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International Conference on Millimeter and Submillimeter Astronomy

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International Conference on Millimeter and Submillimeter Astronomy Powered By Docstoc
					                              International Conference on
                      Millimeter and Submillimeter Astronomy
                            at High Angular Resolution

                                 Abstract Book for Posters
1.     Solar System                                        of progressive reconnection. To determine the re-
                                                           connection electric fields in a flare, we estimate
1.1.    Observations and Theory of Solar                   the magnetic flux change rate in the areas of en-
        Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections                  hanced Ha/EUV intensity and HXR kernels at a
   C. Z. Cheng and Y. H. Yang (Plasma and Space            flaring time. The spatial and temporal relation-
Science Center, National Cheng Kung University,            ship between the reconnection electric fields and
Tainan, Taiwan)                                            the HXR intensity will be addressed and discussed
                                                           here.
   Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the
                                                           2.     Galactic Star Formation : Low-Mass
most powerful energy release process in the so-
lar system. They have been observed by using               2.1.    The Submillimeter Polarization Spec-
soft and hard X-rays, EUV, visible light, sub mil-                 trum of the DR21/DR21(OH) Molec-
limeter, millimeter and microwaves. I will present                 ular Cloud
observations of flares and associated coronal mass
ejections and the theory of magnetic reconnection            T.-C. Ching and S.-P. Lai (National Tsing Hua
to explain the observed results.                           University, Hsinchu, Taiwan)

1.2.    Estimation of Reconnection Electric                   We present the first comparison of thermal dust
        Field in Two-Ribbon Flares                         polarization emission at 350 µm and 850 µm in
                                                           the DR21/DR21(OH) molecular cloud. The data
   Y.-H. Yang and C. Z. Cheng (Plasma and
                                                           were taken using the Caltech Submillimeter Ob-
Space Science Center, Nation Cheng Kung Uni-
                                                           servatory (CSO) at 350 µm wavelength and the
versity
                                                           James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) at 850
Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sci-
                                                           µm wavelength. The ratio of 850 µm to 350 µm
ences, Nation Cheng Kung University
                                                           polarization is 1.6 ± 0.7 in the envelope of the
Department of Physics, Nation Cheng Kung Uni-
                                                           DR21(OH) molecular cloud and drops about 40%
versity)
                                                           toward its core, while in the DR21 molecular cloud
                                                           the ratio is 1.2 ± 0.4 in the envelope and only
   The magnetic reconnection in the corona is gen-         slightly increases toward the DR21 core. With a
erally believed to be responsible for the energy re-       simple two temperature model, we derive the first
lease and particle acceleration in solar flares. Af-        order difference of the magnetic fields between two
ter electrons are accelerated from the reconnection        layers of dust grains.
site (at SXR looptop), the electrons will emit gy-
rosynchrotron radiation in the millimeter and sub-         2.2.    Ammonia and CCS as diagnostic
millimeter range as they travel along the magnetic                 tools of low-mass protostars
field downward to hit the chromosphere. Thus,
from the millimeter and sub-millimeter observa-               I. de Gregorio-Monsalvo (ESO), J.F. Gomez
tions, we should be able to determine the particle         (IAA-CSIC), C.J. Chandler (NRAO), T.B.H.
acceleration mechanism. In this study, the sepa-           Kuiper (JPL-Caltech), J.M. Torrelles (IEEC-
rations of two ribbons observed by Ha/EUV, as              CSIC), G. Anglada (IAA-CSIC)
well as the HXR footpoint motions observed by
RHESSI, are used as the chromospheric signatures                The spatial distribution from various molecu-


                                                       1
lar species depend not only on the physical con-           star NGC 1333 IRAS 4A with collapse models
ditions within the molecular clouds, but also on           of magnetized molecular cloud cores. We assume
the time-dependent chemistry. That is the case             a model density and magnetic flux function to
of CCS (early-type molecule) and ammonia (late-            compute the Stokes parameters and synthetic po-
type molecule), which can be used as a kind of             larization maps convolved with the inteferometric
”clock” to date the age of dense cores. In this talk       response. Our synthetic maps show a magnetic
we present a sensitive and systematic single-dish          field morphology in a good agreement with the
survey in ammonia and CCS at 1 cm, towards a               data suggesting that this theoretical scenario is
sample of low-mass young stellar objects known             a plausible explanation. Consequently, instead of
to harbor water maser emission. We have used               turbulence, well-ordered magnetic fields control
the properties of these molecules as tools for ob-         the evolution of low-mass star-forming molecular
taining information about the physical conditions          cloud cores.
and stage of the evolution of low-mass young stel-
lar objects. Our main purposes were to search for          2.4.   Early stages of clustered star forma-
the youngest protostars and to find the best can-                  tion in the outer Galaxy
didates to perform interferometric observations, in
                                                              W.F. Frieswijk and R. F. Shipman (Kapteyn
order to study at higher resolution the structure,
                                                           Astronomical Institute, Groningen, The Nether-
kinematics and physical properties of very young
                                                           lands)
star-forming regions. As a follow up to our sur-
vey, we show interferometric observations in CCS,
ammonia and water masers using the Very Large                TBA
Array (VLA) towards the young protostars B1-
                                                           2.5.   Physical and Chemical Studies of
IRS, L1448-IRS3, and L1448C. Our results sug-
                                                                  Low-Mass Star Forming Region : the
gest that CCS abundance could be enhanced via
                                                                  Pipe Nebula
shock-induced chemistry. In addition, we have ob-
served a spatial anticorrelation between CCS and              Kei Fukue, Yoshito Shimajiri, Takashi Tsuk-
ammonia at scales of ≃5”, and it illustrates the im-       agoshi, and Yasutaka Kurono (University of
portance of time-dependent chemistry studies on            Tokyo), Masao Saito (NAOJ), Fumitaka Naka-
small spatial scales. Some of our CCS maps have            mura (Niigata University), Aya Higuchi (Tokyo
been produced by applying for the first time the            Institute Technology), Masaaki Hiramatsu (ASIAA),
cross-calibration technique for molecular spectral         Norio Ikeda (JAXA), and Ryohei Kawabe (NRO),
lines.                                                     AzTEC team and NRO 45m Legacy team

2.3.   Fitting magnetized molecular cloud                     We have carried out molecular line and contin-
       collapse models to NGC 1333 IRAS 4A                 uum observations of the Pipe Nebula, a low-mass
   P. Frau-M´ndez (Institut de Ci`ncies de l’Espai
              e                   e                        star forming region at a distance of 130 pc, to ob-
(CSIC-IEEC), Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain),                 tain the initial conditions of star formation at a
J.M. Girart (Institut de Ci`ncies de l’Espai
                               e                           low-mass star forming region. Star formation in
(CSIC-IEEC), Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain), D.              the Pipe Nebula is active only in the western edge
Galli (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF),          of the nebula B59. First, we observed the neb-
Firenze, Italy)                                            ula in 1.1 mm continuum with the AzTEC/ASTE.
                                                           We obtained three continuum maps (∼ 35’×35’)
   Magnetic fields are believed to play an impor-           at Core1-2, Core3, and Core9-11 regions identi-
tant role in the star formation process. Grain             fied by Onishi et al. (1999) in C18 O. We re-
alignment is one of the visible effects of the              solved some cores detected in the previous extinc-
magnetic fields polarizing the dust emission per-           tion map, and found 64 cores in total, which is
pendicularly to the field lines.     To test the            more than twice the number of extinction cores lo-
influence of magnetic fields we compare high-                cated in our observed areas. Next, we performed
angular resolution observations of the submilli-           a multi line survey at C18 O(1–0), HC3 N(12–11,9–
metric polarized emission of the low-mass proto-           8), CCS(7,6–6,5), N2 H+ (1–0), and SO(2(3)–1(2))


                                                       2
with the Nobeyama 45m telescope. We use C18 O,             2.7.   Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave
which can trace the high density gas, to estimate                 Observations of Barnard 1-bN and
the velocity widths of the cores. Other molecular                 Barnard 1-bS
lines are used to deduce the evolutionary stages
                                                              Fang-Chun Liu (Academia Sinica Institute of
of the cores. Our observations showed that a ve-
                                                           Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan and
locity width of C18 O is 0.7 km/s in Core1 appro-
                                                           Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Cen-
priate to B59, 0.5 km/s in Core9-11, and is nar-
                                                           tral University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan), Naomi
row (∼ 0.35 km/s) in the other regions. A similar
                                                           Hirano (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy
trend was found in the other molecular line obser-
                                                           and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), Shih-Ping Lai
vations. The detection rates of N2 H+ , tracing late
                                                           (Physics Department and Institute of Astronomy,
evolutionary stages, toward to the cores are 45% at
                                                           National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan), Tomo-
Core1(B59) and 32% at the other regions. Hence,
                                                           fumi Umemoto (National Astronomical Observa-
we find out that the physical states and the evolu-
                                                           tory of Japan, Japan)
tionary stages are obviously different in B59 and
the other regions. Thus, since the C18 O velocity
width does not monotonically increase along the               The physical and chemical properties of two
nebula, we do not consider that the star formation         mm/sub-mm sources in Barnard cloud, Barnard
activity simply propagates from B59 to the south.          1-bN and Barnard 1-bS, are studied with multi-
                                                           wavelength observations. The dust continuum
2.6.   Study of Outflow in a VeLLO, L328-                   from these two sources shows spacially compact
       IRS                                                 distribution and very cold spectral energy distri-
                                                           butions (Tdust =11-16 K). These two sources have
  Chang Won Lee, Gwangeong Kim and Mi-                     no mid-IR counterpart in the Spitzer MIPS 24 and
Ryang Kim                                                  60 micron bands, indicating that they are deeply
                                                           embedded. The CO J=2-1 data obtained with the
   The Very Low Luminosity Objects discovered              SMA suggest that B1-bS and probably B1-bN are
in molecular cores and clouds by c2d Legacy                associated with the compact (∼ 2000; AU size)
project are important targets to study because             molecular outflows. These results propose that
their properties are similar to those of protostars        Barnard 1-bN and Barnard 1-bS are already har-
but hard to understand their faintness in the con-         boring Class 0 protostars. On the other hand, the
text of present standard star formation theory. A          chemical properties of these two sources are simi-
new VeLLO recently discovered, L328-IRS, also              lar to those of pre-stellar cores: the N2 D+ J=3-2
has properties of a protostar, but is the faintest         emission is strongly detected (0.3 K for B1-bN and
among the VeLLOs and expected to grow to a                 0.1 K for B1-bS) and clearly traces the two com-
brown dwarf regarding that the mass of its sur-            pact sources, while the H13 CO+ J=1-0 emission is
rounding envelope is too small (of order 0.1 so-           weak or barely detected near or at the continuum
lar mass) as a provider of material for L328-IRS.          peaks. This lack of H13 CO+ emission is proba-
Study on the outflow activity in L328-IRS may               bly due to the depletion of the H13 CO+ molecule
be the best way to find the origin of its faint-            onto the grain under the condition of low temper-
ness and its fate. However, the outflow activity            ature and high density, as in the case of pre-stellar
in the VeLLO is usually hard to detect and study           cores. The observed physical and chemical proper-
properly because of its weakness. Nevertheless             ties suggest that B1-bN and B1-bS are in the very
we found several observational hints of the exis-          beginning stage of protostellar evolution, probably
tence of the outflow from L328-IRS in NIR and               in the evolutionary stage between pre-stellar core
recent molecular line observations which will be           and class 0 source.
discussed in the poster.
                                                           2.8.   Modeling the continuum emission of
                                                                  the supersonically contracting star-
                                                                  forming core ahead of HH 80N
                                                                       e
                                                             J.M. Masqu´ and R. Estalella (Departament


                                                       3
d’Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona),    complex clumpy structure at high-angular resolu-
                               e
J.M. Girart (Institut de Ci`ncies de l’Espai               tion and the surrounding inter-clump medium.
                        a
(CSIC-IEEC)), M. Beltr´n (Osservatorio Astro-
nomico di Arcetri,INAF), and M. Osorio and G.              2.10.   Dense Cores in the ρ Ophiuchi
Anglada (Intituto de Astrof´sica de Andaluc´a,
                             ı                 ı                   Main Cloud: External Pressures and
CSIC)                                                              Small Scale Turbulent Driving in
                                                                   Clustered Star Formation
   HH 80N is the optically obscured northern                 F. Nakamura, H. Maruta, R. Nishi, N. Ikeda,
counterpart of the brightest Herbig-Haro objects           and Y. Kitamura (1 Niigata University, 2 ISAS/JAXA)
known, HH 80-81, located at 1.7 kpc of dis-
tance. Ahead of HH 80N there is a dense core of
                                                               Using the archive data of the H13 CO+ (J =
∼ 20 M⊙ and 0.2 pc in radius. This core harbors
                                                           1 − 0) molecular line emission taken with the
a protostar and exhibits supersonic infall veloci-
                                                           Nobeyama 45m radio telescope (beam size: 18′′ ≈
ties (0.6 km s−1 ). In this work we present the
                                                           0.01pc), we identified 68 dense cores in the cen-
preliminary results of continuum observations of
                                                           tral dense region of the ρ Ophiuchi main cloud.
the HH 80N core at 1 and 3 mm carried out with
                                                           The mean radius, FWHM velocity width, and LTE
IRAM 30m (MAMBO) and CARMA respectively,
                                                           mass of the identified cores are estimated to be
combined with Spitzer archival data. From this
                                                           0.045 pc, 0.49 km s−1 , and 3.4 M⊙ , respectively.
data, we intend to perform a detailed modeling of
                                                           The majority of the identified cores have subsonic
the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) by using
                                                           internal motions. From the comparison with the
a physically self-consistent model. By modeling
                                                           850µm dust continuum map, we found that the
the SED we aim to obtain an assessment of the
                                                           fractional abundance of H13 CO+ approximately
physical properties of the dense core ahead of HH                                                 −1/2
                                                           follows the relation XH13 CO+ ∝ NH2           with a
80N and a diagnostic about how the infalling pro-                              −11
ceeds in this core. Our ultimate goal is to gauge          mean of 1.72 × 10 , where NH2 is the H2 column
the influence of the external medium (i.e. the HH           density. The detailed virial analysis indicates that
80/81/80N flow) in triggering the star formation            the surface pressures often dominate over the self-
process in the HH 80N core.                                gravity and thus play a crucial role in regulating
                                                           core formation and evolution. Physical proper-
2.9.   Studying the clumpiness in dense                    ties of our cores are compared with those of the
       cores of molecular clouds                           H13 CO+ cores in the Orion A molecular cloud
                                                           recently observed with the same telescope. We
   O. Morata (Academia Sinica Institute of As-             found that statistical properties of physical quan-
tronomy and Astrophysics/National Taiwan Nor-              tities are similar for both core samples if the effect
mal University, Taipei, Taiwan), J. M. Girart              of different spatial resolutions is corrected. The
               e
(Institut de Ci`ncies de l’Espai, CSIC-IEEC, Cat-          velocity widths of dense gas in the ρ Ophiuchi
alonia, Spain), R. Estalella (Dept. d’Astronomia           main cloud appear to be more or less flat over
i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalo-          the range of 0.01 − 0.1 pc and have significant ex-
nia, Spain)                                                cess from the Heyer & Brunt velocity width-size
                                                           relation. This excess may be evidence of the small
   A few years ago, we proposed a clumpy struc-            scale turbulent driving (e.g., protostellar outflows
ture of dense cores in molecular clouds to interpret       and gravitational motions) in the cluster environ-
the differences in the emission at low-angular res-         ment.
olution of several high-density tracers. We later
confirmed that clumpiness in the CS core of LDN             2.11.   Magnetic Field Structure in the Star
673, combining single-dish and array observations,                 Formation Region IRAS 16293
which were later reproduced qualitatively in more
                                                             Ramprasad Rao (Academia Sinica Institute of
sophisticated chemical models. We present more
                                                           Astronomy and Astrophysic), Daniel P. Marrone
results of multitransitional observations obtained
                                                           (Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Univ. of
with different telescopes in two of the cores of our
                                                           Chicago), Josep Miquel Girart (Institut de Cincies
sample, LDN 673 and HH 43, studying the very

                                                       4
de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC))                                    tostars, two are associated with both signatures
                                                           of high-velocity peaks and SO/SO2 /SiO/CH3 OH
   Using the polarimetry system on the Submil-             emission at the cloud velocity. The remaining 12
limeter Array, we have been able to obtain high            targets do not show either signature. Together
resolution (about 1 arc second) maps of polar-             with Spitzer archival data, we will investigate (1)
ized dust emission from regions of active star for-        correlation of the presence/absence of collimated
mation. A growing number of researchers have               molecular flows with protostellar mass and their
used this system successfully to obtain results that       evolutional stages; and (2) the physics and chem-
could not have been obtained before. The primary           istry which allow quiescent SO/SO2 /SiO/CH3 OH
advantages of observing at submillimeter wave-             emission at 330–350 GHz to be observed. This
lengths is that the dust emission is quite strong          study will let us identify protostars for follow-up
and the polarization produced can usually give us          observations using SMA and ALMA to understand
the direction of the magnetic field without any am-         the early stages of protostellar evolution in the
biguity. In this poster, the results of such an ob-        general case in further detail.
servation that was conducted towards the young
star forming region IRAS 16293 are presented. In           2.13.   Millimeter compact sources within
this binary system the magnetic field structure                     the OMC1 filaments
is substantially different in the two components.              P.S. Teixeira (European Organisation for As-
This observation, in conjunction with other re-            tronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere,
lated measurements such as kinematics and chem-                            u
                                                           Garching bei M¨nchen, Germany), L.A. Zapata
ical differentiation, appears to indicate that the                                u
                                                           (Max-Planck-Institut f¨r Radioastronomie, Bonn,
two protostellar condensations are likely in differ-        Germany), P. Ho and S. Takahashi (Academia
ent stages in their evolution.                             Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics,
                                                           Taipei, Taiwan), S. Kim (Sejong University,
2.12.   An ASTE Survey of 330-350 GHz                      Seoul, South Korea), and A. Muench (Harvard-
        lines toward Class 0 Protostars                    Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge,
   H. Takami, N. Hirano, S. Takakuwa, M. Hi-               MA, USA)
ramatsu, J. Karr, C-.F. Lee (Academia Sinica
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei,               We report Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 mm
Taiwan), M. Momose (Ibaraki University, Mito,              observations of the the OMC1 northern filaments
Japan), and Kunihiko Tanaka (Institute of As-              that were previously identified from SCUBA
tronomy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)                JCMT 850 micron continuum and VLA ammonia
                                                           observations. We find 16 compact sources along
   We have made survey observations of 25 Class-0          an extent of 3′ within the filaments. The sources
protostars using the ASTE 10-m telescope, Chile.           range in mass from 0.8 to 2.8 M⊙ and 3 of them are
Our spectra cover CO J=3-2 (345.8 GHz), SiO                driving highly collimated CO molecular outflows.
J=8-7 (347.3 GHz), SO JK =89 -78 (346.5 GHz),              The millimeter emission may be arising from the
SO2 JK− ,K+ =82,6 -71,7 /191,19-180,18 (334.7/346.7        circumstellar disk and inner part of the envelope;
GHz) and CH3OH-A− JK− ,K+ =169,8 -159,7 (345.9             these compact sources are therefore in the Class
GHz) with a detection limit of ∼0.1 K. Seven               0/I evolutionary phase. We find tentative indica-
protostars show high-velocity peaks in CO emis-            tions of a mass gradient along the filaments: the
sion in addition to wing emission, and/or SiO              more massive sources are located in the southern
emission blue/red-shifted from the cloud velocity.         end whereas the least massive protostars are in
These are presumably associated with collimated            the northern end. Finally, the spatial analysis of
molecular flows. SO, SO2 , SiO and CH3 OH emis-             the protostars shows that these are separated by
sion at the cloud velocity were observed toward 9,         a quasi-equidistant length of 30′′ (0.06 pc), con-
5, 4 and 2 protostars respectively, and mapping            sistent with the Jeans length (for a temperature
observations toward two of them indicate that              of 17 K and a mean density of 1.9×105 cm−3 ),
these emissions originate from a compact region            i.e., thermal fragmentation. The star formation
at ≪30” from the protostar. Among these pro-               within these filaments may therefore be similar to


