar period. After the passing of the instable period of the
resettlement itself, it was this change that emerged as the primary obstacle to getting used to life
in a new country. The presentation focuses on evaluations and attitudes toward the changes as
represented in the autobiographical writings of the Baltic German women.
         The presentation is based on texts that by Baltic German women who had to resettle in
the areas of present-day Poland from Estonia and Latvia. Many texts are in manuscript form and
are located in different archives and/or are in the possession of different families. In additions,
texts that have been published in different collections as well as in monographic format have
been used.

SAMBROOKE, Jerilyn (9-2) "Narratives of Nationalism: A Postcolonial Rereading of
Lithuanians by the Laptev Sea"
         The Baltic States have not usually been considered a postcolonial place (David Moore,
2001). Speaking of Eastern Europe with postcolonial language is becoming more common, but
it is an emerging phenomenon, as demonstrated by Violeta Kelertas’ recent publication of a
collection of critical material on the topic Baltic Postcolonialism (2006). My paper will argue
that Eastern Europe, specifically Lithuania, is a postcolonial place and that postcolonial
discourse opens up possibilities for new readings of the recent—and painful—past.
         Referring to Dalia Grinkeviciute’s autobiographical narrative “Lithuanians by the Laptev
Sea,” which recounts the mass deportations of Lithuanians to Siberia by the Soviets in 1941, the
paper will argue that postcolonial theory challenges common approaches to the text, which is
read widely throughout Lithuania (required text in secondary school). Working with Homi
Bhabha’s conceptions of history in The Location of Culture (1994), the paper will suggest that
painful experiences in Lithuania’s recent past, such as the deportations of 1941, are best read as
continually shaping and reshaping the present culture of Lithuania rather than read as departure
points out of which the Lithuanian nation-state has been created.

SAVICKIENE, Ineta (6-1) "The Power of Language: The Use of Diminutives in Modern
Lithuanian"
        The use of diminutives often depends on the speech situation: their highest frequency of
occurrence is in child-directed speech followed by and lover- and pet-directed speech. Adults use
diminutives also when they talk to good friends, and this is especially true for women talking to
their girl friends. These situations relate to friendly exchanges, and Dressler & Merlini-Barbaresi
(1994: 218) define them 'not serious' situations. Therefore, the prevailing meaning of diminutives
is closely related to emotions, love and kindness in particular, when the addressee in a speech act
5/22/08                                                                                                38

is a dear person. There are other situations where diminutives in adult directed speech (ADS)
would occur quite often even if people were strangers. This would happen for pragmatic
purposes, i.e., in the case of requests, offers, services etc. It is obvious that the situations just
mentioned are not only very informal; on the contrary, they emphasize the assimetry in
communication.

SCHMALSTIEG, William R. (4-1) "The Etymological Identity of the Baltic *-o Stem
Dative, Accusative, Instrumental and Locative Singular"
        The Indo-European case system derives from the addition of certain vaguely defined
adverbial particles to various noun classes. Among the identifiable particles are *-i and *-m,
both with a vaguely directional meaning 'to' (later 'in'). The particle *-m could also have been
lost, with lengthening of the preceding vowel under certain sandhi conditions (most likely the
occurrence of a following word beginning with a consonant), providing, e.g., the etymological
contrast between the Baltic *-o stem acc. sg. ending *-om and the etymological dat.-instr. sg.
ending *-ō (Mažiulis 1970: 115-118).
        At the base then of the Baltic *-o stem dative, accusative, instrumental and locative
singular endings was either *-oi or *-om (or its sandhi variant *-ō). For the Baltic noun I
reconstruct the dat. sg. *-ō or *-oi later contaminated in Lith. (gar̃d)-ui, acc. sg. *-om > Lith.
(gar̃d)-ą, instr. sg. *-ō > Lith. (gard)-ù, loc. sg. *-oi > Lith. (vakar)-iẽ (adverb < old loc. sg.).
Evidence of an earlier identity is the fact that the various cases can still be used in very similar
meanings, cf., e.g., Lithuanian šį̃ kar̃tą (acc. sg.) užtèks vs. šiám kar̃tui (dat. sg.) užtèks 'that's
enough (for) this time', tą̃ kar̃tą (acc. sg.) = tuõ kartù 'that time' (instr. sg.) (Mažiulis 1970: 165,
fn. 2).
        Reference: Mažiulis, V. 1970. Baltų ir kitų indoeuropiečių kalbų santykiai. Vilnius.

