University Libraries
                Marketing Steering Team
                    UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

                             Gary White, Chair
                               Ellysa Cahoy
                              Barbara Coopey
                              Catherine Grigor
                             Glenn McGuigan
                              Doris Malkmus
                             Rebecca Mugridge
                                Bonnie Osif
                                John Riddle
                              Loanne Snavely

The team thanks Sandy Ball and Lana Munip for their assistance on this project.
                    TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary                                  1
Introduction                                       2
        University Libraries Mission               2
        University Libraries Vision                2
        Environmental Scan                         3
Strategic Plan Goals 2005-2008                     3
Marketing Steering Team Committee Charge           4
State of Academic Libraries                        5
Penn State University Libraries:
User Data and Perceptions                          9
        LIBQUAL+ Survey                            9
        MBA Marketing Student Projects            10
        Marketing Steering Team’s Focus Groups    15
        Pulse Survey                              21
        Open House Surveys                        22
        Summary                                   23
Marketing Communications and Outreach Strategy    24
Marketing Communications Plan                     25
Strategies 1-11 (and the following as relevant)
               Services/Collections Promoted
               Promotion Vehicles
               Public Relations
Summary of Marketing Communications Plan          30
Marketing Toolkit                                 31
Priority Recommendations                          32
Future Marketing Recommendations                  34
Appendix A                                        35
        Marketing Suggestions Submitted
        by Libraries’ Employees
Appendix B                                        38
Collegian Advertisements
                                      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The University Libraries’ Marketing Communications and Outreach Plan (2007-2008) was developed
by the Marketing Steering Team during Fall 2005 and Spring 2006. In developing this plan, the Market-
ing Steering Team analyzed user data and perceptions from published national reports and from studies
that gathered data from Penn State students. Some of the key findings of these studies are that students
underutilize the Libraries; Internet search engines are the first choice for conducting research; students
are unaware of many library services and collections; students are intimidated by the Libraries and find
the physical facilities difficult to navigate and use; students find the Libraries’ facilities to be unwelcom-
ing and uncomfortable; and the Libraries’ Web site is difficult to use.
        The Marketing Steering Team recommends that the University Libraries’ first formal marketing
effort address these findings by targeting Penn State’s undergraduate students. Undergraduate students
are our largest user segment; they are less aware and do not understand the value of our resources and
services; and they are more likely to use competitors for information needs and places to study. In order
to reach the undergraduate population, the Marketing Steering Team submits as part of this overall plan:

   1. A “Marketing Communication Plan” designed to raise awareness of the Libraries’ services
      and collections. This plan contains recommended promotional items and other resources
      that emphasize customer service, promote ease and efficiency in using resources and
      finding information, and emphasize student-centeredness and information literacy. This
      plan also contains recommended assessments for each component.

   2. A Web-based “Marketing Toolkit” to provide librarians and library staff with background
      information and examples of effective marketing of specific collections and services.

   3. A list of priority recommendations for Library administrators addressing such items as
      facilities, policy decisions, new products and services, Web design, and suggestions for
      improving marketing activities throughout the University Libraries. Appendix A of the
      plan contains a complete list of suggestions that the team has received from employees
      throughout the Libraries during the past year.

        Finally, the Marketing Steering Team recommends that it continue in its present form for
another year in order to implement the plan and to initiate work on marketing plans for graduate
students, faculty, and alumni. In following years, the team should continue to coordinate market-
ing activities and to make recommendations to the Libraries administration regarding marketing,
but new members will be brought onto the team each year to continue this work. It will also be
important to assess all our activities as we strive to improve marketing efforts within the
University Libraries.

                                                                       Connecting students
                                                                       to a world of information.


During the 2005-2008 strategic planning process, the Libraries’ faculty and staff consistently noted the
need to promote and market the Libraries’ services, collections, and staff more effectively. This is criti-
cal if we are to achieve the strategic planning goals that we have established. We must create messages
that resonate with our many types of users: first year students, undergraduate students, graduate stu-
dents, faculty, honors students, alumni, and others. Nationwide, there are growing concerns that academ-
ic libraries will become marginalized unless they find more effective means of engaging their users.


        The University Libraries are a leader in advancing intellectual discovery, information literacy,
and lifelong learning. The Libraries connect students and scholars to the world of information and ideas.
As an active participant in the worldwide community of scholars, the Libraries foster the teaching,
research, service, and outreach goals of Penn State. They select, create, organize, and facilitate access to
resources that are relevant to the University’s programs and pursuits.


       The Libraries will be a national leader in the integration of intellectual content, services, and
technology within the larger world of ideas and knowledge.


        Major environmental forces are influencing the services and resources of the University
Libraries. Influences of most importance as we face the future include:

    • Shrinking public support for higher education.
    • Impact of technological change on the creation, storage, and access to information.
    • Information/publication as a commodity rather than a public good to disseminate knowledge.
    • Open access movement as a means to foster information as a public good.
    • Massive retirements in the library profession and competition for qualified faculty and staff.
    • Cultural shifts among students, faculty, and employees in an increasingly pluralistic society.
    • Changing demographics of our users.
    • Stagnant budgets and reductions in allocations.
    • Changing role of the library in a technological environment and need to update our image.
    • Increasing emphasis on lifelong learning as people live and work longer.


       GOAL ONE:
         We will enhance the user’s experience with the Libraries by becoming a more
         user-centered and responsive organization.

       GOAL TWO:
         We will advance information literacy and lifelong learning.

       GOAL THREE:
         We will enrich and advance Penn State’s contributions to the worldwide community
         of scholars.

       GOAL FOUR:
         We will collaborate to create and manage a technological infrastructure that is responsive
         to the changing needs of the Libraries’ users and of its employees.

       GOAL FIVE:
         We will foster diversity.


       The Penn State University Libraries Marketing Steering Team is charged with developing a com-
prehensive marketing plan that enhances the visibility of the Libraries and promotes its contributions to
research, teaching and learning, and service at Penn State.

       The marketing plan is designed to support the University Libraries Strategic Plan, 2005-2008.
The Libraries Strategic Plan is available at:


                             STATE OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

        Academic libraries have historically been a cornerstone of post-secondary educational institu-
tions in the United States, supporting research, learning, and scholarship. Libraries on college campuses
serve a wide range of purposes including: providing faculty and students with information resources for
research; serving as a repository for research for advanced academic research; providing resources and
information to aid in the teaching and service missions of colleges and universities; encouraging intel-
lectual inquiry and discovery; providing areas for research and study; and serving broad educational
needs of various user communities.
        In recent years, however, academic libraries have changed significantly. Technological advances,
changes in how people communicate and interact, and evolving pedagogical techniques, including the
use of course management software and distance education, are altering the ways that academic librar-
ies operate. Libraries are experiencing increasing competitiveness from the Internet and other informa-
tion resources. Our customers are also changing, and academic libraries are facing heightened demands
and expectations for resources and services. At the same time, academic libraries are finding that user
perceptions of the academic library do not closely match perceptions of those who work in the library
        During the past few years, several national studies have gathered data on library users and the
perceptions of libraries. Perhaps the most significant to date are two OCLC reports based on national
survey data: The 2003 OCLC Environmental Scan: Patter Recognition (OCLC Online Computer
Library Center, Inc., 2003) and Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the
OCLC Membership (OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2005).

      The 2003 OCLC Environmental Scan reports issues and trends impacting today’s libraries.
Some of the key findings and discussion from this study:

   •   Today’s information consumer is self-sufficient. People have become efficient users of the
       Internet and are comfortable with Web-based information and content. Therefore, people
       today are exhibiting self-service information seeking behaviors as an alternative to
       traditional library reference services.

   •   Information consumers are satisfied with the results of their online activities. While
       librarians worry about the quality and authority of information resources on the Internet,
       the lack of information literacy skills, and the fact that users are not finding valuable
       information through library databases, the great majority of information seekers report that
       they find most of what they need on the Internet. Users are satisfied with the ease and
       speed of using the Internet.

    •       The economic landscape for libraries is not good. Funding for libraries as a whole is
            stagnant or has diminished. At the same time, costs for print and electronic resources are
            rising. Libraries are facing increased budgetary scrutiny. The perception that the Web
            provides enough quality information resources for research and the fact that libraries tend
            not to document their “economic good” are both contributing to changing perceptions of
            the library from both users and those who make budget allocation decisions.

