Docstoc

Environmental Impact Assessment of Zhejiang Province for PCB

Document Sample
Environmental Impact Assessment of Zhejiang Province for PCB Powered By Docstoc
					Environmental Impact Assessment of Zhejiang Province for

 PCB Management and Disposal Demonstration Project




 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE RESEARCH & DESIGN
       INSTITUTE OF ZHEJIANG PROVINCE


                   March 21, 2005
                                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


THE "PCB MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT" AND THE

STOCKHOLM
CONVENTION...............................................................
.........................................................1


LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR PCB HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHINA

AND IN THE ZHEJIANG PROVINCE.
.........................................................................
................................2

 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR C
HINA.....................................................................
............................................2

 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR THE ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
.........................................................................
........3

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK.
.........................................................................
........................................2

 CHINA INSTITUTIONS FOR POPS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
.........................................................................
.....3

 ZHEJIANG INSTITUTIONS FOR POPS AND WASTE
MANAGEMENT...............................................................
..........4

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND QUALITY CRIT ERIA FOR
PCB......................................5

 NATIONAL
STANDARDS................................................................
.........................................................................
...5

 WESTERN COUNTRIES
STANDARDS................................................................
........................................................6

BASELINE AND ENVIRONMENT QUALITY INFORMATION IN ZHEJIANG BEFORE THE

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE "PCB MANAGEMENT AND D ISPOSAL DEMONSTRATION
PROJECT".................................................................
.........................................................................
.....................6


DESCRIPTION OF ACTIO NS                               AND
EQUIPMENT                          REQUIRED                    BY
THE           "PCB

MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL DEMONSTRATION
PROJECT".................................................8

 PRIORITY
RANKING..................................................................
.........................................................................
......8

 SITE
SAMPLING.................................................................
.........................................................................
.............8

 DECONTAMINATION OF PCBCONTAMINATED
SITES....................................................................
........................8

 STORAGE FACILITY FOR
PCBWASTES................................................................
...................................................9


TRANSPORT................................................................
.........................................................................
....................9

 MOBILE THERMAL DESORPTION PLANT
.........................................................................
.......................................9

 ONLINE DECONTAMINATION FOR
TRANSFORMERS.............................................................
................................10

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF ACTIONS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

BY THE "PCB MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL DEMONSTRATION PROJEC
T"..................10

 DECONTAMINATION OF PCBCONTAMINATED
SITES....................................................................
......................10
 STORAGE FACILITY FOR
PCBWASTES................................................................
................................................. 11

 THERMAL DESORPTION
PLAN.....................................................................
..........................................................13

 ONLINE DECONTAMINATION FOR
TRANSFORMERS.............................................................
................................13

CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL
EVALUATION...............................................................
.............................14




I
CONTENTS


1.BACKGROUND OF THIS PROJECT
.........................................................................
..............................15


   1.1INTRODUCTION OF THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTIONON
POPS...............................................................15

     1.1.1 Main contents
.........................................................................
..............................................................16

     1.1.2 Situation of China's
participation............................................................
.........................................16

   1.2BACKGROUND OF THIS
PROJECT..................................................................
...............................................18

   1.3GENERAL SITUATIONS ONPCBS MANAGEMENT IN
ZHEJIANG...............................................................19

     1.3.1 Overall evaluation on PCBs management in
China....................................................................
..19

     1.3.2 Evaluation of PCB management in the national and Zhejiang
provincial plans.....................21


2 REGULATORY FRAMEWO RK
.........................................................................
........................................23


   2.1LAWS AND REGULATIONS SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES IN C
HINA...............................................23

     2.1.1 National laws
.........................................................................
..............................................................23

     2.1.2 Administrative statutes and legal documents
.........................................................................
.........23

     2.1.3 Department regulations and criterion documents
.........................................................................
26
     2.1.4 Environment Standards and Technology
Guidelines...............................................................
......35

   2.2PCBS RELATED POLICY, REGULATION AND STANDARD
.......................................................................36

     2.2.2 About PCBs Electric Equipment and PCBs Waste
........................................................................3
6

     2.2.2 PCBs Commodities
.........................................................................
.....................................................40

     2.2.3 On Environmental and Health Quality Standard of
PCBS...........................................................41

     2.2.4 The US. Requirements for PCBs cleanup
.........................................................................
...............41

     2.2.5 Policies on wastes management and PCB management and treatment
of Zhejiang Province


.........................................................................
.........................................................................
........................44


3. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
.........................................................................
...................................49


   3.1INTRODUCTION OF THE C ONVENTION IMPLEMENTATION IN
CHINA......................................................49

   3.2PCBS MANAGEMENT ADOPTED BYTHE SEPA & OTHER RELEVANT
INSTITUTIONS...........................50

     3.2.1 Institutions Related to PCB Management
.........................................................................
..............50

     3.2.2 Other Institution Concerning
PCB......................................................................
.............................52

   3.3 PROVINCIAL EPB AND OTHER PROVINCIAL INSTITUTIONS OF PCBS
MANAGEMENT E.G. ZHEJIANG
PROVINCE.................................................................
.........................................................................
...................56

     3.3.1 Relevant Management Institutions
.........................................................................
..........................56

     3.3.2 Other PCBs related institutes
.........................................................................
...................................57




II
   3.4THEPCBS MANAGEMENT OF LOCALENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BUREAUS AND
OTHER RELATED

   LOCAL INSTITUTES . THE Z HEJIANG PROVINCE AS AN
EXAMPLE..................................................................
.60

      3.4.1 Hazardous waste management
institute................................................................
..........................60

      3.4.2 Other PCBs related institutes
.........................................................................
...................................63

   3.5THE RELATIONSHIP OF EACH
INSTITUTE................................................................
....................................64


4. INVENTORY OF PCBS WASTES IN THE ZHEJIANG
PROVINCE............................................66


   4.1CHINA PCBS INVENTORYM ETHODOLOGY GUIDELINE
.........................................................................
.66

   4. 2 PCB INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT IN ZHEJIANGPROVINCE
...................................................................67

      4. 2.1 Inventory development process
.........................................................................
...............................67

      4. 2. 2 The preliminary result of PCB inventory in
Zhejiang.................................................................
70


5. DETAILED DESCRIPT IONS AND PRIORITIES FOR THE CLEANUP OF THE

PCB-CONTAMINATED SITES
.........................................................................
..............................................78


   5.1DETAILEDDESCRIPTIONAND ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS..................................................................
...78

      5.1.1 Analysis of Environmental Risks
.........................................................................
..............................78
      5.1.2 Detailed Descriptions of the PCB-Contaminated Sites
................................................................79

   5.2THE PRIORITY ORDER FOR CLEANUP AND
DISPOSAL.................................................................
.............100

   5.3THE CLEANUP
PLAN.....................................................................
...............................................................105


6. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE FOR PCB SITES
.........................................................................
....106


   6.1MAINACTIVITIES
.........................................................................
..............................................................106

   6.2MAIN
PROCEDURE................................................................
......................................................................106

   6.3DETAILEDDESCRIPTION OF THE
PROCEDURE................................................................
........................106


7.    THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE

FACILITY OF
PCBS.....................................................................
....................................................................119


   7.1 SITING OF THE PCB STORAGE
FACILITY.................................................................
................................119

      7.1.1.     Identification of the General Locations for the PCBs
Storage Facility ..........................119

      7.1.2.     Natural and Socio-Economic Environment of Chongxian and
Qiaosi ............................120

   7.2DETAILEDDESCRIPTION OF PCB STORAGE SITES CONSIDERED IN CHONGXIAN
AND QIAOSI.......124

      7.2.1   Siting Requirements
.........................................................................
..............................................125
      7.2.2   Detailed Description of the Chongxian
Site.....................................................................
........126

      7.2.3   Detailed Description of the Qiaoxi
Site.....................................................................
................129

   7.3EVALUATION OFALTERNATIVE SITES
.........................................................................
.............................133

   7.4DESIGN OF THE PCB STORAGE
FACILITY.................................................................
..............................138


                                                                    III
    7.4.1   The rules for
design...................................................................
....................................................138

    7.4.2   Structure facilities
.........................................................................
.................................................139

  7.5ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTAND
RISKASSESSMENTS..........................................................
...................140

    7.5.1   Environmental Impact Assessment
.........................................................................
....................140

    7.5.2   Risk Assessment
.........................................................................
....................................................140

  7.6OPERATION OF THE PCB STORAGE
FACILITY.................................................................
........................141

  7.7 SAFETY
MEASURES.................................................................
...................................................................145

    7.7.1.     Preventive Measures
.........................................................................
........................................145

    7.7.2.     Emergency Measure
.........................................................................
........................................145

  7.8EMPLOYEE TRAINING
.........................................................................
.......................................................146

  7.9ENVIRONMENTAL
MONITORING...............................................................
................................................147

    7.9.1.     Monitoring
Phase....................................................................
.................................................147

    7.9.2.     Criteria for
Monitoring...............................................................
.............................................147
    7.9.3.     Environmental Monitoring
Scheme...................................................................
....................148

  7.10 CLOSURE OF THE PCB STORAGE
FACILITY.................................................................
.........................149


8.   ENVIRONMENTAL            IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TH E PROPOSED SOIL AND

TRANSFORMERS DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR
ZHEJIANG......................152


  8.1. SELECTION OF SOIL DECONTAMINATIONTECHNOLOGY
.....................................................................152

    8.1.1 First Stage Evaluation
.........................................................................
.............................................152

    8.1.2 Second Stage
Evaluation...............................................................
...................................................156

    8.1.3 Third Stage Evaluation
.........................................................................
............................................158

  8.2MODALITY FOR THE SITEOFTHE
FACILITY.................................................................
...........................161

    8.2.1 Location of the
Facility.................................................................
...................................................161

    8.2.2 Determination of the Facility
Capacity.................................................................
........................161

    8.2.3. Site Selection of the Thermal Desorption Facility
......................................................................162

    8.2.4 Environmental Impact Estimation
.........................................................................
.........................163

    8.2.5 Operational Monitoring
.........................................................................
..........................................164
  8.3ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR THE DISPOSAL PROCESS
............................................................164

    8.3.1 Monitoring for
PCBs.....................................................................
....................................................164

    8.3.1.1. Collection and Storage of PCB
Sample...................................................................
.................164

    8.3.2 Monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs
.........................................................................
.............................165

  8.4MANAGEMENTAND DECONTAMINAT ION OF PCB CONTAMINATED TRANSFORMERS
......................166

  8.4.1CURRENT SITUATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED TRANSFORMERSIN
ZHEJIANG.............................166

    8.4.2 Main Points of Proper Technology Selection of Decontamination
of PCB Contaminated

                                                                   IV
     Transformers
.........................................................................
.......................................................................16
7

     8.4.3 Available Technologies for Online Decontamination of
Transformers ....................................167

     8.4.4 Selection and Origin of Technology of Decontamination of
Transformers .............................171

     8.4.5 Test Execution of Decontamination of
Transformer..............................................................
......171

   8.5ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS..............................................................172

   8.6ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR THE DECONTAMINATION OF
PCB.............................................173

     8.6.1 Environmental Monitoring for the Decontamination of
Transformer ......................................173

     8.6.2 Monitoring for
PCBs.....................................................................
....................................................174

     8.6.3 Monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs
.........................................................................
.............................175


9. CAPACITY BUILDING IN ZHEJIANG
.........................................................................
.......................178


   9.1INSTITUTIONAL
STRENGTHENING............................................................
................................................178

   9.2DEVELOPMENTOFA POLICY FRAMEWORK FORPCB MANAGEMENTAND DISPOSAL
.....................178

   9.3TRAININGS IN
ZHEJIANG.................................................................
...........................................................179


10 EMP IMPLEMENTATIO N PLAN AND PROJECT C OST ESTIMATION
...............................182
   10.1 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
.........................................................................
.................................................182

   10.2 COST
ESTIMATION...............................................................
.....................................................................185


11. PUBLIC
PARTICIPATION............................................................
..........................................................187


   11.1 OBJECTIVES AND FORMSOF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
.........................................................................
...187

     11.1.1 Objectives
.........................................................................
.................................................................187

     11.1.2 Principles of public participation and investigation
.................................................................187

     11.1.3 Method of public
participation............................................................
..........................................188

   11.2 SITUATION OF WORKING ORGANIZATIONS OF PUB
LICPARTICIPATION...............................................188

   11.3 GENERAL PUBLIC CONCERN AND
SUGGESTION...............................................................
.....................191

   11.4 PLAN FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
EXCHANGE.................................................................
...................192

   11.5 PLAN FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
EXCHANGE.................................................................
...................193

   11.6
CONCLUSION...............................................................
.........................................................................
.....194


ANNEX: QUESTIONNAIRE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INVESTIGATIO
...........................196
V
                              Executive Summary