                                                       5
that of the Spokes cluster in NGC 2264, although          structure comprises the limb-brightened walls of
observed at a much earlier phase!                         a cone-shaped cavity excavated by one or both
                                                          outflows from the two main protostellar compo-
2.14.   Molecular Observations in BHR 71                  nents. 2) A compact central component, also with
                                                          a similar symmetry axis and velocity pattern as
   T. Britton and M. Voronkov (Australia Tele-
                                                          the large-scale outflow, spanning only 1.4” (200
scope National Facility, Sydney, Australia)
                                                          AU) from center. This component likely com-
                                                          prises material within the cavity newly entrained
   BHR 71 is a low mass star-forming region that          by one or both outflows from the two main pro-
contains two proto-stellar objects each with an as-       tostellar components. 3) A previously unknown
sociated outflow. We observed BHR 71 using on-             S-shaped structure, with an opposite velocity pat-
the-fly mapping with the Mopra single dish, lo-            tern but approximately the same symmetry axis as
cated in Siding Spring, Australia. 12 zooms at 33         the large-scale outflow, extending 10” (1500 AU)
39 GHz, and 16 zooms at 41 49 GHz were used.              from center. This structure most likely comprises
We report the first detections of the methanol             a precessing outflow, which may be driven by a
transitions at 36.1 GHz and 48.3 GHz, HC3N at             recently reported third protostellar component in
36.4 GHz and 45.5 GHz, CS at 48.7 GHz, and SiO            L1551 IRS5. Gravitational interactions between
at 43.4 GHz for this source.                              this protostellar component and its more massive
   Methanol at the 36.1 GHz transition can be ei-         neighbor(s) may be causing the circumstellar disk
ther thermal or a maser. We obtained 6 hours              and hance outflow of this component to precess.
green time on the Australia Telescope Compact
Array located in Narribri, Australia in order to          2.16.   Evidence for the Disintegration of
observe this transition, using 1024 channels and 4                Young Stellar Systems at Millimeter
MHz bandwidth.                                                    Wavelengths
   We report that this transition is not an obvious
                                                             Luis Zapata (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioas-
maser as there were no detections on the longer
                                                                                             ı
                                                          tronomie, Germany), Luis F. Rodr´guez (Centro
baselines of an EW352 configuration. We obtained
                                                                          ı          ı              e
                                                          de Radioastrom´a y Astrofis´ca, UNAM, M´xico),
a brightness temperature of 34.35 K for the north-
                                                          Paul Ho (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy
ern lobe and 13.84 K for the southern lobe of the
                                                          and Astrophysics, Taiwan
molecular outflow. This is the first observation of
                                                          and Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,
a possible maser in a low mass star forming region
                                                          USA), Karl Menten and Johannes Schmid-Burgk
with an interferometer.
                                                          (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Ger-
                                                          many)
2.15.   Precessing Outflow in the L1551
        IRS5 Protostellar System
                                                             We present recent arcsecond resolution (∼ 3′′ )
   Po-Feng Wu, Shigehisa Takakuwa, Jeremy Lim             CO[2→1] line observations made with the Submil-
(Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and As-           limeter Array (SMA) in mosacing mode toward
trophysics, Taipei, Taiwan)                               the remarkable molecular outflow in the Orion
                                                          BN/KL star-forming region. Our observations re-
   The multiple protostellar system L1551 IRS5            solve the CO[2→1] molecular content of inner-
exhibits a large-scale bipolar molecular outflow           most part of this expanding structure into sev-
that spans 1.5 pc on both NE (redshifted) and             eral very well-defined “jet-like” feature fragment-
SW (blueshifted) sides of the system. We have             ing into “bullets”. Connecting the positions of the
studied this outflow within 4000 AU of its central         molecular bullets allow us for the first time to pin-
protostars in CO(2-1) at a resolution of 4( 560)          point the origin of the KL outflow which we find
with the SubMillimeter Array. Our image reveals           to be coincident within the errors with the posi-
three distinct molecular outflow components. 1)            tion from where the radio and infrared sources BN,
An X-shaped structure, with a similar symmetry            I and n were ejected 500 years ago, suggesting a
axis and velocity pattern as the large-scale out-         close relationship between both events. This result
flow, extending 20” (3000 AU) from center. This            supports the possibility that the BN/KL outflow


                                                      6
was produced by the disintegration of a young stel-        the bright mid-IR Galactic background. IRDCs
lar system. Finally, we will show images of some           harbor compact cores which may be the pre-
other molecules that could be tracing the remains          cursors to stellar clusters. The Combined Ar-
of this explosive event.                                   ray for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy
                                                           (CARMA) presents an exceptional opportunity to
3.     Galactic Star Formation : High-Mass                 study in detail the structure and dynamics of these
                                                           proto-cluster cores at high angular resolution. We
3.1.    Tracing the earliest stages of massive             present CARMA continuum observations of 22
        star formation in G14.2-0.60                       cores, selected from the dense cores found in the
   Gemma Busquet (Departament d’Astronomia i               Cygnus-X region (Motte et al. 2007) and from
Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona,         the IRDC cores survey of Rathborne et al. (2006).
Spain), Qizhou Zhang (Harvard-Smithsonian Cen-             The objective of this study is to establish the pres-
ter for Astrophysics. Cambridge, USA), Robert              ence of mass segregation at the formative stage of a
Estalella (Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorolo-           stellar cluster. The derived mass for the compact
gia, Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona, Spain),          clumps detected with CARMA range between a
Paul T.P. Ho (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for               few solar masses to ∼ 200 Msun, which indicates
Astrophysics. Cambridge, USA; Academia Sinica              that they can potentially form high mass stars.
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei,           We found that for the majority of the IRDC cores,
Taiwan), Thushara Pillai (Harvard-Smithsonian              the mass of the clumps found in their interiors en-
Center for Astrophysics. Cambridge, USA), Aina             compass a large fraction of the total mass of the
Palau (Laboratorio de Astrof´sica y Exoplanetas,
                              ı                            core.
                      ı
Centro de Astrobiolog´a (INTA-CSIC). Madrid,
Spain)                                                     3.3.   The LMC as a Massive Star Forma-
                                                                  tion Laboratory: The Case of N44
   The Infrared Dark Cloud G14.2-0.60, located                C.-H. R. Chen (University of Virginia, Char-
at a distance of 2.5 kpc, is a perfect laboratory to       lottesville, Virginia, USA), J. P. Seale, L. W.
study the initial conditions for massive star and          Looney, T. Wong, Y.-H. Chu, and R. A. Gruendl
cluster formation. We conducted high angular res-          (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA),
olution observations with the SMA in the com-              and J. Ott (National Radio Astronomy Observa-
pact and extended configuration in several molec-           tory, Socorro, New Mexico, USA)
ular lines, including molecular outflow tracers and
deuterated molecules, and in the continuum mode.              The recent Spitzer mid-IR observations re-
The 1.2 mm continuum emission reveals a clus-              vealed a large number of individually resolved
ter of 15 millimeter sources deeply embedded in            massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Mag-
the high-density gas, with masses ranging from             ellanic Clouds, providing an excellent chance to
∼ 0.9 M⊙ up to 25 M⊙ . The molecular line data             study massive star formation with metallicity and
shows that deuterated species such as DNC (3–              galactic environment different from the Milky
2) and DCO+ (3–2) are enhanced toward this re-             Way. Using Spitzer and complementary high-
gion. In addition, we have discovered two high-            resolution ground-based data, we have identified
velocity CO (2–1) molecular outflows arising from           60 YSOs in the LMC HII complex N44, modeled
two different millimeter condensations, indicating          their spectral energy distributions, and found that
that active star formation is taking place.                these YSOs span a range of mass from a few to
                                                           ∼ 45M⊙, as well as a range of evolutionary stage
3.2.    Search for Primordial Mass Segrega-                from highly embedded to retaining only remnant
        tion in Protocluster Cores                         circumstellar material (Chen et al. 2009). We
     J. M. Carpenter and L. Perez (Caltech)                have obtained new HCN and HCO+ observations
                                                           with Australia Telescope Compact Array of two
                                                           main molecular cores in N44, to investigate (1)
   Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDC) are cold, dense
                                                           Where the dense molecular gas is and how it cor-
regions that are seen as extinction features against
                                                           relates with YSOs at different evolutionary stages,


                                                       7
and (2) What the relationship is between molec-            to the molecular outflows. Continuum and line ra-
ular clump properties and YSO masses. In this              diative transfer modeling of the observed disk-like
poster we present the preliminary results of the           structures is underway.
N44 study.
                                                           3.6.   Linking pre– and proto–stellar ob-
3.4.   Origin of high-mass stars and clusters                     jects in the intermediate-/high-mass
       in DR21(OH)                                                star forming region IRAS05345+3157
  T. Csengeri, S. Bontemps, F. Motte, N.                      F. Fontani (ISDC & Observatoire de Geneve,
Schneider, Ph. Andre (SAp-IRFU / AIM-CNRS,                 Versoix, Switzerland), P. Caselli (University of
CEA Saclay), F. Gueth (IRAM Grenoble), P.                  Leeds), T.L. Bourke and Q. Zhang (Harvard-
Hennebelle (ENS Paris)                                     Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

   We study the DR21 filament located in the                   To better understand the initial conditions of
Cygnus-X star forming region - one of the closest          the high-mass star formation process, it is crucial
site hosting high-mass star formation, where sig-          to study at high-angular resolution the morphol-
nificant amount of the gas is concentrated at very          ogy, the kinematics, and eventually the interac-
high density. With single-dish (IRAM 30m) data             tions of the coldest condensations associated with
we study the properties of the collapsing filament          intermediate-/high-mass forming (proto)clusters.
on large scale (1 pc), while with interferometric          This work studies the cold condensations in
data (PdBI) we obtain the distribution of mat-             the intermediate-/high-mass proto-cluster nearby
ter and the kinematics on smaller scale (0.01 pc).         IRAS 05345+3157, focusing the attention on the
Therefore we aim to understand: (1) the initial            interaction with the other objects in the clus-
conditions of the collapsing filament, which forms          ter. We have performed millimeter high-angular
massive protostars; (2) to study the fragmentation         resolution observations, both in the continuum
and the kinematic properties of individual massive         and several molecular lines, with the PdBI and
condensations on small scales; (3) to follow the           the SMA. In a recent paper, we have already
link between the protostars and their close envi-          published part of these data. The main find-
ronment to test different theoretical views for their       ing of that work was the detection of two cold
evolution.                                                 and dense gaseous condensations, called N and S
                                                           (masses 2 and 9 M⊙ ), characterised by high val-
3.5.   High resolution mm line and contin-                 ues of the deuterium fractionation (∼ 0.1 in both
       uum observation of massive disk can-                cores) obtained from the column density ratio
       didates                                             N(N2 D+ )/N(N2 H+ ). The present work give a full
                                                           report of the observations, and a complete analysis
   C. Fallscheer and H. Beuther (MPIA Heidel-
                                                           of the data obtained. The millimeter maps reveal
berg, Germany), Q. Zhang, T.K. Sridharan and
                                                           the presence of 3 cores inside the interferometer
E. Keto (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, USA), and J.
                                                           fields of view, called C1-a, C1-b and C2. All of
Sauter and S. Wolf (University of Kiel, Germany)
                                                           them are not associated with cores N and S. C1-
                                                           b is very likely associated with an early-B newly
   We have obtained multiple data sets from the            formed ZAMS star embedded inside a hot-core,
SMA, PdBI, and IRAM 30m telescope of the In-               while C1-a is more likely associated with a class 0
frared Dark Cloud IRDC 18223-3, and the some-              intermediate-mass protostar. The nature of C2 is
what more evolved High-Mass Protostellar Object            unclear. Both C1-a and C1-b are good candidates
IRAS 18151-1208 in order to search for clues re-           as driving sources of a powerful 12CO outflow,
garding the role of rotation and disks in high mass        which strongly interacts with N, as demonstrated
star formation. These observations allow us to             by the velocity gradient of the gas along this con-
compare the central-most regions surrounding the           densation. The study of the gas kinematics across
embedded continuum source at different evolution-           the source indicates a tight interaction between
ary stages of the formation process. Toward both           the deuterated condensations and the sources em-
regions we see rotational structures perpendicular         bedded in the millimeter cores. For the nature


                                                       8
of N and S, we propose two scenarios: they can             as well as the role of turbulence and stellar feed-
be low-mass pre–stellar condensations or ’seeds’           back in these processes. In the meantime it is
of future high-mass star(s).                               essential to identify the most suitable candidates
                                                           for study with ALMA. Through a millimetre con-
3.7.   Very Small HII Regions Embedded in                  tinuum emission study of massive star formation
       Massive Accretion Flows                             regions in the Galaxy, we have identified a large
                                                           number of sources that could represent the earliest
   R. Galvan-Madrid, Q. Zhang, and E. Keto
                                                           stages of massive star formation. Spectral energy
(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics),
                                                           distribution modelling and analysis indicates that
Luis F. Rodriguez, and Stan Kurtz (Centro de
                                                           these ‘mm-only’ cores are excellent candidates for
Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM), Paul T.
                                                           early stage protostars or massive young stellar ob-
P. Ho (ASIAA)
                                                           jects. We present here the results of a large-scale
                                                           high-sensitivity spectral line investigation of these
   We present preliminary results of an SMA+VLA            millimetre continuum cores, initiated to ascertain
study of a small sample of hypercompact and                their physical and chemical properties and ulti-
small ultracompact HII regions with evidence of            mately to address whether they display evidence
accretion flows surrounding them. Molecular-line            of massive star formation and thus whether they
observations at a resolution of a few arcseconds           are indicative of the earliest stags of massive star
reveal motions in the natal cores indicative of            evolution.
rotation, infall, and/or outflow. Sub-arcsecond
resolution data show that these regions are often          3.9.   Unveiling the main heating sources in
a small group of massive (proto)stars, usually at                 the Cepheus A HW2 star cluster
different evolutionary stages. The hypercompact
HII regions with positive spectral index from cm to                   e
                                                              I. Jim´nez-Serra (School of Physics & As-
mm wavelengths are the most compact and most               tronomy, The University of Leeds, Leeds, UK),
embedded, and spectral index modelling suggests                     ı
                                                           J. Mart´n-Pintado (Centro de Astrobiolog´ a  ı
the presence of density gradients in the ionized           (CSIC/INTA), Madrid, Spain), P. Caselli (School
gas. These regions are also surrounded by flat-             of Physics & Astronomy, The University of Leeds,
tened molecular envelopes with evidence of rota-                                   ı
                                                           Leeds, UK), S. Mart´n (Harvard-Smithsonian
tion, infall, and/or outflow at scales smaller than         Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA), A.
0.1 pc, and present large, organized motions in                 ı                                 ı
                                                           Rodr´guez-Franco (Centro de Astrobiolog´ a (CSIC/INTA),
the ionized gas at scales of order 0.01 pc.                Madrid, Spain), C. Chandler (National Radio
                                                           Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, USA), and
3.8.   Massive Star Formation: Where should                J.M. Winters (Institut de Radio Astronomie Mil-
       ALMA look?                                             e
                                                           lim´trique, Grenoble, France)
   Hill, T. (University of Exeter, Exeter, UK),
                                                              We present high angular resolution (beam of
Cunningham, M. R. and Burton M. G. (Uni-
                                                           0.33”) images of the J=27→26 line from several
versity of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia),
                                                           vibrational levels (v7 =1 and v6 =1) of HC3 N to-
Longmore, S. N. (Center for Astrophysics, USA),
                                                           ward the Cepheus A HW2 star forming region.
and Minier. V. (CEA/Saclay, France)
                                                           These images reveal the two main heating sources
                                                           in the cluster: one centered in the disk collimating
   With the advent of new generation (sub)millimetre       the HW2 radio jet (the HW2 disk), and the other
telescopes, such as the state-of-the art Atacama           associated with a hot core at 0.3′′ northeast HW2
Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the investigation           (the HC). This constitutes the first detection of
of massive star formation regions in the Galaxy            vibrational excited emission of HC3 N in a proto-
will undergo a major transformation. High res-             stellar disk. We derive the temperature profiles in
olution submillimetre observations with ALMA               the two objects from the excitation of HC3 N along
will allow many of the outstanding questions sur-          the HW2 disk and across the HC. These profiles
rounding massive star formation to be addressed,           reveal that both objects are centrally heated and
including the details of how high-mass stars form          show temperature gradients. The inner and hot-


