aquatic - DOC by FTgDd7

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 22

									Database: MEDLINE <1966 to April Week 3 2002>
Search Strategy: Aquatic skin disorders
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1     exp Skin Diseases/ (330671)
2     exp Skin Manifestations/ (16140)
3     (aqua$ or water).af. (236277)
4     (1 or 2) and 3 (3276)
5     limit 4 to (human and english language) (2105)
6     exp Skin Diseases/et or exp Skin Manifestations/et (65420)
7     5 and 6 (764)
8     exp sports/ (42049)
9     7 and 8 (34)
10     (exp *Skin Diseases/et or exp *Skin Manifestations/et) and (aqua$
or water).ti. and 5 (101)
11     limit 10 to review articles (13)
12     9 or 11 (43)
13     from 12 keep 1-43 (43)

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<1>
Unique Identifier
  5547158
Medline Identifier
  71131845
Authors
  Blenkarn GD. Aquadro C. Hills BA. Saltzman HA.
Title
  Urticaria following the sequential breathing of various inert gases at
a constant ambient pressure of 7 ATA: a possible manifestation of gas-
induced osmosis.
Source
  Aerospace Medicine. 42(2):141-6, 1971 Feb.


<2>
Unique Identifier
  1969706
Medline Identifier
  90209812
Authors
  Parrish DO.
Title
  Marine envenomations and aquatic dermatology. [letter; comment.].
Comments
  Comment on: Am Fam Physician. 1989 Aug;40(2):97-106 ; 2569260
Source
  American Family Physician. 41(4):1092-4, 1099, 1990 Apr.


<3>
Unique Identifier
  2569260
Medline Identifier
  89333444
Authors
  Soppe GG.
Institution
  Memorial Medical Center of Long Beach, California.
Title
  Marine envenomations and aquatic dermatology. [see comments.]. [Review]
[15 refs]
Comments
  Comment in: Am Fam Physician. 1990 Apr;41(4):1092-4, 1099 ; 1969706
Source
  American Family Physician. 40(2):97-106, 1989 Aug.
Abstract
  Jellyfish stings are usually mild except those caused by species in the
South Pacific. The box jellyfish can produce a severe cardiorespiratory
insult. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more potent than that
of the common jellyfish. The Indo-Pacific area is the source of the most
venomous bony fish. Many injuries can be avoided by wearing shoes when
walking in shallow water or tide pools. Aquatic-related skin infections
may involve unusual organisms. Swimmer's itch, a disease of freshwater
bathing, is caused by cercariae. Seabather's eruption produces a rash in
swimsuit-covered areas; the etiology is not clear. [References: 15]


<4>
Unique Identifier
  8806373
Medline Identifier
  96399997
Authors
  Fleisher JM. Kay D. Salmon RL. Jones F. Wyer MD. Godfree AF.
Institution
  Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, State
University of New York, Brooklyn 11203-2098, USA.
Title
  Marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: nonenteric illnesses
associated with bather exposure in the United Kingdom. [see comments.].
Comments
  Comment in: Am J Public Health. 1996 Sep;86(9):1203-4 ; 8806367
Source
  American Journal of Public Health. 86(9):1228-34, 1996 Sep.
Abstract
  OBJECTIVES: This study identified possible dose-response relationships
among bathers exposed to marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage
and subsequent risk of nonenteric illness. METHODS: Four intervention
follow-up studies were conducted within the United Kingdom. Healthy
volunteers (n = 1273) were randomized into bather and nonbather groups.
Intensive water-quality monitoring was used to assign five
bacteriological indices of water quality to individual bathers. Illnesses
studied were acute febrile respiratory illness, and eye, ear, and skin
ailments. RESULTS: Fecal streptococci exposure was predictive of acute
febrile respiratory illness, while fecal coliform exposure was predictive
of ear ailments. Estimated thresholds of effect occurred at bather
exposures above 60 fecal streptococci and 100 fecal coliform per 100 ml
of water, respectively. Although no relationship was found between eye
ailments and indicator organism exposure, compared with nonbathers,
bathers were at higher risk for eye ailments. CONCLUSIONS: Nonenteric
illness can be transmitted via recreational contact with marine waters
contaminated with sewage. These results argue against the use of a single
indicator to establish water quality standards.


<5>
Unique Identifier
  3706597
Medline Identifier
  86212751
Authors
  Dewailly E. Poirier C. Meyer FM.
Title
  Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water.
Source
  American Journal of Public Health. 76(6):690-1, 1986 Jun.
Abstract
  We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted
water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-
day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis,
conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for
occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of
gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of
falls into the water.