    •       The ways that faculty and students access, create, and use information resources are
            changing and are creating new challenges for libraries. Some of the trends include a
            proliferation of e-learning and an increased use of course management software packages.
            The methods that faculty and students use to conduct research are also changing. Libraries
            and librarians must devise methods for integrating resources and providing services in
            these new learning environments, and to form new collaborative relationships with others
            in the academic community.

        After this report was published, OCLC embarked on a second project to gain a better understand-
ing of these trends as they relate to the information consumer and to libraries. Perceptions of Libraries
and Information Resources is the result of a survey of over 3,300 library users, including nearly 400 col-
lege students. Some of the findings from the survey of college students include:

    •       48% use their college/university library daily or weekly

    •       In the use of various electronic resources, students report that they have used the following at
            least once in the past year:

                            Email                       83%
                            Search engine               82%
                            Instant Messaging           69%
                            Online News                 64%
                            Online Bookstore            62%
                            Library Website             61%
                            Online Database             34%
                            Reference Service Online    8%

        •    When asked where they begin their search for information electronically, students responded:

                            Web Search Engine           89%
                            Library Web Site            2%
                            Online Database             2%
                            Other categories            1% or less

    •   The percentage of respondents that use the library at least monthly, by activity:

                           Use library Web site            56%
                           Use electronic journals         49%
                           Use online catalog              47%
                           Borrow print books              39%
                           Get assistance with research    33%
                           Get journal articles            32%
                           Use databases                   44%
                           Do homework/study               48%

    •   The percentage of respondents who are aware of the following library resources:

                           Library Web Site                87%
                           Online Catalog                  86%
                           Online Databases                62%
                           Electronic Journals             62%
                           Online Reference Service        45%

    •   When asked if they had ever sought help in using either electronic library resources or in using
        the physical library:

	       	      	       	          	         Yes:     46%
                                            No:      54%

    •   When asked about their satisfaction with the information provided by either a librarian or a
        search engine:
                                  Very Satisfied or Satisfied:
                                  Librarian:         88%
                           Search Engine:            90%

    In summary, some of the key findings:
    •   Less than 1/2 of students use the library frequently
    •   Students typically use a Web search engine to start their research
    •   Less than 2/3 of students use the Libraries’ Web site, even though most are aware of it.
    •   Only 1/3 of students seek research assistance at least monthly
    •   Less than 1/2 of students ever ask for help in using the library
    •   Less than 1/2 of students use the online catalog, borrow books, use online databases,
        use electronic journals, use print journals, or study in the library
    •   Satisfaction with librarians is equal to that of search engines

       In almost every category, students seem to underutilize the library and prefer to use Web search

       The survey also asked college students to compare their library to a local bookstore and to list
which location provides a more suitable environment for various activities and resources. The findings:

                       Activity/Resources           Library    Local Bookstore
                                               more suitable    more suitable
                       Free Internet access          94%             6%
                       Free materials                93%             7%
                       Special programs              78%            22%
                       Comfortable seating           65%            35%
                       Friendly environment          62%            38%
                       Access to music               56%            44%
                       Current materials             34%            66%
                       Where friends are             45%            55%
                       Coffee/Snack shop             14%            86%

    While many of the findings from this survey may be troubling to libraries and librarians, they also
serve to provide insight into opportunities to adapt to our changing user needs and to position ourselves
better in the academic environment. These findings clearly indicate the need for improved marketing and
outreach activities in academic libraries.

    Full copies of both reports are available at:

       The 2003 OCLC Environmental Scan: Pattern Recognition

       Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the OCLC Membership

                                     PENN STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
                                       USER DATA AND PERCEPTIONS

        Although there is significant national assessment data regarding the use and perceptions of
academic libraries, it is important for the University Libraries to gather and analyze data on its own
users and the perceptions of these users regarding the University Libraries’ resources and services.
This section will summarize findings from several studies conducted by the University Libraries:
LibQUAL+ Survey (2004); MBA Marketing Students projects (Spring 2005); Marketing Steering
Team’s focus groups (Fall 2005); Pulse Survey (November 2005) and survey data from the University
Libraries’ Annual Open House. The findings from these studies, coupled with national trends and as-
sessment data, guide the marketing recommendations discussed later.

                                                         LIBQUAL+ Survey

        Penn State University Libraries was one of 202 libraries participating in the 2004 LibQUAL+
survey project, sponsored by the Association of Research Libraries and Texas A&M University. The
Web-based survey measures user perceptions of library service quality and is designed to help libraries
collect and interpret user feedback systematically over time, and to provide libraries with comparable
assessment information from peer institutions. The survey was sent to approximately 3,400 persons at
University Park, approximately 3,200 persons at 20 other campuses, and to approximately 400 Librar-
ies faculty and staff. A total of 2,426 completed surveys were received. The LibQual+ Survey Execu-
tive Summary (November 2004) is available at:

           Findings show (these are some key highlights):

     •     Users of the Libraries are generally satisfied with services and resources. Over 80% report being
           satisfied or very satisfied with library services.

An easy to navigate, resource-rich Web site is of prime importance to students,
who prefer to use non-library gateways such as Google and Yahoo.

     •   Use of non-library gateways such as Google and Yahoo are higher than either the use of the
         physical library or the use of a library Web page. Use of the Libraries’ Web pages is higher
         than use of the facility.

     •   The most highly desired categories in terms of information and information control indicate that
         it is important for users to be able to access electronic resources from home, to have a library
         Web site that enables users to locate information on their own, to have the desired electronic
         resources, to have modern equipment to access information, and to have the print or electronic
         journal collections necessary for work.

     •   The Libraries’ Web site is confusing. Users were critical of the search mechanisms and lack of
         a common search engine for all resources available through the Libraries.

     •   Users expect high quality service from library employees. Users are generally satisfied with
         service of library employees but are more critical of student staff who are perceived to lack
         interest in providing quality customer service assistance and who lack depth of knowledge of
         both library services and knowledge of academic disciplines.

     •   Library as place is important. Users want library spaces that inspire study and learning, quiet
         spaces for individual activities, areas for group study, and comfortable and inviting places.
         Users indicate that furniture, lighting, and temperature are important in making the library a
         comfortable place to work; facilities are overcrowded; quality and reliability of photocopiers
         are an issue; and longer hours are needed, especially on weekends.

         In summary, the LibQUAL+ survey suggests addressing the following issues:

     •   Delivery of resources and services via the Web site

     •   Maintaining and expanding physical facilities

     •   Delivery of electronic and print materials

     •   Training of part-time staff

                                MBA Marketing Student Projects

        During the Spring 2005 semester, two second-year MBA marketing classes used the library as
their course projects. Because these students are marketing professionals with at least two years of cor-
porate marketing experience, these projects provided the Libraries with valuable market research data
that would have otherwise had to be commissioned. While the students focused on the Schreyer Busi-
ness Library, many of their findings were applicable to the Libraries as a whole.
        The first class, Brand Management (Marketing 532), conducted a brand audit of the perception
of the Libraries and the Libraries’ brand among our users. A key element of this class was for the stu-

dents to conduct ethnographies of library users, and the students collected data from over 1,000 users of
the Libraries. The second class, Marketing Strategy (Marketing 571), prepared a comprehensive mar-
keting plan, based in part on the findings from the Brand Management course. The Brand Management
class was held the first seven weeks of the semester and the Marketing Strategy class was held the last
seven weeks. Each class had approximately 40 students divided into 7 teams, and the class was struc-
tured as a competition. At the end of each class, the teams made formal presentations to several librar-
ians, who served as judges, and cash prizes were awarded to the top three teams in each class.
        In conducting the ethnographies of library users, the marketing students used this data to perform
SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analyses of the Libraries. Common findings
from the SWOT analyses indicate the following:


   •   Abundant Resources. The University Libraries have an impressive array of electronic and print
       resources available to users.

   •   Knowledgeable Staff. The employees of the University Libraries are knowledgeable in subject
       areas and are helpful to users.