SELART, Anti (5-1) "Medieval Notions of Borders and Boundaries in the Baltic Sea Area"
      Areas in the medieval Baltic Sea area from Sweden in the North to Poland in the South
bordered to non-Latin (pagan and schismatic) territories. As a result, all political actors
described in their legitimizing vocabulary their situation as „on the dangerous frontier of the
enemy of the Christianity”. The extensive use of this kind of rhetoric formed a common self-
awareness of being the „bulwark of Christianity”. From the other side, in the very same time,
the presentation of the frontier situation was always polemic and the respective statements
were directed not against the real pagan or schismatic neighbours, but against Latin political
rivals, which often became accused to have connections with the enemies of the (real)
Christians.
      In this paper some examples of highlighting the frontier situation in the political polemics
in the Baltic area during the 13th-15th centuries will be presented, such as the Teutonic Order
against Polish princes or Livonian bishops; the archbishops of Riga against the Teutonic
order etc. The aim of this kind of writing was not to describe the potentially adversary
neighbour (Livonian and Prussian pagans, Lithuanians, Russians, Tartars), but to use (or
even misuse) the description. In frequent instances, the most adversary neighbour-image can
be obtained from sources which, do not deal with the relationships with this neighbour but
where the vicinity of the neighbour is an argument. The political situation on the edge of the
Catholic world became a part of self-imagination, which in turn met and meets the similar but
confronting self-imaginations.
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SIRCHENKO, Andrei (9-1) Modeling Monetary Policy in Real Time: Does Discreteness
Matter?
        This paper estimates highly systematic reaction patterns between policy rate decisions of
the National Bank of Poland and incoming statistical data for the period 1999 - 2007, using
discrete regression approach, real-time data and decision-making meetings of monetary authority
as a unit of observation. The study detects structural breaks in policy, which switched its focus
from current to expected inflation and from exchange rate to real activity. The response to
inflationary expectations is shown to be highly asymmetrical depending on whether the
expectation is above or below the inflation target. The policy rate appears to be driven by key
economic indicators without evidence for intentional interest-rate smoothing by central bank.
        The aim of this study is not to describe the current practice of Polish monetary policy by
an algebraic equation, or “rule”. Rather, the paper lets the data speak in support of the statement
that the policy decisions are highly predictable by observing the arriving economic and financial
news in the real-time setting and using an appropriate econometric technique. The estimated
conditional distribution of rate changes explain 100 out of 105 policy actions, exceeding market
anticipations in sample and being at least as good as the market out of sample. The reported in-
and out-of-sample forecasting performance, exceeding the typical one in the literature, is shown
to be a consequence of employed empirical methodology, well suited for many central banks.
        The paper measures the empirical significance of rate discreteness and demonstrates that
both the discrete-choice approach and real-time data set with policy-making meetings as a unit of
observation do matter in the econometric identification of Polish monetary policy.
        A separate contribution of paper is the compilation of novel Polish real-time data set
incorporating the original time series, truly available to policymakers at each policy-setting
meeting during the period 1998 - 2007.

SMIDCHENS, Guntis (5-6) See panel abstracts

SMITH, David J. (5-6) See panel abstracts

SMITH, Kenneth (1-1) "Labor Force Participation in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Baltic
States"
        It is well documented that labor force participation rates fell precipitately as the
economies of the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe made the transition from
plan to market. However, data allowing for direct comparison between the planned and
transition periods of specific countries is rare. Here comparable data is used examining labor
force participation in the Baltic States in 1990 (the late Soviet period), 1995, and 1999. While
the data do indicate large drops in labor force participation, much of the decrease was
concentrated among older workers (those over 60) and women. Further, the data provide
evidence of a recovery in labor force participation rates among most age groups between 1995
and 1999. Despite this recovery in the mid-late 90s, the number of households that had wages
and salaries as their primary income source appears to have declined throughout the decade
adding to strain on welfare and social insurance programs in the Baltic States.