<6>
Unique Identifier
  9647271
Medline Identifier
  98309486
Authors
  Luong KV. Nguyen LT.
Title
  Aquagenic urticaria: report of a case and review of the literature.
[Review] [21 refs]
Source
  Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. 80(6):483-5, 1998 Jun.
Abstract
  OBJECTIVE: To present a case of aquagenic urticaria and to review the
literature regarding this very rare physical urticaria. METHOD: We
described the clinical history of a patient with aquagenic urticaria. A
water challenge test was performed, with plasma histamine levels measured
before and after the challenge. RESULT: Our patient presented with a
history of severe itching and wheals within five minutes of contact with
water, regardless of its temperature or source (sea or tap water). A
water challenge produced hives but serum histamine levels did not change.
Prophylaxis with antihistamine or anticholinergic medications was not
effective. CONCLUSION: Exposure to water can cause urticaria in
susceptible patients and antihistamine and anticholinergic medication may
not prevent the reaction. The mechanism of this phenomenon remains poorly
understood. [References: 21]


<7>
Unique Identifier
  4625029
Medline Identifier
  72219175
Authors
  Jolly HW Jr. Seabury JH.
Title
  Infections with Myocbacterium marinum.
Source
  Archives of Dermatology. 106(1):32-6, 1972 Jul.


<8>
Unique Identifier
  8645596
Medline Identifier
  96249067
Authors
  Rosso S. Zanetti R. Martinez C. Tormo MJ. Schraub S. Sancho-
Garnier H. Franceschi S. Gafa L. Perea E. Navarro C. Laurent R.
Schrameck C. Talamini R. Tumino R. Wechsler J.
Institution
  Registro de Cancer de Granada, Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica,
Spain.
Title
  The multicentre south European study 'Helios'. II: Different sun
exposure patterns in the aetiology of basal cell and squamous cell
carcinomas of the skin.
Source
  British Journal of Cancer. 73(11):1447-54, 1996 Jun.
Abstract
  The role of sun exposure in development of basal cell and squamous cell
carcinomas among different populations from south Europe was
investigated. Between 1989 and 1993 we interviewed incident cases and a
random population sample of controls from five centres where a cancer
registry was operating, whereas we selected a sample of hospital-based
cases and controls from the other three centres. We gathered information
on life-long exposure to sunlight during different activities. Results
are analysed for 1549 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases and 228 squamous
cell carcinoma (SCC) cases compared with 1795 controls. We observed a
statistically significant increase of risk of SCC with increasing sun
exposure beyond a threshold of 70,000 cumulated hours of exposure in a
lifetime. Sun exposures during work and holidays were, however, inversely
correlated. Odds ratios (ORs) of SCC were up to eight or nine times the
reference for the highest exposures (200,000 cumulated hours or more).
BCC exhibited a 2-fold increase of risk for lower exposure (8000-10,000
cumulated hours in a lifetime) with a plateau and a slight decrease of
risk for the highest exposures (100,000 cumulated hours or more). Outdoor
work showed a significantly increased risk of SCC (OR 1.6 for more than
54,000 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime), whereas recreational
activities such as sun exposure during holidays at the beach (OR 1.6 for
more than 2600 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime) or during water
sports (OR 1.6 for more than 2600 cumulated hours of exposure in a
lifetime) were associated with an increased risk of BCC. Risk patterns
were different in poor or good tanners with a significant risk trend for
good tanners, whereas poor tanners were on a plateau of increased risk at
any level of exposure. Solar radiation is associated with a risk of BCC
even for relatively short periods of exposure such as during holidays and
sports, whereas SCC develops later if exposure continues. The skin's
ability to tan modulates the risk of BCC; subjects who tan poorly have a
steady risk increase, whereas people who tan easily develop cancer only
after prolonged exposures.


<9>
Unique Identifier
  3664416
Medline Identifier
  88026588
Authors
  Anonymous.
Title
  Aquatic dermatology.
Source
  Clinics in Dermatology.   5(3):1-173, 1987 Jul-Sep.


<10>
Unique Identifier
  3311338
Medline Identifier
  88026595
Authors
  Mandojana RM. Sims JK.
Institution
  Department of Medicine (Dermatology Service), Tripler Army Medical
Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Title
  Miscellaneous dermatoses associated with the aquatic environment.
[Review] [39 refs]
Source
  Clinics in Dermatology. 5(3):134-45, 1987 Jul-Sep.


<11>
Unique Identifier
  3664422
Medline Identifier
  88026600
Authors
  Fisher AA.
Institution
  Department of Dermatology, New York University Medical School, New
York.
Title
  Contact dermatitis to diving equipment, swimming pool chemicals, and
other aquatic denizens.
Source
  Clinics in Dermatology. 5(3):36-40, 1987 Jul-Sep.


<12>
Unique Identifier
  3311340
Medline Identifier
  88026601
Authors
  Steinman HK.
Institution
  Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego School of
Medicine.
Title
  Water-induced pruritus. [Review] [28 refs]
Source
  Clinics in Dermatology. 5(3):41-8, 1987 Jul-Sep.


<13>
Unique Identifier
  3311341
Medline Identifier
  88026603
Authors
  Auerbach PS.
Institution
  Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville,
Tennessee.
Title
  Natural microbiologic hazards of the aquatic environment. [Review] [102
refs]
Source
  Clinics in Dermatology. 5(3):52-61, 1987 Jul-Sep.


<14>
Unique Identifier
  3311343
Medline Identifier
  88026606
Authors
  Nelson AM. Neafie RC. Connor DH.
Institution
  Department of Infectious and Parasitic Disease Pathology, Armed Forces
Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC.
Title
  Cutaneous protothecosis and chlorellosis, extraordinary "aquatic-borne"
algal infections. [Review] [58 refs]
Source
  Clinics in Dermatology. 5(3):76-87, 1987 Jul-Sep.