   •   Internet Access. Users can access library materials via the Internet at any location.


   •   Uninviting Atmosphere. The University Libraries have an uninviting and negative atmosphere.
       There are problems with the furniture, floor layouts, service desk arrangements, signage, and
       lighting; collections are difficult to find and use; there are negative impressions regarding the
       food and drink policy. Students describe the environment as sterile and “cloister-like.” When
       asked “What is the Library’s slogan?” the most frequent response is “No food or drink.” Having
       a negative slogan is a primary problem to overcome.

   •   Services Not Widely Known. The University Libraries need to do a better job of promoting and
       marketing user services.

   •   Hours of Operation. Students, especially international students, would like longer hours,
       particularly on weekends.

   •   Student Perceptions. Students have outdated perceptions of libraries and librarians. They
       perceive libraries as being overly restrictive, unfriendly, cloister-like, sterile, and generally
       negative. Collections are perceived as historical (i.e. an archive) rather than containing
       current materials. The term “librarian” is perceived differently than the way that librarians
       perceive themselves, as information professionals. Users come to the library for specific
       reasons, not because they want to come. Students also report that they are intimidated by
       the size of the library, and its vast array of resources.

     •   Web site. The Web site is too complex, too text heavy and too difficult to use. Students
         report difficulty navigating the Web pages and difficulty determining where to start


     •   Physical Environment. The Libraries can create an atmosphere that is comfortable and
         inviting. Comfortable furniture, improved lighting, improved floor layout and design,
         improved signage, and improved physical access to collections will all make the library
         more comfortable and inviting to students.

     •   Food and Drink. The teams unanimously suggested having a more liberal food and drink
         policy and more places for student lounges. This will combat the negative primary image
         (“No food or drink”), will allow students to stay in the library instead of having to exit for
         refreshments, and will make the library more user-friendly.

     •   Promotional Activities. The teams suggested a number of promotional activities to
         highlight certain collections and events. The use of takeaway items with the library slogan
         or brand will improve visibility. Examples of items suggested include coffee mugs, key
         chains, and post-it notes.

     •   Special Events and Lectures. The teams suggested sponsoring special events and
         lectures, or partnering with other campus units to sponsor events. These will serve to draw
         students into the library and will generate interest in the Libraries’ collections and services.

     •   Web. An improved Web design will make the Libraries’ Web page more user-friendly and
         easier to navigate. The teams suggest incorporating a single search engine that students
         can use to search across databases and platforms. Simplifying the use of the Libraries’ Web
         pages is a key opportunity.


     •   Google and the Internet. Most students turn to Google or other Internet search engines
         rather than the library or the Libraries’ Web site as their first choice for finding
         information. Data from other national studies supports this finding.

     •   Coffee Shops and Cafes. Students report that they prefer local coffee shops and cafes to
         study and to meet friends. Coffee shops and cafes provide a more relaxed atmosphere and
         allow students to work and to obtain refreshments in one location. Students also cite the
         positive ambiance of coffee shops as opposed to the sterile environment that they perceive
         in the library.

     •   HUB. Students report that they prefer using the HUB as a gathering place between classes.
         The HUB serves as a centralized meeting place where students can interact with friends,

        study, and eat and drink. There are also a variety of other services available that students
        can use in one location.

    •   Bookstores. Students perceive bookstores as containing more current information than the
        library. Students describe using the library for “historical” or “archival” research, and
        going to bookstores to obtain new materials. Bookstores contain only brand new materials,
        while libraries contain both older and new materials. When scanning the stacks, students
        see a lot of old materials and not many newer materials.

Characteristics of Target Customers (Students)

       Undergraduate students today are different from students of the past. The MBA teams describe
students of the past as having the following characteristics:

    •   Have separate study and recreation times and activities.

    •   Are patient and focused

    •   Engage in individual study.

    •   Use only books and other print materials.

	       Current students, however, have the following characteristics:

    •   Want “edutainment” – want to work, study, and engage in recreational and entertainment
        activities simultaneously.

    •   Are impatient and busy. They multitask.

    •   Engage in group study more than individual study.

    •   Use multimedia and Internet resources more than books and other print materials.

Summary Recommendations

       The MBA students recommend that the Libraries seek ways to meet students’ demands for con-
venience, comfort, and ease of use. Students want information that is fast, easy to obtain, and reliable;
and they want an environment that is pleasant and comfortable.
       The Libraries need to reconfigure facilities and services to meet the needs of today’s students and
to address the competition from Google and the Internet, as well as other locations which are drawing
students away from the Libraries. The following are some of the key recommendations suggested by the
MBA marketing students:


        Reconfigure floor layouts to provide areas for group study, individual study, lounge and enter-

tainment areas, and places to relax/eat and drink. The MBA teams recommend that the Libraries reposi-
tion itself as a “refuge” for students—a place where students will come between classes to meet friends,
study, relax and obtain food and beverages. The library should provide more vending machines through-
out the facility.
         The Libraries should seek ways to move older collections out of the facility and to create more
group study areas, to obtain lower shelving to open spaces, and to improve lighting and aesthetics.
Students would like to see more color and art. Signage should point to services as well as locations
and should be more clearly visible throughout the facility. Improved lighting is needed throughout the
Libraries, especially in quiet study areas. The Libraries should seek ways to create an atmosphere of
“warmth and personality.”
         Hours of operation are a problem. The Libraries should find ways to remain open longer, espe-
cially on weekends. International students especially find that our hours of operation are restrictive.


        Highlight targeted collections to promote current materials. Create specialized areas for spe-
cific collections. Create areas that highlight new materials, and obtain shelving that displays current
magazines and journals so that users can see the covers. Create signage in stacks areas that points users
to specific materials by subject area. Provide current and popular reading materials and televisions in
student lounge areas.

Service Desks and Customer Service

        Reconfigure existing large service desks into smaller “consultation” areas. Existing desks are too
large and intimidating for students. Move desks from the front of subject libraries to the middle (book-
store model). Librarians and staff need to be more proactive in providing services. Employees need to
rove and to ask students if they need assistance. Students feel that the burden of asking for help is placed
on them because they have to seek help in order to obtain it. The term “librarian” does not mean much to
students; consider calling ourselves “research consultants” instead.

 MBA students suggest reconfiguring the Libraries’ space.

Web Site

        The Libraries’ Web site is text heavy and difficult to navigate. Students do not know where to
begin searching and often become confused using the multitude of library Web pages. The MBA teams
recommend a simpler, more user-friendly interface and a simple search mechanism, similar to Google, to
search for information.

Marketing Steering Team’s Focus Groups
       Karen Taylor, a dual marketing and advertising major, served as a Bednar Intern for the Market-
ing Steering Team during fall semester 2005. As part of her work, she conducted a series of focus groups
with undergraduate students to obtain perceptions about the University Libraries and suggestions for
improvements to the Libraries. A summary of her findings and specific statements from students:

Freshmen – Perceptions
     •    Only use the library if required for assignments; only 20% report going on their own
     •    More likely to use during exams to study
     •    Employees are helpful, it is more efficient to ask for help than to try to find materials on
          their own.
     •    It is easier to find information on the Internet than in the library.
     •    Call number system is confusing, finding books is difficult
     •    Like the cell phone lounges
     •    Report that library is confusing and intimidating
     •    Those who come to the library report that it makes them feel “studious.”
     •    Once they are in the library, they are not sure where to go.
     •    Maps are confusing, some rooms have strange names.
     •    Unaware of library locations, hours, services, and MacKinnon’s café
     •    Ambiance is important, want library to be warm and inviting, they like windows
          and open spaces.

Left: Comfortable armchairs in the News and Microforms Library; right: Libraries employees are helpful, say freshmen.