                                                       9
ter regions have temperatures of 350 K and 270 K             young stellar cluster(s). We have been extending
for the HW2 disk and the HC, respectively. In the            our observations to higher transition lines in CO
cooler and outer regions, the temperature drops to           and its isotopes as well as CI in submm with higher
250 K in the HW2 disk, and to 220 K in the HC.               resolution by NANTEN2 and ASTE. In particu-
The estimated luminosity of the heating source of            lar, a detailed study of the clumps in the N159
the HW2 disk is ∼2.2×104 L⊙ , and ∼3000 L⊙ for               region, an active site of massive star formation in
the HC. The most massive protostar in the HW2                the Large Magellanic Cloud, has been made. The
cluster is the powering source of the HW2 radio              12CO (4-3) emission is used for excitation calcu-
jet. We discuss the formation of multiple systems            lations by combining the other transitions of the
in this cluster. The proximity of the HC to HW2,             12CO (1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) as well as 13CO and the
and the different stages of evolution of these ob-            temperatures and densities of the clumps are de-
jects, suggest that the HC and the HW2 source                termined to be ∼ 70-80K and ∼ 3 × 103 cm−3 in
likely form a binary system of B stars.                      the active star forming region in the North and ∼
                                                             30K and ∼ 1.6 × 103 cm−3 in the Southern region
3.10.   Molecular clouds and star formation                  without active star formation.
        in the Magellanic Clouds
                                                             3.11.   Outflows from Newly-Formed Mas-
   Kawamura, A., Mizuno, Y., Muller, E., Ya-
                                                                     sive Stars
mamoto, H., Okuda, T., Mizuno, A., Fukui, Y.
(Nagoya University, Japan), Onishi, T. (Nagoya                 Kee-Tae Kim (Korea Astronomy and Space Sci-
University, Japan, and Osaka Prefecture Univer-              ence Institute)
sity, Japan), Minamidani, T. (Hokkaido Univer-
sity, Japan), Mizuno, N., Ezawa, H., Yamaguchi,                 Compared to low-mass star formation, little is
N., Kohno, K., Hasegawa, T., Tatematsu, K. (Na-              known about the formation process of high-mass
tional Astronomical Observatory, Japan), Kohno,              stars. It is still debated whether high-mass stars
K. (University of Tokyo, Japan), Stutzki, J. (Uni-           form in a manner qualitatively similar to low-mass
versity of Cologn, Germany), Klein, U., Bertoldi,            stars, and there are two major competing mod-
F. (University of Bonn, Germany), Koo, B. C.                 els: accretion via disks and coalescence of low-
(Seoul National University, Korea), Rubio, M.                mass (proto)stars. In order to distinguish between
(Universidad de Chile, Chile), Burton, M. (Uni-              the two, we carried out high-resolution molecu-
versity of New South Wales, Australia), Benz,                lar line observations and near-infrared H2 narrow-
A. (ETH Zurich, Switzerland), Ott, J. (NRAO,                 band imaging of several high-mass YSOs. We will
USA, and Caltech Astronomy, USA), Wong,                      present the results and discuss the implications.
T. (University of Illinois, USA), Hughes, A.
(ATNF/CSIRO, Australia, and Swinburne Uni-                   3.12.   Properties of Supercritical Massive
versity of Technology, Australia), and NANTEN2                       Cores
team
                                                                D. Li, N. Chapman, P.-F. Goldsmith, and T.
                                                             Velusamy (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California
   We have made a catalog of about 300 molecular
                                                             Institute of Technology), and Q. Zhang and C. Qi
clouds in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds
                                                             (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
through the 12CO(1-0) observations by NANTEN,
a 4 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in
Chile. We have utilized the catalog of GMCs to                  Based on surveys of submillimeter continuum
compare the cloud distribution with signatures of            and spectroscopy toward the Orion molecular
massive star formation, stellar clusters, and classi-        clouds (Li et al. 2003, 2007, Velusamy et al. 2008),
cal HII regions. We find that the molecular clouds            we have identified a sample of massive cores that
are classified into three types according to the as-          are likely supercritical. The closeness of Orion
sociated activities of massive star formation; Type          and the resolving power of interferometers pro-
I shows no signature of massive star formation,              vide a unique opportunity to study these cores
Type II is associated with relatively small HII re-          down to the thermal Jeans level, which has not
gion(s) and Type III with both HII region(s) and             been possible for massive cores. We accomplish


                                                        10
this by imaging the high density tracer N2H+ us-            (AIM, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay,
ing CARMA and SMA. With resolution ranging                  France), S. Bontemps (Observatoire de Bordeaux,
from 1 to 3 arcsec of different rotational transi-           France)
tions of this tracer, detailed structures of cores
are revealed on scales meaningful to individual                W43 is an exceptionally active star-forming re-
star forming sites. Combined with analysis of               gion which harbors a starburst cluster and a very
multiband dust continuum involving far infrared             dense and massive molecular complex at a dis-
data from our Spitzer GO program, these studies             tance ∼6 kpc. It appears as the second strongest
provide accurate measurement of the mass and                region in 13 CO line and 870 µm continuum emis-
dynamics. These massive cores in Orion have a               sion after the Galactic center. Single-dish observa-
flatter mass function than the Salpeter IMF and              tions of this molecular complex have revealed that
show signs of collapse.                                     more than a dozen of massive stars (M> 10 M⊙ )
                                                            are actually forming. With the IRAM 30m tele-
3.13.   Cluster and Massive Star Formation                  scope, the two brightest and most massive pro-
        in Protostellar Outflow-Driven Tur-                  toclusters have been observed to be rapidly con-
        bulence                                             tracting (infall speed of several km/s) over parsec
   Z.-Y. Li (University of Virginia, USA), Fumi-            scales. Using the IRAM PdBI interferometer for
taka Nakamura (Niigata University, Japan), Peng             follow-up observations, we probe the structure and
Wang and Tom Abel (Stanford University, USA)                kinematics of these two protoclusters to a deeper
                                                            and smaller scale down to a ∼ 0.1 pc scale. We will
                                                            here present our preliminary results, among which
   The majority of stars, including most if not all
                                                            the infall velocity field we have followed from the
massive stars, are formed in clusters. In crowded
                                                            protocluster down to the dense core scales.
regions of cluster and massive star formation, feed-
back from protostellar outflows is expected to be
                                                            3.15.   Temperature and Density Distribu-
especially important. In this talk, I will first
                                                                    tions in the Two Giant Molecular
demonstrate that protostellar outflows of strength
                                                                    Clouds toward Westerlund 2
in the observed range can replenish the turbu-
lence dissipated in typical cluster-forming dense              A. Ohama, N. Furukawa, J. Dawson, A. Kawa-
clumps, and that the majority of cluster members            mura, H. Yamamoto, T. Onish and Y. Fukui (De-
are formed in a protostellar outflow-driven turbu-           partment of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya
lence. I will then present the results of our recent        University), and N. Mizuno (National Astronom-
high-resolution AMR (adaptive mesh refinement)               ical Observation of Japan)
MHD simulations of cluster formation that include
both sink particles and protostellar outflows, fo-              Westerlund 2 (Wd2) is a super star cluster as-
cusing on the mass accretion rates onto stars, es-          sociated with HII region (RCW49) at the Carina
pecially massive stars. We find that the massive             arm. It consists of twelve massive O-type stars and
stars in our simulations are formed neither from            two Wolf-Rayet stars, with an estimated age of 2
pre-existing dense cores nor through Bondi-Hoyle            -3 million years and having a total stellar mass of
type accretion; their formation is controlled by            several thousands solar mass confined within one
the global dynamics of the cluster-forming clumps,          pc.
which are strongly affected by protostellar out-                In this work, we have carried out observation
flows. We will discuss the implications of this pic-         of 12CO J=2-1 emission and 13CO J=2-1 emis-
ture of outflow-regulated cluster and massive star           sion with NANTEN2 telescope. We examine the
formation for high-resolution observations, espe-           intensity ratio of these traces, incorporating obser-
cially with ALMA.                                           vations of the CO J=1-0 with NANTEN telescope,
                                                            and use LVG analysis to estimate physical prop-
3.14.   Massive star formation within the
                                                            erties of the detected molecular gas.
        collapsing protoclusters in W43
                                                               We report the discovery of two giant molecular
  Q. Nguyen-Luong, F. Motte, N. Schneider                   clouds, named after their systemic LSR velocities


                                                       11
as the 4 km s-1 cloud and 16 km s-1 cloud. The              3.17.   Implications for small-scale clumpi-
morphology of these clouds correlated well with                     ness in massive cores
Spitzer IRAC image. We find that the intensity
                                                               L. Pirogov and I. Zinchenko (Institute of Ap-
ratio of CO J=2-1 and 1-0 is as high as 1.4 1.5 at
                                                            plied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
the edge of the 4km s-1 cloud. We here present dis-
                                                            Nizhny Novgorod, Russia)
tributions of temperature and density in the two
GMCs as derived from a LVG analysis of the CO
J=2-1 and 1-0 transitions. The results may indi-                Massive molecular cloud cores are clumpy on
cate the shocked region between the molecular gas           different spatial scales probably down to the scales
and the stellar wind or the UV from Wd2. We will            unresolved by single dish telescopes. A large num-
present the evidence that these molecular clouds            ber of unresolved clumps in the beam could give
are associated with super star cluster Westerlund           detectable intensity fluctuations (ripples) on line
2.                                                          profiles obtained with high signal-to-noise ratios.
                                                            Such ripples have been detected on the HCN(1–
3.16.   Spectral Energy Distributions of 6.7                0), HCO+ (1–0), CO(1–0) and marginally on the
        GHz methanol masers                                 CS(2–1) line profiles observed towards distinct po-
                                                            sitions in selected high-mass star-forming regions.
                                        u
   J. D. Pandian (Max-Planck-Institut f¨r Ra-               A number of clumps in the beam is determined
dioastronomie, Bonn, Germany), E. Momjian                   with a help of analytical model. Physical parame-
(NRAO Socorro, USA), Y. Xu (Purple Mountain                 ters of distinct clumps are derived from detailed
Observatory, China), K. M. Menten (Max-Planck-              calculations in the framework of clumpy cloud
          u
Institut f¨r Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany),               model.
and P. F. Goldsmith (Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
Pasadena, USA)                                              3.18.   High angular resolution studies of
                                                                    Infrared Dark Cloud cores: under-
   We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs)                  standing the very earliest stages in
of a flux limited sample of 6.7 GHz methanol                         the formation of high-mass stars and
masers, which are thought to be signposts of early                  clusters
phases of massive star formation. To obtain con-
                                                               J. M. Rathborne, G. Garay (Departamento de
straints on the age of the massive young stellar
                                                            Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Chile), J. M.
objects associated with the masers, we obtained
                                                            Jackson, E. T. Chambers (Institute for Astrophys-
3.6 cm, 1.3 cm and 7 mm continuum data with the
                                                            ical Research, Boston University, U.S.A), and Q.
VLA at comparable angular resolution towards a
                                                            Zhang and S. Longmore (Harvard-Smithsonian
sample of 20 methanol masers selected from the
                                                            Center for Astrophysics, U.S.A)
Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey.
The emission at these wavelengths is dominated
by thermal bremmsstrahlung, whose turn-over fre-               Infrared Dark Clouds are a distinct class of
quency is correlated to the age of the young stellar        interstellar gas cloud identified as dark extinc-
object. More than half of the methanol masers in            tion features seen in silhouette against the bright
our sample have no emission at 3.6 cm and 1.3 cm,           Galactic background at mid-IR wavelengths. Our
while the spectral index of the majority of the re-         recent 1.2 mm continuum emission survey of
maining sources is consistent with optically thick          IRDCs reveal many compact (¡ 0.5 pc) and mas-
free-free emission. Most sources were detected at           sive (10 to 2100 Msun) cores within them. These
millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths using              pre-stellar cores hold the key to understanding
the IRAM-30 meter and APEX telescopes respec-               IRDCs and their role in star formation. About
tively. This work shows that methanol masers are            1/3 of these cores show evidence for active star-
mostly associated with phases of massive star for-          formation; shocked gas, outflows, and embedded
mation prior to the formation of a hypercompact             protostars. The remaining 2/3 of these cores show
HII region, in which the HII region is pinched off           no signs of active star formation and may be mas-
by accretion.                                               sive starless cores. Here we present recent high
                                                            angular resolution molecular line maps and sub-


                                                       12
mm continuum images toward six high-mass cores              3.21.   Fragmentation in the Massive Star-
obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interfer-                    Forming Region IRAS 19410+2336:
ometer and the SMA. The mm/submm continuum                          a Core Mass Function resembling
images elucidate the sub-parsec scale structure,                    the IMF
and reveal that the cores are typically resolved
                                                                         o
                                                               J.A. Rod´n and H. Beuther (Max-Planck-
into multiple protostellar condensations. A com-
                                                                      u
                                                            Institut f¨r Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany),
parison of the ratios of the gas masses to the Jeans
                                                                                                 u
                                                            and P. Schilke (Max-Planck-Institut f¨r Radioas-
masses for IRDCs, cores, and condensations, pro-
                                                            tronomie, Bonn, Germany)
vides broad support for the idea of hierarchical
fragmentation. The close proximity of multiple
protostars of disparate mass indicates that these              Massive stars are known to form in clustered
IRDC cores are in the earliest evolutionary states          mode. During their earliest evolutionary stages,
in the formation of stellar clusters. In two cases,         they are embedded within their natal cores. Using
however, we find that the cores are unresolved               high-spatial-resolution interferometric dust con-
at sub-arcsec angular resolution and that their             tinuum observations, we disentangle once more the
molecular line spectrum reveals numerous emis-              cluster-like structure of the massive star-forming
sion lines from complex molecules. Such a rich              region IRAS 19410+2336, and derive its Core
molecular line spectrum from a compact region               Mass Function (CMF). This time we surmount
indicates that these contain a hot molecular core,          caveats of similar previous works, most important,
an early stage in the formation of a high-mass pro-         using molecular line emission we determine the
tostar. Together, these data support the idea that          temperature of the detected cores. Having a more
the earliest stages of high-mass star and cluster           reliable value for the temperature, the core masses
formation occurs within IRDCs.                              can be better determined, obtaining a better and
                                                            more accurate CMF. This CMF is consistent with
3.19.   An outflow in G8.67-0.36                             the stellar Initial Mass Function, implying that the
                                                            fragmentation of the initial massive cores may de-
  Z. Ren, T. Liu, and Y. Wu (Peking University)             termine the IMF and the masses of the final stars.

   Methanol masers uniquely accompany high-                 3.22.   DNC/HNC Ratio in               High-Mass
mass star formation regions. We have been work-                     Star-Forming Regions
ing on mapping of methanol maser sources via
                                                               T. Sakai (Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Na-
single dish telescopes and high resolution observa-
                                                            tional Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Nagano,
tion with SMA. In one source G8.68-0.36, a single
                                                            Japan), N. Sakai, S. Shiba, S. Yamamoto (The
dense core is found in its central region. Strong
                                                            University of Tokyo, Japan), and T. Hirota (Na-
emission of N2H+(3-2) is detected, indicating an
                                                            tional Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo,
active pre-stellar core with N-bearing molecules
                                                            Japan)
being synthesized. H2CO (4-3) images of different
velocities present two outflow lobes with blue and
red shift. The data we have shows that it is a                 In order to investigate formation processes of
high mass pre-stellar core with evident kinematic           high-mass protostars, it is indispensable to under-
activities.                                                 stand the initial physical conditions of their parent
                                                            clouds. With this in mind, we have carried out a
3.20.   slow outflow motion in a High-mass                   survey of the HN13 C J=1–0 and DNC J=1–0 lines
        star formation core                                 toward high-mass star forming regions, including
                                                            infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), high-mass proto-
   Z. Ren, Y. Wu, T. Liu et al. (Peking Univer-             stellar objects (HMPOs), and hot cores (HCs), by
sity)                                                       using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m tele-
                                                            scope. We have successfully detected the HN13 C
  will submit before deadline                               and DNC lines toward all the observed objects.
                                                            We have found that the DNC/HN13 C ratio is dif-
                                                            ferent even among the objects in a similar evo-


                                                       13
lutionary stage. For example, the DNC/HN13 C                 mainly distributed just outside the CO outflow,
peak intensity ratio is about four times higher              indicating that CH3 OH exists in a post-shock
toward I18264-1152 (∼0.8) than toward I18089-                layer caused by an interaction between the out-
1732 (∼0.2), where I18089-1732 and I18264-1152               flow and an ambient gas. On the other hand, the
are recognized as HMPOs and are associated with              HCOOCH3 distribution has no relation with the
CH3 OH masers. Since the DNC/HNC ratio is                    outflow, suggesting that the outflow is not a direct
thought to vary with a timescale of 105 yr in a hot          origin of HCOOCH3 . The HCOOCH3 clump in
gas phase, the DNC/HN13 C ratio observed toward              the MMS3 region is located toward rather per-
the HMPOs could reflect the deuterium fraction in             pendicular direction to the outflow, just as in the
a cold starless phase. Thus, the difference in the            case of Orion KL. An origin of the similarity is
DNC/HN13 C ratio may reflect the difference in the             discussed.
initial condition. In this talk, we will discuss the
origin of the difference in the DNC/HNC ratio in              References; Schreyer, K. et al. A&A, 326, 347
detail, and also discuss future observation plans.           (1997); Sakai, N. et al. ApJ. 660, 363 (2007).

3.23.   SMA Observation of NGC2264 MMS3,                     3.24.   The intermediate mass star-forming
        a Candidate for ’High-Mass Class 0’                          region IRAS 00117+6412: Three in-
        Protostar                                                    termediate mass YSOs in the mak-
                                                                     ing
   O. Saruwatari and N. Sakai (The University
of Tokyo), T. Sakai (NRO), S.-Y. Liu and N.-Y.                  ´        a
                                                                Alvaro S´nchez-Monge (Departament d’Astronomia
Su (ASIAA), S. Yamamoto (The University of                   i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona,
Tokyo)                                                       Spain), Aina Palau (Laboratorio de Astrof´sicaı
                                                             Estelar y Exoplanetas, Centro de Astrobilog´a    ı
   The NGC2264IRS1 region is a nearby high-                  (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain), Gemma Busquet,
mass star forming region lying at a distance of              Robert Estalella (Departament d’Astronomia i
760 pc, which involves a bright millimeter-wave              Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona,
continuum source, MMS3. MMS3 has been be-                    Spain), Qizhou Zhang (Harvard-Smithsonian Cen-
lieved to contain a high-mass protostar because              ter for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA), and Paul
of its large mass (48 M⊙ ). A hot core molecule,             T. P. Ho (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for As-
HCOOCH3 , is detected around MMS3 (Sakai et al.              trophysics, Cambridge, USA), (Academia Sinica
2007). Although a compact outflow of CS(J=5-4)                Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei,
is reported by Schreyer et al. (1997), it is not             Taiwan)
clear whether the driving source is really MMS3,
because of poor spatial resolution of their obser-              IRAS 00117+6412, located at a distance of
vation. In the present study, we have conducted a            only 1.8 kpc, is an intermediate mass star-forming
high resolution observation of the molecular out-            region appropriate to study the clustered mode
flow with the CO(J=2-1) and CH3 OH(Jk =5k -4k )               of star formation. We conducted high-resolution
lines using SMA.                                             and high-sensitivity observations with the PdBI,
   A compact outflow obviously associated with                SMA and VLA arrays to study the different young
MMS3 has been detected with the both lines,                  stellar objects (YSOs) embedded in this region
whose dynamical age is as young as 300 - 4000                through continuum, dense gas and molecular out-
yr. Considering that no Spitzer source is associ-            flow emission. We present here the first results
ated with MMS3, it is highly likely that MMS3                obtained from these observations. The region is
contains a very young high-mass protostar corre-             dominated by three main YSOs in different evo-
sponding to a ’Class 0’ object. Such a source is             lutionary stages: (1) a shell-like ultracompact HII
very novel, and hence, MMS3 would be a good                  region produced by a B2 star at the border of a
target for understanding of an initial stage of high-        cloud with multiple subcondensations, (2) a dust
mass star formation.                                         compact source embedded in dense gas with near
   In our observation, the CH3 OH outflow is                  infrared emission, and powering one or more CO
                                                             bipolar outflows, and (3) a compact dust source