<15>
Unique Identifier
  10230574
Medline Identifier
  99247189
Authors
  Nichols AW.
Institution
  Department of Family Practice and Community Health, John A. Burns
School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA.
Title
  Nonorthopaedic problems in the aquatic athlete. [Review] [40 refs]
Source
  Clinics in Sports Medicine. 18(2):395-411, viii, 1999 Apr.
Abstract
  This article discusses a number of medical conditions that are common
to aquatic athletes. Exercise-induced asthma is particularly prevalent in
swimmers because swimming is among the activities tolerated best by
asthmatics. The healthcare professional frequently must evaluate and
manage respiratory infections and infectious mononucleosis in swimmers,
particularly in regard to the safe timing of return to training and
competition. Dilutional sports pseudoanemia must be differentiated from
the true anemias that are due mostly to iron-deficiency and intravascular
hemolysis. Finally, the evaluation, management, and prevention of otitis
externa, external auditory canal exostoses, and dermatologic disorders in
swimmers are reviewed. [References: 40]


<16>
Unique Identifier
  10617210
Medline Identifier
  20083500
Authors
  Tsai TF. Maibach HI.
Institution
  Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco,
USA.
Title
  How irritant is water? An overview. [Review] [53 refs]
Source
  Contact Dermatitis. 41(6):311-4, 1999 Dec.
Abstract
  Water is a skin irritant which deserves attention because of its
ubiquity. During the Vietnam war, soldiers suffered from painful swollen
feet, so-called tropical immersion foot. In occupational dermatology, the
importance of water as a skin irritant is especially appreciated. The
irritancy of water has been demonstrated by occlusion experiments;
occlusion with either closed chambers or water-soaked patches has been
shown to produce clinical and histopathological inflammation. Functional
damage, as revealed by increased transepidermal water loss, has also been
shown. Repeated water exposure without occlusion caused an increase in
blood flow on irritated skin; however, clinical evaluation did not show a
difference in dryness or scaling. Several mechanisms such as osmolarity,
pH, hardness and temperature might account for the irritancy of water.
Extraction or dilution of natural moisturizing factors in the stratum
corneum is another possible explanation. Occlusion per se also changes
the physiology of skin and may trigger the activation of potentially
active substances. However, much remains to be done to clarify the risk
factors and mechanisms of water-induced irritation. [References: 53]


<17>
Unique Identifier
  9169262
Medline Identifier
  97312821
Authors
  Saltzer KR. Schutzer PJ. Weinberg JM. Tangoren IA. Spiers EM.
Institution
  Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
USA.
Title
  Diving suit dermatitis: a manifestation of Pseudomonas folliculitis.
Source
  Cutis. 59(5):245-6, 1997 May.
Abstract
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a variety of cutaneous infections.
Pseudomonas folliculitis has been associated with a number of activities,
particularly bathing in contaminated water and the use of contaminated
objects while bathing. We present two unique cases in which the subjects
noted Pseudomonas folliculitis after recreational use of diving suits.


<18>
Unique Identifier
  9878980
Medline Identifier
  99095030
Authors
  Burnett JW.
Institution
  Department of Dermatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine,
Baltimore 21201, USA.
Title
  Aquatic adversaries: stonefish. [Review] [7 refs]
Source
  Cutis. 62(6):269-70, 1998 Dec.


<19>
Unique Identifier
  7648887
Medline Identifier
  95376990
Authors
  Scott MJ. Scott MJ 3rd.
Title
  Dermatologic stigmata in sports: water skiing.
Source
  Cutis. 55(6):353-4, 1995 Jun.
Abstract
  Every athletic endeavor results in dermatologic stigmata specific to
it. We illustrate here such a stigmata associated with water skiing.


<20>
Unique Identifier
  10879303
Medline Identifier
  20337467
Authors
  Green JJ.
Institution
  Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New
Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Camden, Cooper Hospital,
USA.
Title
  Localized whirlpool folliculitis in a football player.
Source
  Cutis. 65(6):359-62, 2000 Jun.
Abstract
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa folliculitis occurs in patients exposed to
contaminated water. Most out-breaks are associated with whirlpools. The
infection is characterized by follicular, erythematous papules and
pustules located on immersed body surfaces. Most reported cases are the
result of recreational water use, occur in a diffuse pattern, and are
devoid of green pustular pigment changes. The case described occurred in
a football player after whirlpool treatment for an ankle strain. Green
pustules and a localized affected area are unusual aspects of this case.


<21>
Unique Identifier
  6444569
Medline Identifier
  80133624
Authors
  Fisher AA.
Title
  Water-related dermatoses. Part I.
Source
  Cutis. 25(2):132, 135-6, 139-40 passim, 1980 Feb.


