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Enlightenment Thinkers (PowerPoint)

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					Enlightenment


   Macdonald
   World History
Definition

   Black Death caused many to question long-
    held beliefs about their religion and
    government
   Led to questioning and ultimately the move
    away from religion and towards the secular to
    explain the world
   From the questioning came the
    Enlightenment (17th & 18th century
    movement in which thinkers applied
    reason & logic to all aspects of life)
 The Enlightenment

Thinker         Idea   Evidence in U.S.
Hobbes
Locke
Voltaire
Montesquieu

Rousseau

Beccaria

Wolstonecraft
Hobbes

            Ppl are evil &wicked
            w/o gov’t to keep order,
             would be war of every
             man against another
            To escape war, ppl
             needed to hand over
             freedom to gov’t for
             order
            Social contract
Locke

           All ppl born w/ 3 natural rights –
            life, liberty, property
           Purpose of gov’t to protect rights
           If a gov’t doesn’t protect rights,
            ppl have duty to overthrow it
           Gov’t comes from consent of ppl
Voltaire

   Used satire to attack
    stupidity
   Argued for freedom of
    religion & freedom of
    speech
Montesquieu
   Humans naturally will
    want to increase power
   To limit dangers, called for
    separation of power to
    keep one group from
    gaining all power
   Also called checks &
    balances
Rousseau

    Only good gov’t was one in which people agreed
     to
    “general will” of society must agree
    Must be a direct democracy
Beccaria

   Thought laws existed to
    keep order
   Against torturing
    witnesses, long trials,
    etc.
   Said punishment
    should fit crime
Wollstonecraft

                    Argued that women
                     needed education to
                     become useful
                    No gov’t should take
                     away rights of any
                     person – including
                     women

				
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posted:12/3/2011
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