Massacre of Nanking

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					Massacre of Nanking
           Massacre of Nanking
• Real accounts from westerners at Safety Zone claim that mass
  executions and brutality were performed by the Japanese as they
  conquered the city
• Summary: Japanese troops invaded Nanjing (Nanking), the capital of
  the moment, and committed some of the worst atrocities possible to the
• called the Asian Holocaust
• The civilians were slaughtered
• Chinese declare that over three hundred thousand killed; Japanese
  claim only couple hundred dead.
• Most of the city was in ruins by the end
• Japan has not formally apologized
•    The battle of Nanking started after the Japanese took over Shanghai
    on October 9th, 1937. They chose Nanking because it was the capital
    of the moment, and they needed it to cross over the River and invade
    more of China

•        General Tang Shengzhi was put in charge of defending the city
    of Nanking after the troops returned from the battle of Shanghai.
    General Shengzi announced that the city will not fall under Japanese
    control and will fight till the death.

•         To defend the city; roads were blocked , boats were ruined, and
    nearby villages were burnt. Unfortunately this defense strategy was not
    very successful as most Chinese troops were fleeing to more safer
    areas. The soldiers had been overwhelmed from previous battles like
    the battle of Shanghai.
• General Tang Shengzhi gathered close to 100,000 soldiers
  after withdrawing the first class troops from Shanghai.

•        The Japanese troops were under the control of
    Lt.General Asaka Yasuhiko, a prince, and launched a
    massive assault on the city of Nanking on December 9th
    1937. The abrupt assault of the enemy caused the Chinese
    commanders to order a retreat across the Yangtze river on
    the evening of December 12th 1937.

•       It was difficult for the Chinese soldiers because it was
    made harder from troops fleeing from previous battles. The
    burning of boats prior to the invasion of Nanking also
    made it harder for the troops to flee Nanking
Area under
       The Japanese troops invaded Nanking from the North
and East South. These were the best places to come and
attack from because Shanghai had already fallen under
Japanese control and it was one of the closest cities to Japan.
The cities in the North had also fallen under Japanese
control, and there fore allowed easy access into the city of
       On December 13th the 6th n the 114th divisions of
Japanese troops first entered the city. At the same time the 9th
division of the army entered near the Guanghua Gate, while
the 16th division entered near the Zhongshan an Taiping
      On the evening of December 13th two small fleets of
Japanese Navy entered near the North of the Yangzite river .
Nanking was under Japanese control by night fall.
Guanghua Gate
Zhongshan gate
Taiping gate
                                “Safety” Zone
   foreigners formed international rescue
    committee to create a safety zone to
    protect the refugees.
   The safety zone was located inside the
    city and consisted of more than twenty
    refugee camps
   Didn’t work well as by the weeks after
    the Japanese invasion, 400 men
    captured from the safety zone (because
    they were suspected to be Chinese
    soldiers) and machine gunned
•   On February 18 1938, the Nanking
    Safety Zone International Committee
    was forcibly renamed "Nanking
    International Rescue Committee", and
    the Safety Zone effectively ceased to
    function. The last refugee camps were
    closed in May 1938.
•   The Safety Zone bordered roads on all
    four sides
•   25 refugee camps
                     City in Ruins
• 2/3 of city destroyed because of
• torched newly built government
  buildings and the homes of
• soldiers took valuables and
  anything they wanted from the
  poor and the wealthy
• Littered the Yangtze river with
• Streets were heaped with bodies
  so troops could make their way
  across the town
Start of the Massacre
           •   Japanese army stormed in
           •   Dec 16th Japanese troops tied 5000
               refuges and threw them in the river
           •   Chinese police officers were disarmed,
           •   Started the street purge at the end of
           •   Japanese soldiers roamed the roads,
               motorcycles patrolled the roads
           •   Japanese soldiers waved long knives
               shouting to open the door people shot
               right after opening the door
              Burned citizens, nailed them to tress,
               buried them alive, hung them by their
               tongues, and beat them for fun
           •   Used hand grenades, bayonets, and
               guns- machine guns and rifles or
               anything that was handy (e.g. sticks,
               candles, etc)
Torture & Atrocities
        •   Some people they took in for “questioning" were
            never seen from again because they were burned
        •   Japanese also participated in killing
            competitions. They took it as a game
        •   They lined people up in rows, threw gasoline on
            them and shot them, creating a big fire
        •   They also froze some of the civilians by breaking
            the ice in the river and throwing them in
        •   Some of the civilians were“baked” by putting
            wood under them and letting it on fire
        •   They threw them into shallow ponds and threw
            grenades after them
        •   They poured acid all over people
        •   Scooped out eyes, cut of ears, noses
        •   Thousands of men gunned because they were
            suspected of being soldiers
        •   Shot people as they were forced to kneel in front
            of mass graves, similar to Holocaust methods
                    Rape of Nanking
• 20 000 women raped (including
  girls aged 6 to over 65, and
  pregnant women)
• Monks were forced to have sex
• Incest forced by Japanese
• Women raped in front of
• Killed immediately afterward
• Family members killed if
  resisted; any type of resistance
  killed on spot
                   Japanese Soldiers’ View

 A soldier described how he tied young boys to trees and used them for
  bayonet practice. Instead of handcuffs or ropes, hands of civilian
  prisoners were punctured with nails. Metal wires run through holes and
  prisoners strung together for entertainment.
 Took killing and torturing as a game
 Japanese soldiers dehumanized their victims
 Two members of army even competed in killing 100 people first, both
  exceeding the limits
   Eyewitness Accounts and
• A reporter for the Tokyo Times who tried to stop the
  slaughter was pushed aside by a Japanese officer. He later
  went insane. "I have never been to hell, but there is a hell;
  it was in this city.’
• It's the way they killed people," says Roger Chang.
  “Indeed, even the German Nazis didn't have the stomach
  for the bloody massacres their emissaries did to Nanking in
• "The truth is that in terms of measures and cruelty of the
  genocide…neither the Hiroshima atomic bombing nor
  Jewish Holocaust can rival the Nanking Massacre." -Tien
  Wei Wu.
                      Japanese Denial
•   Japanese government said sorry on
    September 29th, 1972 to China in
    general, not to Nanking particularly
•   No apology has been issued for the
    particular Nanking incident
•   Japanese people denied it
    happened; denied that many
    hundreds of thousands were killed
•   Japanese government did not take
    responsibility for compensation to
    victims as they were supposed to
    buy the Potsdam decoration (to
    have compensation to individual
•   Japanese Ministry of Education
    censored any mention of the
    Nanking Massacre in a high school
    textbook (1982)
• The Nanking genocide is considered to be an
  equivalent to the holocaust, but in the minds of
  some, it is considered far worse.
•     Many innocent lives were lost; torture towards
  human beings was taken to another level; people
  were rid of their human rights, and of any
•     The Nanking massacre was by far one of the
  worst events in the history of the world.

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