<22>
Unique Identifier
  322958
Medline Identifier
  77161349
Authors
  Hicks JH.
Title
  Swimming and the skin. [Review] [5 refs]
Source
  Cutis. 19(4):448-50, 1977 Apr.
Abstract
  Most skin diseases associated with swimming are relatively minor and
either heal spontaneously or respond quickly to treatment. Exceptions are
those diseases made worse by sunlight such as lupus erythematosus, skin
cancer, or prematurely aged skin. With the use of better sunscreens in
the future, that problem will be solved. [References: 5]


<23>
Unique Identifier
  322960
Medline Identifier
  77161351
Authors
  Hoeffler DF.
Title
  "Swimmers' itch" (cercarial dermatitis). [Review] [24 refs]
Source
  Cutis. 19(4):461-5, 467, 1977 Apr.
Abstract
  Cercarial dermatitis is a parasitic disease affecting the skin. It may
be encountered in fresh or salt water and is global in its distribution.
It is a potential economic hazard to persons who work in aquatic
environments and to the tourist industry. Cercarial dermatitis should be
considered a potential risk whenever warm-blooded and molluscan hosts
share a water resource with man. It is characteristically a self-limited,
severely itching rash that lasts about one week and may be easily
mistaken for insect bites. Prevention of the disease is difficult.
Treatment is primarily directed toward relief of symptoms and prevention
of infection. [References: 24]


<24>
Unique Identifier
  3720354
Medline Identifier
  86246519
Authors
  Parks A. Camisa C.
Title
  Aquagenic angioedema.
Source
  Cutis. 37(6):465-6, 1986 Jun.
Abstract
  A 21-year-old man experienced persistent swelling of his lips and
generalized pruritus without hives associated with swimming. Provocative
testing with tap water produced transient edema and pruritus. Sweating
and methacholine testing did not produce cholinergic urticaria. After
several weeks, the angioedema gradually subsided, the reaction to tap
water became negative, and the patient was able to swim again without
reactions. Water should be added to the list of physical agents that
cause angioedema as well as urticaria.


<25>
Unique Identifier
  2242790
Medline Identifier
  91055660
Authors
  Bircher AJ.
Institution
  Department of Dermatology, University of Basel, Switzerland.
Title
  Water-induced itching. [Review] [39 refs]
Source
  Dermatologica. 181(2):83-7, 1990.
Abstract
  In this paper the current knowledge on water-induced pruritus is
reviewed. To the present, three forms, namely aquagenic pruritus (AP),
aquagenic pruritus of the elderly (APE) and water-related itching in
polycythemia rubra vera (PRV), have been recognized. Despite clinical
similarities it appears that the pathophysiology is different in the
three forms. The currently most effective treatment for AP is addition of
sodium bicarbonate to the water, control of xerosis with emollients for
APE and aspirin for water-induced itching in PRV. [References: 39]


<26>
Unique Identifier
  9692609
Medline Identifier
  98355337
Authors
  Chamot E. Toscani L. Rougemont A.
Institution
  Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University Medical Center,
Geneva, Switzerland.
Title
  Public health importance and risk factors for cercarial dermatitis
associated with swimming in Lake Leman at Geneva, Switzerland.
Source
  Epidemiology & Infection. 120(3):305-14, 1998 Jun.
Abstract
  Fifteen cohorts of healthy bathers were recruited at four Lake Leman
beaches between 3 July and 23 August 1996 to assess the public health
importance of cercarial dermatitis in Geneva, Switzerland. Telephone
follow-up interviews were carried out after 2-7 days. Overall, 153
bathers out of 555 reported probable cercarial dermatitis at follow-up.
Median daily attack rate was 27.7% (2.2-57.7%). Of the cases, 11.1%
noticed more than 30 skin lesions, 19.6% described severe itching, 50.3%
used a drug treatment, 3.9% visited a doctor and 15% claimed they would
reduce their bathing activities. History of cercarial dermatitis, time
spent in the water, hour of the day, barometric pressure and maximum
daily atmospheric temperature predicted disease occurrence in
multivariate analysis. While a benign disease, cercarial dermatitis may
have a negative impact on the local water recreation industry. The
identification of risk factors for the disease may help produce better
preventive recommendations for the bathers.


<27>
Unique Identifier
  10846254
Medline Identifier
  20307974
Authors
  Kikuchi-Numagami K. Suetake T. Yanai M. Takahashi M. Tanaka M.
Tagami H.
Institution
  Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1-1
Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai980-8574, Sendai, Japan.
katsukon@mail.cc.tohoku.ac.jp
Title
  Functional and morphological studies of photodamaged skin on the hands
of middle-aged Japanese golfers. [erratum appears in Eur J Dermatol 2000
Jul-Aug;10(5):402.].
Source
  European Journal of Dermatology. 10(4):277-81, 2000 Jun.
Abstract
  The skin of golfers' hands provides a suitable model to study the
effect of chronic sun exposure, because one of their hands is exposed to
the outer environment, especially sunlight, while the other one is always
protected by a glove during play. Our purpose was to find out the
influence of photodamage on the properties of the skin surface of middle-
aged Japanese by using non-invasive methods. We measured hydration state,
and water barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) and the color of
the skin of the dorsum of the hands. In a separate study, we evaluated
the skin surface contour by using replicas taken from the skin in a
slightly stretched or relaxed position. We found a significant decrease
in hydration of the skin surface of the exposed skin as compared to that
of the protected skin, whereas no such difference was found with
transepidermal water loss, a parameter for water barrier function of the
SC. Luminance of skin color was also reduced in the sun-exposed skin.
Replica analysis revealed that large wrinkles developing in a relaxed
position were more prominent on the exposed than on the protected skin,
while fine furrows noted in a slightly stretched position were shallower
on the former than the latter. The data obtained indicate that the
chronically exposed skin of golfers' hands shows morphological and
functional changes resulting from long time exposure to the outer
environment especially sunlight. Furthermore, bioengineering non-invasive
methods are found to be useful to detect early photodamage of the skin in
a more quantitative fashion which is rather difficult to demonstrate
clinically.