     •   Student lounge (Central Pattee) is scary and outdated
     •   Stacks (Central Pattee) are scary and uncomfortable
     •   Library’s Web site is very complicated, not simple like Google
     •   Are unaware of subject library Web sites
     •   Do not know where to start research or which database(s) to use

Freshmen – Suggestions
     •   Need more group study areas
     •   Printing needs to be easier, should be able to use Penn State allotment and Lion Cash
     •   Café needs to be better advertised and have longer hours.
     •   Need more directional signs and more clearly named and labeled areas
     •   Leisure reading books should be separated from academic materials and put into separate
         area on 1st floor so they are readily available.
     •   Make Web site like Google
     •   Have interesting speakers come to the library, such as popular authors, artists, comedians,
     •   Get more comfortable furniture, individual lamps, make it more comfortable and relaxed
         and less structured
     •   Renovate the student lounge in Central Pattee into a “Leisure Library” with comfortable
         furniture, big screen television, and leisure reading materials. “Make it like Starbucks.”
     •   Make desks at the entrances more welcoming
     •   The Library needs to offer more than research. Needs to have speakers, coffee, warm/
         welcoming environment, TV lounge

Sophomores – Perceptions
     •   Most use the library because they are required to, 30 percent report using because they want to
     •   The library is huge, overwhelming, confusing.
     •   The lines in the computer lab are too long.
     •   Don’t know where to go. Can find books on the CAT but can’t find them physically
         in the library
     •   Like the ASK! service
     •   Stacks are scary and there are no directions. Lights/lights on timer are bad.
     •   Use the library to study as much or more than they do to conduct research
     •   Hours are not long enough.
     •   Students need to sneak food and drink into the library.
     •   Students unaware of student lounge and café
     •   Good place to meet for group study, but not enough group study rooms

   •   Web site is confusing, often end up going in circles.
   •   Like that students can return books anywhere across campus
   •   Databases are too vast, and students don’t know where to start.
   •   Too many clicks on the Web page send students to Google.
   •   Some report that they avoid the library at all costs.

Sophomores – Suggestions
   •   Increase size of computer lab
   •   Improve printing in library
   •   Create exit door in Reserve Room so students can exit to bus stop
   •   Have library open 24 hours
   •   Create book pickup and drop off area in the HUB
   •   Create better atmosphere, make the library like Starbucks
   •   Expand the café
   •   Have better directions and signage
   •   Create an interactive map for finding books in the stacks
   •   Get more comfortable chairs/furniture
   •   Create more lounge areas with more comfortable furniture
   •   Entrances should have exhibits showing Penn State pride, not just historical pictures

Upperclassmen (Juniors, Seniors, 5th+ Year) – Perceptions
   •   Use the library more frequently as a study area
   •   Using and learning about the library should be mandatory and should learn about it while
   •   Librarians and other employees are helpful and nice.
   •   Maps and room numbers are confusing.
   •   Navigating the library is difficult.
   •   Call number system is difficult to use to find books on the shelves.
   •   Like Pollock library and free coffee
   •   Student lounge is unattractive, don’t like to use.
   •   Materials in the library are outdated, need more current materials.
   •   Have to sneak in food and drinks to have while working
   •   Computer lab is too crowded.
   •   Printing is difficult and frustrating.
   •   Unaware of café
   •   Chairs are uncomfortable.
   •   Lighting is bad, especially in Pattee.

Students flock to MacKinnons, the Libraries’ cafe.               Circulating laptops—a popular service offered by the Libraries.

Upperclassmen (Juniors, Seniors, 5th+ Year) – Suggestions
     •    Make learning about the library mandatory early – freshmen year
     •    Run advertisements in the Collegian
     •    Have “Events” and “What’s New” sections on the Web site
     •    Get more comfortable and updated furniture
     •    Expand computer lab
     •    Expand Café
     •    Have outside speakers like Distinguished Speaker series
     •    Create TV lounge area with comfortable chairs
     •    Allow food and drink in the library
     •    Renovate student lounge
     •    Create more and nicer student lounges so students can take breaks
     •    Have better signage and maps
     •    Have maps that show the location of books by call number
     •    Make the library look and feel more like a bookstore

     Bednar Intern’s Summary Recommendations

                 The Libraries should target marketing activities toward undergraduate students. These
     students are the largest segment of the Penn State community and are the primary audience that
     the Libraries should attempt to reach and to educate about library resources and services.
                 The primary goal for underclassmen should be to raise awareness and to educate them
     about Libraries’ resources and services.
                 The primary goal for upperclassmen is to position the Libraries as more than a
     research facility, and to provide additional services to students to meet their needs and interests.

Promotional strategies to target underclassmen:

   •   Be a significant part of freshmen orientation
           • Give general introduction to the library
           • Learn about the Libraries’ organization
           • Introduction to Libraries’ Web site
   •   Integrate library into all freshmen seminars
           • Teach broad and introductory research techniques
           • Introduce one relevant resource or topic per week
   •   Partner with teaching faculty
           • Develop relationships with all academic colleges to direct students to use the Libraries
           • Work toward having all faculty require library use
           • Encourage faculty to use the Libraries’ reserves

Promotional strategies to target upperclassmen:

   •   Renovate student lounge
           • Create “Leisure Library” with popular reading material
           • Have comfortable chairs and table lighting
           • Have televisions
           • Have café and coffee
   •   Expand MacKinnon’s Café and advertise
           • Too small and crowded
           • Hours limited and irregular
           • Students are unaware of its existence
   •   Speakers
           • Bring in outside speakers much like Distinguished Speaker series
           • Will be free, interesting and relevant to students
           • Will serve to draw students into the Libraries
   •   ITS Printing
           • Make available from all computers
           • Make easy for students to “Grab and Go” between classes

Web Site Recommendations:

   •   Create interactive maps that show book locations. Library should mimic course scheduling
       Web site that allows students to see a map of the building where the class is being taught
   •   Create clearer homepage that lists subject libraries and most popular databases

     The Business Library lounge—a popular spot for study and group work.

     •    Minimize clicks to get to resources
     •    Brand all Web resources. All databases and pages should be labeled as “Penn State
          University Libraries.” Once students enter Proquest or other databases they do not realize
          they are still using library resources.

Advertising and Promotional Recommendations

     •    Have better signage and directions in the library. Call numbers and room numbers are too
          difficult to find.
     •    Create word of mouth advertising through student testimonials and by making dramatic
          changes to the physical library (renovate student lounge into “Leisure Library” or renovate
          the stacks)
     •    Have “Give-Aways” with library logo, information, and Web site. Students like pens,
          post-it notes, and flip calculators

 Left: Natural light floods the café at Penn State Harrisburg Library; and right: Recently-installed plasma screens in Pattee and Paterno keep
 patrons up-to-date on events and classes.

                                            Pulse Survey

“How Do You Know: Finding Information” is the title of the Penn State Pulse Survey conducted by a
collaboration of the University Libraries; ITS: Teaching and Learning with Technology; and Student
Affairs Research and Assessment (SARA). The survey focuses on Penn State students’ knowledge and
use of the University Libraries, and how they obtain academic information. Included in the survey are
questions concerning students’ abilities related to finding information, the Libraries’ resources they
have used, and where they get instruction and assistance when searching for information. In total, 2,003
undergraduate students from across 20 Penn State campuses responded to the survey. Results were pub-
lished in November 2005, and the full report is available at:
       Some findings that are important for marketing purposes:
   •   Students generally report that they are competent in finding reliable information (88%);
       most (73.1%) report familiarity with library guides/databases and the ability to find library
       resources (81.9%).
   •   Students report using the Web to find academic or course-related materials most frequently
   •   Most students (76.7%) use print library resources at least once per semester
   •   Some students (12.1%) never use online library resources to find academic or course-
       related information.
   •   Some students (23.3%) never use print library resources.
   •   Many students (44.6%) never use print course reserves.
   •   Most (61.7%) never use library resources in other formats, including microforms, videos,
       DVDs, music, etc.
   •   While 19.1% of students use The CAT often, 21.3% never use it.
   •   About 40% never use full-text journals; 45% never use library materials via ANGEL; 51%
       never use reserves through The CAT; and 87% have never used the ASK! service or email
       reference services.
   •   In seeking assistance, most students turn to friends, fellow students, or instructors rather
       than librarians or library staff members. About 44% have never asked for assistance from a
       librarian or library staff member and only 5% often ask for assistance.
   •   About 69% report having had at least one librarian serve as a guest lecturer in class. About
       57% have had a librarian serve as a guest lecturer in an introductory course (first-year
       seminar; English 15, or CAS 100).
   •   About 45% had attended the Libraries Open House. About 76% report the event at least
       moderately helped them to become acquainted with the library.
      In general, these statistics agree with national data from the OCLC reports discussed earlier.
      While a sizeable portion of the student population does use the library, there are still significant
numbers who never use the library, never seek assistance from librarians or library staff members, or
who never use email or other online reference services.