STANIŠKYTE, Jurgita (3-4) "Between East and West: Intercultural Communication in
Contemporary Lithuanian Theater"
5/22/08                                                                                            40

        The paper will analyse the strategies of intercultural communication in contemporary
Lithuanian theatre. After the shift of socio-political situation Lithuanian theater began searching
for sources of renewal, turning as much to the history of the national theater as to the experiences
of Western art, at the same time trying to recycle or to deconstruct the theatrical traditions from
the East, especially those from the soviet period. The new generation of theatre artists that made
their debuts at that time attempted to mix the traditions of Lithuanian theater with new local
trends and global tendencies, thus creating the hybrid and complex character of the contemporary
Lithuanian performances, were pre-modern tendencies from national theatre of the inter-war
period, modern aesthetics from Russian and Polish theatre and Western postmodernism are
linked together or juxtaposed. With the help of concrete examples and case studies the paper will
analyse, what strategies and tactics of intercultural communication are applied and how different
cultural meaning are negotiated in contemporary Lithuanian theatre.

SPOKIENE, Diana (7-5) "Of Other Spaces: Vilnius as Cultural Space in the Writings of
Therese Forster-Huber"
        In 1785, the German writer Therese Forster accompanied her husband, Georg Forster, to
Vilna (Vilnius), where from 1784 to 1789 he taught natural history at the University of Vilna.
Upon their coming back to Germany, Therese Forster-Huber published several texts, including
the anonymously published Fragmente über einen Theil von Polen. Aus Briefen einer
Engländerin, im Jahr 1789 geschrieben and the short story Klosterberuf, in which she discusses
the political, social and cultural situation of the city around 1800. While possibly less interesting
in terms of their form, Therese Forster-Huber’s texts are part of the cultural history of Vilnius:
these stories portray the city and its buildings, the architecture and landscape, the people and
their customs and habits, and fashion. In this paper, I will investigate some of the discourses that
follow Forster-Huber on her literary promenades through the landscape of eighteenth-century
Vilnius, namely the political, socioeconomic, environmental and cultural conditions of the city.

STEVICK, Doyle (1-2) "Policy Failure or Policy Fiat? The Selective Use of Choice
Mechanisms in Estonia"
        The call of European Union and NATO memberships introduced new transnational
policy pressures upon Estonia. At times, the policies advocated by the European Union or the
United States were quite unpopular with the voting public, but at the same time were perceived
to be necessary political concessions for broader policy goals. To mediate the conflicting
pressures coming from voters, whose will a democratic government is charged with
implementing, and foreign powers, who could deny valued memberships, Estonia adopted
policies with choice mechanisms that effectively undermined the apparent intent of the policy.
This dynamic is perhaps best represented by the adoption of a Holocaust Day. While much
attention is drawn to this topic in the government’s English-language press releases and web-site
publications, a very different picture appears in Estonian-language documents distributed to
schools. Teachers were informed that they were free to implement Holocaust Day how (in
practice, if) they saw fit, but that the Holocaust should not be differentiated from any other
atrocity against mankind. By stating that teachers had a completely free hand, the government
effectively ensured, by fiat, that, virtually nothing would occur. The disparate messages about
Holocaust education were even present within a single message, which used coded language to
suggest one interpretation to foreigners and another to Estonians. In this case, policy is used not
5/22/08                                                                                            41

to change domestic practices but to imply compliance to outside observers and hence deflect
external pressure.

SKERRETT, Delaney Michael (4-5) "Language and Authoritarianism in Estonia and
Catalonia"
         The 20th century saw the imposition in Estonia and Catalonia of the respective ideologies
of the Soviet and Francoist authoritarian regimes, representing both extremes of the political
spectrum. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of
censorship and other forms of repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders attempted to replace
the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own (Russian
and Spanish), as these languages embodied the ideology and “new order” that they wished to
establish. This paper compares and contrasts the various methods of control over language
carried out in Estonia and Catalonia in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual
states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control
leading to surprisingly similar outcomes. In both polities, ultimately, local linguistic
communities were significantly deprived of opportunities for meaningful use and development of
their titular language.