<28>
Unique Identifier
  1675631
Medline Identifier
  91267684
Authors
  Addy JH.
Institution
  Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra.
Title
  Red sea coral contact dermatitis.
Source
  International Journal of Dermatology. 30(4):271-3, 1991 Apr.
Abstract
  Six of nine adults who developed Red Sea coral contact dermatitis had
seafood allergies. Contact with the "fire" coral was followed by a series
of skin eruptions starting with an immediate pruritic urticaria-like
lesion which forced the victims out of the water. Within minutes the
affected area became erythematous and edematous with eventual blister
formation approximately 6 hours after the initial contact. The blisters
resolved, leaving violaceous papules and plaques in a streaky fashion
corresponding to where the coral brushed the skin. The lesions became
shiny and lichenoid in 3 weeks while pruritus persisted. Treatment with
topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines reduced the severity of
the disease but did not stop its evolution to the lichenoid stage.
Complete resolution usually occurred after 15 weeks, leaving residual
hyperpigmented macules.


<29>
Unique Identifier
  9427071
Medline Identifier
  98088510
Authors
  Tur E. Brenner S.
Institution
  Department of Dermatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv
University, Sackler School of Medicine, Israel.
Title
  The role of the water system as an exogenous factor in pemphigus.
[Review] [60 refs]
Source
  International Journal of Dermatology. 36(11):810-6, 1997 Nov.


<30>
Unique Identifier
  1815082
Medline Identifier
  92269224
Authors
  Peterson KA. Portouw SJ.
Title
  The hazards of operational diving in heavily oil-polluted water.
[Review] [15 refs]
Source
  Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service. 77(3):159-64, 1991 Winter.


<31>
Unique Identifier
  3121990
Medline Identifier
  88093891
Authors
  Verhaegen MJ.
Title
  The aquatic ape theory and some common diseases.
Source
  Medical Hypotheses. 24(3):293-300, 1987 Nov.
Abstract
  The Aquatic Ape Theory claims that human ancestors once lived in a
semi-aquatic habitat. Some human diseases might be explained by our
aquatic past. Such problems include hyperventilation, periodic breathing,
laryngo- and bronchospasm, vasomotor rhinopathy, seborrhea, dandruff,
male pattern alopecia, rhinophyma, osteoarthritis, inguinal hernias,
varicose veins, common obesity, myopia, and ear-wax.


<32>
Unique Identifier
  449750
Medline Identifier
  79199090
Authors
  Appleton CC. Lethbridge RC.
Title
  Schistosome dermatitis in the Swan Estuary, Western Australia.
Source
  Medical Journal of Australia. 1(5):141-5, 1979 Mar 10.
Abstract
  The avian blood fluke, Austrobilharzia terrigalensis (Trematoda:
Schistosomatidae), is recorded in Western Australia for the first time,
and is implicated as the cause of dermatitis among users of the Swan
estuary in Perth. Quantitative data provided by a questionnaire sent to
affected people showed that infection occurred from November to March in
the shallows throughout the "middle" estuary and that children from five
to 14 years old were most frequently affected. Most cases of dermatitis
were contracted between 11 a.m. and 12 noon--the time of day when the
emergence of A. terrigalensis cercariae from the intermediate host,
Velacumantus australis, reaches a peak. Exposure times varied
considerably, but were generally between 30 and 90 minutes, with
dermatitis appearing 12 to 24 hours later. The lesions, which were
sometimes widespread over the body and itched severely, persisted for one
to two weeks and longer if they were secondarily infected. Approximately
38% of affected people consulted doctors about their condition. These
results are discussed in relation to findings on the ecology of the
parasite's intermediate and definitive hosts.


<33>
Unique Identifier
  7858410
Medline Identifier
  95161922
Authors
  Nelemans PJ. Rampen FH. Groenendal H. Kiemeney LA. Ruiter DJ.
Verbeek AL.
Institution
  Department of Medical Informatics and Epidemiology, University of
Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Title
  Swimming and the risk of cutaneous melanoma.
Source
  Melanoma Research. 4(5):281-6, 1994 Oct.
Abstract
  Recreational exposure to the sun may not explain fully current trends
in melanoma incidence. The hypothesis was examined whether carcinogens in
water play a role in the development of cutaneous melanoma. In a case-
control study, 128 melanoma patients and 168 patients with other types of
malignancy completed a detailed questionnaire on aquatic leisure time
activities. All relative risk estimates were adjusted for age, gender,
educational level, pigmentation characteristics, and exposure to sun
habits. Regular swimming during the summer months in swimming pools and
in open waters such as rivers and seas before the age of 15 years, was
associated with odds ratios of 2.20 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-
4.62) and 2.41 (95% CI, 1.04-5.58), respectively, compared with no
swimming at all or swimming in relatively unpolluted waters, such as
lakes and fens. Melanoma patients learned to swim at a younger age;
compared with those who never learned to swim or who learned to swim
after the age of 12 years, the odds ratio was 1.87 (95% CI, 0.91-3.78)
for those who learned to swim at ages 9-12 years, and 2.22 (95% CI, 1.16-
4.26) for those who learned to swim before 9 years of age. Compared with
persons who had no swimming certificates, an odds ratio of 1.25 (95% CI,
0.71-2.23) was found for persons with one or two certificates, and an
odds ratio of 2.96 (95% CI, 1.25-6.96) for persons with three or more
certificates. The positive association between a history of swimming and
melanoma risk suggests that carcinogenic agents in water, possibly
chlorination by products, play a role in melanoma aetiology.