                                                        14
with no infrared neither outflow emission, but with          motion and it fragments into small cloudlets. In
signposts of rotation and infalling motions.                order to verify this idea we made high-resolution
                                                            12
                                                               CO survey on a cloud boundary interacting with
3.25.   SMA Observations of the UC H II                     HII region by the Nobeyama 45m telescope. As a
        Region G5.89-0.39                                   result, small-scale (≤ 10000 AU) cloud structures
                                                            with complex velocity fields are detected.
   Y.-N. Su, S.-Y. Liu, K.-S. Wang (Academia
Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics,
                                                            3.27.   A high resolution study of the core
Taipei, Taiwan), Y.-H. Chen (Department of
                                                                    JCMT 18354-0649S
Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Tai-
wan), and H.-R. Chen (Institute of Astronomy                  T. Liu, Y. Wu, Z. Ren and X. Guan (Astron-
and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua               omy Dep., Peking Univ.), Q. Zhang (Harvard-
University, Hsinchu, Taiwan)                                Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), and M.
                                                            Zhu (JAC/NRCC, Herzherg Institute of Astro-
   We present observations of the CH3 CN (12−11)            physics)
emission at a resolution of ∼2′′ toward the high-
mass star forming region G5.89−9.39 with the                   Core JCMT 18354-0649S is a high-mass pro-
Submillimeter Array. The integrated CH3 CN                  tostellar object with both inflow and outflow ac-
emission reveals a cavity of dense molecular gas            cording to previous single dish studies. We carried
centered at the H II region G5.89−0.39 and ex-              out an observation with the Submillimeter Array
hibits dense and warm molecular gas in its pe-              at 1.3 mm wavelength. The continuum revealed
riphery, consistent with the picture of a dust and          that the core has a diameter of less than 2” and a
molecular gas free cavity within the H II region.           mass of 127 M⊙ . HCN J=3-2 line profile exhibits
The CH3 CN gas peaks at three dust condensa-                collapse signature which is consistent with the re-
tions previously detected in sub-millimeter con-            sult of the single dish obseration. The profiles of
tinuum. With the population diagram analysis,               the HCN J=3–2 lines also show high velocity gas.
we estimate the temperature of the molecular gas            The HCN line wings are almost total at the blue or
and present spatial distributions of temperature            red side of the systematic velocity. Three outflow
toward G5.89−0.39. The deduced temperatures                 lobes are manifested on the HCN J=3–2 image.
range from ∼40 K to ∼150 K. We discuss illumi-              The parameters of the inflow and ouflow are cal-
nation mechanisms of the warm dense gas and con-            culated. Our results suggest that an active high
clude that the H II region powering star provides           mass protostar is forming at the core center.
the majority energy for heating the surrounding
dense gas.                                                  3.28.   CO(1-0) mapping of four IRDCs
                                                              jianjun Zhou (Urumqi Observatory,NAOC,
3.26.   Small scale structure of cloud sur-
                                                            Urumqi city, Xinjiang, P.R. China)
        face perturbed by nearby HII region
  Kengo Tachihara (NAOJ)                                       IRDCs (Infrared dark clouds) are the sites
                                                            of high mass star\cluster formation, where very
   For molecular cloud evolution and star forma-            dense gas and relatively diffuse gas exist, multi-
tion, supersonic interstellar turbulence is one of          line studies are necessary to probe their physical
the key fundamental elements. Previous studies              conditions and chemical evolution. NH3 and CO
on dense core stability, it is shown that cores dom-        are good probes of dense and diffuse gas respec-
inated by larger internal turbulent motion tend             tively. We selected a sample of IRDCs that have
to be less active in star formation having longer           been observed by NH3 , and made CO mapping
timescale of contraction. However we still do not           using 13.7m millimeter radio telescope of Purple
know yet what interstellar turbulence originates            Mountain Observatory. We hope to get more de-
and how it is sustained long time. Koyama & In-             tailed knowledge of their physical conditions and
utsuka proposed an idea that thermal instability            relative evolution. Here we report the result of
on a compressed cloud layer generates turbulent             CO mapping of 4 IRDCs.


                                                       15
3.29.   W3-SE: a star forming core with                   4.     Galactic Star Formation : Outflows and
        high-energy outflow and infall                            Jets
   Lei Zhu (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for As-            4.1.    SMA high angular millimeter-submillimeter
trophysics; Peking University, China), J.-H. Zhao                 observations: dust in the heart of
(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics),                    GGD27
M. Wright (University of California, Berkeley),
and Y.-F. Wu (Peking University, China)                     M. Fernandez-Lopez and S. Curiel (Instituto de
                                                          Astronomia, UNAM,Mexico City, Mexico.), J.M.
                                                          Girart (Institut de Ciencies de l’Espai (CSIC-
   We report the results from the observations of
                                                          IEEC), Barcelona, Spain.), N. Patel (Harvard-
W3-SE with the SMA, CARMA and JCMT. Lo-
                                                          Smithsonian CfA, Cambridge, USA.), and Y.
cated 2 kpc away, W3-SE is a molecular core SE
                                                          Gomez (CRYA, UNAM, Morelia, Mexico.)
of the active high-mass star formation region W3-
Main. Based on the measurements of flux densi-
ties at mm/sub-mm along with the Spitzer data at             The GGD27 system, also known as HH 80-81,
mid-IR wavelengths, we have determined the SED            is one of the most powerful molecular outflows as-
of the dust emission from W3-SE. The SED can              sociated with a high mass star-forming region ob-
be fitted with a thermal dust model with two tem-          served up to now. Here we report the detection
perature components. Our best fitting suggests             of dust continuum emission at sub-arcsec/arcsec
the presence of a major cold dust component with          resolution with the SMA at 1.36 mm and 460
dust temperature of about 34 K and mass of about          µm, respectively. These observations reveal two
180 solar mass, as well as a mid-IR bump indicat-         compact dusty sources at 460 µm. One of them,
ing a small fraction of the dust which has been           SMM1, spatially coincides with the thermal radio
heated in the core. The observations of HCO+(1-           continuum jet, located at the center of the power-
0) line with the CARMA in an angular resolu-              ful molecular outflow. The other source, SMM2,
tion of 6 arcsec suggest that multiple outflows are        is located about 7′′ to the NE and spatially co-
present in this core. In the SMA observations at          incides with a weak radio continuum source and
1.3 mm with an angular resolution of 2.5 arcsec,          a water maser. The sub-arcsecond 1.36 mm ob-
the dust core of W3-SE has been resolved into             servations show that both sources are compact,
two components (SMA-1 and SMA-2) with com-                having sizes smaller than 1000 AU, which suggest
parable flux densities separated by about 4 arcsec.        that they are circunstellar disks around high mass
Molecular lines including HCN(3-2), HCO+(3-2),            protostars. The characteristics observed in both
N2H+(3-2) and CH3OH lines toward the double               sources suggest that they are in different evolu-
core have also been observed with the SMA. Both           tionary stages.
HCN(3-2) and HCO+(3-2) lines show broad blue-
and red-shifted wings with velocities of about 40         4.2.    Outflow - Core Interaction in Barnard
km/s with respect to from the systematic velocity                 1
of -39.0 km/s suggested by the peak velocity of              M. Hiramatsu, N. Hirano, S. Takakuwa (Academia
the optically thin lines of CH3OH. We have im-            Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics,
aged the blue- and red-shifted spectral wings, re-        Taipei, Taiwan), and T. Hasegawa (National As-
vealing a compact, high-velocity bipolar outflow           tronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan)
ejected from SMA-1 in the direction perpendicu-
lar to the large scale outflow observed with both             In order to study how the outflows from pro-
the SMA and the CARMA. From the lines in-                 tostars influence the physical and chemical condi-
cluding HCN(3-2), HCO+(3-2) and N2H+(3-2),                tions of the parent molecular cloud, we have stud-
we have detected self-absorption features toward          ied the Barnard 1 (B1) main core, which harbors
SMA-1 which are red-shifted with respect to the           three class 0 and three class I sources, in the CO,
systematic velocity, providing good evidences for         CH3 OH, and SiO lines using the NRO 45 m tele-
high density molecular gas moving toward SMA-1.           scope. We have identified two CO outflows in this
                                                          region; one is an elongated outflow from a class 0


                                                     16
protostar, B1-c, and the other is a rather compact          gas phase by means of shocks. It is found that
bipolar outflow from a class I protostar, B1-a. In           the jet is extremely active with a mechanical lu-
the western lobe of the B1-c outflow, both SiO and           minosity of > 6 L⊙ , which is comparable to the
CH3 OH lines show broad redshifted wings having             bolometric luminosity of the central source (7.5
the terminal velocities of 25 km/s and 13 km/s,             L⊙ ). The high mass-loss rate of 10−5 M⊙ yr−1
respectively. It is likely that the shocks caused           suggests that the mass and the age of the central
by the interaction between outflow and ambient               star are 0.02–0.07 M⊙ and (2–7)×103 yr, respec-
gas enhanced the abundance of SiO and CH3 OH                tively. The CO J=3–2 map revealed the second
in the gas phase. The total outflow energy input             outflow driven by theSpitzer source L1448C(S) lo-
rate (> 5.0 × 10−3 L⊙ ) is comparable to the en-            cated at ∼8.3′′ (2000 AU) from L1448C(N). Al-
ergy loss rate (8.8 × 10−3 L⊙ ) through turbulence          though L1448C(S) is brighter than L1448C(N) in
decay in the B1 main core, which indicates that             the mid-IR bands, the momentum flux of the out-
the outflows can provide enough energy to main-              flow from L1448C(S) is two or three orders of mag-
tain the turbulence in this region. In this poster          nitude smaller than that of the L1448C(N) out-
we will also discuss possibilities of higher resolu-        flow.
tion observations of YSO clusters/groups. Such
observations will help us to understand how the             4.4.   Shells, jets, and internal working sur-
current star formation scenario in the isolated en-                faces in the molecular outflow
vironment needs to be modified when the stars are
                                                                               ı
                                                               J. Santiago-Garc´a and M. Tafalla (Observato-
formed in the cluster environment.
                                                                       o
                                                            rio Astron´mico Nacional (IGN), Madrid, Spain
                                                            ), D. Johnstone (NRC Canada, Herzberg Insti-
4.3.   Extreme active molecular jet in L1448C
                                                            tute of Astrophysics, Victoria, Canada ), and
   N. Hirano, S.-Y. Liu, H. Shang, C.-F. Lee                                                 o
                                                            R. Bachiller (Observatorio Astron´mico Nacional
(Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and As-             (IGN), Madrid, Spain)
trophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), P.T.P. Ho (Academia
Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics,                We present Plateau de Bure CO(J=2–1) and
Taipei, Taiwan, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for              SiO(J=2–1) observations of the extremely young
Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.), and T.L.              and highly symmetric outflow from IRAS 04166+2706
Bourke (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astro-               in Taurus. We find that the outflow consists of two
physics, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.)                             distinct components. At velocities < 10 km s−1 ,
                                                            the gas forms two opposed, approximately conical
   The protostellar jet driven by L1448C was ob-            shells that have the YSO at their vertex. These
served in the SiO J=8–7 and CO J=3–2 lines                  shells coincide with the walls of evacuated cavities
and 350 GHz dust continuum at ∼1′′ resolution               and seem to result from the acceleration of the
with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). A narrow                ambient gas by a wide-angle wind. At velocities
jet along the outflow axis was observed in the SiO           > 30 km s−1 , the gas forms two opposed jets that
and the high-velocity CO. The jet consists of a             travel along the center of the cavities and whose
chain of emission knots with an inter-knot spac-            emission is dominated by a symmetric collection
ing of ∼2′′ (500 AU) and a semi-periodic velocity           of at least 7 pairs of peaks. The velocity field of
variation. These knots are likely to be the inter-          this component presents a sawtooth pattern with
nal bow shocks in the jet beam that were formed             the gas in the tail of each peak moving faster than
due to the periodic variation of the ejection veloc-        the gas in the head. This pattern, together with a
ity with a period of ∼15—20 yr. The innermost               systematic widening of the peaks with distance to
pair of knots, which are significant in the SiO map          the central source, is consistent with the emission
but barely seen in the CO, are located at ∼1′′ (250         arising from internal working surfaces traveling
AU) from the central source, L1448C(N). Since               along the jet and resulting from variations in the
the dynamical time for the innermost pair is only           velocity field of ejection. We interpret this com-
∼10 yr, SiO may have formed in the protostel-               ponent as the true protostellar wind, and we find
lar wind through the gas-phase reaction or formed           its composition consistent with a chemical model
on the dust grain and directly released into the            of such type of wind. Our results support outflow


                                                       17
wind models that have simultaneously wide-angle               debate in recent literature because their masses
and narrow components, and suggest that the                   are far below the typical mass where core collapse
EHV peaks seen in a number of outflows consist                 is expected to occur. Based on SMA observations,
of internally-shocked wind material.                          we present the first detection of a bipolar molecu-
                                                              lar outflow from a young brown dwarf of 60 Jupiter
4.5.   Rotating molecular outflows:               the          mass, ISO-Oph 102 in rho Ophiuchi. Our results
       young T Tauri star in CB26                             demonstrate that the bipolar molecular outflow
                                                              operates down to brown dwarf masses, occurring
   R. Launhardt, Ya. Pavlyuchenkov, Th. Hen-
                                                              in brown dwarfs as a scaled- down version of the
ning (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany), F. Gueth,
                                                              universal process seen in young low-mass stars.
V. Pietu (IRAM, Grenoble, France), A. Dutrey,
                        e
S. Guilloteau (Universit´ Bordeaux and CNRS,
                                                              4.7.   MHD Simulations of Accretion Disk
France), and K. Schreyer (Astrophysical Institut,
                                                                     Outflows From Low-Mass Stars
University Jena, Germany)
                                                                 George B. Trammell and Zhi-Yun Li (Univer-
   The disk-outflow connection is thought to play              sity of Virginia, Charlottesville VA, USA)
a key role in extracting excess angular momen-
tum from a forming proto-star. Though jet ro-                    Protostellar outflows are an integral part of the
tation has been observed in a few objects, no ro-             star formation process, as they provide feedback
tation of molecular outflows has been unambigu-                to the surrounding material in the forms of mass,
ously reported so far. We report new millimeter-              energy, and momentum. They can also regulate
interferometric observations of the edge-on T                 the accretion rate and help determine the stellar
Tauri star - disk system in the isolated Bok globule          rotation speed. I will present some early results
CB26. The IRAM PdBI array was used to observe                 of global 2D-MHD simulations that explore the
12CO(2-1) with 1.5arcsec angular resolution. We               nature of magnetically-driven accretion disk out-
use an empirical outflow model combined with                   flows around low-mass stars. I seek to understand
2-D line radiative transfer calculations to derive            which of the physical mechanisms and disk proper-
parameters of the outflow. The data reveal a col-              ties driving outflows has the most influence in de-
limated bipolar molecular outflow of total length              termining the angular momentum transport, mass
2000 AU, escaping perpendicular to the plane of               outflow rates, and velocity signatures at the larger
the disk. Peculiar kinematic signatures suggest               scales currently accessible by observations, as well
the outflow is rotating with the same orientation              as to predict results at the smaller scales that will
as the disk. CB26 is so far the most promising                be accessible with ALMA. This will be important
source to study the rotation of a molecular out-              for learning more about the role of outflows in star
flow. We compare CB26 to other similar sources                 formation, while also identifying important impli-
and discuss possible strategies how outflow rata-              cations for the dynamics of accretion disks in these
tion can be detected and studied.                             systems at the future sites of planet formation.

4.6.   First Detection of a Bipolar Molec-                    4.8.   Emission Signatures from a Young
       ular Outflow from a Young Brown                                Embedded Molecular Outflows
       Dwarf
                                                                 M. Yamada (Academia Sinica Institute of
   N. Phan-Bao (Academia Sinica Institute of As-              Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan),
tronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan)                     M.N. Machida and S. Inutsuka (Department of
                                                              Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan), and
    Studying the earliest stages in the birth of stars        K. Tomisaka (National Astronomical Observatory
is crucial for understanding how they form. Brown             of Japan, Mitaka, Japan)
dwarfs with masses between that of stars and plan-
ets are not massive enough to maintain stable                    We examine emission from a young protostellar
hydrogen-burning fusion reactions during most of              object with three-dimensional ideal MHD simu-
their lifetime. Their origins are subject to much             lations and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium


                                                         18
(non-LTE) line transfer calculations. To calculate          of velocity gradient, which is not consistent with
emission field, we employed a snapshot result of             the apparent outflow feature in Spitzer’s IRAC2
MHD simulation having young bipolar outflows                 band. Therefore, we suggest that the outflow
and a dense protostellar disk (a young circumstel-          feature in IRAC2 may not come from SSTc2d
lar disk) embedded in an envelope. Synthesized              J032839.10+310601.8, but from a nearby source
line emission of two molecular species (12 CO and           IRAS03256+3055, in agreement with the observa-
SiO) show that sub-thermally excited SiO lines as           tions by Hodapp et al. (2005). Future single dish
a high density tracer can better probe a complex            observations are needed to recover the large scale
velocity field of a young protostellar object, com-          structure in order to investigate the origin of the
pared to fully thermalized 12 CO lines. We find              velocity gradient.
that since a young protostellar object evolves dy-
namically, infall, rotation, and outflow motions             5.2.   Model Predictions for ALMA: Spec-
have similar speeds but different directions. The                   troscopic Signatures of Planet Forma-
velocity field compound of these components in-                     tion in HCO+ 7-6
troduces a great complexity in line emission fields
                                                               Jenna L. Kloosterman (University of Ari-
through varying optical thickness and emissivity,
                                                            zona, Tucson, AZ), Desika Narayanan (Harvard-
such as double-horn profiles with various blue and
                                                            Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge,
red asymmetries. We find that one of the features
                                                            MA), Christopher K. Walker (University of Ari-
that characterizes an outflow driven by magneto-
                                                            zona, Tucson, AZ)
centrifugal force appears clearly in velocity chan-
nel maps and intensity-weighted mean velocity
(first moment of velocity). The somewhat irreg-                 In the coming years the Atacama Large Mil-
ular morphology of line emission at this youngest           limeter Array (ALMA) will provide a new window
stage do not appear like a more evolved object              into the physics of Gas Giant Planet (GGP) for-
such as young Class 0, even with high-resolution            mation. With its unprecedented spatial resolution
observation with the ALMA telescope. We will                at submillimeter wavelengths ALMA will be able
briefly show some results of imaging simulation              to observe deep within the region of planet for-
for ALMA.                                                   mation in protoplanetary disks unobscured by op-
                                                            tical starlight. By utilizing heterodyne receivers,
5.     Protoplanetary Disks and Debris Disks                ALMA will be able to be used to perform detailed
                                                            dynamical studies of these protoplanetary environ-
5.1.    SMA Observation of a Very Low Lu-                   ments. I am use the ”Turtlebeach” microturbulent
        minosity Object                                     radiative transfer code combined with recent 3-D
                                                            hydrosimulations to search for signatures of pro-
  Chao-Ling Hung, Tao-Chung Ching and Shih-                 toplanet formation that will be observable with
Ping Lai (National Tsing Hua University, Tai-               ALMA.
wan)
                                                            5.3.   Submillimeter observation of the tran-
    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) obser-                    sition disk system of HD 135344
vation of a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO)
SSTc2d J032839.10+310601.8 in Perseus. VeLLOs                 A-Ran lyo (Korea Astronomy and Space Sci-
are believed to be the youngest YSOs hence pro-             ence Institute, Daejeon, Korea), Nagayoshi Ohashi
vide a great opportunity to study the initial condi-        (Academia Sinica of Astronomy and Astrophysics,
tion of star formation. Our result show a slightly          Taipei, Taiwan)
flattened continuum at the position of YSO and
the N2 D+ emission has long axis ≈ 6000AU with                 ∼17 Myr-old HD 135344 is suggested in the
the same elongation direction as continuum. The             transition stage between primordial and debris
flattened N2 D+ emission has a velocity gradient             disks. This disk system is suggested to have a
along the long axis direction, which may be an              large inner gap, R∼45 AU, from the spectral en-
indicator for a rotating disk or pseudodisk. The            ergy distribution (SED) study, which might be in-
12
   CO, 13 CO and C18 O data hint the existence              volved the clear-up process due to the planet for-