SWAIN, Amanda (9-3) "Narratives of Resistance and Accommodation: The Museum of the
Occupation of Estonia, the Museum of the Occupation of Latvia and the Museum of
Genocide Victims in Lithuania"
        Since regaining their independence with the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania have each established museums that present and interpret the Soviet period
of their history. This paper is a comparative analysis of these three museums: The Museum of
Genocide Victims in Vilnius, Lithuania; the Museum of the Occupations of Latvia in Riga; and
the Museum of the Occupation of Estonia in Tallinn. The paper look at what national narratives
are articulated in the museums’ exhibitions; the role of the exhibits themselves in communicating
these national narratives; what has been the public response to these museums; and how these
museums are contributing to broader conversations about interpreting the Soviet period. These
museums will serve as case studies of the ways in which museums and the societies that they
represent integrate a traumatic past into their historical narrative. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
are particularly interesting because they are constructing and articulating national identities in the
context of a post-Soviet society and rapid entry into a globalized world through the European
Union.

ŠČERBINSKIS, Valters (4-4) "Creation of the Welfare Image: The Scandinavian
Community in the Latvian Mass Media of the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries"
        Scandinavian countries already since 19th century through the 20th century had special
image in Latvia. Being close neighbours and in the same time being considerably different,
societies of these countries for many Latvians created something which might be described as a
model for future. Comparison of Scandinavian political, economical and cultural issues with
local one to considerable extent helped to define their own, Latvian approach.
Paper will deal with how Latvian most popular printed mass media contributed to the creation of
the Scandinavian image, especially regarding political culture, how Latvian Scandinavian
political system, social politics and mentality were interrelated, what kind of importance it had
for Latvian mass media, thus emphasizing priorities of Latvian society.
5/22/08                                                                                           42



TAMOŠIŪNAITE, Aurelia (2-1) "Lithuanian in the U.S.: Shift or Maintenance? Study of
Two Chicago Area Lithuanian Saturday Schools"
        According to the United States Census data (2000), there were almost 660,000 people of
Lithuanian descent living in the United States. In addition, of the 660,000 Lithuanian-descent
Americans, the 2000 Census shows that only 38,295 people speak Lithuanian. This indicates that
only 5.8 % of people declaring their Lithuanian ancestry (or 0.014 % of total U.S. speakers)
actually speak Lithuanian. As for 2000 Census almost 90% of Lithuanian speakers in U.S.
declared that they speak English "very well" or "well," and only 10 % – "not well" or "not at all."
Thus data significantly points to the language shift from Lithuanian to English among Lithuanian
speakers in the U.S. Since there are only few studies conducted on Lithuanian language in the
U.S. (Macevičiūtė 2000; Norvilas 1990) or studies that investigate generational language shift
among Lithuanian speakers, there is no reliable evidence to confirm the shift of language or
generational loss. Therefore, in this paper I will try to present the signs of shift and maintenance
among Lithuanian speakers based on the study conducted in two Chicago area Lithuanian
Saturday schools (in Gage Park and Lemont), using self-report questionnaires. The study data
indicates that the longer respondents live in the U.S., the smaller is percentage of the usage of
Lithuanian. Since the diminishing percent of the usage of Lithuanian with siblings and friends
indicates the shift toward English, the future of the Lithuanian in the U.S. depends on continuing
immigration from Lithuania.