<34>
Unique Identifier
  865461
Medline Identifier
  77192003
Authors
  Oyoo AO. Donnell D. Pendergast TJ.
Title
  Epidemic of "swimmer's itch" traced to cercarial trematodes.
Source
  Missouri Medicine. 74(5):218-9, 1977 May.


<35>
Unique Identifier
  8336754
Medline Identifier
  93330321
Authors
  Freudenthal AR. Joseph PR.
Institution
  Office of Marine Ecology, Nassau County Department of Health, Mineola,
N.Y.
Title
  Seabather's eruption.
Source
  New England Journal of Medicine. 329(8):542-4, 1993 Aug 19.
Abstract
  BACKGROUND. Seabather's eruption is an annoying pruritic dermatitis
that appears on the areas covered by the bathing suit as an erythematous
macular or papular dermatitis, with or without urticaria. It occurs
sporadically in Florida, the Caribbean, and as far north as Bermuda. The
cause is not known. METHODS. We collected information in Nassau County,
Long Island, New York, about cases of all types of water-related
dermatitis reported by beach personnel, health providers, and affected
swimmers from 1970 through 1991. Concurrently, we surveyed all Nassau
County swimming waters, especially during the summer season (June through
September), for the presence of organisms capable of causing dermatitis.
In 1980 a sudden epidemic of a severe, unfamiliar dermatitis in ocean
bathers prompted increased surveillance of cases and waters. Planula
larvae of the phylum Cnidaria were collected from the ocean and beaches
and inside bathing suits. They were examined, photographed, tested on
healthy subjects, and observed in the laboratory for metamorphosis.
RESULTS. Three outbreaks of seabather's eruption have occurred on Long
Island since 1975. The first, in August 1975, affected a small number of
swimmers on the eastern end of Long Island. In 1980 there were thousands
of cases along the entire south shore of the island, and in 1990 there
were hundreds in the same area. In nonepidemic years, five or fewer cases
have been reported yearly. Surveillance for larvae revealed them to be
present during the swimming season in epidemic years, but in nonepidemic
years they did not appear until autumn, after the swimming season.
Applying larvae to the skin of healthy subjects produced a dermatitis
indistinguishable from seabather's eruption. All larvae metamorphosed in
the laboratory to the adult sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.
CONCLUSIONS. Seabather's eruption, previously reported only as sporadic
cases in southern climates, has occurred sporadically and in outbreaks
1000 miles north of most previously described cases. These Long Island
episodes were probably caused by the planula larvae of E. lineata.
<36>
Unique Identifier
  9242039
Medline Identifier
  97386025
Authors
  Kamihama T. Kimura T. Hosokawa JI. Ueji M. Takase T. Tagami K.
Institution
  Laboratory of Exercise and Environmental Health, Institute of Health
and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
Title
  Tinea pedis outbreak in swimming pools in Japan.
Source
  Public Health. 111(4):249-53, 1997 Jul.
Abstract
  This study was conducted to show a higher prevalence of interdigital
tinea pedis in athletes by comparing athletes and non-athletes, and to
examine swimming pools as a route of infection. The subjects were 282
athletes, 137 non-athletes, and 140 students enrolled in a swimming class
at the University of Tsukuba. This study included the taking of cotton-
swab samples from the interdigital skin surfaces of both feet and
cultures, microscopical examinations of scales collected from subjects
with lesions, and questionnaires. There was a significant difference
between athletes and non-athletes in the prevalence of the relevant
pathogens, and a higher risk of infection was shown in athletes. The
study also found that 63.6% of the swimming class students were carriers,
and that 85.0% of their dermatophytes were Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
In addition, dermatophytes were also isolated from the floors of the
swimming pool and the public baths. The results of these controlled
studies suggested that there was a significant risk of dermatophytosis in
both athletes and non-athletes using the swimming pool.