                                                       19
mation. In this presentation, we provide results of         tary disks.
the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) observations at               We present recent work in combining thermal-
230 GHz.                                                    chemical models of proto-planetary disks with a
                                                            molecular line radiative transfer program to in-
5.4.   Multi-technique observations and mod-                vestigate the diagnostic potential of the infrared
       eling of protoplanetary disks                        lines of water.
                                            e
  C. Pinte (University of Exeter, UK), F. M´nard
                                                            6.     Evolved Stars
(Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, France),
              e
and G. Duchˆne (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de              6.1.    Multiple Collimated Molecular Flows
Grenoble, France and UC Berkeley, USA)                              in the Young Planetary Nebula NGC
                                                                    7027
   Most of the studies on circumstellar disks are
based on models that emphasis on fitting either                 T. I. Hasegawa, Z.-Y. Haung, Dinh-Van-
SEDs, scattered light images or (sub-)millimeter            Trung, S. Muller, N. Hirano, J. Lim, M.-Y. Wang
resolved maps. In this contribution, we will                (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and As-
present a more global approach which aims at                trophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), S. Kwok (University
interpreting consistently the increasing amount of          of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PROC), A. Lyo (Ko-
observational data in the framework of a single             rea Institute of Astrophysics, Korea), M. Mariap-
model, in order to get a more global picture and            pan (Aryabhatta Research Institute, India)
to better characterize both the dust population
and the gas properties, as well as their interac-              The young planetary nebula NGC 7027 was ob-
tions. Results of such a modeling applied to a few          served in HCO+ (3 − 2) and HCN (3 − 2) with
disks (IRAS 04158, IM Lup) for which large ob-              the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The overall mor-
servational data-sets are available (scattered light        phology of the HCO+ emission is consistent with a
images, polarisation maps, IR spectroscopy, X-ray           thin photodissociation layer that encloses the cen-
spectrum, mm thermal emission maps, CO maps)                tral HII region. Several extruding components ap-
will be presented.                                          pear commonly in the HCO+ and HCN observa-
                                                            tions. The extruding components are interpreted
5.5.   Probing water line emission in proto-                as multiple outflows. The bipolar outflows corre-
       planetary disks                                      spond to the high-velocity wings in the HCO+ and
                                                            HCN spectra from single-dish observations. In ad-
   D. R. Poelman (School of Physics & Astron-               dition, SMA observations in CO (2−1, 3−2) show
omy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St.            another bipolar outflow.
Andrews KY16 9AD, UK), R. Meijerink and K.
Pontoppidan (California Institute of Technology,            6.2.    Millimeter spectral survey of IRC
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences,                      +10216
MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125), M. Spaans
(Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, P.O. Box 800,                 J. H. He (Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,
9700 AV Groningen, the Netherlands), and A. G.              Chinese Academy of Sciences), Dinh-V-Trung and
G. M. Tielens (Leiden Observatory, Leiden Uni-              T. Hasegawa (Academia Sinica Institute of As-
versity, P.O. Box 9513, NL 2300 RA Leiden, the              tronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan)
Netherlands)
                                                               We performed a millimeter spectral survey to
   One of the most fundamental questions to date            the archetypal carbon star IRC +10216 between
in modern astrophysics is how stars and planets             131-160 GHz and 216-279 GHz, using ARO 10m
form. Protoplanetary disk evolution and planet              and 12m telescopes. The resulted spectra can
formation are closely entangled. Therefore, to              serve as a guide for further radio study of evolved
understand their formation mechanisms, one first             stars.
needs to develop a comprehensive picture of the
physical and chemical conditions in protoplane-


                                                       20
6.3.   The study of extended structures sur-                accelerated lambda iteration formalism to model
       rounding planetary nebulae by the                    the circumstellar H2 O emission towards six M-
       Spitzer Telescope                                    type AGB stars. ISO LWS spectra are used to
                                                            constrain the models. For three of the stars spec-
  C.-H. Hsia and S. Kwok (Department of
                                                            trally resolved circumstellar H2 O(110 − 101 ) lines
physics, university of Hong Kong, Hong Kong,
                                                            have been obtained using the Odin satellite. This
China)
                                                            provides additional strong constraints on the prop-
                                                            erties of circumstellar H2 O, in particular on the
   Here we present initial results of our search for        chemistry in the stellar atmosphere, the photodis-
extended structures around the planetary nebu-              sociation in the outer envelope, and the veloc-
lae (PNe) based on infrared data from the In-               ity structure of the inner circumstellar envelope.
frared Array Camera (IRAC) of Spitzer Telecope.             Predictions for H2 O emission lines in the spectral
Morphologies of most of the sources at infrared             range of the upcoming Herschel/HIFI mission in-
wavelengths which contributed from warm dust                dicate that these observations will be very impor-
continua or atomic forbidden emissions are differ-           tant in this context, revealing critical information
ent to these observed in the visible. We inves-             on the radiation field, chemistry, and dynamics in
tigated two planetary nebulae (NGC 3242, NGC                the inner envelopes of AGB stars.
7354), which were found to be surrounded by ex-
tensive ring/filament structures. The formation of           6.5.   IRC+10216’S INNERMOST ENVE-
these rings/filaments might be closely related to                   LOPE – THE ESMA’S VIEW
the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase mass
loss and/or the interaction of the stellar outflows             Shinnaga, Hiroko; Young, Ken H.; Tilanus,
with the interstellar medium (ISM). Close inves-            Remo P. J.; Chamberlin, Richard; Gurwell, Mark
tigation of them, indicate a kinematic age on the           A.; Wilner, David; Hughes, A. Meredith; Yoshida,
order of 104 yrs. The mass loss history can be              Hiroshige; Peng, Ruisheng; Force, Brian; Friberg,
traced back to the late AGB phase of the evolu-             Per; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Van Dishoeck, Ewine
tion of the progenitors. The spacing between rings          F.; Phillips, Thomas G.
in our sample were found larger than the ones ob-
served in proto-planetary nebulae. This suggests               We used the Extended Submillimeter Array
that mass loss increases at the end of the AGB              (eSMA) in its most extended configuration to in-
phase.                                                      vestigate the innermost (within a radius of 290
                                                            R* from the star) circumstellar envelope (CSE)
6.4.   Circumstellar H2 O in M-type AGB                     of IRC+10216 where acceleration of gas and dust
       stars                                                due to strong stellar radiation is taking place. We
                                                            imaged the CSE using HCN and other molecular
   M. Maercker (Department of Astronomy, Stock-
                                                            lines with a beam size of 0.”22 x 0.”46, deeply
                          o
holm University), F.L. Sch¨ier (Onsala Space Ob-
                                                            into the very inner edge (15 R*) of the envelope
servatory), H. Olofsson (Department of Astron-
                                                            where the expansion velocity is only 3 km/s. HCN
omy, Stockholm University), (Onsala Space Ob-
                                                            maser components are spatially resolved for the
servatory)
                                                            first time on an astronomical object. We iden-
                                                            tified two discrete regions in the envelope: a re-
   Surprisingly high amounts of H2 O have re-               gion with a radius of . 15 R*, where molecular
cently been reported in the circumstellar envelope          species have just formed and the gas has begun to
around the M-type AGB star W Hya. However,                  be accelerated (Region I) and a shell region (Re-
substantial uncertainties remain, as the required           gion II) with a radius of 23 R* and a thickness of
radiative transfer modelling is difficult due to high         15 R*, whose expansion velocity has reached up to
optical depths, sub-thermal excitation, the sensi-          13 km/s, nearly the terminal velocity of 15 km/s.
tivity to the combined radiation field from the cen-         In Region II, the P.A. of the most copious mass
tral star and dust grains, and the uncertainties in         loss direction was found to be 120 +/- 10 degrees,
the adopted collisional rate coefficients. We use             which may correspond to the equatorial direction
a non-local, radiative transfer code based on the           of the star. Region II contains a torus-like feature.


                                                       21
These two regions may have emerged due to sig-              the galactic center and disk in most galaxies in
nificant differences in the size distributions of the         the Virgo cluster. However, slight asymmetric
dust particles in the two regions.                          distribution and significant structures as well as
                                                            kinematic disturbances are frequently shown. It
6.6.    Millimeter wavelength molecular line                appears that CO molecules are not affected by
        observations of two extreme carbon                  the cluster environments such as distance from
        stars CIT 6 and CRL 3068                            the cluster center of M87. However, some galaxies
                                                            (NGC 4298, NGC 4647, and NGC 4654) show a
  Yong Zhang, Sun Kwok, Jun-ichi Nakashima
                                                            CO extension toward M87 in our results.
(Department of Physics, University of Hong
Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong), and Dinh-V-
                                                            7.2.   Warm and cold dust in blue compact
Trung (Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics,
                                                                   dwarf galaxies
Academia Sinica P.O Box 23-141, Taipei 106,
Taiwan)                                                        H. Hirashita (Academia Sinica Institute of As-
                                                            tronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), H.
   We present the results of a molecular survey of          Kaneda (Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan),
the two extreme C-rich envelope CIT 6 and CRL               T. Onaka (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan),
3068 in the λ 2 mm and 1.3 mm bands carried out             T. Suzuki (NAOJ, Mitaka, Japan), and T. T.
with the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12 m               Ichikawa (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan)
telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter
Telescope (SMT). Several new transitions are de-               We observed far-infrared (FIR) dust emission
tected for the first time. We determine the column           from nearby blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs)
densities and fractional abundances, and compare            by AKARI. BCDs generally have low metallic-
the results with those found for the archetypal car-        ity, but dust extinction can be severe even in
bon star IRC+10216 which is believed to be less             low metallicity environments if the star-forming
evolved. Our observations provide important clues           regions are compact enough. Our analysis of
for understanding circumstellar chemistry. How-             AKARI data revealed high dust temperatures
ever, the spatial distributions of molecules in the         in BCDs, supporting compact and intense star-
two carbon stars are poorly known, and require              forming activities in BCDs. On the other hand,
further interferometer observations at high angu-           our theoretical calculation shows that cold dust
lar resolution.                                             component which should be traced in submillime-
                                                            ter (not in FIR) could exist. Moreover, high-
7.     Nearby Galaxies                                      resolution observations by e.g. ALMA are neces-
                                                            sary to really trace the origin of the cold dust com-
7.1.    12CO(J=1-0) distribution of the Virgo               ponent. In particular, we can directly constrain
        spiral galaxies                                     dust optical depth by high-resolution observations,
   E. J. Chung (Dept. of Astronomy, Yonsei                  and dust optical depth is indeed important to test
University, Seoul, Korea), M.-H. Rhee (Yonsei               the hypothesis that the cold dust component origi-
University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul,           nates from a highly shielded environment. Finally
Korea), and H. Kim (Korea Astronomy and Space               we comment on dust enrichment in metal-poor
Science Institute, Daejeon, Korea)                          galaxies based on our theoretical framework.

                                                            7.3.   Towards a more complete model for
   We have performed an On-The-Fly (OTF)
                                                                   the radially-infalling molecular fila-
mapping survey of 12CO(J=1-0) emission in 28
                                                                   ments in Per A
Virgo cluster spiral galaxies using the Five College
Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) 14-m                       I-Ting Ho, Jeremy Lim, and Dinh-V-Trung
telescope. We detected CO emission in 20 galaxies           (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and As-
with uniform sensitivity, and obtained CO maps              trophysics, Taipei, Taiwan)
covering the entire stellar disks for 14 galaxies.
Our CO data confirms that CO is confined to                     Our previous SMA CO(2-1) observations of Per


                                                       22
A, the cD galaxy in the Perseus cluster, at an               Pune 411 007, India), Chanda J. Jog (Department
angular resolution of 3” ( 1 kpc) revealed that              of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
its molecular gas within a central radius of 10              560012, India), Sandor Molnar (Academia Sinica
kpc is concentrated in six radial filaments dis-              Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei,
tributed both east and west of center (three on              Taiwan), Koichiro Nakanishi (Nobeyama Radio
each side). We successfully modeled the kinemat-             Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano
ics of the longest ’Eastern’ and ’Western’ filaments          384-1805), Jeremy Lim (Academia Sinica Insti-
(which increase in blueshifted velocities with de-           tute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Tai-
creasing radii) as free-fall in the gravity potential        wan)
of PerA, providing the most direct evidence yet for
gas deposited by an X-ray cooling flow. Here, we                 We present the first high resolution molecu-
report follow-up observations at an angular res-             lar gas imaging study using SMA, along with
olution of 1.5” ( 500pc) that better defines the              new panchromatic view, of the nearby galaxy
kinematics of each filament. We show that the rel-            NGC1482, which has a powerful M82-like starburst-
atively short filament ’E1’, which lies just beyond           driven Superwind outflow. NGC1482 is of simi-
but is radially aligned with the ’Eastern’ filament,          lar size and mass as M82 but, it is likely the
and which we previously treated as two dynami-               only early-type galaxy with a well collimated
cally distinct filaments, can now be explained as             Superwind, providing unique opportunity to
a single disturbed filament. Our model assumes,               study wind-collimation, wind-ISM interaction and
as is apparently supported by the X-ray image,               nuclear-evolution. Combining high resolution ra-
that a pressure wave driven by a buoyant X-ray               dio continuum (VLA), mid-IR (VLT) and hard
bubble produced by the radio jet from the AGN                x-ray (Chandra) images we suggest it to have a
in PerA has just passed through the ’Eastern’ fil-            binary nucleus (separation 350 pc). Significant
ament and currently lies in the gap between this             differences have been found in Spectral Energy
filament and ’E1’. The pressure wave retards the              Distribution, across hard x-ray to radio, between
infall motion of the ’Eastern’ filament, thus pro-            the nuclei, suggesting their independent history.
ducing a hook-like feature in the PV-diagram of              Our HI emission (VLA) maps of two tidal tails,
the ’Eastern+E1’ filament. Our model for this                 58 and 65 kpc long, and its velocity field estab-
filament suggests that the radially infalling molec-          lishes NGC1482 it to be an advanced merger rem-
ular gas in Per A may experience several episodes            nant. The central starburst region, best seen in
of deceleration before reaching the center.                  our 5GHz radio continuum map, extending over
                                                             1 kpc, is at the base and drives the bi-conical out-
7.4.   First CO imaging of NGC1482: A                        flow. Observing with the SMA, we have found
       unique early-type galaxy with a Su-                   the molecular gas counterpart to this central star-
       perwind feedback                                      burst region, rotating with the large-scale ISM
   Ananda Hota (Academia Sinica Institute of                 and containing both the nuclei. We have observed
Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan),                 not only 12CO but also the isotopologues 13CO
Daniel Espada (Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for                and C18O (J= 2–1) We find a large amount of
Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, M.A                  molecular gas in this galaxy, which is exponen-
02138), Youichi Ohyama and Satoki Matsushita                 tially concentrated toward the center, and show a
(Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and                  spatial and kinematically differentiable circumnu-
Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), Sergio Martin                 clear feature (¡500 pc). A gradient in the radial
(Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics,                distribution of the 12CO/13CO isotopic ratios is
60 Garden St., Cambridge, M.A 02138), Kotaro                 seen, in the sense that the 12CO/13CO is lower
Kohno (Institute of Astronomy, The University of             toward the center. We will discuss the effect of
Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015),                the starburst, the role of possible external gas,
Dinh-V-Trung (Academia Sinica Institute of As-               and the interaction of the two nuclei, in order to
tronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), D.J.              explain such a gradient. Unlike other two lines,
Saikia (National Centre for Radio Astrophysics,              C18O avoids the inter-nuclei region and shows a
TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3,                    possible cavity or molecular bubble of size 600


                                                        23
pc, broken along the wind axis. Molecular gas              7.6.   From Near-IR to Millimeter: An In-
surrounding this central 1kpc region, up to 2.5kpc                vestigation of the Dust Content in the
from centre, shows some distinct features in veloc-               NGC1512/1510 Pair
ity maps and is structurally misaligned with the
                                                              Guilin Liu, Min S. Yun, Grant Wilson (Univer-
central edge-on starburst disk. This misaligned
                                                           sity of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA), and
structure, seen as a partial ring, has correspond-
                                                           Bruce T. Draine (Princeton University, NJ, USA)
ing faint stellar and dust emission (Spitzer), H-
alpha, and compact HI emission (GMRT) blobs.
Co-spatial with it, UV (GALEX) images display                 Central to the chemistry of interstellar gas, dust
a striking 5kpc long prominent arc of star for-            is widely known to be important for astrophysical
mation. Chaotic velocity field, deviating from              studies of star formation activity. However, ob-
simple rotation, is seen in the molecular gas pos-         taining accurate determinations of dust mass have
sibly associated with this partial-ring/arc. Many          been challenging, because measurements at wave-
kinematic evidences are also found for the outflow          lengths shorter than 100–200 micron (accessible
to affect the circum-nuclear ISM compressing and            to IRAS, ISO, and the Spitzer Space Telescope)
driving it outward. It is likely that this dense           are sensitive to both the adopted dust mean tem-
gas and dust ring collimate the Superwind out-             perature(s) and dust emissivity. (Sub-)mm radio
flow and/or is being eroded by it. We argue that            observations probe the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the
as a first case of galactic-scale positive-feedback,        Planck function for typical galaxy dust emission,
Superwind has triggered young massive star for-            and the inferred dust masses are therefore less
mation in the molecular clouds of the expanding            sensitive to the dust temperature. These mea-
gas ring surrounding the centre. From our new              surements also offer additional leverage for con-
panchromatic view of this galaxy, we discuss the           straining, when used together with shorter wave-
origin and evolution of this intriguing system.            length infrared data, the dust temperature itself.
                                                           We have combined the Spitzer imaging data on
7.5.   Study of the Dusty Cores and Fila-                  the interacting galaxy pair NGC1512/1510 with
       ments                                               images at 1.1mm wavelength from ASTE/AzTEC
       in the Large Magellanic Cloud                       to investigate the IR/mm spectral energy distri-
                                                           bution (SED) of dust for those two galaxies, and
   S. Kim (Astronomy and Space Science Depart-             for regions within the larger NGC1512. By deriv-
ment, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Ko-            ing accurate dust masses for the two galaxies, and
rea), MEGA-SAGE Team                                       comparing the SEDs between sub-regions, we find
                                                           a dust temperature variation from the central re-
   We present study of the characteristics of the          gion to the arms of NGC1512, as well as a further
warm dust emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud           evidence that a diffuse cold dust component with
(LMC) using the Spitzer/MIPS observations of               a remarkably uniform temperature 14–16 K exists
the LMC. We search for the hot dust cores and fil-          in both galaxies, which are otherwise very different
aments in the star forming regions in the LMC and          in morphology, color and metallicity. This project
trace the dust temperature by applying a radiative         is to be extended into a substantial study of the
transfer model. We probe temperature structures            dust properties of nearby star forming galaxies,
across the filaments and examine the dust clumpy            and thus shed light on the processes underlying
structures corresponding to Jeans length. We in-           the formation of stars on galactic scales.
vestigate the mass spectra of dust cores and clouds
and perform a direct comparison of observational           7.7.   High resolution study of star for-
results to the other studies by submm and mm                      mation activity over bars and spiral
dust continuum emission from the massive star                     structures in NGC 4303
forming regions.
                                                              Rieko. Momose (Department of Astronomy,
                                                           University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo), Sachiko.
                                                           K. Okumura (National Astronomical Observatory
                                                           of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo), Jin. Koda (Depart-