TERAS, Pire and Tuuli TUISK (5-4) "Role of Duration Ratios and Fundamental
Frequency in Spontaneous Livonian"
         The current paper presents some results of our study of Livonian prosody. Livonian is the
southernmost Finnic language; it is spoken in Latvia. Being a highly endangered language, it is
the mother tongue of fewer than 20 people. As the result of a revitalization movement, more
ethnic Livonians speak it now as second language.
         Some earlier acoustic-phonetic studies of Livonian have been reported (see Vihman 1971
– 1 speaker; Pajupuu, Viitso 1986 – 1 speaker). Most researchers have accepted a short-long
vowel duration opposition. Livonian orthography marks long vowels by placing a macron above
the vowel letter. Vowels marked with a macron can also be found in non-initial syllables (e.g.
kadūb ‘disappears’), but no minimal pairs could be found that would have differed only by the
long or short duration of a non-initial vowel. Thus Livonian resembles Estonian in not having a
phonological distinction between long and short vowels in non-initial syllables, differing from
the neighboring languages Latvian and Finnish. Like Latvian, Livonian uses stød (or
laryngealization) as one of its prosodic features. Stød can appear only in stressed long voiced
syllable nuclei. Studies of Livonian prosody have pointed out differences in fundamental
frequency contours in words pronounced with or without stød. The role of duration has received
less attention.
         The current paper deals with duration ratios and F0 contours in Livonian. Spontaneous
speech of 3 female and 3 male speakers is analysed. An acoustic-phonetic analysis is carried
through of the recordings. The results will be compared to duration ratios and F0 contours in
read speech (8 speakers, Lehiste et al. 2007). The questions for which answers are sought
concern the role of quantity and fundamental frequency in spontaneous Livonian prosody: (a)
which are the duration ratios in words with long first syllable, (b) is there any difference in pitch
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contours associated with differences in syllabic ratios, and (c) do pitch contours of words
pronounced with and without stød differ with respect to the position of the F0 peak.

TUCHTENHAGEN, Ralph (1-4) See panel abstract

VĪTOLS, Maruta (2-3) "Constructing Conflict: Ethnic Strife and the Media in Antra
Cilinska's Us and Them"
        Since the regaining of independence in 1991, ethnic tension in Latvia continues to
escalate. The local Latvian and Russian populations struggle to negotiate such issues as the
citizenship requirements, the interpretation of historical events (specifically those that transpired
during World War II), and the teaching of Russian in public schools. Filmmaker Antra Cilinska
explores these topics in her recent documentary Us and Them (2006), capturing on celluloid the
often violent clashes that result from these unresolved ethnic conflicts. Through interviews with
various inhabitants of Latvia, including a Russian taxi driver, a Latvian language teacher, and a
young Russian actress, Cilinska shows how the fundamentally different understandings of
history inform politics in Latvia today.
        Yet, the way Cilinska structures Us and Them around these interviews reveals as much
about the contemporary diversity problems in Latvia as the insights offered by the interviewees.
An examination of how Cilinska presents audiences with information in Us and Them reveals a
self-reflexive awareness of the way the media influences these ethnic conflicts, paying particular
attention to the way young children and adolescents are exploited for ideological purposes.
Drawing on the work of documentary theorist Bill Nichols, I will demonstrate how Cilinska
proposes possible answers to these questions in Us and Them, using a reflexive mode of
representation to investigate the role of the media in the tense political situation in Latvia and
probing how Latvians and Russians deploy television, journalism, and film to shape the way they
present themselves and their arguments within these debates.

YOUNG, Steven (4-1) "The Marking of Tone on Mixed Diphthongs in Old Prussian: a
Lithuanian parallel"
        It is widely accepted that the use of a macron-like mark over a vowel character by the
German-speaking clergyman Abel Will in his Old Prussian translation of the Enchiridion reflects
both vowel length and place of stress. On diphthongs, a corresponding tonal contour may be also
discerned: a macron over the first element of a diphthong reflects a falling tone (representing
Baltic circumflex: OPr. ēit = Lith. eĩti [standard eĩna] 'go, 3sg.'), while a macron over the second
element shows a rising tone (representing Baltic acute: OPr. pogaūt = Lith. (pa)gáuti 'to catch').
        On so-called mixed diphthongs (vowel + sonorant combinations), however, a macron
never appears on the sonorant element. In some cases, there is no macron at all on such
diphthongs, while in others the macron appears on the vowel. Among the latter are etymological
circumflex stems, as expected: OPr. rānkan = Lith. rañką 'hand, acc. sg.'. But, contrary to
expectation, a number of these cases also correspond to Lithuanian acutes: OPr. wertīngs = Lith.
vertìngas 'worthy, nom. sg. masc.'. Derksen 1998 takes these at face value and treats them as
cases of metatony (rising > falling) in Old Prussian, while Schmalstieg 2001 assumes that the
macron here simply indicates place of stress, and not tone.
        An instructive parallel to Abel Will's attempt at recording Old Prussian tones can be
found in the first non-native linguistic description of Lithuanian, August Schleicher's classic
Handbuch der litauischen Sprache, in which the distinctive tones of the Lithuanian of former
5/22/08                                                                                              44