<37>
Unique Identifier
  9018290
Medline Identifier
  97171017
Authors
  Kumar S. Hlady WG. Malecki JM.
Institution
  Division of Epidemiology and Disease Control, Palm Beach County Public
Health Department, Riviera Beach, FL 33404, USA.
Title
  Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.
Source
  Public Health Reports. 112(1):59-62, 1997 Jan-Feb.
Abstract
  OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk
factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were
recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three
weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone
after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development
of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's
eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposure
to seawater, was reported by 114 (16%) of 735 respondents. The strongest
predictor of seabather's eruption was a past history of the condition.
Children less than 16 years of age were also at increased risk, as were
surfers. Showering with one's bathing suit off was a useful protective
measure. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that when the seasonal
risk of seabather's eruption is present, children, people with a history
of seabather's eruption, and surfers are at greatest risk. During the sea
lice season, seabathers can minimize their risk by showering with their
bathing suits off after seabathing. Length of the time spent in water was
not significantly associated with seabather's eruption.


<38>
Unique Identifier
  8679437
Medline Identifier
  96245814
Authors
  du Peloux Menage H. Greaves MW.
Institution
  St John's Institute of Dermatology, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital
Trust, London, United Kingdom.
Title
  Aquagenic pruritus. [Review] [40 refs]
Source
  Seminars in Dermatology. 14(4):313-6, 1995 Dec.


<39>
Unique Identifier
  3153453
Medline Identifier
  91027412
Authors
  Archer CB. Greaves MW.
Institution
  St. John's Hospital for Diseases of the Skin and Institute of
Dermatology, London, United Kingdom.
Title
  Aquagenic pruritus. [Review] [14 refs]
Source
  Seminars in Dermatology. 7(4):301-3, 1988 Dec.


<40>
Unique Identifier
  1901428
Medline Identifier
  91188363
Authors
  Evans AC. Martin DJ.   Ginsburg BD.
Institution
  Research Institute for Diseases in a Tropical Environment, South Africa
Medical Research Council, Nelspruit, Tvl.
Title
  Katayama fever in scuba divers. A report of 3 cases.
Source
  South African Medical Journal. 79(5):271-4, 1991 Mar 2.
Abstract
  Katayama fever or acute schistosomiasis probably occurs more commonly
than is recorded. Interviews with a 3-man scuba diving team who had had
contact with a large dam in an endemic area of the eastern Transvaal
Lowveld at the same time and contact area on the same day during late
summer of 1986 are discussed. Two, who had not previously been exposed to
infected water, presented with Katayama fever, due to Schistosoma mansoni
infection, 21 days after contact and it took 30-36 months for them to
recover fully after several treatments. The third patient, a keen water-
sportsman and resident in the endemic area for a period of 10 years,
presented with a mild infection, probably due to acquired immunity
initiated during previous contacts with infected water; he took about a
year to recover. The pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and
treatment of the 3 cases are described in the light of recent
observations made elsewhere on Katayama fever cases and the effects of
chemotherapy on the course of illness. The necessity of obtaining basic
information on the travel and water-contact activities of patients in
order to make a diagnosis is emphasised.


<41>
Unique Identifier
  663876
Medline Identifier
  78204745
Authors
  Robertson HT. Lakshminarayan S. Hudson LD.
Title
  Lung injury following a 50-metre fall into water.
Source
  Thorax. 33(2):175-80, 1978 Apr.
Abstract
  The pulmonary complications of a 50-metre fall to the water (a form of
suicide attempt producing 87% mortality) were studied in 15 survivors.
Presenting findings included crackles, haemoptysis, and hypotension. The
alveolar-arterial oxygen difference was greater than 150 mmHg (20 kPa) in
nine subjects on admission. Ventilatory failure developed in 10 of the
patients, including all of those with massive haemoptysis. Radiographic
findings included pneumothorax and diffuse pulmonary opacities adjacent
to the area of impact. Pneumothorax developed within 12 hours of
admission in 10 of 15 subjects but was associated with rib fractures in
only four subjects. The clinical course of the condition is consistent
with the hypothesis that the traumatic pulmonary tears produced
interstitial emphysema, with subsequent development of pneumomediastinum,
subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax. Pneumothorax is a common
complication of severe lung contusion even in the absence of penetrating
pleural injury.
<42>
Unique Identifier
  1226583
Medline Identifier
  76200250
Authors
  Philp RB. Freeman D. Francey I.
Title
  Hematology and blood chemistry in saturation diving: II. Open-sea vs.
hyperbaric chamber.
Source
  Undersea Biomedical Research. 2(4):251-65, 1975 Dec.
Abstract
  Hematograms, platelet function, and blood-enzyme chemistry were
compared in two similar saturation-excursion dives, one conducted in a
hyperbaric chamber and the other in the open sea. The chamber dive was
more stressful in that it was preceded by a series of bounce
decompression dives (one of which produced a 100% incidence of cutaneous
pruritis in four subjects) and in that the excursions from saturation
depth (60 fsw or 2.818 ATA) were longer and deeper (producing one case of
O2 convulsions, one of confirmed decompression sickness, and several of
Doppler-detected vascular bubbles). The chamber dive was associated with
a marked and significant reduction in circulating platelet count;
significant increases in plasma enzyme activities in the victim of O2
toxicity (LDH, CPK) and in one subject with Doppler bubbles and
questionable bends symptoms (LDH, GOT, GPT) but not in another; and mild
but significant anemia. In the open-water dive, one subject, who
developed symptoms of gastroenteritis, showed moderate elevation of LDH,
GOT, and GPT activity. No significant change in platelet counts occurred.
Both dives were associated with elevated white-cell counts, apparently as
a result of numerous minor infections, and reduced sensitivity of
platelets of ADP-induced aggregation.