                                                      24
ment of Physics and Astronomy, State University                      u
                                                           Institut f¨r Radioastronomie, Germany)
of New York, Stony Brook, New York), Tsuyoshi.
Sawada (National Astronomical Observatory of                  There is growing evidence that the properties of
Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo)                                      the molecular gas in the nuclei of starburst galax-
                                                           ies and nearby AGN may be very different from
   We present 12 CO(J=1-0) observations of barred          those seen in Galactic star forming regions. Un-
spiral galaxy NGC 4303 including the outer spi-            fortunately, among the fundamental parameters
ral arms with 45 m radio telescope of Nobeyama             derived from molecular line observations, the ki-
Radio Observatory (NRO45m) and Combined                    netic temperature of the molecular gas in external
Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astron-              galaxies is often not well constrained due to a lack
omy (CARMA). Combining NRO45m data and                     of suitable tracers.
CARMA data enable us to archive high spacial               In this talk, we present a new method to determine
resolution (3.2” times 3.2” sim 250 pc times 250           the kinetic temperature and other physical prop-
pc) and high sensitivity (1 sigma sim 34 mJy               erties of the molecular gas in extragalactic objects,
beam−1 ), to estimate accurate physical quantities         which is tailored to the capabilities of ALMA. Our
(e.g., molecular gas mass and velocity field) and           method uses observations of selected formaldehyde
to discuss dynamics of molecular gas with GMA-             (H2 CO) lines and is completely independent of
scale in NGC 4303.                                         the dust temperature and other molecules like the
   Comparing star formation activities depending           Galactic standard ”cloud thermometer” NH3 . We
on the bar, the nucleus and the arms, we made              demonstrate the diagnostic power of the selected
two maps of star formation rates (SFRs) and star           formaldehyde lines in deriving the properties of ex-
formation efficiencies (SFEs = SFRs/Mgas ) over              tragalactic molecular gas over a wide range of tem-
the whole galaxy. As a results of area-averaged            peratures, gas densities and column densities per
SFEs, there is little difference between the bar and        velocity interval and show examples of H2 CO spec-
the arms(1.1 times 10−8 yr−1 for the bar and 1.2           tra from nearby starburst galaxies and AGN ob-
times 10−8 yr−1 for the arms), and SFEs are not            served with the IRAM 30-m Telescope. In partic-
so high comparing to the nucleus (3.0 times 10−8           ular, we discuss the results of our multi-transition
yr−1 ). However, both the bar and the arms have            line study of the H2 CO emission from the pro-
about one-order dispersion of SFEs within the re-          totypical starburst galaxy M 82. Using our non-
gions.                                                     LTE radiative transfer model, we tightly constrain
   Analysis about shear motion using the velocity          the physical properties of the dense gas in the
gradient map estimated from the observed veloc-            prominent molecular lobes. The results agree very
ity field shows that large velocity gradients (350          well with the properties of the probably dominant
km/s/kpc) appear in the nucleus and the bar re-            molecular gas component found in the most com-
gion and shear motion would work around off-                prehensive CO studies. In general, our method
set ridges. Moreover, the regions of higher SFEs           seems to be particularly sensitive to the high-
are distributed as anti-correlated with the offset          excitation phase of the molecular gas, which may
ridges. These results indicate that gravitational          be the dominant phase in nearby starburst cores
instability of molecular cloud leading to star for-        and AGN.
mation would be suppressed by strong shear mo-
                                                           7.9.   ASTE CO(3-2) On-the-fly Mapping of
tion around offset ridges. The velocity gradient
                                                                  the Spiral Galaxy M 83: GMA Prop-
map also shows arc-like features accompanying on
                                                                  erties in the Whole Optical Disk
HII regions in the arms.
                                                              Kazuyuki Muraoka (Nobeyama Radio Obser-
7.8.   Tracing the properties of extragalac-               vatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-
       tic molecular gas with ALMA                         1305), Kotaro Kohno (Institute of Astronomy,
   S. M¨hle (Joint Insitute for VLBI in Eu-
        u                                                  The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka,
rope, The Netherlands), E.R. Seaquist (University          Tokyo 181-0015), Tomoka Tosaki and Nario Kuno
of Toronto, Canada), C. Henkel (Max-Planck-                (Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Mi-
                                                           namisaku, Nagano 384-1305), Kouichiro Nakan-


                                                      25
ishi (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan,           maps cover about 10 × 3 arcmin (= 7.3 × 2.1 kpc)
2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588), Kazuo                for both transitions, and the spatial resolutions are
Sorai (Division of Physics, Graduate School of              15 arcsec (= 182 pc) and 24 arcsec (= 290 pc) for
Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810)             (1-0) and (3-2), respectively. The CO(3-2) map is
                                                            the first large area map which includes the galactic
   We present a new on-the-fly (OTF) mapping of              bar, the bar-end, and the starburst (2 kpc) ring.
CO(J = 3 − 2) line emission with the Atacama                Strong CO(3-2) emissions are detected not only at
Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) to-               the galactic center but also at the bar-end and the
ward the 8′ ×8′ (or 10.5 × 10.5 kpc at the distance         starburst ring. Moderate to high (3-2)/(1-0) ratio
of 4.5 Mpc) region of the nearby barred spiral              (r31 = 0.6-1.0) areas which suggest there are large
galaxy M 83 at an effective resolution of 25′′ . Due         amount of dense (n(H2 ) > 103−4 cm−3 ) molecular
to its very high sensitivity, our CO(J = 3−2) map           gas agree well with massive star-forming regions.
can depict not only spiral arm structures but also
spur-like substructures extended in inter-arm re-           7.11.   Dynamical Structure and Star For-
gions. We have identified 54 CO(J = 3−2) clumps                      mation in the Barred Galaxy NGC
as Giant Molecular cloud Associations (GMAs)                        7552
employing the CLUMPFIND algorithm, and have                    Hsi-an Pan (Academia Sinica Institute of As-
obtained their sizes, velocity dispersions, virial          tronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), (De-
masses, and CO luminosity masses. We found that             partment of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Nor-
the virial parameter α, which is defined as the ra-          mal University, Taipei, Taiwan), Jeremy Lim
tio of the virial mass to the CO luminosity mass,           (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and As-
is almost unity for GMAs in spiral arms, whereas            trophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), Satoki Matsushita
there exists some GMAs whose α are 3 – 10 in                (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and As-
the inter-arm region. In addition, we found that            trophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), and Tony Wang (De-
GMAs with higher α tend not to be associated                partment of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Illi-
with massive star forming regions, while other viri-        nois, USA)
alized GMAs are associated with star forming re-
gions. Since α mainly depends on velocity disper-
                                                               We infer the dynamical structure of the nearly
sion of the GMA, we suppose the onset of star
                                                            face-on near barred galaxy NGC 7552, a member
formation in these unvirialized GMAs with higher
                                                            of the Grus Quartet, based on observations of its
α are suppressed by an increase of internal veloc-
                                                            atomic and molecular gas together with an analy-
ity dispersions of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs)
                                                            sis of its derived rotation curve. Our HI observa-
within these GMAs due to shear motion.
                                                            tions with the ATCA trace the spatial-kinematic
                                                            structure of the galaxy from a (projected) radius
7.10.   Wide field molecular gas mapping
                                                            of 1 kpc, just beyond a central starburst ring, to
        observations toward NGC 253
                                                            17 kpc. Our 12 CO(2-1) and 13 CO(2-1) observa-
   K. Nakanishi (National Astronomical Obser-               tions with the SMA, as well as HCN(1-0) and
vatory of Japan), K. Sorai (Hokkaido Univer-                HCO+ (1-0) observations with the ATCA, trace
sity), N. Nakai (Tsukuba University), K. Kohno              the spatial-kinematic structure of the inner regions
(University of Tokyo), and N. Kuno, T. Tosaki               of the galaxy from close to the center to a ra-
(Nobeyama Radio Observatory)                                dius of 0.5 kpc, extending just beyond the star-
                                                            burst ring. We derived from these data a rotation
   Wide field and high spatial resolution CO                 curve that required the disk of the galaxy to be
molecular emission line mapping observations to-            warped. Assuming a corotation radius coincident
ward NGC 253 were performed. NGC 253 is a very              (as is usually assumed) with the end of the stel-
nearby (D = 3.4 Mpc) and archetypal starburst               lar bar, where a partial ring of ionized gas (seen
galaxy. CO(1-0) and (3-2) emission line mapping             in Hα ) is visible, we then computed the locations
observations were carried out using the Nobeyama            of dynamical resonances in the galaxy. We found
45-m telescope and the Atacama Submillimeter                that the predicted radius of the outer Lindblad res-
Telescope Experiment (ASTE), respectively. The              onance (at 17 kpc) coincides with the outer edge


                                                       26
of the observed HI emission in the disk. The pre-            that the dusty disk and the associated cold gas
dicted radius of the ultraharmonic 4:1 resonance             are in ordered rotation around the nucleus. In-
(at 3.7 kpc) coincides with a prominent HII region           terestingly, the dust mass is correlated with radio
in the bar. The predicted radius of the inner inner          power (de Ruiter et al. 2002) and there is also
Lindblad resonance (at 0.4 kpc) coincides with a             a connection between the dust-lane morphology
starbust ring seen in ionized (Hα ) and molecular            (disk/irregular) and the presence of jets, and some
gas, as well as nonthermal radio continuum. The              tendency for dust lanes and jets to be orthogonal
observed dense molecular gas as traced in HCN(1-             (de Ruiter et al. 2002; Verdoes Kleijn & de Zeeuw
0) and HCO+ coincides with the starburst ring.               2005). These associations argue that accretion of
Our LVG analyses of the molecular lines indicate             cool gas may indeed power the radio jets.
that the gas is not only dense, but also relatively          The next step is to understand the dynamics of
warm (temperatures above 100 K) indicating heat-             the cool gas. Interferometric observations of the
ing from massive stars. We derived a Toomre Q                FRI radio galaxy 3C31 by Okuda et al. (2005)
parameter for the ring of 0.2, indicating that the           showed that the CO coincides spatially with the
disk is gravitationally unstable to collapse. The            dust disk observed by HST (Martel et al. 1999)
star-formation rate in the ring is a few solar masses        and is in ordered rotation. These authors suggest
per year, high than the star-formation rate in the           that the cool gas is in stable orbits. This is likely to
rest of the galaxy. For comparison, the mass of              be related to the low observed accretion rate and
molecular gas in the ring is ∼ 1 × 109 MJ yr−1 ,             the absence of recent star formation – a picture in
implying that (without further replenishment) the            which small amounts of material flow inwards from
starburst activity in the ring (at the present star          the inner edge of the dust/CO disk seems likely.
formation rate) can only last for less than a Gyr.           Detailed observations with high angular resolution
                                                             and high sensitivity of this cold gas will become
7.12.   Molecular Disks in Southern Radio                    possible in the near future, as ALMA starts oper-
        Galaxies                                             ation, and may resolve the question of fuelling in
                                                             low luminosity radio galaxies, once and for all.
  I. Prandoni, P. Parma, H.R. de Ruiter (INAF-
                                                             APEX is an excellent instrument to pre-select suit-
IRA, Bologna, Italy), R.A. Laing, T. Wilson
                                                             able targets for ALMA observations. We have
(ESO, Garching, Germany)
                                                             started an observing campaign of relatively nearby
                                                             radio galaxies in the Southern sky with APEX-1
I will report on an on-going project aimed at                at 230 GHz (CO(2 − 1)). The first three galaxies
sheding light on the fueling/accretion processes of          have been recently observed (summer 2008) and
AGNs, with particular respect to the physical con-           calibrated data have been recently made available
ditions responsible for the triggering of radio emis-        from ESO archive. The immediate aim is to de-
sion in low luminosity radio galaxies.                       tect the CO line and study its profile.
There is controversy over the fuelling mechanism             More in general this study is aimed at:
in low luminosity radio galaxies. Recently it has
been suggested that the accretion in such objects             1) increasing the number of Fanaroff-Riley I ra-
proceeds directly from the hot phase of the inter-                 dio galaxies with CO observations and thus
galactic medium, in a manner analogous to the                      improve our knowledge of the molecular gas
Bondi case (Allen et al. 2006; Evans et al. 2007),                 masses typically found in such objects;
rather than by a scaled-down version of orthodox
disk accretion (Shakura & Sunyayev 1973). Al-                 2) establishing whether the line profiles are al-
though there is little direct evidence for either hy-              ways consistent with ordered rotation, or
pothesis we do know that substantial reservoirs                    whether they are different for regular and
of cold gas (detected via emission and absorption                  irregular dust distributions;
by dust, HI and CO) and some warm ionized gas                 3) providing targets for future interferometric
are present. Dusty disks are often clearly visible                follow-up, which will allow us to test the hy-
(Capetti et al. 2000; Verdoes-Kleijn 1999), and                   pothesis that the cool gas is in stable orbits
in some objects (see e.g. Prandoni et al. 2007),                  and search for evidence for accretion from
the CO lines are double-horned, which suggests                    the inner edge of the disks;

                                                        27
 4) compare the occurrence of CO and dust, using            de Bure interferometer and ALMA.
      the existing HST images.
                                                            9.2.   Spatially Resolved Local Far-IR –
7.13.    Dense ionized gas in M82                                  HCN Correlation in Star-forming
                                                                   Disks
   F. Viallefond (Paris Observatory, France),
W.M. Goss (NRAO, USA), and A. Pedlar (Manch-                  Yu GAO (Purple Mountain Observatory, Chi-
ester University UK)                                        nese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China)

   Recombination lines at cm and mm wave-                      From a survey of 65 galaxies, we have found a
lengths have been detected in several starburst             very strong linear relationship between HCN J=1-
galaxies. The detection of the millimeter lines in-         0 (tracer of dense molecular gas) and the far-IR
dicated the presence of a plasma at high density,           luminosity for galaxies ranging over 3 orders of
above 10E4 cm-3, but its physical origin is uncer-          magnitude in LFIR (Gao & Solomon 2004). This
tain, relying on models. In M82 the tight correla-          leads to a global star formation law which shows
tion in position and velocity between the mm RRL            that the star formation rate (SFR) deduced from
and dense molecular gas traced by HCN or HCO+               the FIR is linearly proportional to the quantity of
suggests that the RRL emitting sources are phys-            dense molecular gas traced by HCN emission. In
icaly associated with dense molecular clumps. An            addition, the global HCN/CO ratio is an excellent
analysis of data at 1” resolution allow us to show          starburst indicator. Here we present the IRAM
that these RRLs must originate not only from                30m HCN J=1-0 maps in the inner disks of two
UCHII but also from PDRs. An analysis of data               face-on spirals NGC 6946 and M51. Spitzer MIPS
from 0.4 to 230 GHz provides constraints about              far-IR maps of roughly comparable resolution are
the morphology of the starburst region in 3D and            compared to the HCN emission. And the locally
the base of the outflow. Although the bulk of the            resolved FIR-HCN correlation or a local star for-
RRL emission is associated with neutral gas we              mation law in terms of dense molecular gas is es-
have discovered the existence of a distinct flow             tablished across the inner disks of normal spiral
which is fully ionized.                                     galaxies.

8.     Galactic Center                                      9.3.   AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of the
                                                                   AKARI Deep Field South
9.     AGNs, ULIRGs, and High-z Galaxies
                                                               B. Hatsukade, K. Kohno, Y. Tamura, S.
9.1.    Molecular Gas in z ≤ 0.3 Palomar                    Ikarashi (University of Tokyo), K. Nakanishi, D.
        Green (PG) QSO Hosts                                Iono, T. Tosaki, R. Kawabe (Nobeyama Radio Ob-
                                                            servatory), G. W. Wilson, M. S. Yun, K. Scott,
  A. S. Evans (University of Virginia and NRAO,
                                                            J. E. Austermann, T. Perera (University of Mas-
Charlottesville, Virginia, USA)
                                                            sachusetts), D. H. Hughes, I. Aretxaga (INAOE),
                                                            S. Matsuura, M. Shirahata (ISAS/JAXA), T. T.
   The latest results of an IRAM 30m Telescope              Takeuchi (Nagoya University), K. Tanaka (Keio
millimeter-wave (CO) survey of z ≤ 0.3 Palomar-             Univ.), and H. Matsuo, H. Ezawa (National As-
Green (PG) QSO hosts are presented. This survey             tronomical Observatory of Japan)
is designed to assess the fraction of PG QSO hosts
with detectable amounts of star-forming molecular
                                                               Submillimeter Galaxies (SMGs) are dusty, mas-
gas. To date, ∼ 30% of the hosts have been de-
                                                            sively star forming galaxies (star formation rates
tected in CO; these detections span the complete
                                                            100-1000 Msun/yr) at the early universe, and
range of host galaxy masses, i.e., detections are
                                                            thought to be progenitors of present massive el-
not restricted to only the lower luminosity, more
                                                            lipticals. It is said that these massive galaxies
spiral-type host galaxies in the PG sample. This
                                                            form at dense regions of dark matter, and there-
single-dish survey serves as a pre-cursor to higher
                                                            fore observations of SMGs provide us with the in-
resolution interferometric observations of star for-
                                                            formation on the formation of large-scale struc-
mation in QSO hosts to be done with the Plateau