East Prussia are presented through the filter of a German ear. While Schleicher, like Will, has no
difficulty distinguishing Lithuanian tonal contours on true diphthongs (daúg [i.e. daũg 'much',
circumflex] : gáus ['get, 3fut.', acute]), some confusion arises in discerning and representing tone
on mixed diphthongs, where, as in Will's Catechism, a diacritic never appears on the sonorant
element: pìlnas ('full', acute) and vìlkas (i.e. vil̃kas 'wolf', circumflex) are both represented in the
same way. The parallelisms between Schleicher's and Will's representation of tone on
diphthongs in neighboring Baltic languages will be explored in this paper, which supports a
conclusion in line with Schmalstieg's argument that the macron on a mixed diphthong in Will's
Catechism refers to stress alone.
        References:
        Derksen, Rick. 1998. "The Distribution of the Old Prussian tones." Colloquium
Pruthenicum Secundum, Kraków: Universitas, 45-51.
        Schleicher, August. 1856-57. Handbuch der litauischen Sprache. Prague: H. G. Calve.
        Schmalstieg, William. 2001. "The accentuation of mixed diphthongs in Old Prussian."
Linguistica Baltica 9, 143-46.


ZAJEDOVA, Iivi (7-1) "The Importance of Folk Culture for Estonian Refugees"
        This presentation centers on the practice of Estonian folk culture by Estonian refugees
(from WWII until today), in order to investigate the role played in particular by the folk dance
groups in preserving and strengthening their national identity and in the building of social
capital. Thus the origins and development of refugee folk dance groups are researched in
connection with how Estonian national identity has been fostered abroad, and how it has been,
and is being, presented to the wider world. To these ends, this paper analyzes interviews as well
as the folk dance environment, repertoire, popularity, music, performances, national costumes,
relationship between folk dance group members and their social backgrounds. Interviews were
conducted in Germany (November 2006), Canada, US, Great Britain, and Sweden (2007).

ZAĶE, Ieva (3-5) "The Lustration that Failed? The Latvian Case"
The paper focuses on the question of how and why the lustration process, that is, the
establishment of systematic legal instruments for the purification of the new state institutions
from the persons of the previous regime, particularly, its security system, had been a failure in
Latvia so far. While most other post-Communist countries have adopted and implemented some
sort of lustration, Latvia’s legislator and the society at large are still debating the fate of the so-
called “bags of the Cheka,” that is, the files of the Latvian SSR’s KGB offices. First, the paper
explores factors that had contributed to this failure of lustration by making comparisons to such
well-documented cases of post-Communist lustration as Czech Republic, Poland and Germany.
Second, the paper discusses the political and social consequences of the failed lustration in
Latvia. The earlier research on lustration from the 1990s treated lustration as sign of political
revenge and uncivilized reaction to totalitarianism. In the recent years (since 2000) the research
has been pointing out the lustration’s benefits to fledgling democracies throughout Central and
Eastern Europe. In the light of these debates, this paper explores the impact that unresolved
totalitarian heritage has left on the Latvian political culture. As a point of comparison, the paper
uses materials about the similarly failing implementation of lustration in Slovakia. The paper
employs historical and comparative sociological methods to provide an interpretation of the
meanings that lustration as a political and social process has in contemporary Latvian society.
5/22/08                                                                                         45