The "PCB Management and Disposal Demonstration Project"
and the Stockholm Convention

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the twelve persistent organic
pollutants
(POPs), which, being noxious to human health and the environment, were
identified for
elimination by the Stockholm Convention, which came into force on May 17,
2004.
China has been strongly committed to the development and implementation
of the
Stockholm Convention. It participated in all preparatory meetings and
signed the
Convention as soon as it opened for signature on May 23, 2001. China
officially ratified
the Stockholm Convention on August 13, 2004, and is a Party to the
Convention. China
has also advanced substantially in meeting the Convention requirement
that Parties to
the Convention submit a National Implementation Plan (NIP) to the
Conference of
Parties within two years after the Convention comes into force in that
country. China
started prepa ring its NIP in mid-2004 and is expected to complete it by
the required date
of August 13, 2006.
China has been manufacturing PCBs from 1965 until early 1974.
It produced
approximately 10,000 tons, including 1,000 tons of pentachlorobiphenyl
(PCB5) and
9,000 tons of trichlorobiphenyl (PCB3). PCB5 oils were generally used in
a wide
variety of open systems, such as in oil paints and exterior dopes. While
some wastes
may still be present at production or formulation facilities, it is
reasonable to assume
that most of this material has been released into the environment. PCB3
was mainly
used in manufacturing capacitors that were used in the electricity supply
industry.
There is still very little information available concerning the PCB
contamination of
transformers and other electrical equipment in use, even though some
progress in this
direction has been made under the Inventory project.
During the 1980s, on the grounds of growing health and environmental
concerns, China
removed most PCB-containing capacitors from service and placed them in
temporary
storage facilities (underground "concrete coffins" or in caves) intended
to hold them for
3-20 years. Recent surveys and investigations indicate that most PCB-
containing
equipment remains in these temporary storage facilities, and that many of
the facilities
-- caves and burial sites -- are leaking PCBs into the environment. The
project will
address these sector issues in one province (Zhejiang) to determine and
demonstrate the
most cost-effective practices and technologies for disposing of PCBs in
China's
conditions.
A big question still remaining open concerns the amount of PCB
contaminated
equipment still in use in China. While the available information is that
domestic
transformer producers have never used PCBs as dielectric, very little is
known on
improper maintenance as a possible cause of transformer contamination, on
the number,
of imported PCBs transformers from other countries, on the PCB content
(if any) of the
mineral oil used in the transformers. Therefore the project is also
intended to address
this issue, by performing sampling and analysis of the mineral oil in
electrical


                                            1
equipment and by testing available technologies for non destructive
decontamination of
these equipments.
Thus, from the point of view of environmental impact, provided
contaminated sites will
be managed and decontaminated following good technical procedures, the
project is
expected to have a strong beneficial impact on the environment and on
human health.

Legislative Framework for PCB Hazardous Waste Management in
China and in the Zhejiang Province

Legislative Framework for China

From 1974 to now, almost 100 National laws and acts on wastes and waste-
related
environmental issues have been enacted. 19 of them are specifically
addressed toward
the industrial, municipal or hazardous wastes regulation, 12 concern
environmental
issues in general, including wastes. 69 laws concerning hazardous wastes
have been
promulgated.
The breakout of SARS in early 2003 has greatly alarmed the central
government and
raised much concern on hazardous waste and medical waste management. The
government reacted in a very short time and issued the National Program
on the
Construction of Hazardous Waste and Medical Waste Disposal Facilities for
the
ultimate purpose of prevention of disease and protection of human health
and the
environment. As far as PCBs are concerned, the following regulation
addresses
explicitly and in some case exclusively the regulation of PCBs.
    · Circular on Changing Impregnant of Power Capacitors [Jidian 226
(74)]
         stipulated to ban the use of trichlorinated biphenyl to
manufacture power
         capacitors;
    · Circular on Preventing Pollution Problems of Polychlorinated
Biphenyl
         Harmful Substance (1979) which stipulated to control pollution of
         polychlorinated biphenyl and stop the import of electrical
installation with
         polychlorinated biphenyl as the medium.
    · Circular on Strengthening Management on Abandoned Polychlorinated
         Biphenyl Power Capacitors] (1990) which strictly prohibited
dealing in waste
         PCBs power capacitors, dismantling waste PCBs power capacitors
and power
         capacitors with no distinct model number, and required that an
inventory survey
        on PCBs power capacitors be carried out by the Environmental
Protection
        Department and Electricity Department.
    · Regulations on Prevention of Environmental Pollution of Electrical
        Equipment Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyl and its Wastes
(1991)
        stipulated to prevent and control the pollution arising from the
use of PCBs
        electrical equipment and the collection, storage, transport,
treatment and
        disposal of PCBs wastes, and to strengthen governmental
supervisors and
        management of PCBs.
    · GB13015-91 Standards on pollution control of PCBs wastes. (1991)
        establishing the maximum value of PCBs wastes as 50mg/kg and all
the
        allowable methods for PCB disposal.


                                           2
   · Circular on Countrywide Reporting of Polychlorinated Biphenyl
Electrical
       Installations and their Wastes enacted to coordinate the
countrywide
       investigation on the use, the storage and the conditions of PCBs
electrical
       equipment.
   · In January 1998, the Directory of Hazardous Wastes was issued
jointly by
       SEPA, former SETC, former MFETC and MPS, in which the PCBs rank as
the
       10th hazardous waste.
   · Measures of Administration of License on Hazardous Waste (2004)
which
       stipulated that any institutes or companies engaging in
collection, storage and
       disposal of hazardous waste should obtain a hazardous waste
dealing license
       from local or state environmental protection departments. The
license for
       disposal of hazardous waster containing polychlorinated biphenyls
should be
       approved and issued by SEPA.

Legislative Framework for the Zhejiang Province

At the provincial level, the following regulations apply to the PCB
contaminated
material and equipment: Regulations on Preventing PCB Electrical
Equipments
and Wastes from Polluting Environment, published in 1991 and transmitted
by EPB
of Zhejiang Province; Circular on Management Methods for Hazardous Wastes
Exchanging and Transporting of Zhejiang, June,1999; Circular on
Management
Method for Hazardous Wastes Business License, July 2001; Construction
Projects
Environment Protection Management Regulations and Implementation Opinions
of EPB of Zhejiang Province Construction Projects Environment Protection
Management      Regulations(State     Department    No.253);     Zhejiang
Province
Atmosphere Pollution Prevention and Solution Regulations; Zhejiang
Province
Construction Projects Environment Protection Management Method; Hazardous
Solid Waste Administration Temporary Methods in Hangzhou, December 28,
1999.

Institutional Framework

China Institutions for POPs and Waste Management

The problem of PCBs in China mainly lies in the electric power sectors
and some large
scale corporations of other sectors. Therefore, the management of the
PCBs mostly
concerns the environmental institutions, electric power sectors and other
relevant large
scale corporations.

Following the negotiation, signing and approval of the Stockholm
Convention, in April
2003, SEPA founded the leading group and Convention Implementation Office
(CIO/SEPA), in order to strengthen the capacity to implement the
convention. In
November 2003, the Leading Group for NIP Development (LG) was founded
jointly by
11 ministries or administrations of the State Council. They are SEPA,
National
Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(MOF),
Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Commerce (MOCom), Ministry of Science
and


                                           3
Technology (MOST), Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), Ministry of Health
(MOH),
Ministry of Construction (MOC), General Administration of Customs (GAC)
and State
Electricity Regulatory Commission (SERC), with SEPA as the leading
agency. In June
2004, China approved the Convention, and at present CIO/SEPA takes
routines of
convention implementation in China.

Other institutions playing a role in PCBs management are: the State Grid
Corporation
of China and the South Grid Corporation of China, and the main five power
generation
companies (Huaneng Group of China, Datang Group of China, Huadian Group
of
China, Guodian Group of China and Electric Power Investigation Group of
China.);
The Shenyang Environmental Sciences Institute, which is under the
jurisdiction of
SEPA and Shenyang Municipal Government, while also being the support
institute of
the National Environmental Protection Technical Center of Hazardous
Wastes Disposal
Engineering; the network of 2,340 monitoring centers/stations and 15
monitoring
networks; large scale enterprises.

Zhejiang Institutions for POPs and Waste Management

There are 2 sub-provincial cities, 9 cities with districts, and 90
counties or county-level
cities or urban districts in Zhejiang province. The government of each
city or county
sets up environmental protection bureaus to take charge of the management
work of
local environmental protection. The Zhejiang Environmental Protection
System is
composed of Zhejiang provincial (EPB) and 11 local EPBs, which are the
EPBs of
Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jiahua, Quzhou,
Zhoushan, Taizhou and Lishui.

Zhejiang Environmental Protection Bureau is a government institution
specialized
in environmental protection in Zhejiang province, with several
departments. Toxic
chemicals and solid waste pollution prevention and control are mainly
under the
authority of the Pollution Control Division of the pr ovincial EPB.
Supervising the
implementation of environmental protection standards, including
environmental
monitoring, environmental protection research and other relevant works,
is mainly
under the authority of the Monitoring Science and Technology Division.

Following the national regulation on PCB, the pollution control divisions
of provincial
EPB or provincial solid waste management centre are charged with
preventing PCBs
pollution in their own provinces. Pollution control divisions or
management office of
city and county EPB are in charge of their own PCBs pollution prevention
and control.
Trans-province transfer is managed by provincial environmental protection
bureau in
accordancewith Administration Measures for Hazardous Waste Transfer(SEPA
[1995]
5).

In order to strengthen solid waste management, Zhejiang Province
established the
Zhejiang Solid Waste Management Centre(ZJSWMC). It plays an important
role in
enforcing provincial solid waste management and guiding subordinate
administrative
branches in all cities or counties in the province. The program
management office of the
Zhejiang Environment-Oriented Enterprise Consultative Program under Sino-
German
Government Technical Cooperation has also been established within the
ZJSWMC.

                                              4
Zhejiang Environment Monitoring Centre is a provincial level station in
China's
national environment monitoring network. This centre consists of six
divisions:
management office, management division, analysis laboratory, water
monitoring
division, atmosphere monitoring division and quality testing division.

Zhejiang Provincial Electric Power Company is a company, held and
supervised by
State Grid Corporation. It is composed of 16 departments. Among these,
the security
inspection department is in charge of the environmental protection in
Zhejiang electric
power industry, and assisting provincial EPB in the implementation of
PCBs inventory
investigation and PCBs disposal in the electric power industry.

Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection Co., Ltd. is an important
component of the
Chinese-German Environment Cooperation Project and a province-level
hazardous
waste disposal centre under the National Program on Construction of
Medical Waste
and Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility.

Environmental Standards and Quality Criteria for PCB

National Standards

In March 1991, the former National Environmental Protection Agency (Now
SEPA)
and State Ministry of Energy jointly issued the Regulations on Prevention
of
Environmental Pollution of Electrical Equipment Containing
Polychlorinated
Biphenyl and its Wastes [Huanguan (91) 050] (with three annexes) to
prevent and
control the pollution caused by the use of PCBs electrical equipment and
collection,
storage, transport, treatment and disposal of PCBs wastes and to
strengthen
governmental supervision and management on PCBs.

In addition, the regulations stipulated that PCB-polluted water bodies
and soils should
be used and managed as provided for in annex 3 Controlling Value of Water
Quality and
Soil Pollution Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Interim). In soil, a
PCB content of
50-500mg/kg was considered as the first pollution level and was banned
from use for
both industry and agriculture and its disposal is mandatory where
applicable. Values in
excess of 500mg/kg of PCBs in soil were considered as the second
pollution level and
banned from use for any purpose; disposal (by storage or incineration).is
mandatory.
The discharge control standard for waste water containing PCBs is
0.003mg/l.

The former State Bureau of Technical Supervision and SEPA issued GB13015-
91
Standards on pollution control of PCBs wastes. The standard stipulates
that the
hazardous waste with PCBs concentration more than 500mg/kg should be
incinerated
at high temperature and the hazardous waste with PCBs =50~=500mg/kg
should be
safely landfilled or incinerated at high temperature. The PCBs waste
(with PCBs >
50mg/kg) should be collected and temporarily stored under the approval of
EPB
whenever incineration or landfilling are not feasible.

In 1988, the Ministry of Health released GB9674-88 Standards on Hygiene
Limits of
PCBs in Seafood (Taking effect on June 1st, 1989) which stipulated that
PCBs content

                                             5
in seafood such as fish, shellfish, shrimps and algae should be less than
0.2mg/kg.
GHZB1 -1999 Standards on Environmental Quality of Surface Water released
by
SEPA regulates that the PCBs content control standard is 8.0×10- mg/L in
of I, II, III
                                                                     6

type surface water.