                                                      Open House Surveys

The Libraries’ Open House is the most visible and successful outreach program currently offered.
At the fall 2006 Open House, 5,000 students participated in the two-day event. During each Open
House, participants are asked to complete a survey about the Open House and about the Libraries in
general. Below are summary statements from two Open House surveys.

     Spring 2005

     •    1,616 students completed the survey
     •    92% agreed that the Open House helped them learn about the basic services, collections,
          and facilities of the University Libraries
     •    90% agreed that as a result of the Open House, they feel more comfortable asking some
          one for help in the library
     •    89% agreed that as a result of the Open House, they feel more confident using the library
          for research and other coursework
     •    94% would recommend the Open House as a useful activity for other students to attend

     Fall 2005

     •    2,919 students completed the survey
     •    88% agreed that the Open House helped them learn about the basic services, collections,
          and facilities of the University Libraries
     •    94% would recommend the Open House as a useful activity for other students to attend

The annual Open House introduces thousands of new students to the Libraries’ services in a fun, informal way.

   •    When asked “What would bring you into the Libraries more often?” students responded:
                Comfortable areas to relax (66%)
                Increased library hours (47%)
                Others: Food, location close to dorms, more computer labs, free printing
        The Open House is an example of a very successful marketing and outreach program that
simultaneously educates students about the Libraries’ locations, collections, and services; helps students
to navigate library facilities; and shows that librarians and library staff are friendly and helpful. Sugges-
tions from the Fall 2005 survey support information gathered by other studies in the Libraries.


    The University Libraries has gathered a wide body of valuable information about our users; their
perceptions of the University Libraries; library-usage patterns; and suggestions for both improvements
to existing services, facilities, and collections as well as new initiatives to better serve our students and
to create a more welcoming, student-centered environment. Some common themes that have emerged
from these studies that impact our marketing planning activities:

   •   The Libraries are underutilized by our students. A significant portion of our student body
       rarely or never uses the Libraries
   •   Google and other Internet search engines are the first choice for conducting research
   •   Students are unaware of the Libraries’ services and collections
   •   Students are intimidated by the Libraries and find the physical facilities difficult to
       navigate and use
   •   Students find the Libraries’ facilities to be unwelcoming and uncomfortable. The “Library
       as Place” concept is important and students want comfortable areas to relax, eat and drink,
       and take breaks from research and study. Poor lighting and uncomfortable furniture are
       common complaints.
   •   Students are not satisfied with the hours the Libraries are open
   •   The Libraries’ Web site is difficult to use and navigate

   In general, students are asking that the Libraries be more user-friendly, convenient, easy to use, and


         The Marketing Steering Team is addressing student feedback through a variety of strategies,
activities, and suggestions for administrators throughout the University Libraries.

                                              Target Market

        The Marketing Steering Team recognizes that the Libraries serve a broad range of users: under-
graduate students; graduate students; faculty; alumni; community users; and users at our multiple
locations throughout the state. This initial marketing plan specifically targets our undergraduate students,
although we suggest future planning is necessary to target each of our specific user populations. While
we recognize the importance of meeting all user needs, we are targeting undergraduate students for the
following reasons:

     •   Undergraduate students are by far our largest user segment
     •   Undergraduate students understand and use the library less than either graduate students or
         faculty. Undergraduates are less likely to be aware of library resources and services and to
         understand the value of these resources and services
     •   Undergraduate students are more likely than other user groups to use competitors for
         information needs and locations to study
     •   Undergraduate students are a diverse user group with a wide variety of experiences and
     •   Creating a marketing plan that addresses effective ways to reach undergraduate students
         will also serve to assist us in our efforts to reach our other audiences
     •   Targeting one user group is necessary to implement marketing activities in a timely,
         efficient manner

         In order to reach the undergraduate population, we propose a three-pronged approach:

         1.    A “Marketing Communication Plan” designed to raise awareness of the Libraries’
               services and collections

         2.    Creation of a Web-based “Marketing Toolkit” to provide librarians and library staff
               with background information and examples of effective marketing. Plus it provides
               initial contact information to start a marketing job with Public Relations and

         3.    A list of recommendations and suggestions for Libraries’ administrators that will
               address such items as facilities, policy decisions, new products and services, Web
               design, and suggestions for improving marketing activities throughout the University

                         MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS PLAN

Strategy 1: Message and Visual Identity

        The University Libraries’ general message to be used on all communications materials will
emphasize quality customer service; ease and efficiency in using resources and finding information; and
both student-centeredness and information literacy. Communications materials will use the visual
identity developed by the University’s Department of Publications and approved by the University
Libraries’ administration. The University Libraries’ Office of Public Relations and Marketing will also
develop a communications stylebook. While there will be these common elements in communication
materials, there will also be a great deal of flexibility for campuses, departments, subject libraries, and
individuals to create materials, in conjunction with the Office of Public Relations and Marketing, to meet
their specific marketing needs. A Web page is available for individuals to begin a marketing
project: When appropriate, the Libraries’ materials
may tie into the University’s “It’s Your Time” campaign.

	      Objective:	    To create communications materials that convey a general message that
                      emphasizes the Libraries’ core values and to provide tools to assist
                      Libraries’ employees in creating these materials.
	      Cost: 	 	      Will vary by activity.

Strategy 2: Create a Welcome Kit for the Libraries’ Annual Open House

	      Objective:     To create a welcome kit for all attendees to the Libraries’ Open House to help
                      raise awareness of resources and services, and to provide giveaways with
                      information about the Libraries.
                      Promotional items in the kit:
                            • University Libraries approved mug
                            • Another Libraries giveaway
                            • Informational brochure
                            • Promotion business-size card with Web addresses on both sides
                            • ASK bookmark

	      Costs:         Mugs (approximately $1.70 ea; 10,000/yr.) = $17,000
                      Brochure (2 color, 15 x 9 both sides, 20,000/2 years) = $2,500
                      Business cards (10,000) = $628
                      ASK bookmark (15,000) = $420                         Total Cost: $20,548

(Note: Larger quantities for some items will allow the Libraries to purchase at bulk rates. Unused
quantities can be used for other functions.)
	      Evaluation:    Use the Open House survey to gather feedback on usefulness of the
                      kit and its contents.

                                            New faculty get a Libraries mug filled with
                                            contact information.

Strategy 3: Mugs for New Faculty

        Each fall semester all new faculty will receive a library-approved mug that is filled with informa-
tion about the Libraries. Included will be general information as well as contact information for subject
libraries and librarians in their disciplines. Faculty are key intermediaries to reaching our target under-
graduate audience.

	      Objective:      To provide all new faculty members with basic information
                       about the Libraries.

	      Cost:	          Approximately $500 per year

	      Evaluation:	    Subject librarians should monitor feedback from new faculty regarding
                       the mug giveaway and accompanying information.

Strategy 4: Giveaways

        The Libraries will create a variety of giveaways that can be used for marketing and promotional
purposes throughout the Libraries and to include in the Open House Welcome Kit. The Libraries will
continue to emphasize the use of the approved mug, but will also create other branded items that are
popular with our students: keyholders/lanyards, pencils and pens, post-it notes, and post-it note hold-
ers. The Libraries will also create a series of buttons to distribute during football season, similar to those
offered by a local bank. The Libraries will also create a T-shirt to give to student employees who work a
certain number of hours for the Libraries.

	      Objective:	     To provide students with useful items that also promote the Libraries.
                       The Libraries’ name and Web address will appear on all items.

	      Cost:           •   Key holders/lanyards (5000) = $5700
                       •   Post It Notes (2000) = $840
                       •   Pencils/Pens (5000) = $1200
                       •   Buttons (2500) = $740
                       •   T-shirts = $5.15 each, 500 = $2,575                            Total Cost = $11,055

Strategy 5: Print Advertisement Campaign

        The Libraries will continue its program of placing print advertisements in the Collegian (see
Appendix B for copies of advertisements placed during Spring 2006). The Libraries will place 18
advertisements during each fall and spring semester. In addition, the Office of Public Relations and
Marketing will use three existing sandwich boards to advertise the Libraries in other locations and to
promote special events.