ZAĶE, Ieva (7-1) "Multiple Fronts of the Cold War: Anti-Communism of the Latvian
Emigres in the United States"
        This study deals with a topic that has not received enough scholarly attention – the nature
and contribution of émigré anti-Communism in the US during the Cold War era. This particular
research uncovers the multiple political challenges faced by the Latvian émigré anti-Communists
in the US. To start, the paper analyzes the three major elements in the Latvian émigré anti-
Communist doctrine: 1) anti-Communism as a struggle for national liberation, 2) anti-
Communism as a mission to tell the world the truth about Communism, 3) anti-Communism as
an argument about the ultimate similarity between Communism and Nazism. Guided by these
beliefs, Latvian émigré community chose a variety of strategies of political activism each of
which produced unique conflicts and dilemmas among the émigrés themselves and in relation to
the American context. First, they actively tried to integrate into and influence the American
mainstream politics. This venue was partially successful but at the same time pulled them into
American party politics where they were used as a propaganda instrument. Second, they
organized and participated in numerous anti-Communist organizations. Although these were
active and dedicated organizations, their successes were minimal and their activities were largely
ignored, ridiculed or seen as suspicious by the American side. Consequently, not only did the
Latvian exiles fail to convince the American public about the correctness of their anti-
Communist position, but also the anti-Communist struggle generated internal fragmentation of
the exile community. Overall, the paper makes an argument that American history of anti-
Communism is hardly complete without a careful and balanced research about the ethnic anti-
Communist activism as well.

ZELENKAUSKAITE, Asta (2-2) "Media Convergence: Old Medium, New Applications—
Lithuanian iTV SMS"
       In recent decades media has gone through a platform convergence process. This study
treats a media convergence phenomenon which is popular throughout all the Europe: namely a
convergence traditional TV and SMS.
       Initially, iTV was implemented with the idea to be promoted among young audiences as
the SMS business model targeted youngsters. iTV is was used for the youngsters for such
entertainment programming as music programs in various countries in Europe. Previous research
reconfirmed that iTV SMS phenomenon predominantly targeted youngsters. Therefore, since the
implementation of iTV in 2001, it seems that iTV SMS was meant to be targeting exclusively
teenagers’ audience. In contrast to that, Lithuanian iTV launched a program which is targeting an
audience in their forties. The program consists of a text board of personal ads. Ads are placed via
SMS message sent to a special mediating number. Each SMS is assigned a number and thus
appears on the screen.
       This study examines the genre of the ads and the implications related to technological
constraints of the medium. The study examines how the topic of the programming was extended
to target a specific audience. Specifically, the study explored what kind of design choices have
been made in personal ads types of programming.
         Primary results show that SMS for personal ads were popular despite the technical
constraints of the medium. Moreover, personal ads data provides the evidence of the other age
groups other than teenagers using SMS. In conclusion, new applications for the old medium
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encouraged an active participation because of its multimodal accessibility (via TV and via web
archives) and also it provided anonymity for heterosexual and homosexual personal ads.

               WORKSHOP ON ETHNICITY AND MIGRATION SESSIONS
In exploring the theme of "Baltic Crossroads," the conference will include three special
workshop sessions that explore questions of immigration and integration in the Baltic Sea
Region.
6-4 Ethnicity and Migration Workshop Session I: Ethnic Interactions and Integration: Past
çand Present

Integration Policy in Latvia: Promoting Intercultural Competence and Cooperation?
Nils Muižnieks, Advanced Social and Political Research Institute, University of Latvia

From Integrating Non-Estonians to Integrating Estonia: Ten Years of
Integration Policies
Pille Petersoo, Institute of International and Social Studies, Tallinn University

8-4 Ethnicity and Migration Workshop Session 2: Migration and Globalization in the
Baltic: The Lithuanian Case
 Migration and the Problems of Transnational Families in the Baltic Lithuania
Audra Sipaviciene, International Organization of Migration (IOM), Vilnius
Film: … Alone at Home
This documentary was created under the auspice of IOM by the film agency “KOPA”, in 2007.
35 min. Director Saulius Berzinis. Lithuanian with English sub-titles. Film supported by the
Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

9-4 Ethnicity and Migration Workshop Conclusion: Comparison of the Roles of Language,
Ethnicity, Citizenship, and Migration in the Baltic.
Moderator: Bradley Woodworth, University of New Haven/Yale University