<43>
Unique Identifier
  2818792
Medline Identifier
  90056807
Authors
  Kolarova L. Gottwaldova V. Cechova D. Sevcova M.
Institution
  Institute of Tropical Health, School of Postgraduate Medicine and
Pharmacy in Prague, CSSR.
Title
  The occurrence of cercarial dermatitis in Central Bohemia.
Source
  Zentralblatt fur Hygiene und Umweltmedizin. 189(1):1-13, 1989 Oct.
Abstract
  The occurrence of a dermatitis was reported from 4 natural water
reservoirs in Central Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) in June and August 1985
and 1986. The clinical course of the disease was suggestive of cercarial
dermatitis. Exanthema occurred most frequently under the bathing suits of
afflicted persons, and on unprotected parts of their skin as well. A
total of 5,865 snails (Lymnaea auricularia) were collected at the
localities Novy rybnik in Pribram, Spaleny mlyn at Lisnice and Uhonice.
Nine individuals of L. stagnalis were collected at Grado, Celakovice.
Biological examination indicated cercariae of bird schistosomes
(Trichobilharzia szidati) only at one locality--Spaleny mlyn, Lisnice.
The question of cercarial dermatitis caused by species other than
schistosome cercariae, especially by Diplostomum spathaceum which was
abundant at Pribram, is discussed. Repeated outbreaks of cercarial
dermatitis were stopped at one locality by chemical and mechanical snail
control in a swimming pool. Chemical control by chlorinated lime and
copper sulfate proved insufficient in the course of the season. The
mechanical control (clearing of the mud and drying of the bottom of the
pool) removed infected snails, reservoirs of the disease. Suggested
changes in the composition of fish fauna should also reduce excessive
reproduction of snails.




 greater than 150 mmHg (20 kPa) in nine subjects on admission.
Ventilatory failure developed in 10 of the patients, including all of
those with massive haemoptysis. Radiographic findings included
pneumothorax and diffuse pulmonary opacities adjacent to the area of
impact. Pneumothorax developed within 12 hours of admission in 10 of 15
subjects but was associated with rib fractures in only four subjects. The
clinical course of the condition is consistent with the hypothesis that
the traumatic pulmonary tears produced interstitial emphysema, with
subsequent development of pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and
pneumothorax. Pneumothorax is a common complication of severe lung
contusion even in the absence of penetrating pleural injury.


<42>
Unique Identifier
  1226583
Medline Identifier
  76200250
Authors
  Philp RB. Freeman D. Francey I.
Title
  Hematology and blood chemistry in saturation diving: II. Open-sea vs.
hyperbaric chamber.
Source
  Undersea Biomedical Research. 2(4):251-65, 1975 Dec.
Abstract
  Hematograms, platelet function, and blood-enzyme chemistry were
compared in two similar saturation-excursion dives, one conducted in a
hyperbaric chamber and the other in the open sea. The chamber dive was
more stressful in that it was preceded by a series of bounce
decompression dives (one of which produced a 100% incidence of cutaneous
pruritis in four subjects) and in that the excursions from saturation
depth (60 fsw or 2.818 ATA) were longer and deeper (producing one case of
O2 convulsions, one of confirmed decompression sickness, and several of
Doppler-detected vascular bubbles). The chamber dive was associated with
a marked and significant reduction in circulating platelet count;
significant increases in plasma enzyme activities in the victim of O2
toxicity (LDH, CPK) and in one subject with Doppler bubbles and
questionable bends symptoms (LDH, GOT, GPT) but not in another; and mild
but significant anemia. In the open-water dive, one subject, who
developed symptoms of gastroenteritis, showed moderate elevation of LDH,
GOT, and GPT activity. No significant change in platelet counts occurred.
Both dives were associated with elevated white-cell counts, apparently as
a result of numerous minor infections, and reduced sensitivity of
platelets of ADP-induced aggregation.


<43>
Unique Identifier
  2818792
Medline Identifier
  90056807
Authors
  Kolarova L. Gottwaldova V. Cechova D. Sevcova M.
Institution
  Institute of Tropical Health, School of Postgraduate Medicine and
Pharmacy in Prague, CSSR.
Title
  The occurrence of cercarial dermatitis in Central Bohemia.
Source
  Zentralblatt fur Hygiene und Umweltmedizin. 189(1):1-13, 1989 Oct.
Abstract
  The occurrence of a dermatitis was reported from 4 natural water
reservoirs in Central Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) in June and August 1985
and 1986. The clinical course of the disease was suggestive of cercarial
dermatitis. Exanthema occurred most frequently under the bathing suits of
afflicted persons, and on unprotected parts of their skin as well. A
total of 5,865 snails (Lymnaea auricularia) were collected at the
localities Novy rybnik in Pribram, Spaleny mlyn at Lisnice and Uhonice.
Nine individuals of L. stagnalis were collected at Grado, Celakovice.
Biological examination indicated cercariae of bird schistosomes
(Trichobilharzia szidati) only at one locality--Spaleny mlyn, Li

								
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