	      Objective:	    To advertise various subject libraries and other library resources. Ads will
                      raise awareness and stimulate interest from students. The Collegian is the
                      most popular media venue for current undergraduate students.

	      Theme:         Advertisements will be eye-catching and visual, rather than text heavy.
                      Advertisements will be created by the Office of Public Relations and
                      Marketing in conjunction with individual units and librarians.

	      Services and collections to be promoted:		
                     Will rotate to ensure that there will be at least one advertisement for each
                      subject library each semester.

	      Costs:         $2500/semester, $5000 annually

	      Evaluation:    Librarians will be encouraged to conceive of advertisements in such a way
                      that data on their effectiveness can be gathered. For instance, if the
                      advertisement is for a specific program, the Libraries will measure how many
                      students attended that program. The Libraries will also use student focus
                      groups to gather student feedback and to provide input into future advertisements.

        Librarians will also be encouraged to place printed copies of advertisements in areas that do not
incur additional costs. Suggestions include bulletin boards and in student lounge areas both in the
Libraries and in other buildings across campus.

Strategy 6: Guide to the Libraries Brochure

       This is a continuation of the Libraries’ brochure that has been in print for several years.

	      Objective:     To provide students with a single publication that contains all of the relevant
                      information about the Libraries, including contact information and Web site

	      Cost:	 	       10,000 copies = $12,000

	      Evaluation:    Ask students on the Open House survey if this
                      publication is useful.

                            Guide to the Libraries...Contains contact
                            information, description of collections and
                            services, and Web addresses.

Strategy 7: Brochures for Broad Subject Areas and Faculty Guide

	      Objective:     These will serve as a condensed version of the Guide to Libraries brochure to
                      promote the subject libraries to specific audiences.

       Services and collections promoted:
                      Six separate brochures (5x9, color, both sides) under the
                      following categories:
                      • Science and Technology (EMS, PAMS, Life Sciences, Engineering)
                      • Business
                      • Social Sciences (EBSL, Social Sciences, News and Microforms)
                      • Arts and Humanities (Arts & Humanities, Architecture)
                      • Special Collections
                      • Faculty Guide

	      Cost:	 	       5,000 of each brochure = $4,500

	      Evaluation:    Will depend on distribution venue. Librarians will explore methods of
                      gathering feedback on the use of the brochure.

Strategy 8: Screensavers and Mousepads

        The Libraries will create screensavers and have mousepads at every computer that advertise and
market the Libraries. Screensavers are an especially low-cost method of promoting various Libraries’
resources and services. Subject libraries will be encouraged to create screensavers and mousepad
advertisements that resonate with their particular users.

	      Cost:          Screensavers = staff time; mousepads (bulk purchase of 2,500 = $3,500).
                      Can also be used for giveaways.

                                                                  T h e U n i ve rs i t y Li b ra r ie s P re se nt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An exhibition drawn                                                                                                                                                                                             On display in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  from the collections                                                                                                                                                                                              Eberly Family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of Penn State’s                                                                                                                                                                                               Special Collections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Special Collections                                                                                                                                                                                                       Library, 104
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Paterno Library,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  principally from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     University Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the collection of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        through Jan. 7, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Albert A. Anderson,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Jr., and Evelynn                                                                                                                                                                                              Illustrations from John Dickson, Jr.:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                How to Draw and Paint (New York:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  M. Ellis                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Excelsior Pub. Co, 1880)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Read aloud from your favorite Banned Book and celebrate your First Amendment rights!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Support libraries in their ongoing fight against censorship!

                                                                              &                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         During the 25th anniversary of

                                                                          i n a pa n e l dis c u s s io n :
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     September 23–29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the Pennsylvania Center for the Book and the University Libraries are staging a READ-A-THON for 101
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                hours, to accompany the exhibit Banned Books 101, on display through Sepember 30 in the Diversity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Reading Room, 109 Pattee Library.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Readers are needed to read aloud for one hour from any banned or challenged book on the list compiled by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          American Library Association, many of which are included in the display. The list is available in the exhibit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     area or by contacting Caroline Wermuth (see below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Choose hour(s) from these days/times:                                                                                         Tuesday, September 26 ......... 8 a.m.– midnight
Promoting “Library                Thursday, February 22 • 4:00 p.m.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Saturday, September 23 .........9 a.m.–9 p.m.                                                                                 Wednesday, September 27 .... 8 a.m.– midnight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sunday, September 24 ............noon–midnight                                                                                Thursday, September 28........ 8 a.m.– midnight
                               Foster Auditorium, 101 Pattee Library, Penn State University Park                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Monday, September 25 ..........8 a.m.– midnight                                                                               Friday, September 29 ............ 8 a.m.–9 p.m.

as Place”...posters                           Reception will follow in Mann Assembly Room, 103 Paterno Library
                           held in conjunction with an exhibit,
                           “Graphic Novels: Comics as Art, History, and Literature,”
                                                                                                                    funded by The Charles W. Mann, Jr. Lecture in the Book Arts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Please e-mail or call Caroline Wermuth at 814-863-5521 to indicate your interest and avail-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ability. Include your name, e-mail address, phone number, book selection(s), and the date(s)/hour(s) you wish to

designed for recent
                                                                                                                    through the Mary Louise Krumrine Endowment,
                           selections from the University Libraries’ collection,
                           on view in the Diversity Reading Room,
                                                                                                                    the Pennsylvania Center for the History of the Book,
                                                                                                                    and the Pennsylvania Center for the Book.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        read. (You may choose to read for more than one hour if you wish and from more than one book.) Children and
                           109 Pattee Library, through March 2.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         teenagers in your families are welcome to read as well.
                                                                                                                         For more information, contact The Eberly Family

events in the Libraries.
                                                                                                                         Special Collections Library, 814-865-1793.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This publication is available in alternative media upon request.
                                                                                         Available in alternative media on request. ©2007 The Pennsylvania State University. Produced by Public Relations and Marketing, University Libraries. U.Ed. LIB 07-134                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         @2006 The Pennsylvania State University. Penn State is committed to affirmative action, equal opportunity, and the diversity of its workforce.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         @2006 The Pennsylvania State University. Penn State is committed to affirmative action, equal opportunity, and the diversity of its workforce. Produced by Public Relations and Marketing, University Libraries. U.Ed. LIB 07-79                Produced by Public Relations and Marketing, University Libraries. U.Ed. LIB 07-32

 Strategy 9: Activities to Emphasize Library as Place

 	           Objective:                                The promotion of “Library as Place” is an important marketing initiative. In
                                                       addition to recommendations to improve facilities, the Libraries will engage
                                                       in a series of activities to promote the Libraries’ physical spaces. See “Priority
                                                       Recommendations” and Appendix A for the complete list.

                                                       •                      More exhibits and promotions of exhibits
                                                       •                      Increased promotion of presentations and other events
                                                       •                      Continued improvements to student lounges
                                                       •                      Exterior sandwich boards, posters, releases, ads
                                                       •                      Continue sales of mugs at Mackinnons and other outlets on all campuses
                                                       •                      Continue “Read” poster initiative, hang in student lounges and other areas
                                                       •                      Create a new books area

 	           Theme:                                    Libraries are comfortable and relaxing places to study, work, or
                                                       hang out.

 	           Vehicles:	                                Varies

 	           Cost:                                     Will vary by activity. Much can be accomplished by using low cost,
                                                       in-house resources

 	           Evaluation:                               Methods will vary depending on activities. Librarians should be
                                                       encouraged to consider evaluation techniques in the design of any of
                                                       these promotional items or activities.

Strategy 10: Press Releases

	       Objective:      The Office of Public Relations and Marketing will continue to produce press
                        releases to promote various activities and services. Press releases will convey
                        underlying marketing messages that the Libraries wish to convey.

	       Cost:	 	        No charge for materials. Personnel time.

	       Evaluation:     Measurement of responses or additional questions from the public. Will
                        depend on the specific nature of the press release.