Roundtable Participants: Audra Sipavičiene, Pille Petersoo, and Nils Muižnieks

                                      PANEL ABSTRACTS

(1-4) "Is There a Baltic (States) Region? Historical Examples of Transnational Structures"
        The panel aims at going beyond national and sub-national perspectives on the history of
the present Baltic states. In turn, transnational and transcultural aspects shall be stressed on the
basis of long-term historical structures and developments. More specifically, the following
problems and questions shall be dealt with: Can there be a common historical heritage of
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania? If so, which events, social groups, individuals, which physical
and climatic structures, forms of economic co-operation (trade agreements etc.), foreign policy
and alliances (Baltic Entente, non-aggression pacts etc.), and movements (pan-fennism, -baltism,
-germanism, -slavism etc.) have contributed to this common heritage and do they form
transnational and transcultural traditions and points of reference? While analysing these issues at
least two perspectives have to be differentiated: a present-day perspective (re)constructing the
issues mentioned and linking them to a (retrospective) unity/conformity; a perspective of the
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then contemporaries which might differ from the latter by experiencing allegedly connected
issues as uncombined.
Participants:
Andreas LAWATY, Jörg HACKMANN, Ulrike PLATH, Konrad MAIER, Ralph
TUCHTENHAGEN

(5-6) Spotlight on Baltic Studies: Study, Research, Publication, and the Profession
The participants of this roundtable include students and scholars as various stages of their
profession who will share their experiences in pursuing a career in Baltic Studies. The aim of this
session is to have an open conversation about the state of Baltic Studies as a field.
Participants: Piibi-Kai KIVIK, Laura DEAN, Vejas LIULEVICIUS, Guntis SMIDCHENS,
David J. SMITH

(6-3) Workshop on the Writing of a History of BATUN (Baltic Appeal to the United
Nations)
       From 1966 to 1991 BATUN (Baltic Appeal to the United Nations, a department of United
Baltic Appeal, Inc.) lobbied representatives of UN Member States, the Secretariat, and others
against the occupation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union. The panel will cover the
following topics: the context of BATUN history; the methodology in writing this history; the
perspectives of major actors; administration and funding; public diplomacy (demonstrations,
letter-writing campaigns); lobbying of the UN member states and secretariat.
Participants: Olavi ARENS, Heino AINSO, Uldis BLUĶIS, Marģers PINNIS.

(8-1) The Rise of the Corporative State in Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea Region during
the Interwar Crisis
        The economic crisis during the 1930´s consolidated the role of the corporative state
model in most countries in the Baltic Sea Region. However, the corporative state came into
being in very different settings. The proposed presentations intend to examine and compare three
models and three different paths to the corporative state through the cases of Poland, Estonia and
Sweden. While the corporative model in Sweden was implemented by a democratic state, the
corporative state in Poland and Estonia was to a different extent the result of the rise of
authoritarian regimes emphasizing economic nationalism and an agrarian ideology stressing the
role of agriculture in society.
        The corporative state is defined as a model of society where organisations play a direct
role in the management of domestic affairs, through an institutionalised network of negotiation
within the state. In this organisations also manage tasks normally belonging to the state. This
model was in most cases the response to an immediate need for weak state structures to meet
demands for rapid modernisation. Through giving organisations and economic interest groups
the possibility to set the political agenda in exchange for access to their economic and
organisational resources. The state intended to unite the assets of society in order to modernise it
at a speed that otherwise would not have been possible. This ideology of negotiation caused
thorough changes in the regulations and practises of the democratic system –especially in
relation to the role of the civil society- and for the economy where market regulations often were
set aside. The corporative model has also been understood as a method for managing class
conflict and maintaining social order within the established political framework. Although the
foundation of the corporative state model in the investigated cases was laid already during the
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first years after World War I, it did not became fully institutionalised until the interwar crises in
the 1930´s.
        The focus in the presentations will be on the role and growth of the corporative state in
the agrarian sector, as it still was one of the largest economic sectors and one of the largest
employers in the interwar Baltic societies. Studying the corporative organisation as another
vision of society it is of central interest to study its understanding of the ‘citizens’ position in
relation to the state, organisation and other citizens.
Participants: Johan EELLEND, Fredrik ERIKSSON, Piotr WAWRZENIUK

				
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