Western Countries Standards

Presently, China has no detailed standards and requirements about the
PCBs cleanup.
The U.S. CB Cleanup requirements reflect those prescribed by the U.S.'s
Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA) (40CFR 761). In addition, in August 1990,
the U.S.
EPA issued "A Guide on Remedial Actions at Superfund Sites with PCB
Contamination", which establishes cleanup levels for PCB-contaminated
sites.
Accordingly, the recommended cleanup levels are as follows: Soil in a
residential area:
1 ppm; Soil in an industrial area: 10 ppm to 25 ppm; Sediment in aquatic
freshwater: 19
ug/g of sediment; Sediment in saltwater: 33 ug/g of sediment.
In addition, the Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the following maximum
PCB
levels to protect aquatic life: Acute toxicity to freshwater aquatic
life: 2 ppb; Chronic
toxicity to freshwater aquatic life: 0.014 ppb; Acute toxicity to
saltwater aquatic life:
10 ppb; Chronic toxicity to freshwater aquatic life: 0.03 ppb.

In Italy, Decree of IMET (Italian Ministry of Environment and Territory)
491/99
regulates PCB cleanup level at <1ppb for residential area, and <25 ppm
for industrial
areas. In Netherlands, the immediate soil cleanup level is set below 10
ppm.

For air emission control, 0.1 ngTEQ/m3 is applied for PCDD/PCDF in most
of the
western control (under conditions: 2730k, 101.3kpa of pressure and 111%
of oxygen).

For PCB transformers decontamination, 50 ppm is the maximum international
standard
as required by the Stockholm Convention.

Baseline and Environment Quality Information in Zhejiang before
the Implementation of the "PCB Management and Disposal
Demonstration Project"
The Sino-Italian project "Development of a PCB Inventory Methodology and
a Draft
Strategy for PCB Reduction and Disposal in China", still ongoing, has the
objective to
develop a preliminary PCBs inventory for the Zhejiang and Liaoning
provinces,
selected as pilot provinces, and to draft a national strategy for PCB
reduction and
disposal. Within the framework of this project, and with the joint effort
of national, and
the provincial institutions, the first preliminary PCBs inventory has
been developed,
following the inventory methodology specially developed by the Tsinghua
University
for this purpose.
In general, the results of the preliminary inventory are the following:
    · 43 PCBs contaminated sites have been discovered; some of these
sites are
        located near populated areas and/or are in direct contact with
sensitive
        environments, thus representing a considerable risk for the
environment and the
        health of the population;


                                             6
    · There could be 18 further potential locations containing PCBs
pollutant
        according to the information of the electricity department;
    · The PCB concentration in some sites is well above the Chinese
standard for
        contaminated soil (50 ppm);
    · Five of these sites have been cleaned up, and the highly
contaminated wastes
        incinerated in Shenyang;

       · No direct information on PCBs equipment in use has been found until
now;
        however, on the basis of the preliminary inventory results for
the electricity
        distribution substations, data concerning transformer number and
overall
        transformer capacity (calculated as sum of the capacity each
single transformer)
        have been found and are as following:

    · The theoretical number of capacitors containing PCBs (period 1964 -
1980) in
         use in Zhejiang province is 20500 units;

    · The total number of large on-line transformers of transformer
substations in
        Zhejiang in 1980, is 626 units, and the transformer capacity is
5,120 MVA;

According to a 2005 January investigation by Zhejiang Solid Waste
Management
Center and Zhejiang Electric Power Company on all on-line transformers in
the
electricity power sector (production and distribution of electricity) for
the province, the
total number of online transformers is 230,733, and overall capacity is
127,794 MVA.
Information is provided in Table 4.9.

       · According to a 2005 January investigation by Zhejiang Solid Waste
           Management Center and Zhejiang Electric Power Company on all on-
line
        transformers in the electricity power sector (production and
distribution of
        electricity) for the province in 2003, the total number of online
transformers is
        230,733, and overall capacity is 127,794 MVA, as shown in the
following table.
        Keeping these figures as a reference basis, it will be possible
as a first step, to
        perform screening tests on PCB contents in a significant
statistical sample of the
        transformer population order to achieve at least an estimation of
the importance
        of the PCB contamination of the equipment in use in the
electricity sector.



       Transf. Class(kV)            Transf. Number                Overall
Capacity (MVA)
            500kv                         24
18,500
            220kv                         187
28,160
            110kv                         787
29,069
          35( 63) kv                      1,256
10,938
           35/0.4kv                       387
1,930
          3-10/0.4kv                     228,092
39,197
            Total                        230,733
127,794


It is quite obvious that this situation may represent a substantial risk
for both the
environment and the public health. However, cleanup of PCB storage sites
or removal


                                                7
of PCB equipment in use may represent a still greater risk if performed
with the wrong
methodologies. It is then necessary to adopt the Best Available
Technology for
reducing the health and environmental risk due to the presence of PCBs in
Zhejiang,
and to evaluate their environmental impact.

Description of Actions and Equipment Required by the "PCB
Management and Disposal Demonstration Project"

Priority Ranking

The priority ranking for the contaminated sites has then been developed
assigning
weighting factors to the following parameters: Distance from the
residential area;
Distance from the surface water; Possibility for the groundwater to be
polluted;
Concentration value; Land use; Land history.
According to the characteristics of the PCBs locations in Zhejiang and
the pollutants
situation, the cleanup for the PCBs locations can be split into three
phases: Phase 1
(2006.7-2006.12) -- clean up 14 locations; Phase 2 (2007.1-2007.10) --
clean up 30
locations; Phase 3 (2007.11-2008.4) -- clean up 12 locations.

Site Sampling

Some sampling methods or procedures could be adopted due to different
types of PCBs
storage and media. For sites where PCB concentrations have been found   to
be lower
than the cleanup action levels and with deep ground water table, most   of
samples will
be taken from the soil; for sites where PCB concentrations have been
found to be higher
than the cleanup action levels or with relatively shallow groundwater
table, then "Grid
Sampling Method" will be used for both soil and underground water.
However, if
leakage is found, the "grid sampling method" will also be considered.   In
addition, for
the concrete slab, sampling will be conducted based on some common
principles on
concrete or solid mass; for industrial residue containing PCBs, then
"taper sampling
method" or "grid sampling method" could be adopted. Also depending on   the
type of
the site, the level of contamination and the experience gained from
practice in other
sites in Zhejiang, a range of 66 to 160 samples for each site may be
taken for
characterization.

Decontamination of PCB Contaminated Sites

Exact locations of where the PCBs are stored in the 61 PCB storage sites
will have to be
identified, sampled and tested, after which the sites will be cleaned up.
Concentrated
PCB wastes with PCB content of over 500ppm will be temporarily stored in
Chongxian
until they are transported to Shenyang for final destruction (See details
in Chapter 7
EIA of Temporary PCB Storage in the Zhejiang). Contaminated soil and
other PCB
wastes at concentrations from cleanup action level up to 500ppm will be
treated by a
mobile thermal desorption facility (in vehicle) site by site (see details
in Chapter 8 EIA
of the Proposed Soil Decontamination Scheme for the Zhejiang Province).
In some
unusual cases where the vehicle can not reach the site, these soil and
PCB waste will be
transported to Chongxian of Hangzhou for collectively thermal desorption.
The highly


                                            8
concentrated PCB waste generated by thermal desorption will also be sent
to Shenyang
for final disposal. The cleaned PCB sites will be further monitored and
effectively
managed until the remediation of those contaminated sites (with PCB
content below
cleanup action level) are within the standard set by the Chinese
Government.

Storage Facility for PCB Wastes

The temporary storage facility which is proposed in Chongxian in Yuyao
District of
Hangzhou will store the highly contaminated PCB wastes (>500 ppm) until
they are
transported to Shenyang for final disposal, and some low contaminated PCB
wastes
(between cleanup action level and 500 ppm) from the sites where the
mobile thermal
desorption vehicle can not reach. This storage facility will be designed
and operated
according to the Standard for Pollution Control on Hazardous Waste
Storage
(GB18597-2001).

Transport

For short/provincial transportation of contaminated soil and other PCB
wastes at
concentrations from cleanup action level up to 500ppm from very few sites
inaccessible
by the thermal desorption vehicle, a transportation team will be
established consisting
of 8-10 trucks with the container of a capacity of 20 tons (180 tons
capacity in total one
time, about two times for each site), 1 special commanding vehicle and 1
emergency
vehicle. The team will be comprised of 1 project manager, 12 drivers
(including 2-4 in
standby), 2 safeguard staff, and 3 staff for emergency actions. Normally
in Zhejiang,
the truck goes 600 km per day so the team can start in the early morning
and reach
Chongxian in the afternoon of the same day.
For long distance transportation between Chongxian of Hangzhou and
Shenyang for
three batches respectively from 2006 to 2008, a transportation team will
be established,
consisting of 5 trucks each with a 20-ton container capacity (100 tons in
total each time,
about 5 times for the first batch of 2006 and third batch of 2008 in
about 2 month, and
10 times for the second batch of 2007 in about 3 months), 1 special
commanding
vehicle and 1 emergency vehicle. The team will be comprised of 1 project
manager, 10
drivers (including 3 in standby), 2safeguard staff and 3 staff for
emergency actions.
Drivers will attend a special training course on safe driving and
transport of hazardous
wastes.

Mobile Thermal Desorption Plant

Thermal desorption has been selected as the technology for
decontamination of low
PCBs contaminated soil (<500 ppm) after the comparative examination of
other
technologies    like   incineration,   plasma,    solvent extraction,
base    catalysed
dechlorination, in situ vitrification, solvated electron. Thermal
desorption is based on
the principle of heating up polluted soil in a rotary kiln to desorb PCBs
and other
organic pollutants from the soil. As the process is not a combustion one,
but only a
phase transfer enhanced by thermal energy, dioxin by-production is not
expected.

The desorption unit is the main component of the process. Waste is
partially vaporised


                                             9
in a reductive environment under low vacuum conditions (0 to 50 Pa). The
rotary
reactor operates on a continuous basis. The reactor is cylindrical in
shape, arranged
horizontally and rotates around its axis. The operating temperature in
the reactor ranges
from 500 to 600oC. The waste may be introduced directly. PCBs are
vaporized and thus
desorbed from the soil. And then N2 is applied to carry the desorbed PCBs
to activated
carbon for absorption. The gas stream is cleaned in a wet gas multi
venturi scrubber
prior to discharge. The scrubber process water should be treated with
flocculation,
precipitation and activated carbon filtration before discharged into the
environment.
The solid phase is cooled indirectly and is discharged for later use. All
the activated
carbon used for desorption and filtration should be disposed by
incineration.

Online Decontamination for Transformers

At the present stage, no data for PCB contaminated transformers have been
found yet.
Thus the online decontamination technology for PCB containing transformer
will be
selected after enough data on the size, location, topography, and
contamination level of
the transformer become available. The selection will be done among two
available
technologies: sodium based dehalogenation, and continuous dehalogenation
process
"CDP®".
The equipment of the selected technology will be shipped from abroad to
China; after
arrival of the equipment, all the necessary permits procedures for
operation will be
completed. The equipment will be installed at the sites (industry, power
plant sites,
transformer substation sites) where the transformer(s) to be treated are
located. The
personnel present at the sites will be trained by the provider of the
technology on the
use of the equipment, in order to guarantee the safety of the
decontamination procedure;
moreover, the provider team responsible for the operation of the
dehalogenation
equipment will be trained by local experts on specific requirements for
working at the
site.
Equipment to be rented must be commercial equipment normally used in
western
countries (not pilot or experimental equipment). Transformers will be
decontaminated
following the BAT outlined in IEC regulation IEC 60422 ed. 2004 12.3.3.
(Supervision
and maintenance guide for insulating mineral oils in electrical
equipment).The target
level will be to obtain a final decontamination level between 2 and 25
ppm, determined
on the basis of the IEC regulation 61619 (Insulating liquids -
Contamination by
polychlorinated biphenyls "PCBs" - Method of determination by capillary
column gas
chromatography) or equivalent methodologies

Environmental Impact Assessment of Actions and Equipment
Required by the "PCB Management and Disposal Demonstration
project"

Decontamination of PCB Contaminated Sites

The most sensitive task to be performed at the decontamination of PCB
contaminated
sites is to excavate and remove contaminated soil without creating
further exposure of


                                            10
the surrounding environment, people or workers to the PCB contaminated
soil.
The main risks associated with the cleaning of the site are due to: PCB
oil leaking into
the environment or spilling onto the cleanup workers due to inappropriate
operation;
migration of the contaminant after excavation due to the heavy rain
typical of the area;
safeguard measures not executed completely; emergency actions not timely
and
completely carried out.
For this purpose, a detailed procedure for operation at each contaminated
sites has been
developed.
The procedure starts from collecting data for each site, environmental
characterization,
exact location of PCB wastes and sampling and analysis of contaminated
media
following methodologies recognized at international level; after that, a
site cleanup
design will be developed for each site. Specific procedure for each site
and training to
the operators will be provided. The procedure will cover all the aspects
of site
characterisation, design criteria, cleaning actions, closure actions,
filing and archiving,
and are grouped in five categories:
    · Procedures for site preparation, covering the needs and technical
specification
        for Infrastructure, Equipment, Leakage countermeasures, Site
security,
        Prevention of soil collapse.
    · Procedures for contaminated waste and soil removal, covering the
needs and
        technical specification for Excavation, Packaging of PCB-
contaminated soil,
        Removal and packaging of PCB wastes, Removal and containering of
liquid
        PCBs, disposal of small tools and personal protective equipment.
    · Environmental mitigation measures: training, review and approval of
cleanup
        plan, establishment of guidelines;
    · Evaluation and restoration of the cleaned site;
    · Site documentation and filing.