Strategy 11: Internal Sell of Message, Identity, and Purpose

	       Objective:      All Libraries’ employees will be aware of marketing goals, identity, and
                        messages. Libraries’ employees should have a mechanism to offer input,
                        suggestions, and sharing of best practices. This strategy will also keep
                        employees thinking about marketing throughout the year.

	       Vehicle:        • Presentation to Libraries at least once per year to keep staff informed
                          of marketing activities, share promotional items, discuss successes in
                          the area of marketing, and to discuss best practices.
                        • Web-based suggestion form so that employees can submit ideas, with an
                          option of doing so anonymously. Monthly prize of $25 for best idea.
                        • Web-based and public suggestion boxes so that students can offer
                          suggestions. Monthly prize of $25 for best idea.

	       Cost:           $500 per year (September through May)

	       Evaluation:     The number of submissions will provide feedback on the usefulness of this

                            Summary of Marketing Communications Plan

                  The total cost for all items is $57,103. However, many of these items (mugs,
     Guide to the Libraries) are already being regularly purchased, with the Libraries currently
     spending much of this amount annually. In reviewing marketing plans at other academic
     libraries, this budget is in alignment with the amounts being spent on marketing activities at peer
     institutions. Bulk purchase of items may save additional money, and many can be used for a
     variety of marketing activities.

                                   MARKETING TOOLKIT

        The Marketing Steering Team acknowledges that marketing is an organization- wide effort. Suc-
cessful marketing requires contributions from all University Libraries employees. While there are many
examples of successful marketing activities created and used by individuals, departments, and libraries
throughout the University Libraries, there has not been a good mechanism for broadly sharing successes
and best practices. In an effort to educate Libraries employees about marketing principles and proce-
dures for developing marketing materials and activities, and to provide examples of successful market-
ing materials and activities, the Marketing Steering Team has created a Web-based “Marketing Toolkit”
as a resource for Libraries employees.
        The Marketing Toolkit is available on the Libraries Intranet at:

       The Toolkit is divided into four broad areas:

   •   Getting Started: Basic information on marketing and steps for planning a marketing
       effort, including an initial contact with the Libraries Office of Public Relations and
   •   Resources: Design templates, appropriate Libraries and University policies related to
       marketing, and information about Penn State’s visual and editorial standards.
   •   Examples of Best Practices: Marketing materials that have been successfully used by a
       librarian or library within the University Libraries and in other libraries outside of
       Penn State. This section contains examples of marketing collections, products, services,
       special events, instruction, and spaces or buildings.
   •   Contact Information: Links to the Marketing Steering Team; the Office of Public
       Relations and Marketing; the Department of Information Technologies; and marketing
       volunteers throughout the Libraries.

       The Marketing Toolkit will be updated by the Marketing Steering Team on a regular basis.

                              PRIORITY RECOMMENDATIONS

During the past year, employees from throughout the University Libraries have submitted ideas and
suggestions to the Marketing Steering Team for improvements to the Libraries. A complete list of these
suggestions is in Appendix A. In addition to the Marketing Communications Plan (p. 25), the Marketing
Steering Team has also identified the following items as priorities from the list of submitted suggestions.
The Steering Team recommends that the Libraries implement these suggestions as soon as it is feasible
and to incorporate these items into current budgeting and strategic planning activities.

         1.    Create a more welcoming environment throughout the Libraries. The “Library as
               Place” concept is important, and students have consistently voiced the need for
               more comfortable furniture, improved lighting (especially in the Pattee stacks),
               individual table and carrel lamps, more plants or flowers, better signage and
               improved aesthetics throughout the Libraries. Special attention should be made to
               the Pattee and Paterno entrances, which should also include resources to help
               students locate specific employees and locations, including call numbers. These
               initiatives will greatly aid the Libraries’ strategic plan goal of being a more user-
               centered and responsive organization.

         2.    Create a centralized new book display area in the Central Pattee lobby area with
               comfortable furniture and with coffee and tea available. This area will serve
               several purposes: it will create a more welcoming environment; it will showcase
               new materials; it will allow users and those passing through the building to see
               materials; and it will stimulate interest in library resources. Where appropriate,
               this could also be done in the branch and campus libraries. This initiative will
               aid the Libraries’ strategic plan goal of being a more user-centered and responsive

         3.    Create a faculty liaison training program. Marketing the Libraries’ resources and
               services to our students can be done most effectively through partnerships with
               teaching faculty. This training program, led by experienced librarians, will
               provide tools and resources for all librarians with faculty liaison responsibilities.
               Having an effective faculty liaison training program will aid the Libraries in many
               other ways by keeping the Libraries vibrant and central to the teaching and
               research needs of faculty. It will assist the Libraries’ instruction goals, including
               the goal of reaching all freshman students. It will also assist with the Libraries’
               efforts related to scholarly communication. This initiative will aid the Libraries’
               strategic plan goals of being a more user-centered and responsive organization; of
               advancing information literacy and lifelong learning; and in enriching and
               advancing Penn State’s contributions to the worldwide community of scholars.

4.   Create a customer service training program and emphasize customer service in all
     areas and with all employees. Having consistent quality customer service at all
     customer service contact points is paramount to successful marketing. All current
     and new employees should be trained and assessed on the use of effective
     customer service techniques. Employees working near entrances should be trained
     in behaviors to promote a welcoming environment for those entering the
     Libraries. The Libraries should offer regular customer service training activities
     and should consider bringing in professionals to provide service training. The
     Libraries should institute a “Library Code of Ethics” similar to the ALA Code of
     Ethics that each employee must agree to. This initiative will aid the Libraries’
     strategic plan goal of being a more user-centered and responsive organization.

5.   Continue to improve the Libraries’ Web presence. The Web is one of our most
     important marketing tools and should be designed in ways to promote ease of
     access and use of Libraries’ resources. All databases will be branded with the
     Penn State University Libraries word mark so users are aware that they are using
     Libraries’ resources. The ASK! button will be consistent on all pages. Create an
     undergraduate student portal based on successful models at other universities.
     This initiative will aid the Libraries’ strategic plan goals of enhancing the user’s
     experience with the Libraries by being a more user-centered and responsive
     organization and of creating and managing a technological infrastructure that is
     responsive to the changing needs of the Libraries’ users and of its employees.

6.   Create a general Libraries’ newsletter that is derived from individual subject and
     campus libraries’ newsletters. The Office of Public Relations and Marketing and
     the Department for Information Technologies are creating a newsletter template
     that will assist subject libraries in the creation of their newsletters, which are
     envisioned as either print or Web-based, depending on individual needs.
     Newsletters are a popular and effective method for marketing the activities and
     resources of the Libraries. This initiative will aid the Libraries’ strategic plan goal
     of being a more user-centered and responsive organization.

7.   Create a script of factual statements for the Lion Ambassadors to use when they
     are conducting tours and providing information about the Libraries. A lot of
     misinformation is being distributed to prospective students and parents.
     Standardizing the information will ensure that persons touring the facilities are
     being given accurate information regarding the Libraries, which will also assist
     those who enroll at the University. This initiative will aid the Libraries’ strategic
     plan goals of enhancing the user’s experience with the Libraries by being a more
     user-centered and responsive organization.


        The Marketing Steering Team should continue to plan future marketing activities and to make
recommendations about marketing in the University Libraries. The existing team recommends that it
continue its work in the coming year (2007-2008) in order to begin work on the new initiatives. In the
following year, and years thereafter, one-half of the committee should rotate off, which will allow new
members to participate while also maintaining continuity from members with experience. The commit-
tee also expects to lose and add new members periodically through attrition and other reasons. Some
suggested duties for the Marketing Steering Team in the future:

     •   Maintain and update the Marketing Toolkit on a regular basis
     •   Begin work on developing marketing plans for other targeted groups: faculty,
         graduate students, and alumni. A great deal of information can be derived from this initial
     •   Periodically plan open sessions on marketing for the employees of the Libraries. These
         sessions will provide employees with opportunities to brainstorm and to share marketing
     •   Track progress on the current plan
     •   Assess the effectiveness of the current plan
     •   Monitor marketing activities at other academic and public libraries and incorporate
         successful activities and resources into our own organization

        The Marketing Steering Team also suggests that the Libraries’ administration create an annual
budget devoted to marketing activities. Many of the suggestions are geared towards activities that take
place at the beginning of the academic year, so it is necessary to have a budget in place that could be
used to acquire materials in anticipation of the upcoming year.