                                                       28
ture. We report on a deep blank field survey                Institute of Astrophysics, & Center for Theoreti-
of the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF-S) at 1.1               cal Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei
mm using AzTEC camera, a 144-element bolome-               10617, Taiwan; Institute of Astronomy and As-
ter mounted on the ASTE telescope at Atacama,              trophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141,
Chile. The ADF-S is known to be a low-cirrus re-           Taipei 10617, Taiwan), Guo-Chin Liu (Institute
gion which is advantageous for deep observations           of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,
of distant dusty universe at far-IR wavelengths.           P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan; De-
We covered 700 arcmin2 with an rms noise of 0.5-           partment of Physics, Tamkang University, 251-37
0.7 mJy/beam and detected 100 sources (>3.5                Tamsui, Taipei County, Taiwan), Sandor M. Mol-
sigma). This survey exceeds the previous large             nar and Hiroaki Nishioka (Institute of Astronomy
mm/submm surveys in survey area, number of                 and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box
sources, and source reliability. Most of the AzTEC         23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan), Keiichi Umetsu
sources are not detected with AKARI FIR bands              (LeCosPA Center, National Taiwan University,
(50-180), suggesting that the they are possibly at         Taipei 10617, Taiwan; Institute of Astronomy
z > 1, considering the detection limits. The SMG           and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box
number counts of ADF-S are less than those of              23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan), Fu-Cheng Wang
GOODS-N and COSMOS fields and we can see                    (Department of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics,
a variety in number counts among ’blank fields’.            & Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tai-
We present the properties of these AzTEC sources           wan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan), Pablo
(number counts, clustering, and other-wavelength           Altamirano (Institute of Astronomy and Astro-
data).                                                     physics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141,
                                                           Taipei 10617, Taiwan), Mark Birkinshaw (De-
9.4.   Probing the Coevolution of Galaxies                 partment of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyn-
       and Black Holes                                     dall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK), Chia-Hao
                                                           Chang and Shu-Hao Chang and Su-Wei Chang
  Luis C. Ho (Carnegie Observatories)
                                                           and Ming-Tang Chen (Institute of Astronomy and
                                                           Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-
   I will describe the use of radio observations to        141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan), Tzihong Chiueh (De-
probe the gas content and kinematics of AGN host           partment of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics, &
galaxies, and how this information can be used to          Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan
constrain the properties of the host and the joint         University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan; LeCosPA Cen-
evolution of galaxies and their cetral supermassive        ter, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617,
black holes.                                               Taiwan), Chih-Chiang Han and Yau-De Huang
                                                           and Yuh-Jing Hwang and Homin Jiang (Insti-
9.5.   Science results from AMiBA
                                                           tute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia
   Chih-Wei Locutus Huang and Jiun-Huei Proty              Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan),
Wu (Department of Physics, Institute of Astro-             Michael Kesteven and Warwick Wilson (Australia
physics, & Center for Theoretical Sciences, Na-            Telescope National Facility, P. O. Box 76, Ep-
tional Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan),           ping NSW 1710, Australia), and Derek Kubo and
Paul T. P. Ho (Institute of Astronomy and As-              Chao-Te Li and Pierre Martin-Cocher and Peter
trophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141,             Oshiro and Philippe Raffin and Tashun Wei (In-
Taipei 10617, Taiwan; Harvard-Smithsonian Cen-             stitute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia
ter for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cam-               Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan)
bridge, MA 02138, USA), Patrick M. Koch (In-
stitute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia              ¡the abstract will be sent to Sheng-Yuan.¿
Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan),
Yu-Wei Liao (Department of Physics, Institute              9.6.   Comparing the CO(3-2) Sizes and Lu-
of Astrophysics, & Center for Theoretical Sci-                    minosities of Local and High-z Lumi-
ences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617,                  nous Infrared Galaxies
Taiwan), Kai-Yang Lin (Department of Physics,
                                                             D. Iono et al. (NAOJ)


                                                      29
                                                            at short millimeter wavelengths is a powerfull ob-
    We present a detailed comparison of the CO              serving method to study and directly image - with
(3–2) emitting molecular gas between a local sam-           micro-arcsecond scale resolution - the very central
ple of luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) and             regions in the Nuclei of Galaxies. With a spa-
a high-redshift sample that comprises submm                 tial resolution corresponding to a few to a few
selected galaxies (SMGs), quasars, and Lyman                ten Schwarzschild radii, future mm- and sub-mm
Break Galaxies (LBGs). The U/LIRG sample                    VLBI can reach the immediate vicinity of nearby
consists of our recent CO (3–2) survey using the            super-massive black holes, such as the galactic cen-
Submillimeter Array while the CO (3–2) data for             ter (Sgr A*) and M87. The participation of the
the high-redshift population are obtained from the          major mm-/sub-mm observatories (such as e.g.
literature. We find that the LCO(32) and LFIR                the SMA, CARMA, ALMA, ...) in mm-VLBI will
relation is correlated over five orders of magnitude,        provide facinating possibilities to study astrophys-
which suggests that the molecular gas traced in             ical effects of General Relativity in the presence of
CO (3–2) emission is a robust tracer of dusty star          strong gravitational fields, and should help to bet-
formation activity. The near unity slope of 0.93 ±          ter understand the origin of the radio luminosity
0.03 obtained from a fit to this relation suggests           and the launching mechanisms of the powerful jets
that the star formation efficiency is constant to             in AGN.
within a factor of 2 across different types of galax-
ies residing in vastly different epochs. The CO              9.9.   Bright Quasars at Low Galactic Lati-
(3–2) size measurements suggest that the molec-                    tude and Its Applications to Millime-
ular gas disks in local U/LIRGs (0.3–3.1 kpc) are                  ter/Submillimeter Astronomy
much more compact than the SMGs (3–16 kpc),                    Induk Lee and Myungshin Im (Center for
and that the size scales of SMGs are comparable             the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe
to the nuclear separation (5–40 kpc) of the widely          (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of
separated nuclei of U/LIRGs in our sample. We               Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National Univer-
argue from these results that the SMGs studied              sity, Korea)
here are predominantly intermediate stage merg-
ers, and that the wider line widths arise from the
                                                               We introduce Seoul National University Bright
violent merger of two massive gas-rich galaxies
                                                            Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO), and present
taking place deep in a massive halo potential.
                                                            the result of the second phase, the main part of the
                                                            survey. We also suggest their applications to mil-
9.7.   The Coevolution of Black Holes and
                                                            limeter/submillimeter astronomy. In the second
       Host Galaxies in Nearby Type I
                                                            phase, we discovered 171 new bright QSOs/AGNs
       AGNs
                                                            that are in 0.05 < z < 0.4 at low Galactic latitude
   Minjin Kim (Carnegie Observatories, USA                  (|b| < 20◦ ) so far. Among 171 QSOs/AGNs, 104
& Seoul National University, Korea), L. C. Ho               (60.8%) are radio sources. It was difficult to find
(Carnegie Observatories, USA), M. Im (Seoul Na-             QSOs/AGNs at the low Galactic latitude because
tional University, Korea), C. Y. Peng (Dominion             of severe stellar contamination and extremely high
Astrophysical Observatory, Canada), and A. J.               Galactic extinction. For this reason, traditionally,
Barth (University of California - Irvine, USA)              the low Galactic latitude has been known as zone
                                                            of avoidance, and QSOs/AGNs have been searched
                                                            at high Galactic latitude. In order to perform the
9.8.   Millimeter-VLBI and the Origin of                    survey at the zone of avoidance, we have made a
       Jet Power                                            new algorithm to select QSOs/AGNs candidates,
                                                            using optical (USNO B1.0), NIR (2MASS), X-ray
  Thomas P. Krichbaum and Anton J. Zensus
                                                            (ROSAT), radio (NVSS and SUMSS) information.
                      u
(Max-Planck-Institut f¨r Radioastronomie, Bonn,
                                                            The observation were carried out using the 1.8m
Germany)
                                                            telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy
                                                            Observatory (BOAO), the 2.1m telescope at the
  Very Long Baseline Interferometry performed               Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), and the


                                                       30
1.8m telescope at the IUCAA Girawali Observa-                direct evidence yet for a X-ray cooling flow in
tory for the Northern hemisphere, and the 1.5m               any cluster. I describe the relationship between
telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Ob-             the cool molecular gas and other gas components
servatory (CTIO) for the Southern hemisphere,                at higher temperatures, and examine the possible
during 2006-2008. These 104 QSOs/AGNs that                   fate of this gas in both fueling star formation and
are visible in radio will be useful for millime-             the AGN in Perseus A.
ter/submillimeter astronomical applications, such
as (i) use as reference points for astrometry at             9.11.   Where is Obscuring Torus? — 10
the low Galactic latitude; (ii) studying jets and                    pc Resolution Imaging of Molecular
molecular gas content and star formation activity                    Gas around the Seyfert 2 Nucleus of
of their host galaxies. This work was supported                      M51 —
by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation
                                                                S. Matsushita and J. Lim (Academia Sinica
(KOSEF) grant No. 2009-0063616, funded by the
                                                             Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei,
Korea government (MEST)
                                                             Taiwan), and S. Muller (Onsala Space Observa-
                                                             tory, Onsala, Sweden)
9.10.   Molecular Gas deposited by an X-
        Ray Cooling Flow in the Perseus
        Cluster                                                 Previous molecular gas observations at arcsecond-
                                                             scale resolution of the Seyfert 2 galaxy M51 sug-
   Jeremy Lim (Academia Sinica Institute of As-              gest the presence of a dense circumnuclear rotating
tronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan), Ho I-             disk, which may be the reservoir for fueling the
Ting (National Taiwan University, Taiwan), and               AGN and obscures it from direct view. However,
Dinh-V-Trung (Academia Sinica Institute of As-               our SMA CO(3-2) observations show a hint of
tronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan)                    a velocity gradient perpendicular to the rotating
                                                             disk, which suggests a more complex structure
   Over 30 years ago, it was recognized that the             than previously thought. We carried out PdBI
hot X-ray-emitting gas in which galaxy clusters              CO(2-1) observations, yeilding to spatial resolu-
are immersed should (in relaxed clusters where               tion lower than 15 pc. The images show no clear
the X-ray gas is nearly in hydrostatic equilibrium)          evidence of disk structure as suggested by pre-
cool rapidly at the cluster center thus producing            vious observations. The emission at the western
an X-ray cooling flow. Observations this decade,              side of the nucleus shows an elongated structure
however, show that the X-ray gas around the clus-            along the radio jet, and likely originates from gas
ter center is strongly disturbed (and presumably             entrained by the jet. The emission at the east-
reheated) by the AGN in the cD galaxy, thus                  ern side of the nucleus is elongated toward the
mitigating if not quenching the cooling flow. Nev-            nucleus, and shows a velocity gradient blueshifted
ertheless, many cD galaxies in putative cooling-             toward it, which is an opposite sense as the results
flow clusters are known to contain relatively large           observed with larger beam. Possible explanations
amounts of relatively cool gas (up to ∼1011 M⊙ ),            for the observed distribution and kinematics of the
the dominant component of which (when de-                    nuclear molecular gas are that a rotating gas disk
tectable) is in the form of cool molecular gas traced        disturbed by the jet, a streaming gas toward the
in CO. Is this relatively cool gas deposited by a X-         nucleus, or the disk with another smaller conter-
ray cooling flow, or is it acquired through mergers           or Keplarian-rotating gas disk inside.
with gas-rich galaxies? Here, I report our SMA
observations of CO(2-1) in Perseus A, which is the           9.12.   The Origins of the Cosmic Millime-
central dominant elliptical galaxy in the Perseus                    ter Background
Cluster (the X-ray-brightest cluster in the sky). I
                                                               Kyle Penner (Univ. of Arizona)
show that the spatial-kinematic distribution of the
cool molecular gas in Perseus A is not consistent
with this gas being accreted from a merger but                 To be submitted
instead consistent with this gas being deposited
by an X-ray cooling flow, thus providing the most


                                                        31
 9.13.        X-ray and Optical spectral charac-                        more than 500 entries in the CDMS − with many
              teristics for the OPTX Sample of                          more entries to be created. Entries are generated
              AGN                                                       from fitting (mostly) laboratory data to accepted
                                                                        Hamiltonian models. Despite many dedicated
   L. Trouille and A. J. Barger (University of
                                                                        laboratory spectroscopic investigations in recent
 Wisconsin - Madison), L. L. Cowie (University of
                                                                        years, accurate data is still lacking frequently − in
 Hawaii - Institute for Astronomy), R. Mushotzky
                                                                        particular at higher frequencies, for minor isotopic
 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), Y. Yang
                                                                        species, for excited vibrational states, or for some-
 (University of Illinois)
                                                                        what larger molecules. Using recent results, we
                                                                        will show that these issues are already important
    Using a uniformly selected and highly spec-                         for single dish observations and even more so for
 troscopically complete sample of Chandra X-ray                         ALMA or other radiotelecope arrays.
 sources, we show that one cannot use X-ray spec-
                                                                           The main features of the CDMS catalog will be
 tral classifications and optical spectral classifica-
                                                                        described, including recent developments concern-
 tions equivalently. We also show that there is
                                                                        ing new entries as well as available and planned
 not a one-to-one correspondence between X-ray
                                                                        features. Attention will be given to laboratory
 spectral type and the neutral hydrogen opacity of
                                                                        spectroscopic needs for telescope arrays such as
 the source. We discuss our results in the context
                                                                        ALMA, the EVLA, and the SMA both, in terms
 of modifications to the simple unified model for
                                                                        of general aspects and in terms of specific ex-
 AGNs and the relationship between photon index
                                                                        amples. Selected contributions from the Cologne
 and accretion rate.
                                                                        spectroscopy laboratories to address these needs
                                                                        will be presented.
 10.         Astrochemistry

 10.1.        The Cologne Database for Molecu-                          10.2.    The Laboratory Rotational Spec-
              lar Spectroscopy, CDMS, a link be-                                 trum of iso-Propyl Cyanide and an
              tween laboratory spectroscopy and                                  Astronomical Search in Sagittarius
              astronomy at high angular resolu-                                  B2(N)
              tion                                                         Holger S. P. M¨ller (I. Physikalisches Insti-
                                                                                           u
                 u
   Holger S. P. M¨ller, J¨rgen Stutzki, Stephan
                          u                                                           a       o           o
                                                                        tut, Universit¨t zu K¨ln, 50937 K¨ln; and Max-
 Schlemmer (I. Physikalisches Institut, Universit¨t
                                                 a                                       u
                                                                        Planck-Institut f¨r Radioastronomie, 53121 Bonn,
 zu K¨ln, Z¨lpicher Str. 77, 50937 K¨ln, Ger-
      o    u                             o                              Germany), A. Coutens, A. Walters (CESR, Uni-
 many)                                                                        e
                                                                        versit´ de Toulouse (UPS), and CNRS, 31028
                                                                        Toulouse, France), J.-U. Grabow (Institut f¨r u
                                                                        Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Lehrge-
    The CDMS provides in its catalog section
                                                                                           a
                                                                        biet A, Universit¨t Hannover, 30167 Hannover,
 atomic and molecular line lists for species that
                                                                        Germany), A. Belloche, K. M. Menten (Max-
 have been or may be observed in space by ra-
                                                                                         u
                                                                        Planck-Institut f¨r Radioastronomie, 53121 Bonn,
 dio astronomical means.123 The line list of each
                                                                        Germany), S. Schlemmer (I. Physikalisches Insti-
 molecule is gathered in an individual entry; minor
                                                                                      a      o           o
                                                                        tut, Universit¨t zu K¨ln, 50937 K¨ln, Germany)
 isotopologs have separate entries, and the same
 applies to excited vibrational states with the ex-
 ception of some diatomic molecules. With 5 to 10                          We have carried out a molecular line survey
 new or updated entries each month, the CDMS                            of Sagittarius B2(N) in the 3 mm region with ad-
 catalog has been growing rapidly over the past                         ditional selected recordings at 2 and 1.3 mm to
 10 years: since February 2009, there have been                         probe the chemical complexity in massive star-
                                                                        forming regions. Noteworthy results include the
1 H. S. P. M¨ller, S. Thorwirth, D. A. Roth, G. Winnewisser,
            u                                                           detection of aminoacetonitrile,4 a possible pre-
  Astron. Astrophys. 370 (2001) L49−L52.
2 H. S. P. M¨ ller, F. Schl¨der, J. Stutzki, G. Winnewisser, J.        4 A.Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. M¨ller,u
            u              o
  Mol. Struct. 742 (2005) 215−227.                                      P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astro-
3 web-page: http://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/cdms/.                        phys. 482 (2008) 179; Erratum 492 (2008) 796.



                                                                  32
 cursor of the aminoacid glycine, the detection of                  sputtering, are very abundant at shocks and/or
 13
    C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide,5 and the detec-                 clumps in outflows.
 tion of ethyl formate as well as normal-propyl                        In this work we have constructed chemical mod-
 cyanide.6 The heavy atoms in the latter molecule                   els of young stellar outflows by calculating time-
 form a chain. An isomer with a branched struc-                     dependent gas-phase chemical reactions, which
 ture, iso-propyl cyanide, also exists, but its ro-                 are initiated by icy mantle evaporation, inside
 tational spectrum had been recorded only in few                    the disks and along the outflows. As a result,
 transitions up to 40 GHz.78 Therefore, laboratory                  the molecules are dissociated into atoms at hot
 measurements were extended. Measurements in                        (>3000K) inner region of the disk where the
   o
 K¨ln were carried out in selected regions between                  launching velocity of the outflow could reach as
 40 and 600 GHz. The molecule possesses a strong                    high as more than 100 km/s. At the outer disk,
 a-dipole moment component and a smaller c-                         where the gas temperature is lower (<2000K),
 component.e Since the c-type transitions appeared                  molecular gas is launched into the outflow. Some
 to be weaker than predicted additional Stark (and                  molecules, such as CH3 OH, H2 CO, and H2 S, are
 also zero-field) measurements have been carried                     dissociated at a shock front in the outflow if the
 out in Hannover between 6 and 20 GHz. We will                      shock speed is high enough (more than 40 km/s
 present results of these laboratory spectroscopic                  when the pre-shock density is 105 cm−3 ). Our
 investigations as well as the outcome of a search                  results suggest that detailed analysis of the molec-
 for the molecule in our Sgr B2(N) line survey.                     ular abundances together with outflow velocities
 The ratio of the two isomers, even a sufficiently                    will give us information on the structure of the
 low upper limit for iso-propyl cyanide, should pro-                outflow’s launching point in the disk or of the
 vide important clues on the interstellar chemistry                 shock front in the outflow.
 leading to complex molecules.
 a
    A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P.                  10.4.   The distribution of deuterated molecules
    u
 M¨ ller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret,                      in the Orion Bar PDR
 Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179; Erratum 492
 (2008) 796.                                                           B. Parise (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioas-
                                                                    tronomie, Bonn, Germany)

 10.3.    Chemical Structure of Young Stellar                          We present single-dish and interferometric ob-
          Outflows                                                   servations of deuterated molecules towards the
                                                                    Orion Bar photodissociation region. The DCN
   H. Nomura (Department of Astronomy, Kyoto                        molecule is found to trace molecular clumps,
 University, Kyoto, Japan), and T.J. Millar (ARC,                   whose temperatures are ∼ 40K, located behind
 Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UK)                           the ionisation front. We aim at studying in detail
                                                                    the chemistry at work in this PDR, to understand
    It is observationally known that outflows are as-                how deuterated molecules, usually characteristic
 sociated with many young stars. Observations and                   of cold chemistry, can survive in this environment.
 Theory have suggested that these outflows origi-
 nate from accretion disks around the stars. Mean-                  10.5.   Chemo-dynamical models of proto-
 while, molecular line observations have shown that                         planetary disks
 some molecules such as CH3 OH and SiO, which
 originate from icy mantle evaporation or dust                         Dmitry Semenov (MPIA Heidelberg, Ger-
                                                                    many), Dmitry Wiebe (Institute of Astronomy
5 H. S. P. M¨ller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito,
              u
                                                                    of RAS, Moscow, Russia), and Thomas Henning
  P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319.                    (MPIA Heidelberg, Germany)
6 A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. M¨ ller, K. M. Menten,
                                         u
  C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. (2009), ac-                The importance of turbulent transport for the
  cepted; http://de.arxiv.org/abs/0902.4694.
7 G. E. Herberich, Z. Naturforsch. 22a (1967) 543.                  chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks will be
8 J. R. Durig, Y. S. Li, J. Mol. Struct. 21 (1974) 289.             highlighted. A T Tauri disk is modeled with the
                                                                    alpha-model in 1+1D and used to calculate chem-