Storage Facility for PCB Waste

As the storage facility is one of the facilities which if not properly
designed and
operated may present big risk for the environment, a detailed
environmental impact
assessment has been carried out specifically for this facility. The two
primary candidate
site of Qiaosi and Chongxian have been compared considering an extensive
set of
technical, environmental and social parameters: distance from the water
bodies, soil
permeability, groundwater depth, position with reference of main wind
direction and
urbanized areas, distance from urbanized areas, distance from storage of
dangerous
wastes, landscape or presence of sensitive scenic spots, flora, fauna,
existence of areas
reserved for the protection of flora and fauna, presence of economic
activities, etc.
After this comparison the Chongxian site appeared to be the suitable
candidate site,
mainly due to the depth of the groundwater, the presence of a thick layer
of low
permeability clay soil, the distance from the residential area.
The following technical design requirements for the storage facility
building must be
fulfilled: it is to be designed in the light of the relevant criteria for
hazard waste storage;
the base of storage facility is to be impermeable; the impermeable layer
that is made of


                                                11
clay is to be thicker than one meter (coefficient of hydraulic
conductivity is less than
10-7 cm/s) or made of HDPE of 2mm thick with hydraulic conductivity less
than 10-10
cm/s.; the allowable height of stack is designed according to the
strength of the floor.;
the impermeable layer should be laid on a base or a pedestal.; the
impermeable layer
should cover the entire area that can be reached by PCBs and its
leachate; a leachate
collection system will be built on the impermeable layer; a surface water
drainage
system should be built at the outskirt of the storage facility in order
to prevent flow
runoff into the storage facility and it is to be designed in compliance
with floods with a
return period of 25 years.; the impermeable layer should be resistant to
PCBs; the
storage facility designing should include drainage ditches for rainfall;
the storage
facility should be designed to be wind-proof, rainproof and sunshine-
proof.; the storage
facility will be equipped with containers that meet the specifications;
the storage
facility will have a fenced wall around its boundary with 24-hour
security protection;
the hazardous waste facility should have communication equipment,
lighting facilities,
personal protection equipment and tools, and emergency protection
facilities.
The storage facility should comply with the following features: a 15-cm
high
continuous curb should be constructed around the floor; there should be
no floor drains,
drain valves expansion joints, sewer lines, or other opening that would
permit liquids to
flow from the curbed area;the floor and curbs are to be made of solid and
leakage-proof
materials. All construction materials will be compatible with PCBs and
other hazardous
materials stored at this facility; must be equipped with leakage
collecting, gas vent and
gas treatment (cleaning) devices; it must be equipped with safe lighting
system and
viewing window; the floor where the liquid and solid PCBs vessels are
deposited
should be hard, resistant to erosion, reinforced in order to avoid
cracking of the surface;
curbs are to be designed to prevent the spills from running out, the
volume enclosed by
the ground and curb should be not less than the maximum storage of
maximum vessels
or 1/5 of total storage.
Main features of the storage facility to be built will be as following:
two floors building
with a total area of 4464 m 2. The girder of the facility is 10m above
the floor. The whole
building is a heavy steel-structured factory house. Its roofing is of
light steel and all
materials used are well corrosion-proof. Its ground is watertight and
involves drainage
system. It is of semi-sealed structure. Each of upper and lower floor is
equipped with a
mobile crane. Tool rooms and watching room are designed at one side of
storage facility,
and lifting-hook and handling space are designed at the extended end.
Moreover, the
storage facility is well equipped with fire-fighting facilities. PCBs are
sealed in the
airtight drums and deposited in different areas depending on its
contents.
As ref Article 8.2 of GB 18597-2001, the hazardous waste facility that
will receive PCB
wastes for storage will be monitored for environmental discharge in
accordance with
national requirements on pollution sources.

A preliminary emergency plan has been presented in the EIA, outlying the
most urgent
tasks and safety measures to be undertaken in case of accidental release
of PCBs, or in
case of accident or injuries occurred to personnel or population.

A preliminary closure plan with two alternatives (disassembling or reuse
for other

                                              12
hazardous wastes) has been also included in the EIA.

Thermal Desorption Plan

The facility is operated under a reduced pressure and does not use large
amounts of
excess air or water during treatment. Also, the post treatment of the gas
and solid phases
are separate from the main process treatment. However, treatment of off-
gases requires
careful control and emissions treatment to minimize dioxin formation. As
a conclusion,
there's little environmental impact if the off-gases from the disposal
facility are
properly treated.

Since there was no soil or other PCB contaminated material in the
facility after one site
was treated, there will be little environmental risk during the
transportation process
between two sets of treatment.

Online Decontamination for Transformers

The main issue concerning the environmental impact assessment of the on-
line
dehalogenation technologies, like the CDP process or the metallic sodium
processes, is
that these processes are non combustion ones operating at low temperature
(less than
200°C). This will prevent the formation of dioxin and other toxic
compounds.
Generally the on line dehalogenation processes may be operated by means
of
transportable equipment which can be easily and quickly transported near
to the
transformers to be decontaminated. Thus, storage, site preparation,
construction or
dismantling phase are not required.
All the equipment normally fit into a single truck and may be easily
mobilized by
forklift.
Emission into the Atmosphere. The chemical dehalogenation technologies do
not
generate emissions into the atmosphere, except for the oil degassing
unit. The gasses
emitted from the degassing unit are filtered on activated carbon prior to
the inlet into
the atmosphere.
Waste Generation. Residual for the CDP process are potassium, calcium and
magnesium salts.
As far as the sodium process is considered, for each 100 kg of oil to be
treated, the
process requires 5 kg of clay, 20 lt/min of nitrogen (which are
comp1letely recycled),
an amount of the Na emulsion which depends on the PCBs concentration of
the oil; the
process return 95 kg of decontaminated oil, 10 kg of a clay/oil mud
containing a
variable amount of NaCl, and a variable amount of light hydrocarbons and
low volatile
compounds. Residual from the metallic sodium process are generally sodium
chloride
Noise: the noise generation is very limited, and generally within 80 dBA
1m far from
the installation.
Water Consumption/discharge. Dehaloogenation unit do not consume water,
nor
generate wastewater.




                                            13
Conclusions and Final Evaluation

The PCB situation in China is somewhat different from several other
countries due to
the presence of a large number of storage sites where PCBs wastes have
been stored for
long time without proper measures for preventing the contamination of the
environment. Moreover, the awareness of the problem of PCB contamination
of in use
equipment is still scarce.
The action, development of equipment, and institutional strengthening
foreseen under
the "PCB management and disposal demonstration project" under which
Zhejiang is
the selected "demonstration province" are addressed toward the
elimination of PCBs
wastes in storage sites, toward the demonstration of technologies for non
destructive,
non combustion decontamination of electrical equipment, and toward the
increase of
awareness andinstitutional strength in PCB management. Due to the
complexity and to
the dangerous properties of PCB, each action (not only the technical
ones, but also the
institutional and managerial ones) need to be carefully designed,
evaluated and
supervised, in order to avoid the environmental risk associated with the
highly
dangerous properties of PCB.
The correct implementation of the project will then result in a
significant improvement
of the environmental quality, in a significant reduction of the risk for
the health of the
population, in the destruction or removal of a large amount of PCB, in
the increase of
the awareness of the PCB problem for "in-use" equipment, and in the
transfer of
know-how concerning the most effective technologies for monitoring,
managing,
disposal and decontamination of PCB.




                                           14
1. Background of this Project


1.1 Introduction of the Stockholm Convention on POPs

1.1.1 Background of the convention
In the last decades, the utilization of chemical compounds in agriculture
and industry
has been sharply increasing.. Although many of these compounds have
proven of
invaluable utility for modern society, they have often brought adverse
effects both to
human      health     and   the   environment.     For    several
Persistent Organic
Pollutants, ,increasing scientific evidence has proved that even low dose
exposure
would cause sever long term effect, like cancer, , damage to the immune
system,
disorders of the reproductive system, and inhibition of infants' normal
growth. POPs
are highly persistent chemicals, with a strong capacity to bio-
accumulate, and endanger
human health and environment. There is also evidence of these chemicals
appearing
very far from the areas of production or application through long-
distance migration,
consequentially influencing the environment at a global scale. The
international society
calls for the urgent countermeasures to be taken, to reduce and eliminate
the release of
these pollutants.
Before 1992, the main steps internationally taken for these chemicals
included the
adoption of methods for the exchange of information and risk evaluation.
As an
example, in 1985 FAO issued the regulation for international distribution
and
application of pesticides ,and in 1987 UNEP set London Rules of
International Trade
Information Interchange of chemicals? In 1992 UNEP passed Agenda 21, in
its
nineteenth chapter "Environmental sound management of toxic, hazardous
and
illegally transported chemicals", calling for the founding of IFCS.
Meanwhile the
agenda also suggested the setting up of IOMC, in order to develop
cooperation among
international organizations involved in the execution of the nineteenth
chapter. In
March, 1995, the UNEP council passed the No.18/32 decision, inviting
IOMC, IFCS
and IPCS to prepare estimation for the first 12 types of POPs.
Consequently IFCS has
founded a special POPs group, with the task of planning designing and
evaluation.
These plans included the information on chemistry, sources of pollution,
toxicity,
environmental distribution and social and economic influences of the 12
POPs.
In June 1996, the special POPs group had a meeting with international
experts in
Manila (Philippines), drawing the conclusion that the available materials
were
sufficient to take actions at the international level for the reduction
of 12 POPs. The
meeting suggested UNEP and World Health Organization to adopt immediate
international actions. In 1997 Feb., the council of UNEP passed the
No.19/13C decision,
accepting the conclusion and suggestions from IFCS. The council asked
related
international organizations to prepare for INC, whose mission was to
establish an
international regulatory drafting group, aiming at taking actions
addressing the 12
POPs firstly. During the first INC Convention, a group of experts was
requested to set
down scientific standardsand programs for the inclusion of new POPs
controlled by the
treaty. At the same time, the second IFCS convention decided that the
special group


                                            15
should continue the preparation for negotiation. In 1997 May, WHO
accepted the
suggestions from IFCS, and demanded all levels in World Health
Organization to
participate the negotiation.

1.1.1 Main contents


The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants aims at
reducing and
eliminating the release of POPs, and protecting human health and
environment from
dangers associated with POPs. According to the convention, the first 12
POPs to be
controlled at the international level include:

1) pesticides: aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, endrin, heptachlor, mirex,
toxaphene, DDT,
and HCB (industrial chemicals as well); 2) industrial chemicals: HCB, and
PCBs; 3)
by-product: PCDD/Fs.

The POP convention requires parties to prepare National Implementation
Plans, within
two years from its entry into force, that establish priorities for
initiating future activities
to protect human health and the environment form POPs. PCBs are listed
under Annex
A of the POP convention; for these substances Article 3 requires that
parties "prohibit
and/or take the legal and administrative measures necessary to eliminate
its production
and use, its import and export"

The same article establishes exemptions and conditions for the export and
import of
Annex A substances; more specifically, import and export are allowed only
"for the
purpose of environmentally sound disposal...; to a Party which is
permitted to use that
chemical...; and to a state not Party to this convention which has
provided an annual
certification to the exporting Party.

The Stockholm convention defines also measures to reduce or eliminate
POPs releases
from unintentional pr oduction, such as by-products after industrial or
combustion
processes. Parties must promote the development and, where it deems
appropriate,
require the use of substitute or modified materials, products and
processes to prevent
the formation and release of POPs as by-products.
Moreover, Parties must take measures so that POP wastes are:

· disposed of in such a way that the persistent organic pollutant content
is destroyed
    or irreversibly transformed so that they do not exhibit the
characteristics of
    persistent organic pollutants;

· not permitted to be subject to disposal operations that may lead to
recovery,
    recycling, reclamation, direct reuse or alternative uses of POPs.