                                            APPENDIX A

Marketing Suggestions Submitted by Libraries’ Employees

        During the past year, the Marketing Steering Team has received numerous suggestions for
improvements to the Libraries. Some of these have been included in the “Marketing Communications
Plan” and “Priority Recommendations” sections of this document. These are grouped into categories and
in no particular order. Along with each item is an indication of whether these require funding and staff
time to implement.

Items Related to Customer Service

   •   Create a personnel directory with photos for the welcome desks and have a browseable
       version for the public (some funding, staff time)
   •   Create a call number location guide for the public (funding, staff time)
   •   Staff at Welcome desks should greet people entering and should stand in front of desk.
       People at the Welcome desks should not stare at computer, and they should only use the
       computer if they have to assist someone. (staff time)
   •   Market customer service as the Libraries’ strength (staff time)
   •   Create marketing and customer service training program for staff, have 1-2 programs per
       year devoted to marketing.
   •   Create orientation program for all new hires. (some funding, staff time)
   •   Hire pages that can walk with people to find books and navigate the building (funding,
       staff time)
   •   Have rovers go throughout the facility with some identifiable name tag, shirt, or jacket
       (funding, staff time)
   •   Create centralized computer help desk available all hours (funding, staff time)
   •   Create some kind of name tag or other identification for all people working in the public
       (funding, staff time)
   •   Create a book delivery service to faculty offices and other buildings (funding, staff time)
   •   Have book return in HUB and west campus (funding, staff time)
   •   Unlock areas in subject libraries where books are waiting to be shelved and allow patrons
       to browse on their own—will save staff time (staff time)
   •   Have library open 24 hours (funding, staff time)


   •   Integrate library component into all first-year seminars (staff time)

     •   Have a faculty liaison training program, help to have faculty market the library (staff time)
     •   Contact lion ambassadors to ensure they are giving out correct info, need list of top 5 positive
         things about the library that they can tell touring students/parents (staff time)

Facilities/Student Lounges/Food and Drink

     •   Have games available in lounge areas (funding)
     •   Signage (funding):
                         Change from Ask! or Reference to Research Consultations
                         or Customer Service
                         Make map for call number locations and room numbers
                         Make signs to distinguish reference collections from circulating materials
     •   Create a centralized new book display area in the lending services/gateway area (funding,
         staff time)
     •   Add free coffee service to the Gateway (funding, staff time)
     •   Buy better and more comfortable furniture (funding)
     •   Improve lighting throughout the library, buy individual lamps for each study carrel
     •   Better signage in the stacks/create signs for individual subject areas within subject
         Libraries (funding)
     •   Create specialized subject niches like bookstores do (staff time)
     •   Have more exhibits and displays throughout the library (staff time)
     •   More plants (funding)
     •   Lobby areas are too bland and cold—make more comfortable, flowers on all desks
         (funding, staff time)
     •   Make elevator lobbies in Paterno more appealing, too stark and cold (funding, staff time)
     •   Add TV sets to all student lounges (funding)
     •   Expand MacKinnons and extend the hours it is open. Need to improve advertising.
         (funding, staff time)
     •   Create interactive map that shows call number locations in the building and have at each
         entrance (funding)
     •   Add coffee shop or coffee cart to Paterno (funding, staff time)
     •   Have more public vending machines available (funding)
     •   More new book displays and promotional items to highlight new materials (funding, staff
     •   Renovate Central Pattee student lounge (funding)
     •   Create direct exit to the bus stop (out of Reserve room) (funding)
     •   Get ATM and US Mailbox for the public (funding)


   •   Make ASK! logo consistent across all Web pages (staff time)
   •   Make ITS printing available everywhere (staff time)
   •   Have pencils and paper at all of the computers (some funding, staff time)
   •   Create undergraduate student portal such as that at the Univ. of Minnesota (staff time)
   •   Create computer screensavers to promote library services and events (staff time)
   •   Brand all of the library’s databases with University Libraries logo so that users know it is a
       library resource (staff time)
   •   Create a centralized knowledge base of frequently asked questions (staff time)
   •   Create library blog (staff time)
   •   Investigate podcasting (staff time)
   •   Mousepads at each computer that advertise library resources/services (funding, staff time)

Marketing Ideas

   •   Create Web submission form for marketing ideas (staff time)
   •   Have a best idea contest – monthly prize for staff and one for the public (funding,
       staff time)
   •   Use Facebook and Angel to market the library (staff time)
   •   Create a library awareness game with prizes (funding, staff time)
   •   Use “It’s Your Time” theme (funding, staff time)
   •   Market library as “refuge” from the rest of the university (funding, staff time)
   •   Create products from special collections to sell to the public (funding, staff time)
   •   Create library mascot—real person (entertainer or comedian) who plays off of the idea
       of the stereotypical librarian, but in a cool and fashionable way (funding, staff time)
   •   Create a CD for all new students about the library that is entertaining (funding, staff time)
   •   Create general library newsletter and have each subject library write a newsletter (staff
   •   Have Penn State’s hip hop team create and perform a rap about the library (funding?)
   •   Create series of buttons during football season (like Mellon bank) (funding, staff time)
   •   Create “Libraries of University Park” poster—like “Doors of State College”—all subject
       libraries on one poster (funding, staff time)
   •   Have posters with student testimonials and pictures with information about how the library
       helped them (funding, staff time)
   •   Make READ posters with student athletes and student leaders (funding, staff time)
   •   Bring in more special speakers, comedians, and entertainers (funding, staff time)
   •   Buy promotional items to give out with information about the Libraries and its Web site:
       bookmarks, business cards, mugs, keychains, post-it notes, pens (funding)
   •   Make posters for CATA buses and dorms advertising the library (funding, staff time)


Collegian Advertisements

     The following pages are copies of advertisements placed in the Daily Collegian this past year.

       with Electronic Image Newspapers!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Foster Auditorium,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   101 Pattee Library

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Speaking on the organization Art
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Beyond Sight, and how its series,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Art History Through Touch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and Sound, was developed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Speaking on how tactile art
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             is created and how art is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             experienced by visually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             impaired individuals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Presentations followed by Q&A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sessions and receptions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Questions: 814-865-0284

                                                                                                                    Featuring works from Art History Through Touch and Sound,
                                                                                                                    a series from Art Education for the Blind, Inc., and American
                                                                                                                    Printing House for the Blind, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                        Sponsored by Library Services for Persons with Disabilities and
                                                                                                                                                        supported by a grant from The Pennsylvania Humanities Council,
                                                                                                                                                        a Federal-State partner for the National Endowment for the
                                                                                                                Federal-State Partner
                                                                                                                National Endowment for the Humanities   Humanities, and Penn State’s Equal Opportunity Planning Committee.

         OPEN                  24-Hour Service
                                @ Pattee Library, West,

          ALL                   ground and first floors
                                    During the semester:

                               Sunday noon–Friday midnight
                                   (Saturday 9:00–midnight)
                                   except during Spring Break

                                                    ©2007 The Pennsylvania State University. U.Ed. LIB 07-156

                                                                                                                                                     Just the
                                                                                                                                            Discover resources
                                                                                                                                            better than Google
                                                                                                                                            @ the Engineering
                                                                                                                                                    325 Hammond Building
                                                                                                                            ©2007 The Pennsylvania State University. U.Ed. LIB 07-153


                            Locations: Pattee Circulation (Lending Services) • Paterno floors 2, 3, and 4
                                                            a service of the University Libraries •
©2007 The Pennsylvania State University. U.Ed. LIB 07-146

        Love it? Hate it?
                                 Discover the
                                 Joy of Words
                      @ Readings in Celebration of
                               the Public Poetry Project
                              Thursday, March 29 • 7:00 p.m.
                           Foster Auditorium, 101 Pattee Library
                                   reception follows • free posters
                              for more information:
                 • 814-863-5472
     ©2007 The Pennsylvania State University. U.Ed. LIB 07-166


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