                                                               33
istry with a set of gas-grain and surface reactions        excitation lines of HC5 N (e.g. J=41-40, upper
over 5 Myr. It is shown that dynamical processes           state energy of 110 K), isotopic species (D, 13 C)
result in richer chemical complexity of protoplan-         of some carbon-chain molecules, and HCO.
etary disks compared to the static models.                 (2) Prominent shocked region L1157: In L1157,
                                                           where interactions between an outflow and ambi-
10.6.   New Line Survey Project with the                   ent clouds are prominent (Umemoto et al. 1992
        Nobeyama 45 m Telescope                            and Mikami et al. 1992), we detected many lines
                                                           including C34 S, CH3 CHO, and HCOOCH3 . To
   Takano, S (NRO), Aikawa, Y. (Kobe U.),
                                                           study shock chemistry and gas-grain interaction,
Chen, V. (NTHU), Hirano, N. (ASIAA), Hi-
                                                           these detections are rather important informa-
rota, T. (NAO), Kamegai, K. (JAXA), Kobayashi
                                                           tion. After our observations, we noticed that
K. (Toyama U.), Kohno, K. (U. Tokyo), Kuan,
                                                           HCOOCH3 is independently detected with the
Y-J. (NTNU), Liu, S.-Y. (ASIAA), Nakajima,
                                                           IRAM 30 m telescope (Arce et al. 2008).
T. (NRO), Nomura, H. (Kyoto U.), Ohashi, N.
                                                           (3) Infrared dark clouds IRDCG28.37+00.07 (pos-
(ASIAA), Ohishi, M. (NAO), Ozeki, H. (Toho
                                                           sible high-mass star forming regions): In G28
U.), Sakai, N. (U. Tokyo), Sakai, T. (NRO),
                                                           three interesting positions called mm1, mm4, and
Shiba, S. (U. Tokyo), Su, Y.-N. (ASIAA), Sug-
                                                           mm9 were selected, and shallow surveys were
imura, M. (U. Tokyo), Takahashi, S. (ASIAA),
                                                           done. Toward mm1 and mm4 line wings were
Takakuwa, S. (ASIAA), Umemoto, T. (NRO),
                                                           found in HCO+ , HCN, SiO, CS, and CH3 OH.
Wang, K.-S. (ASIAA), Yamada, M. (ASIAA),
                                                           These wings indicate outflow activities. In addi-
Yamamoto, S. (U Tokyo), Zhang, Q.-Z. (CfA)
                                                           tion, CH3 CHO is detected only in mm1 and mm4.
                                                           This molecule is one of the probable grain related
   Line surveys are of fundamental importance in           species. Therefore CH3 CHO may be evaporated
astronomy not only for complete understanding of           from grain. Based on these results, mm1 and mm4
chemical compositions in representative sources,           are thought to be high-mass protostellar objects.
but also for finding out new observing tools prob-          (4) External galaxies Arp 220 with ultraluminus
ing interstellar medium and star formation. We             infrared radiation, NGC 1068 with X-ray radia-
started a new line survey project in Dec. 2007.            tion from AGN, and NGC 253 with a prototypical
It takes about four years to complete the project.         starburst: We observed only Arp 220 in the first
Now we are continuing observations for the second          year, where wide absorption lines of ammonia have
year. In the first year of the project many inter-          been detected (Takano et al. 2005). We expected
esting results were obtained. The target sources           such absorption lines for other molecules. We tried
are the low-mass star forming region in L1527,             to find HNCO (21.98 GHz) and SO (30.00 GHz)
the shocked region in L1157, the infrared dark             without success at the rms noise of 1.0 and 1.5
cloud G28.37+00.07, and the extragalaxies Arp              mK, respectively. In the second year we do not
220, NGC 1068, and NGC 253. With the new                   observe Arp 220. We survey lines toward NGC
3 mm receivers installed on the 45 m telescope             1068 and NGC 253 as a feasibility test. By com-
(Nakajima et al. 2008), the frequency range from           paring NGC 1068 and NGC 253, effective lines for
84 GHz to 115 GHz can be surveyed with much                probing XDR regions may be obtained.
higher sensitivity than the previous observations
with the old receiver. The results from the survey         References: Arce et al. ApJ 681, L21 (2008).
will be used for detailed studies on chemistry in          Mikami et al. ApJ 392, L87 (1992). Nakajima et
each source, and will also provide us with useful          al. PASJ 60, 435 (2008). Sakai et al. ApJ 672,
templates for planning the observing strategy with         371 (2008). Takano et al. PASJ 57, L29 (2005).
ALMA. The preliminary results of the first year             Umemoto et al. ApJ 392, L83 (1992).
are as follows.
(1) Low-mass star-forming region L1527: L1527 is
a very interesting object, because the abundances
of carbon-chain molecules are high, though this
source is a low-mass star forming region (Sakai et
al. 2008). We detected many lines including high


                                                      34
10.7.   A Unified Monte Carlo Treatment of                 ity of surface chemistry, while in general improv-
        Gas-Grain Chemistry for Large Re-                 ing the agreement, in some cases still produce re-
        action Networks: Testing Validity of              sults which are even less consistent with the ‘exact’
        (Modified) Rate Equations.                         model that conventional rate equations.
   A.I. Vasyunin (Max Planck Institute for As-               We compare the results of the unified Monte
tronomy, K¨nigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg,
            o                                             Carlo chemical model with the new modified rate
Germany), R.T. Garrod (Department of Astron-              equations method proposed by Garrod (2008,
omy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801,           A&A, 491, 239) under interstellar conditions, us-
USA), D.A. Semenov (Max Planck Institute for              ing the same set of gas-phase and surface reac-
Astronomy, K¨nigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg,
               o                                          tions. In most part of the explored parameter
Germany), D.S. Wiebe (Institute of Astronomy              space new approximate method represents the re-
of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnit-              sults of the exact approach very well.
skaya str. 48, 119017 Moscow, Russia), and Th.
                                                          10.8.   Submillimeter high resolution spectral-
Henning (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy,
                                                                  line observations of Orion KL
  o
K¨nigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany)
                                                             Kuo-Song Wang (Institute of Astronomy and
   We use the Monte Carlo technique along with            Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan),
the standard and modified rate equation methods            Yi-Jehng Kuan (Department of Earth Sciences,
to model gas-grain chemistry in dense and translu-        National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Tai-
cent molecular clouds. Our goal is to specify un-         wan), Sheng-Yuan Liu (Institute of Astronomy
der which conditions the use of the stochastic ap-        and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Tai-
proach is mandatory.                                      wan), and Steven B. Charnley (Astrochemistry
   For the first time unified Monte Carlo approach          Laboratory & Center for Astrobiology, Solar Sys-
is utilized to simulate the time-dependent gas-           tem Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space
grain chemical evolution of the interstellar medi-        Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA)
umover a timescale of 1 Myr. The model involves
about 6000 gas-phase and 200 grain surface reac-             Orion KL is one of the primary target for
tions. Two cases are considered: (1) the surface          study the massive star formation in our galaxy
mobility of all species is due to thermal hopping,        due to its proximity ( 450 pc). Especially, the
(2) in addition to thermal hopping, temperature-          hot core chemistry therein including the nitro-
independent quantum tunneling for H and H2 is             gen/oxygen dichotomy between the Orion Hot
allowed.                                                  Core and Compact Ridge attracts lots of atten-
   We found that stochastic effects are in general         tions in the past few decades. Several chemical
important for the chemical evolution of molecu-           models were proposed to uncover the mystery of
lar clouds except for the model without tunneling         hot core chemistry based on mainly the single-dish
and high binding energies. Classical rate equa-           spectral line surveys; however, the whole picture
tions fail to reproduce surface chemistry in this         is not complete yet. One of the main reasons
case (Vasyunin, A. I., Semenov, D. A., Wiebe,             is the lack of high-resolution observations. As a
D. S., and Henning, T. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1459).             consequence, we conducted arcsec-resolution Sub-
At 10 K gaseous and, in particular, surface abun-         millimeter Array observations toward the Orion
dances of many important molecules are not much           KL hot molecular core at 331 and 341 GHz.
affected by stochastic processes. At higher tem-           Multi-transitions of CH3 CN, C2 H3 CN, C2 H5 CN,
peratures discrepancy between stochastic and de-          CH3 OH and HCOOCH3 are imaged. With the
terministic models increases. At 30 K gas-phase           ”population diagram” analysis, kinetic tempera-
abundances of H2 O, NH3 , and CO in the stochas-          ture distribution of Orion KL is derived together
tic model differ from those in the deterministic           with the small scale ( 500 AU) variations of chem-
model by more than an order of magnitude. Mod-            ical abundances. In addition, clumpy structures
ifications to rate equations, proposed by various          are also unveiled both in the spatial and spectral
authors and intended to account for stochastic-           domains. Our results would be supportive for fu-
                                                          ture chemical modeling and as the basis of coming

                                                     35
ALMA observations.                                         ment, Universidad de Chile), and N. Reyes, P.
                                                           Zorzi, and P. Mena, (Electrical Engineering De-
10.9.    Herschel/HIFI observations of EXtra-              partment, Universidad de Chile)
         Ordinary Sources– The Orion and
         SgrB2 Molecular Clouds: A Guar-                      In 2008 we started a program to develop a
         anteed Time Key Program Proposal                  prototype for the ALMA Band 1 receiver (31-45
  E.A. Bergin, S. Wang et al. (U. of Michigan)             GHz). We will report on the progress of such
                                                           program and, in particular, of the new laboratory
                                                           setup and the design of the front end, the optics,
   As a GT Key Program we propose to per-
                                                           and the OMT.
form full HIFI line surveys of 5 sources in the gi-
ant molecular clouds Orion and Sagittarius B2.
                                                           11.2.   ALMA Band 1 (31-45 GHz) Re-
These extraordinary star-forming regions contain
                                                                   ceiver Development at HIA
the best studied examples of physical and chemi-
cal processes prevalent in the interstellar medium,             e
                                                              St´phane Claude, Frank Jiang, David Dousset,
including gravitational compression, thermal and           Nathan Wren, Ivan Wevers, Murray Fletcher and
turbulent pressure support, photodissociation, gas         Doug Henke. (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics,
and grain chemistry in dense and diffuse quiescent          National Research Council of Canada, Victoria,
gas, and shocks. With high excitation, rich chem-          BC, V9E 2E7, Canada http://www.hia-iha.nrc-
istry, and large H2 column, they give the highest          cnrc.gc.ca/), Ke Wu (Poly-Grames Research Cen-
chance for new detections in a sensitive search for        ter, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole
new molecules. Line Surveys of sources (Orion              Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
KL, Orion S, Orion Bar, Sgr B2 N+M) defined by              H3T 1J4 Canada )
these phenomena form the backbone of this pro-
posed program. The HIFI line surveys will be sup-             This poster presents the progress of the HIA
plemented by deeper line searches, water maps,             team towards the development of a Band 1 re-
and, in at least 3 sources, full spectrum PACS             ceiver. A conceptual design was started by the
scans.                                                     ALMA project but the design has not evolved as
   Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity and            other high priority bands had to be design and
relative calibration accuracy, as well as continu-         fabricated. In order to move forward in the de-
ous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by           tailed design of Band 1, key components that need
the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored            special attention are optics, orthomode transducer
wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy.         (OMT), low noise amplifier (LNA) and mixer. We
These data will take line surveys to a new level           will highlight systems issues through a systems
and we will use them to comprehensively charac-            analysis such as noise and optics alignment. Pro-
terize the physics (density, thermal balance, kine-        totype performance of a cryogenic LNA and an
matics, radiation field) and chemistry (chemical            OMT specifically designed for the Band 1 will be
assay, ionization, deuterium fractionation, water          presented.
ortho/para ratio) of star-forming molecular gas in
a manner not previously possible. The opening of           11.3.   Phase transference between 220 and
this spectral range is also an opportunity to de-                  660 GHz in GGD27 with the SMA
tect the bending transitions of carbon chains and
                                                             M. Fernandez-Lopez and S. Curiel (Instituto de
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with the
                                                           Astronomia, UNAM,Mexico City, Mexico.), J.M.
rotational transitions of complex organics.
                                                           Girart (Institut de Ciencies de l’Espai (CSIC-
                                                           IEEC), Barcelona, Spain.), N. Patel (Harvard-
11.     Instrumentation
                                                           Smithsonian CfA, Cambridge, USA.), and Y.
11.1.    A prototype receiver for ALMA                     Gomez (CRYA, UNAM, Morelia, Mexico.)
         Band 1 (31-45 GHz)
                                                              Atmospheric variations, mainly caused by wa-
  L. Bronfman and J. May (Astronomy Depart-                ter vapor at mm/submm wavelengths, change the


                                                      36
path length of electromagnetic waves, thus limit-          11.5.   High Resolution Imaging with CARMA
ing angular resolution and sensitivity of interfer-                using the Paired Antenna Calibra-
ometers. The standard method of phase calibra-                     tion System (PACS)
tion works with strong calibrators not far away
                                                                           e
                                                              Laura M. P´rez (Department of Astronomy,
from the target source, which becomes a great
                                                           California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
problem at high frequencies. The SMA interfer-
                                                           USA), J. W. Lamb, D. P. Woody, D.C.-J. Bock
ometer can observe two separated frequencies si-
                                                           (Owens Valley Radio Observatory, California In-
multaneously enabling the possibility of a phase
                                                           stitute of Technology, Big Pine, CA, USA), B.
transference between both bands. Theoretically,
                                                           A. Zauderer, P. J. Teuben (Department of As-
the behavior of the phase at 660 GHz mimics that
                                                           tronomy, University of Maryland, College Park,
of the phase at 220 GHz, with the only difference
                                                           MD, USA), J. M. Carpenter (Department of
of a scale factor. We have successfully carried out
                                                           Astronomy, California Institute of Technology,
a phase transference between these two bands with
                                                           Pasadena, CA, USA), E. M. Leitch, D. P. Mar-
the SMA and compared it with a phase referencing
                                                           rone, T. L. Culverhouse (Department of Astron-
calibration. Here, we will describe both technics
                                                           omy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,
and we will compare the results obtained.
                                                           Chicago, IL, USA), S. Muchovej (Owens Val-
11.4.   MUSTANG: A 3mm High Resolu-                        ley Radio Observatory, California Institute of
        tion Single Dish Continuum Camera                  Technology, Big Pine, CA, USA), and M. C. H.
        for the 100m GBT                                   Wright, R. L. Plambeck (Department of Astron-
                                                           omy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley,
   Korngut, Phil. M.; Dicker, S.; Mason, B. S.;            CA, USA)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Ames, T. J.; Benford,
D. J.; Chen, T. C.; Chervenak, J. A.; Cotton,                 High resolution imaging at millimeter wave-
W. D.; Devlin, M. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Ir-          lengths is essential to understand a variety of phe-
win, K. D.; Maher, S.; Mello, M.; Moseley, S. H.;          nomena, from circumstellar disks to high redshift
Staguhn, J.; Tucker, C.; White, S. D.                      galaxies. At CARMA, the atmospheric trans-
                                                           parency is excellent for a large fraction of the
   MUSTANG, the MUltiplexed SQUID TES Ar-                  year, but the ability to obtain high resolution im-
ray at Ninety GHz, is an 8 by 8 array of TES               ages in the longest A- and B configurations (up
bolometers designed as a user instrument for               to 2 km baselines, 0.15” resolution) is limited by
the 100 m diameter Green Bank radio telescope              atmospheric scintillation, which can cause large
(GBT). MUSTANG is the GBT’s first 90 GHz                    phase errors over the long baselines required for
instrument and its first focal plane array. As a            these studies. CARMA has been testing a new
continuum receiver on a large single dish, MUS-            technique, the Paired Antenna Calibration Sys-
TANG offers a unique combination of 8 arcsecond             tem (PACS), to ensure routine phase correction
angular resolution and high sensitivity to extended        of the rapidly varying atmospheric delay. PACS
structure. Over the last season, improvements              pairs the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Array (SZA) 3.5-m
made to the receivers re-imaging optics and ad-            antennas with selected CARMA 6.1-m and 10.4-
vances in precision control of the GBTs active             m antennas offset by 25 - 30m. The SZA antennas
surface have increased the instruments sensitivity         observe a quasar at 30 GHz, which is a few degrees
dramatically. MUSTANG is currently available to            from the science target observed by CARMA. The
the astronomical community through the general             correction process takes place after the data is
NRAO proposal system. A wide range of pre-                 collected, and the atmospheric delay measured at
liminary science has already been accomplished             30 GHz can be scaled up to 100 or 230 GHz be-
including high resolution maps of AGN, Class 0             cause the dispersion in delay is minimal and iono-
Protostars, HII regions, Molecular Clouds and the          spheric scintillation is negligible. We describe the
Sunyaev Zeldovich effect in galaxy clusters.                technique and present observational results using
                                                           PACS during A and B-array configurations, be-
                                                           tween Nov 2008 and February 2009, that achieve
                                                           the highest spatial resolution currently possible


                                                      37
with CARMA.                                                 11.8.   The relocation of KOSMA submil-
                                                                    limeter telescope: from Gornergrat
11.6.   The Extended Submillimeter Array                            Alps to Yangbajing Tibet plateau
        (eSMA)
                                                               Jun-Jie Wang (National Astronomical Obser-
   R.P.J.Tilanus (Joint Astronomy Centre, Hawaii            vatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing ,
/ Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Re-                China)
search), eSMA commissioning team
                                                               The KOSMA submillimeter telescope ( diame-
   The eSMA combines the SMA, JCMT, and                     ter 3 m ) has been scheduled, by National Astro-
CSO into a single sub-mm interferometer with ap-            nomical Observatories of CAS and Cologne Uni-
proximately twice the collecting area of the SMA            versity of Germany, to move from Gornergrat (
and a 1.5x longer maximum baseline. Until                   altitude 3200 m ) of Switzerland to Yangbajing (
ALMA early science observing, the eSMA will be              altitude 4300 m ) of Tibet, China, where the ob-
the facility capable of the highest angular reso-           servational condition for submm is better. Mean-
lution observations at 345 GHz. The eSMA will               while, a study of the relevant scientific objectives
operate on a part-time basis and in the 345 GHz             will be carried out. And the test observations will
window taking full advantage of Mauna Kea’s ex-             also be made after the telescope is installed in the
cellent observing conditions and prolonged periods          second half year of 2010. If the project can com-
of superb weather at that frequency. The commis-            plete successfully, there will be the first submm
sioning of the eSMA is nearing completion and in            telescope that can be provided to astronomers to
presentation I will give a summary its capabilities         make regular observations in China. Yangbajing
and discuss its current status. In addition I will          Submm Astronomical Observatory will also be one
show results from science verification observations          of the highest astronomical sites in the northern
at 230 GHz from last year as well as more recent            hemisphere.
results at 345 GHz.
   The eSMA infra-structure has also been ex-
ploited in mm-VLBI observations with the SMT
in Arizona and CARMA antennas in California of
SgrA* and M87. Successful observations in 2007
resulted in a detection of SgrA* on the Mauna Kea
- Arizona baseline (resolution 60 micro-arcsecs),
but only used the JCMT. I will briefly discuss new
mm-VLBI observations from this spring that suc-
cessfully phased up eSMA antennas into the equiv-
alent of 20m single-dish on Mauna Kea.

11.7.   Current and future polarimetric ca-
        pabilities of the IRAM Plateau de
        Bure Interferometer
   S. Trippe (Institut de Radioastronomie Mil-
   e
lim´trique, Grenoble, France)

   In the near future, the IRAM PdBI is going to
be equipped with polarimetric capabilities. Addi-
tionally, there are studies on polarized calibration
sources currently ongoing. I will give an overview
on these current and future projects and present
a few potential science cases.



                                                       38

				
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