This means that any technology used for the removal or destruction of
PCBs must
guarantee that no PCBs are discharged or by-produced as result of the
removal /
destruction process.


1.1.2 Situation of China's Participation

                                             16
China, once one of the countries with massive production and use of POPs,
is now
producing and using lesser quantities of POPs. The negotiation of the
convention for
POPs inevitably posed great influence on China. In 1998, SEPA reported
the State
Council about the situation (Huanfa [1998]79), and based on the answer
received from
the State Council, a delegation group comprised of SEPA, the Ministry of
Foreign
Affairs, Board of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, and Board of Chemical
Engineering
and experts were sent to participate to negotiation meetings. In the same
year, SEPA
decided (Huanhan [1998] 67) to establish a national technical
coordination group for
POPs, with the task to study an environmental management strategy for
POPs in China,
to provide strategy support, to explore POPs negotiation issues, and
discuss
requirements for standards and plans for POPs, and principles for the
determination of
relevant quality criteria. The coordination group included directors from
relevant
boards and specially appointed experts, from technical and regulatory
departments in
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sanitary Inspection department in the
Ministry of
Health, China Petrol, Chemical Industry Bureau, Plant Production
Management
department in the Ministry of Agriculture, International Department and
Pollution
Control department in SEPA

In the plenipotentiary delegates conference of the Stockholm Convention
on Persistent
organic pollutants, Zhu Guangyao from SEPA signed the final documents on
behalf of
the government of China, with the power conferred by the State Council.

On March 19th, 2001, the forum on the control of POPs was held in
Beijing, organized
by SEPA and WB (World Bank). More than 70 officials and experts from
UNEP,
negotiation committee of the Convention, WB, SEPA, local EPBs, Ministry
of
Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, national
scientific
research institutes, enterprises, representatives from Canada, Singapore
and other areas
attended the forum. Several technical and policy documents have been
discussed, and
the conference also disseminated knowledge about POPs, introduced main
contents in
the convention and negotiation, and communicated the status and
experience in POPs
managing abroad and at home.

On May 23rd, 2001, the opening day for the signature of the Stockholm
Convention on
Persistent Organic Pollutants, the government of China signed on the
convention. On
June 23rd, 2004, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
approved
the joining into the convention; in the late September 2004, China
ratified the
convention, carrying out the obligation of reduction and elimination of
the release of
POPs, and protection of human health and eco-environment as the
convention
requested, meanwhile holding the corresponding rights conferred by the
convention.

 Since 2001, China has undertaken the work on several aspects related to
the
 convention implementation:

(1) Applied to the global environment foundation (GEF) for the project of
China
implementation capacity enhancement and national implementation plan
development, which was approved in May 2005.



                                             17
(2) The setting up of a leaders' group for the workout of a National
Implementation
Plan, composed of 11 ministries and commissions from SEPA, Ministry of
Foreign
Affairs, National Development and Reform Committee, Ministry of Commerce,
Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance,
Ministry of
Construction, Ministry of Science and Technology, General Administration
of Customs
and State Electricity Regulatory Committee. As secretariat of the group
and institution
for routine work, SEPA set a special office for POPs, in order to
organizing the work on
negotiation strategies, policies, information management, communication
and
education, international and domestic relationships, and technology
support. Moreover,
the office is preparing to organize a working group participated by
industries, in order
to develop the work in coordination with the productive sector.

(3) In preparation of the National Implementation Plan, the organization
has held a
series of international meetings to propagate knowledge on the dangerous
properties of
POPs and the objectives and requirements of the Convention.

(4) Two projects, "Management and disposal demonstration for PCB" and
"Demonstration of alternatives for chlordane and mirex" have been
successful
implemented. These two projects, presently in the PDF-B phase, are
planned to be
finished by the end of the year.

The Chinese Government, with the help of the Italian Government and of
GEF, under
WB guidance, cooperated to develop the "PCBs inventory methodology and
draft
strategy for PCB reduction and disposal", and to implement the "PDF-B
project for the
preparation of a demonstration project for PCBs management and disposal".

The Chinese Government also received support from the Canadian government
in the
field of training, institution strengthening, and capacity building.

1.2 Background of this Project

The POP convention requires parties to prepare National Implementation
Plans, within
two years from its entry into force, that establish priorities for
initiating future activities
to protect human health and the environment from POPs. PCBs are listed
under Annex
A of the POP convention; for these substances Article 3 requires that
parties "prohibit
and/or take the legal and administrative measure necessary to eliminate
their
production and use, its import and export"


The    Convention       requires    that Polychlorinated       biphenyls
in    equipment
(e.g.transformers, capacitors or other receptacles containing liquid
stocks) are removed
from use by 2025, and that liquids containing polychlorinated biphenyls
and equipment
contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls having a polychlorinated
biphenyls
content above 0.005 per cent are disposed of using environmentally sound
waste
management procedures by 2028.

Therefore, in the next 20 years, a series of actions for fulfilling the
convention
requirements will be undertaken, including the "Development of PCBs
inventory

                                             18
methodology and draft strategy for PCB reduction and disposal", and
"Demonstration
project for PCBs management and disposal "

In Jan. 2004, SEPA, together with the WB united organizations, held the
inception
workshop of the ""PCBs inventory methodology and draft strategy for PCB
reduction
and disposal" and of "PDF-B project for the preparation of a
demonstration project for
PCBs management and disposal".

During this workshop, the Zhejiang and Liaoning provinces were selected
as pilot
inventory provinces for the "PCBs inventory" project; the CIO office of
SEPA
proposed Zhejiang as the demonstration province For the "Demonstration
Project"
Thus, on May 24 2004. Zhejiang was then selected formally to be at the
same time
"pilot province" under the Sino-Italian ""PCBs inventory methodology and
draft
strategy for PCB reduction and disposal" project, and "demonstration
province" under
the "Demonstration project for PCBs management and disposal" to be co-
financed by
GEF.

This requires that a preliminary PCBs inventory and a draft strategy for
PCBs
management and disposal are developed in the Zhejiang province; and also
that
decontamination of low-concentration PCB-contaminated soil by means of
on-site
thermal desorption , and storage and transport to Shenyang for final
disposal of the high
concentration PXB contaminated wastes are performed as demonstration
actions.

Under the requirement of " "On strengthening environmental evaluation of
items on
loan from international finance organization " (No.340 wen) and "Requests
(OP4.01)
of Environmental Evaluation Policies", the foreign cooperation center
(FECO) in SEPA,
as the executive agency of PCBs management and disposal project in China,
committed
the Zhejiang EPB to carry out the "Environmental Impact Assessment of the
actions
and equipment to be developed under the PCB demonstration project".".

1.3 General Situations on PCBs Management in Zhejiang

1.3.1 Overall Evaluation on PCBs Management in China
It has been estimated that from 1965 to 1974, the amount of PCBs produced
in China
was about 10,000 ton. 1000 tons were used in open systems; the remaining
9000 tons
were used in capacitors. By rough calculations, over 4000-5000 ton PCBs
have been
imported

Following the available estimates, there had been about 1,150,000
capacitors
containing PCBs by 1975, including the ones imported in the 1970s and
80s, although
only a few (possibly less than 10%)still in usage. No transformers
containing PCBs
have been produced in China and the imported amount is unknown too.

There are three stage of PCBs management in China, and some results have
been
achieved.

Stage 1:1974-1990, cessation of usage. The production of PCBs equipment
has been

                                          19
           stopped, and the importing of equipment containing PCBs as
dielectric fluid forbidden.

           Stage 2: 1990-1998, abandonment of PCBs power equipment. .
Considering the severe
           pollution accident in Zhejiang at the end of 80s, with the
initial objective of
           "strengthening management of wasted capacitors with PCBs" [90]
Huanguanzi No.04,
           and the definition of "regulations of prevention on power
equipments with PCBs and
           their wastes from polluting environment"[91]Huanguanzi No.50 ,
the collection,
           storage, transportation, treatment, disposal, pollution
control and import of PCBs
           power equipments and wastes were explicitly regulated.. There
was also an initial
           investigation on national power equipments.

           Stage 3: In 1998, management of PCBs hazardous wastes started.
Since 1998, when
           PCBs wastes were formally listed as hazardous wastes, the
management of PCBs
           wastes has been simultaneously complying with regulations on
the management of
           hazardous wastes. After the development and testing of
technology and pilot plants,
           some PCB wastes were incinerated.

           PCBs still remain an environmental problem despite the
cessation of usage of PCBs
           power equipments in 1974, and the dismantling of many power
equipments in 80s. In
           that period, PCBs power equipment began to be treated and
sealed up for storage. As
           shown in recent investigations, data on sealing are scarce,
and existing storage sites
           have now exceeded design age, and, worse still, they have
turned into a source of PCB
           contamination of the environment. For these reasons, the
elimination of PCBs release
           in China is still an immense challenge.

           According to the statistics, PCB Waste Management Activities
in Zhejiang before 2003
           is shown in Table 1.1.
                 Table1. 1 PCB Waste Management Activities in Zhejiang
before 2003

Location of Code     Number      of     PCB Year of Sites    Disposal
Status Status of the Sites
PCBS ites            Capacitors (in units)   Cleanup         of
Capacitors
Luqiao    in 15       1300                    1995             Incinerated
A site where an unknown number of
Taizhou
the capacitors were collected. Some

were opened and oil le ft in the site.

The    remaining        unopened      1,300

capacitors have been sent to Shenyang

for incineration. There has been no

attempt to cleanup the soil. The soil in

the site is still to be characterized.

Leqing     in 10       273 and 900kg PCB oil 1 1997            PCB
capacitors    The contaminated soil is left in the site
Wenzhou                                                        and    PCB
oil (cave     in    the    mountain),    which
                                                               Incinerated
entrance was closed by concrete wall.

Wangdian      11      112                     Incinerated      1998
Complete cleanup
in Jiaxing

East      of 01       100                     Incinerated      1999
Complete cleanup
Shaoxing


           1In addition to the PCB capacitors found in this location, 900
kg PCB oil from other
           capacitors were recovered. Their whereabouts of those
capacitors are unknown.

                                                          20
South    of 02        1000                       Incinerated      1999
Soil in the immediate area around the
Shaoxing
cement coffin has been sent to

Shenyang for incineration. Other PCB

contaminated soil remained in the site.

However, PCB concentration in the

soil around the site exceeds the

national PCB control standard of 50

ppm.     The      extent        of     PCB

contamination is unknown and site

characterization     is    still     to   be

conducted.

Old bureau   03           443                    Incinerated      2000
Complete cleanup
in Shaoxing

Group    of 38         334                       Stored     in 2002
Complete       cleanup,     and    the
Hanggang                                         Dadi
contaminated soil is stored in Dadi.

Yiwu     in 23         68                        Stored     in 2003
Complete       cleanup,     and    the
Jinhua                                           Dadi
contaminated soil is stored in Dadi.

Total        3630 equipments; 900kg original liquids( without the
severely contaminated soil)

          As shown in Table 1.1, experience in PCB waste management has
been gained in
          Taizhou, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Hanggang, and Jinhua (see
Table 1.1). A total of
          3,630 pieces of equipment have been disposed. In most cases the
PCB wastes were
          incinerated in Shenyang, whereas in Hanggang and Jinhua the PCB
wastes were sent to
          storage. They have been kept in temporary warehouse of Hangzhou
Dadi
          Environmental Protection Company Limited until today.

             1.3.2 Evaluation of PCB Management in the National and Zhejiang
provincial
          Plans


          Basically, the sector of hazardous waste management in China is
still weak in term of
          environmental protection. The management strength and financial
support of hazardous
          waste are far from the environmentally sound management
required by the Stockholm
          Convention.

          However, the breakout of SARS in early 2003 greatly alarmed the
central government
          and also hazardous waste and medical waste management became a
source of great
          concern. The government reacted in a very short time and issued
the National
          Program on the Construction of Hazardous Waste and Medical
Waste Disposal
          Facilities for the ultimate purpose of disease prevention and
protection of human health
          and the environment. According to this plan, 14.92 billion RMB
(mainly supported by
          the central government and co-financed by local government)
will be invested in the
          next few years in i) construction of 31 hazardous wastes
disposal centers, 300 medical
          waste disposal centers; ii) construction of 7 dioxin labs, and
supporting 3 technology
          and engineering centers for hazardous waste disposal; iii)
establishment of collection,
          transport and disposal system; iv) facilitating the
localization and industrialization of


                                                       21
facilities. This program has also setup a guideline for its
implementation. The
construction will be systematically programmed following a stepwise
approach.
Priority sites will be guaranteed as top priority. In terms of technology
selection, rotary
kiln incineration has been identified as the dominant technology with
plasma torch
disposal as supplementary technology for the demonstration purpose of
advanced
technology.

Regarding the disposal facilities for PCBs in this program, a decision
was made to
further improve the Shenyang incineration facility (the sole facility for
PCB destruction
in China) to serve as a demonstration of PCBs disposal with Plasma torch
given its
available infrastructure and technical strength. This strategy has been
fully considered
in the demonstration project design.

In general, the demonstration project will provide valuable experience
and contribution
to the implementation of Strategy on PCBs Reduction and Disposal in
China; while at
the same time, it will also provide demonstration for lifecycle
management of other
hazardous waste materials, especially with regard to technology options.
Moreover, the
demonstration will provide a great contribution to the implementation of
POPs
Convention and National Program as well.

As far as the Zhejiang regulation on hazardous wastes is considered,
according to the
national rules of the management of the hazardous wastes, "the Principles
of the
management of the solid wastes of Zhejiang Province", containing the
articles for the
management of PCB, are still in a preparatory stage.




                                            22
2 Regulatory Framework


2.1 Laws and Regulations System for Hazardous Wastes in China

Due to their dangerous properties, besides regulations for general solid
wastes,
hazardous wastes must comply with special regulations and rules. The
regulatory
framework on hazardous wastes management in China was gradually developed
since
the beginning of 90s; that framework mainly contains laws, regulations,
rules, local
regulations, environmental standards, technological guidelines, judge
decisions and
normative papers.

2.1.1 National Laws


In the management of hazardous wastes, according to the legislation
procedure, the
National People's Congress formulated and issued laws, including
constitution,
criminal law, code of civil laws, administrative litigation law, general
rules of civil law
and so on. There are clear regulations for hazardous wastes management in
R.P.C.
Constitution and R.P.C. Criminal Laws. The 9th R.P.C. Conference of the
National
People's Congress committee passedR.P.C. Criminal Laws Amendment( 4) in
the 31st
meeting, further revising and supplementing the hazardous wastes
management

Hazardous wastes management, as an important issue for environmental
protection,
corresponds to the framework system of environmental protection
regulations,
including the essential laws for environmental protection R.P.C.
Environmental
Protection Laws; special laws for environmental laws--R.P.C. Prevention
Laws for
Solid Wastes Pollutants, and other basic and special laws related to
sources and
environmental protection, such as laws concerning the environmental
protection of seas,
air and water pollution control regulations, , and urban planning laws.

2.1.2 Administrative Statutes and Legal Documents


The State Council develops administrative statutes according to the
Constitution and
laws. At present the special administrative statutes on hazardous wastes
management
include the Directory of Hazardous Wastes (Huanfa [1998]89) and the
Management
Method on Hazardous Waste Operation License (State Council 408)..

     Table 2.1 Important Administrative Statutes and Legal Documents Related
to
                            Hazardous Waste Administration


Adoption
  Name of laws and regulations               Example of main contents

date

                                      Forbids the releasing of pollutants
and wastes
Regulation for aquatic products      such as sewage, oil, oiled mixture
that are
and resources protection
1979
                                      toxic and harmful to aquatic products
and
                                      resources into piscatorial water area


                                               23
Decision of strengthening the Regulation of "Three simultaneity" should
be
environmental protection in the executed strictly related to newbuilding,

1981
transition   period   of   national rebuilding, or expanding basic
construction
economy                              item

Circular on the fees for the use of No fee or abnormal fee should be
charged on

1981
industrial residues                  making use of industrial residues

Decision of gradual application of    With regard to the establishment of
methods
technical reforms with specific       on disposing waste and old
equipments            1982
emphasis on existing firms

                                    All corporations and institution
should execute
Temporary methods for levying standards issued by state related to
"Tentative
charges for disposing pollutants
1982
                                    standard for releasing three
industrial wastes"
                                    etc.

                                     No ship is allowed to release oils,
oiled

Managing regulation on preventing    mixtures, wastes and other toxic and
hazardous

1983
ships from contaminating seas        substances to fresh water areas near
by harbor,
                                     special marine protection area and
marine
                                     natural protection area

Several regulations on prevention    All industrial corporations should
perform
of industrial pollution combined     comprehensive utilization of
industrial wastes
with       technique       reforms
1983
                                     combined with technical reforms
firmly
(Abandoned)
Managing         regulation       on The discharge of large amounts of
industrial
environmental      protection     for wastes must obey          regulation
on offshore   1983
offshore     oil    drilling     and   dumping..Industrial wastes should not
be
exploitation                           discarded to fishery water areas and
channels

Circular on temporary regulation    The state encourages corporations to
perform
for several problems concerning comprehensive utilization of resources,
and
the    comprehensive      use    of executes favorable policy on
comprehensive        1985

resources                              utilization of resources.

                                       The release of foreign wastes to sea
areas
Managing regulation on offshore        dominated by PRC - including waste
ships,
dumping
1985
                                       aerial crafts, platforms and other
artificial
                                       structures at sea - is forbidden.

                                       Before abandoning ships, dismantling
units
                                       must remove inflammable, explosive,
toxic and
                                       hazardous chemical substances, close
valves on
                                    the bottom of ships, and blockade
pipe alleys
Managing regulation on prevention which may cause outflow of greasy dirt.
Wastes
of environmental contamination of residues, scavenge oil, greasy filth,
oily          1988
from ship dismantling activities    sewage, inflammable and explosive
substances
                                    must be transported to bank and
performed
                                    centralized processing. Disposal
methods of
                                    seepage pit and leaching well could
not be
                                    adopted.

                                       Slag, rock ballast, coal ash, soil
and waste may
Regulation on river management         not be discarded in the area of river
1988
                                    management

Temporary methods for onerous Utilization of the three wastes is in the
1988


                                                 24
usage of special fund to control      serviceable range of fund.
pollutant source

Decision       of     strengthening Strengthening reclamation and
recovery of             1989
nonferrous metals management         waste and nonferrous metals

                                      While units for shipbuilding, dock
repairing,
Implementation of detailed rules      dismantling, vessel rescue are at
work,
for law of prevention and control     precautionary measures should be
adopted to          1989
on water pollution (Abandoned)        prevent oils, oily mixtures and
other wastes
                                      from contaminating waters

Managing regulation on preventing     Rules concerning the disposal of
residues
construction of coastal engineering   deriving from shipyards building and
yards           1990
from      contaminating      marine   repairing s on the bank side.
environment

                                      Defining the industries and products
of
Several proposals for developing      environmental protection that should
be
industries     for   environmental    urgently developed, including
treating and           1990
protection.                           disposal facility for solid wastes
and facility for
                                      comprehensive utilization of waste
resources

                                      Toxic and hazardous wastes listed in
the
Decision of further strengthening     hazardous substances inventory of
foreign
environmental protection
1990
                                      countries may not be imported, and
transfer
                                      pollution should be prevented
strictly

Managing regulation on preventing     Solid wastes may not be piled up,
discarded and
land-sourced      pollutant    from   treated on the beach without
permission              1990
contaminating marine environment

                                      While transporting, handling and
storing
Implementation detailed rules for      substances capable to release toxic
and
law of prevention and control on       hazardous air or dust, protective
measures, such     1991
air pollution (Abandoned)              as sealing, covering and spraying
must be
                                       adopted according to related
regulations

                                       For waste metals that are scarce
nationwide,
                                     regulation on export of waste steels
and waste
Circular   on     strengthening  the nonferrous     metals     issued
by     related
management of recovery and usage departments of the State Council, should
be               1991
about renewable resources            executed strictly. Waste steels and
waste
                                     nonferrous metals may not be
exported without
                                     approval

                                     Strengthening the management of
importing
Emergency circular on controlling    wastes. Wastes imported should be
divided into
uncompromisingly external wastes two kinds: i)wastes the importation of
which is          1995
transferring to our country          forbidden; ii) wastes that may be
used as crude
                                     material but must be imported with
restriction

Decision on several issues on Adopting available measures. Transferring
of                1996
environmental protection             waste pollution is not permitted.

Suggestion       for      increasing For     the   adequate      execution
and     strict
comprehensive        utilization    of management of the recovery and reuse
of old           1996
resources                              and waste materials

Emergency circular on restriction      Controlling the units in operation
of importing

1997
of the waste importation and old       waste and old metals strictly


                                                   25
metals polluted by radioactive
wastes

Directory of hazardous wastes        Directory of hazardous wastes
1998

Approval         about       Tenth Perform the work on environmental
protection
Five-(Year?)Plan    on     national of cities, control water pollution,
air pollution,

2001
environmental protection from the     waste pollution and noise
pollution, achieve the
State Council                        national standards in required
time,

                                      Dispose waste hazardous chemical
substances,
Regulation on safety management      according to Environmental control
law on         2002
of hazardous chemical substances     solid wastes pollution and national
related
                                      regulations

Managing regulation on medical       Management of medical wastes
2003
wastes

Approval       on     construction
programming        of      disposal
establishments for countrywide Approval
2003
hazardous wastes and medical
wastes issued by the State Council

Management method on hazardous
waste operation license
2004


Note: all laws and regulations listed are issued by the State Council
(including general
office of the State Council) or the chief departments with approval of
the State Council.
Laws and regulations related to radioactive wastes aren't listed.

2.1.3 Department Regulations and Criterion Documents


Some more important department regulations and criterion documents for
solid wastes
management are listed in the following table. Regulations that are about
to be issued
include directory for evaluate method on hazardous waste operation
ability, policy for
prevention and control of pollution from wasted batteries, policy for
prevention and
control of pollution from waste and old household appliances, management
regulation
on controlling pollution from waste and old household appliances, and so
on.

       Table 2.2 Important Departmental Regulations and Criterion Documents
                         Related to Hazardous Waste Administration

   Name of regulations              Example of main contents
Issue units    Adoption

date

Circular    on   changing      Stipulate to discontinue the use of        No.1
Ministry of
dielectric fluid of power      polychlorinated     biphenyl         for
Machine-Building    1974
capacitors                     manufacturing power capacitors in
Industry
                                China

                                Electric   equipment     containing       State
Economic

Circular   on     preventing   polychlorinated biphenyl must be
Commission and
                                stored, and the imports of electric
Environment
environmental      pollution
1979
                                installation with polychlorinated
Protection
by PCBs                         biphenyl as the dielectric fluid must
Committee under
                                bie discontinued                          the
State Council


                                                   26
Circular     on     mining
industrial     corporations
                                                                  Ministry
of
controlling pollution of    Definition of mining industrial       finance,
three      wastes     and corporations                 performing
Environment
developing   method     for
1979
                            comprehensive        utilization   of
Protection
performing                  product
Committee under
comprehensive utilization                                         the
State Council
of      product      profit
deduction and reserving

                              Waste and old materials, industrial
                              and domestic wastes should be
Management standard on        collected separately, piled up with      State
Medicine
medicinalproduction           capping in dedicated site and
Administration      1984

                              container, and cleaned up by
                              specialised personnel periodically

Work system in hospital of Pollutions and wastes should be             Ministry
of
traditional       Chinese properly treated to prevent cross            Health
1986
medicine (tentative)       infection

Provisional   method   on Solid wastes pollution accident is
reporting   environmental listed     to   be     one     sort of SEPA
1987
pollution and destruction environmental          pollution   and
accidents                  destruction accidents

Implementation     method     Two indexes are comprehensive
Environment
on assessing integrated       utilization   ratio,   treatment   and
Protection          1988
renovation of municipal       disposal of industrial solid wastes
Committee under
environment                                                            the
State Council

Circular on printing and
issuing     "development Resources such as industrial residue          State
outline on comprehensive   released during one year, should be
Development
utilization   of   national used and disposed properly in that   Planning
1989

resources from 1989 to      year
Commission
2000"

                            When waste and old goods which

Implementation     detailed enter or leave a country arrive at

rules for law of territory port, carrier, deputy or consignor    Ministry
of health 1989
health quarantine          must declare to the relevant health
                           quarantine authority and accept the
                           health quarantine

Management method on
certificate              of Regulation related to assessment
environmental      impact certificate of solid wastes            SEPA
1989
assessment            about
construction projects

                                                                 SEPA,
Ministry of

Managing regulation on Industrial          residues,   municipal Health,
Ministry
                                                                 of
Construction,
pollution prevention and    wastes, organic residues and other   Ministry
of Water   1989
control of drinking water   wastes may not be released into
Resource,
conservationdistrict        water areas                          Ministry
of Land
                                                                 and
Minerals



                                                 27
Regulation    on        safety    Ship dismantling plants should

production        of      ship    possess processing facilities for
Ministry          of

1990
dismantling             and       carbide slag and sewage, antifouling
Resources
environmental protection          facilities and equipments such as
                                  junkyard


Ministry          of

Resources, SETC,
                                  All levels of local government and
Circular     on        strictly
General Customs
                                  departments     in    charge      should
Administration,
controlling the import of
1990
                                  strictly control the import of waste       Office
of
waste and old tires               and old tires
Overseas Chinese

Affairs under the
                                                                             State
Council

                             Any institution and person are
Regulations on prevention strictly forbidden to sell, purchase
of          environmental and break up electrical equipment        SEPA
and State
pollution    of   electrical containing PCBs. Design regulation
Ministry        of 1991
equipment       containing oftemporarystoragewarehouse and         Energy
polychlorinated biphenyl concentrative warehouse of wastes
and its wastes               containing            polychlorinated
                             biphenyl are attached.

Circular     on     strictly Control    uncompromisingly     the             SEPA,
General
controlling        external external hazardous wastes transfer
Customs             1991
hazardous wastes transfer    to our country
Administration
to our country

Managing regulation on            Corporations which have scrap

preventing and controlling        must   establish     prevention     and    SEPA
1992
pollution of scrap            control plan on refuses pollution,
                              andadopt effective measures

Several    decisions      on For     corporations   of chromium
preventing and controlling compounds production, system for
Ministry        of
environmental      pollution manufacture and operation license
Chemical             1992
with             chromium and system for registry of released
Industry, SEPA
compounds                     pollutants should be executed

                              Storage and disposal sites for solid
Registry management           wastes in units releasing pollutants,
regulation on releasing       should be compatible with sampling    SEPA
1992
pollutants                    conditions and monitoring
                              measurement conditions

Circular on printing and
issuing note for the three                                           State
Taxation
tax items of pollution        The area of application of zero rate
Administration,
control,     environmental    for this tax item includes industrial State
protection    and   energy    wastes control and domestic wastes
Development         1993
conservation       projects   control.
Planning
under adjustable tax for
Commission
investment direct of fixed
asserts

Circular on controlling Stipulate that wastes could be
uncompromisingly import      traded as arm's -length transaction SEPA
1994
of   wastes     from    EC (under separate transaction?) and


                                                  28
countries                   imported after examination and
                            approval, and list the directory of
                            prohibited import wastes

Circular on strengthening
environmental
management for import of   Import of radioactive wastes is
radioactive   substances, prohibited                                   SEPA
1995
facilities         causing
radioactive pollution and
radioactive wastes

                           Environmental engineering design
Management method on consists of technological design for
license for environmental environmental pollution controlling          SEPA
1995
engineering design         projects, and engineering design for
                           wastes recycle and reuse.

                                                                       SETC,
State

Development

Directory              for The       second   chapter       concerns
Planning

Commission,
comprehensive utilization   comprehensive utilization of solid
1996

Ministry       of
of resources                wastes
Finance,     State

Taxation

Administration

Management method on Corporations               must       make
Ministry of Power
environmental protection   arrangements for pollution control
Industry            1996
of power industry          fund.

                                                                       SEPA,
MFET C,

General Customs

Administration,
Interim   provisions    of Application,       examination        and
                                                                       State
environmental protection   approval procedure on importing
Administration of   1996
management     on    waste wastes. Directory of Restricted
Industry      and
imports                    Import Wastes that Can be Utilized
Commerce, State
                           as Raw Material                               Bureau
of Quality
                                                                         and
Technical

Supervision

                                                                         SEPA,
MFETC,

General Customs

Supplement    to    interim
Administration,
                                                                         State
provisions              of Any        corporation        is   strictly

Administration of
environmental protection      forbidden to undertake trade of
1996

Industry      and
management     on     waste wastes.
Commerce, State
import                                                                   Bureau
of Quality
                                                                         and
Technical

Supervision

                              All carriers in our country who
Regulation              on    undertake    to   transport   foreign
strengthening          the    commerce      goods,   must     abide
Ministry       of   1996
management    of    import    strictly by related laws, statutes and
communication
wastes transportation         regulations, and are not allowed to
                              transport prohibited import wastes


                                                    29
                                                                    SEPA,
MFETC,
                                                                    General
Customs

Circular on Enlarge the
Administration,

Directory       of    Stated Enlarge the Directory of Stated        State

Restricted Import Wastes     Restricted Import Wastes that Can
Administration of   1996
that Can be Utilized as      be Utilized as Raw Material            Industry
and

Raw Material
Commerce, State
                                                                    Bureau
of Quality
                                                                    and
Technical

Supervision

Management method on For wastes the importation of which            State

inspection            before as raw material is permitted ,
Administration

shipment of import wastes inspection before shipment must be        for
Entry-Exit 1996

(tentative )                 executed.
Commodities

Inspection

                             Reply      to    "referendum      on
Reply on application of      interpretation about application of
law on illegal import of     law on illegal import of solid         SEPA
1997
solid wastes                 wastes"     from   Chinese     ocean
                             transportation (group) company

Reply on application of Reply to "referendum on meanings
law on illegal operation   of several related terms in `solid       SEPA
1997
about waste, old and lead waste     law'"    from      Shenyang
containing accumulators    Environmental Protection Bureau

                             It is prohibited to file a customs
                                                                    SETC,
MFETC,
Circular      on     further application for the importation of
                                old   electromechanical     products    General
Customs
controlling           import    under an import certificate covering
Administration,
management           of   old
1997
                                new electromechanical products. In      State
Bureau of
electromechanical               case of non compliance, those old       Quality
and
products                        electromechanical products must be
Technical

                                confiscated.
Supervision

Circular on strengthening       It is prohibited to illegally import,
environmental protection        process and use external solid        SEPA
1997
of township enterprises         wastes.

Reply on the problem of         Reply on the problem of illegal
illegal importing domestic      importing domestic waste plastics
waste plastics of Jiangxi       of   Jiangxi    hualong     chemical    SEPA
1997
hualong          chemical       industrial incorporated company
industrial    incorporated      from Shanghai admiralty court
company

Reply on interpretation on Old hardware electrical appliances
meaning of old hardware    include manifolds, waste computers           SEPA
1998
electrical      appliances and so on.
imported

                                Further strengthening of the law at

Report        on      related the executive level, and severe
                               punishment for those units and
situations      of     illegal                                          SEPA
1998
                                persons    that   illegally    import
importing wastes affairs        external wastes, without respecting
                                the    "Interim     Provisions    of


                                                    30
                             environmental             Protection
                             Management on Waste Import" and
                             "Environmental Protection Control
                             Standards on Imported Waste"

                            Reply to "request from Shenzhen
                            East Development Group Company
Interpretation on import of on importing waste and old tires        SEPA
1998
waste tires                 from Hongkong and other areas"
                            from    Shenzhen     Environmental
                            Protection Bureau

Reply on the problem Reply to "referendum on the
related     to    changing problem     related   to   changing
imported wastes salvage     imported wastes salvage units by        SEPA
1998
units by wastes import ing wastes importing units" [1998] by
units                       Supreme People's Court

Reply on the problem Reply to identify and appointment
whether volatile phenols    letter about grave accident of
belong     to  toxic   and environmental      pollution    from     SEPA
1998
hazardous         chemical Yuncheng public security bureau in
substances                  Shanxi province

                             Reply to "the report on `application
                             of importing palm kernel oil residue
Interpretation     on   the and solid residue as crude materials
problem     of    importing from Fulu grease chemical plant'      SEPA
1998
palm oil residues            from     Xiamen      environmental
                             protection bureau" from Fujian
                             environmental protection bureau

Directory of Hazardous Divide hazardous wastes into 47              SEPA,
SETC,

1998
Wastes                       sorts                                  MFETC
and MPS

                             Reply to "emergent report on
Reply    on    management checking and detaining ships that
opinion    for       illegal are suspected to contraband waste      SEPA
1999
entering of waste and old and old plastics to our country by
plastics                     Gongbei Custom" from Cuangdong
                             Environmental Protection Bureau

                             The number of Import-export ports
Circular     on     several for each "certificate of approval for
problems about regulating importing waste " should be limited      SEPA
1999
the management of waste     under 5, according to the principle
import                      of reaching/docking at the nearest
                            harbor.

                            Waste    and   overdue    chemical
                            hazardous substances and package       SEPA,
SETC,
Circular on strengthening   containers that have been used for     MPS,
State
the    management       of chemical     hazardous    substances    Bureau
of Quality 1999
hazardous         chemical must be kept appropriately, may not     and
Technical
substances                  be abandoned casually, and be
Supervision
                            disposed according to disposal
                            standard of hazardous wastes

Reply on inadmissibility Reply to "referendum on the
                                                                   SEPA
1999
of transferring imported problem         whether       `registry


                                               31
wastes                        certification for import of special
                              commodities' issued by Guangdong
                              development planning Commission
                              is    effective    "    from     Wuxi
                              Administration of Industry and
                              Commerce

Interpretation on import of Importing         recycled      disposable

disposable cameras            cameras should be approved by                SEPA
1999
                              MFTEC

                            Hazardous waste generation units
                            should report their Hazardous waste
                            transferring     plan   for approval
                            before transferring, according to
Double draft management related regulations of the state.
on    the    Transfer    of After approval, generation units               SEPA
1999
Hazardous Waste             should apply to the Regulation on
                            Transfer of Hazardous Waste from
                            the        chief        administrative
                            environmental               protection
                            department in the shift-out district

                              Before shipping the waste, the State
                              Administration of the Entry-Exit
                              Inspection & Quarantine (SAEEIQ)
                              should implement the inspection
                              mechanism that combines on-site
                              trail-inspection by the appointed
                              official with the port -inspection, the
                              administration        should      also
                              certificate      the      pre-shipping
                              inspection institution. After the

Management Measure of         waste     raw        materials         are
                                                                           State
the Certification on the      pre-shipping         inspected        and

Import      Waste       Raw   transported to the Chinese port, the
Administration
                                                                           for
Entry-Exit
Material      Pre-shipping    Port    Inspection       &     Quarantine
2000

Inspection    and
Inspection       Institution Institution      should       accept   the

Quarantine
(tentative)                   application     and     inspecti       the
                              materialsaccording to the approved
                            license of waste import, the certified
                            license    of     the    pre-shipping
                            inspection         and        relevant
                            certifications. If the inspection isn't
                            passed because of the unqualified
                            environment protection measures or
                            of incomplete certifications, the
                            pre-shipping inspection institution
                            must      give       the   reasonable
                            explanation in time.

Policy on disposal of
Ministry      of
municipal domestic waste   It is prohibited for hazardous wastes
Construction,
and pollution prevention   to be mixed with domestic wastes            SEPA,
Ministry of 2000

and control technique
Science      and

Technology

Circular     on    several By the date of the circular issued,         SEPA
2000
problems for importing each         "approval     certificate    for


                                                 32
wastes                         importing waste" may approve only
                               one importing waste unit.

Circular     on     further The importing port applied by
strengthening           the corporations should choose the             SEPA
2000
management of importing nearest port away from processing
wastes                      and use units

                               All enterprises that want to export
                               hazardous waste to Hongkong must
                               make an application to the local city
                               environmental protection bureau,

Circular     on   several      filling   in        requisition    of
                               cross-boundary      waste    transfer
problems for exporting         between inland and Hongkong           SEPA
2000
hazardous wastes from          Special    Administrative     Region,
hinterland to Hongkong         providing related materials . And
                               the     local   city   environmental
                               protection bureau report to the
                               pollution control department of
                               SEPA step by step.

                            The seventh waste with the import
                            approval of SEPA doesn't include
                            wasted       televisions,      wasted
                            kinescopes, wasted refrigerators,
                            wasted air conditioners, wasted
Circular     on    several microwave         ovens,       wasted
problems of importing the   computers, wasted monitors and        SEPA
2000
seventh wastes              display   tubes,   wasted    copiers,
                            wasted    vedio    camera,     wasted
                            electric cookers,     wasted    game
                            machines (except for processing
                            trade), wasted home telephone sets,
                            and so on, since Feb. 1st, 2001.

Reply on agreement to try Agree on trying out hazardous
out    hazardous     waste waste operation license system in           SEPA
2000
operation license system    Beijing

Return      Circular     on     Environment Protection Bureau of
Problems of Hazardous           Shenzhen Province« Circular on
                                                                       SEPA
2000
Waste    Cognizance      and    Problems of Hazardous Waste
Identification                  Cognizance and Identification»

Safety Control Regulation
of Gangue Storeroom                                                SETC
2000

Technical     Polices   on Bringing forward on collection,
Hazardous          Wastes transport, stockpile, incineration       SEPA
2001
Pollutant Prevention        and landfill of hazardous wastes

                            « Approval Certificate of Imported
Notify     on   Changing Hazardous        Wastes »     must be
Approval Certificate of     stamped SEPA special badge of          SEPA
2001
Imported        Hazardous   hazardous       wastes     importing
Wastes                      examine and approve from March 1,
                            2001

Return      Circular    on The problems        of    worn tire     SEPA
2001

                                                33
Arranging Worn Tire and      importing      relate    to      many
Worn     Rubber     in   the departments. whether importing is
Directory     of    Limited allowed must be researched deeply
Imported          Hazardous and      the   ideas     of   relation
Wastes                       departments must be collected.

                             The     management        of    sludge
Return Circular on Law       discharging       from      municipal
Applicability             of wastewater       central    treatment
Management       of Sludge   facilities should apply the Law of     SEPA
2001
Discharging            from People's Republic of China on the
Wastewater           Central Prevention and Control of Solid
Treatment Facilities         Wastes      Pollution    and relative
                             special regulations

                              Forbid the     import of hazardous
                              wastes and wastes which are
                              forbidden by relative laws; limit the
Circular on Problems of
Enhancing          Monitor   import of wastes as raw materials ;
Managements               on corporations under conditions of old
                                                                      SEPA
2001
Imported             Wastes   techniques,     lacking    pollution

Examination             and   protection    facilities, should   be

Approval                      closed, are not allowed to import
                              wastes; carry out gross approval and
                              principle    of   examination     and
                              approval.

Circular on Publication
the Adjusting Directory of
the        Pointing   Units Ascertain the second batch new
Processing and Utilizing pointing units, cancel the former            SEPA
2001
the         Second    Batch nine units at the same time
Imported      the   Seventh
Kind Waste

Directory     of    Limited   Including of 11 kinds of wastes. The
Imported          Hazardous   ninth is scrap motor to recycle         MFETC
etc.     2001
Wastes as Raw Material        copper. The tenth is waste electrical
                              line to recycle aluminum

                             The directory of automatic imported
                             allowing management wastes as
                             raw material is regulated in the
                             annex. It is regulated that scraps
Circular      on   Adjusting containing copper don't include
Environmental Protection      waste       metal   and        electrical SEPA
2002
Management of Imported        appliances, waste electrical line and
Wastes                        cable and waste motors;        scraps
                              containing aluminum don't include
                              waste      metal    and    electrical
                              appliances, waste electrical line and
                              cable and waste motors.

Directory of Forbidden        Directory of forbidden imported
Imported     Goods     (The                                               MFETC
2002
                              goods
fourth, the fifth )

Technical     Criterion    of Technical    criterion    of      central
                                                                          SEPA
2003
Central     Disposal       of disposal of medical wastes


                                                   34
Medical Wastes

Regulation on Standards
of     Medical    Wastes Regulation on standards of medical
Special        Packaging, wastes special packaging, container      SEPA
2003
Container   and Caution and caution signs
Signs

Technical    Request   of
Construction of Medical     Technical      request    for    the
Wastes            Central construction of medical wastes           SEPA
2004
Incineration     Disposal central incineration disposal project
Project

Technical    Request   of
Construction           of Technical        request    for    the
Hazardous Wastes Central construction of hazardous wastes          SEPA
2004
Incineration     Disposal central incineration disposal project
Project

2.1.4 Environment Standards and Technology Guidelines


In the table below the standards on solid wastes involving hazardous
wastes are
presented.   The standards which will be stipulated or are under
examination and
approval include: Standard for pollution control on the landfill site for
hazardous waste,
Standard for pollution control on the storage for hazardous waste,
Standard for
pollution control on the storage for general industry waste, Standard for
pollution
control on the landfill site for general industry waste?

 Table2.3 Environment Standards on Solid Wastes Involving Hazardous
Wastes



          No.                                             Name

      GBJ4-1973                    Effluent Interim Standard of Industry
"Three-Waste"

    GB3552-1983                          Effluent Standard of Pollutants
from Ship

    GB4280-1984                    Effluent Standard of Pollutants in
Chrome Industry
    GB4283-1984                      Effluent Standard of Pollutants in
Phosphor Industry

    GB4284-1984               Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludges
from Agricultural Use

    GB4916-1985                     Effluent Standard of Pollutants in
Asphaltum Industry

    GB5085-1985                 Effluent Standard of Solid Waste in
Nonferrous Metal Industry

                            Test Method Standard for Extraction Procedure
Toxicity of Solid Waste
    GB5086-1985                                 in Nonferrous Metal
Industry

                             Test Method Standard for Corrosively of Solid
Waste in Nonferrous
    GB5087-1985                                         Metal Industry

    GB5088-1985            Screening Test Method Standard for Acute
Toxicity of Solid Waste in
                                                Nonferrous Metal Industry

    GB8172-1987                    Control Standards for Urban Wastes for
Agricultural Use



                                                 35
    GB8173-1997            Control Standards of Pollutants in Fly Ash for
Agricultural Use

    GB12502-1990                     Control Standard on Cyanide for Waste
Slugs

    GB13015-1991             Control Standard on Ploy Chlorinated
Biphenyls for Wastes

   GB15562.2-1995        Graphical Signs for Environmental Protection
Solid Waste Storage
                                                       (Disposal) Site

                          Solid Waste-Determination of Total Mercury,
Copper, Zinc, Lead?
GB/T15555.1~12-1995     Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium(? ), Total Chromium,
Nickel, Fluoride
                               and Corrosively (Infiltrate Liquid
Determination Method)

                            Environmental Protection Control Standard for
Imported Scrap
                          Material- Waste animal bone and raw material,
Slag as raw material,
                        Scrap wood and wooden products as raw material,
Scrap paper and
 GB16487.1~12-1996    board as raw material, Scrap cotton and cloth as
raw material, Iron and
                      steel scraps, Nonferrous metal scraps, Scrap motor,
Waste electrical line
                        and cable, Metal and electrical appliance scraps,
Scraping ships and
                                 floating facilities and Plastic scrap as
raw material

                         Identification Standard for Hazardous Wastes:
Identification for
  GB5085.1~3-1996      Corrosively , Screening Test for Acute Toxicity
and Identification for
                                            Extraction Procedure Toxicity

   GB5086.1-1997           Solid Waste-Extraction Procedure for Toxicity
of Solid Waste -
                                                   Retroflexion Method

                                 Solid Waste-Extraction Procedure for
Toxicity of Solid
   GB5086.2-1997
                                           Waste-Horizontal Vibration
Method

    GB16889-1997        Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site
for Domestic Waste
      HJ/T-1998         Technical Criterion on Sampling Method of
Industrial Solid Wastes

   CJ/T3083-1999             Technical Request of Medical Wastes
Incineration Facilities

   GB18218- 2000                     Identification of Important Hazardous
Sources

    GB18484-2001             Hazardous Wastes-Pollution Control Standards
of Incineration

    GB18485-2001             Standard for Pollution Control on the
Municipal Solid Waste
                                                        Incineration

    GB18597-2001          Standard for Pollution Control on the Storage for
Hazardous Waste

    GB18598-2001        Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site
for Hazardous Waste

    GB19218-2003               Technical Request of Medical Wastes
Incinerating Stove

   GB19217- 2003               Technical Request of Medical Wastes
Transport Vehicles

GB5086-1985 is modified by GB5086.1-1997 and GB5086.2~1997.

2.2 PCBs Related Policy, Regulation and Standard

2.2.1 About PCBs Electric Equipment and PCBs Waste


The management and control of PCBs of Chinese government are mainly
focused on
the PCBs electrical equipment. China stopped PCBs production at the
beginning of

                                               36
1970s, limited the import of PCBs electrical equipment at the end of
1970s, drew up
administrative provisions and standards to prevent and control PCBs
pollution at the
beginning of 1990s, launched a countrywide PCBs investigation in the
middle of 1990s
and drew up incineration control standard in 2000.

In March 1974, former National No.1 Ministry of Machine-Building Industry
issued
the Circular on Changing Impregnant of Power Capacitors [Jidian 226 (74)]
which
stipulated to stop using trichlorinated biphenyl to manufacture power
capacitors.

In August 1979, former State Economic Commission and Environment
Protection
Committee under the State Council issued jointly the Circular on
Preventing Pollution
Problems of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Harmful Substance [Jingji (1979)
225] which
stipulated to control pollution of polychlorinated biphenyl and stop the
import of
electrical installation with polychlorinated biphenyl as the medium,
exceptions should
be approved by the competent authorities under the State Council.

In 1990,the former National Environmental Protection Agency (Now SEPA)
issued the
Circular on Strengthening Management on Abandoned Polychlorinated
Biphenyl
Power Capacitors[Huguan (1990) 004] which strictly prohibited dealing in
waste
PCBs power capacitors , dismantling waste PCBs power capacitors and power
capacitors with no distinct model number, and put forward an inventory
survey of
Environmental Protection Department and Electricity Department on PCBs
power
capacitors ( including those stored and those unstored)

In March 1991, the former National Environmental Protection Agency (Now
SEPA)
and State Ministry of Energy issued jointly the Regulations on Prevention
of
Environmental Pollution of Electrical Equipment Containing
Polychlorinated
Biphenyl and its Wastes [Huguan (91) 050] (with three annexes) to prevent
and
control the pollution from the use of PCBs electrical equipment and
collection, storage,
transport, treatment and disposal of PCBs wastes and to strengthen
governmental
supervisors and management on PCBs.
The regulations stipulated that the units owning or using PCBs electrical
equipment
should faithfully report to local departments of environmental protection
in accordance
with the technical requirements of annex 1 Registration Form of
Electrical
Installations Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyl and take measures to
prevent the
leakage and pollution of PCBs.

The regulations stipulated that the transfer, treatment and disposal of
the PCBs
electrical equipment and PCBs wastes must notify the local EPB for
approval 15 days
ahead of time. Any institution and person are strictly forbidden to sell,
purchase and
break up electrical equipment containing PCBs.

The regulations stipulated meantime that the waste PCBs electrical
equipment and
PCBs liquid or PCBs containing pollutants should be collected and stored
under the
approval of EPB. The site selection and design of temporary storage
warehouse and
concentrative warehouse of PCBs must conform to annex 2 Design Regulation
of
Temporary Storage Warehouse and Concentrative Warehouse of Wastes
Containing

                                            37
Polychlorinated Biphenyl. The storage years of temporary storage
warehouse and
concentrative warehouse should not exceed three years and twenty years
respectively,
and the PCBs wastes stored must be retrievable.

   In addition, the regulations stipulated that the water body and soil
polluted by PCBs
should be used and managed by referring to annex 3 Controlling Value of
Water Quality
and Soil Pollution Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Interim). The
soil polluted by
PCBs at 50-500mg/kg was considered as the first pollution level and was
banned from
allindustrial and agricultural uses and should be disposed where
applicable. The soil
polluted by PCBs over 500mg/kg was considered as the second pollution
level and its
use was banned for any purpose; disposal by storing or incineration was
made
mandatory. The discharge control standard for waste water containing PCBs
is
0.003mg/l.

In March 1992, Based on appendix 3 Controlling Value of Water Quality and
Soil
Pollution Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBs) of the Regulations
on
Preventing the Environmental Pollution of Electrical Equipment Containing
Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Its Wastes, the State Bureau of Technical
Supervision
(now     General    Administration     of   Quality    Supervision,
Inspection     and
Quarantine-AQSIQ) and SEPA issued GB13015-91 Standards on pollution
control of
PCBs wastes. The standard stipulated the pollution controlling value of
PCBs wastes is
50mg/kg. According to this standard, were classified as dangerous PCB
wastes those
containing a PCB concentration equal or larger than the control standard,
and the
obsolete electric power capacitors, in which PCB is used as impregnant..
The
dangerous waste with PCBs > 500mg/kg should be incinerated with at
temperature
and the dangerous waste with PCBs =50~=500mg/kg should be safely
landfilled or
incinerated at high temperature. The PCBs dangerous waste (with PCBs >
50mg/kg)
should be collected and temporarily stored under the approval of EPB
whenever
incineration or landfilling were not feasible.. The appendix A of the
standard was GC
Detection Methods of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBs) in Wastes.
In December 1995, SEPA and former Ministry of Power Industry issued
jointly the
Circular on Reporting Countrywide Polychlorinated Biphenyl Electrical
Installation
and Its Wastes and ordered relevant units to coordinate the countrywide
investigation
on use, storage status of PCBs electrical equipment. Shenyang Institute
of
Environmental Sciences conducted preliminary investigation of PCBs
electrical
equipment and its wastes in important provinces in 1995-1996, according
to the
requirements of the circular.

In October 1995, the Environmental Control Law of Solid Wastes Pollution
of the
People's Republic of China (National Chairman [1995]58), the first law on
the
environmental management concerning solid wastes (including hazardous
wastes) was
issued. Several requirements for the management of hazardous were
included in the law,
which is extended by a several regulations, standards, circular as well
as directory.

In January 1998, the Directory of Hazardous Wastes ( huanfa[1998]89) was
issued

                                            38
jointly by the SEPA, the former SETC, the former MFETC and the MPS. As
PCBs
wastes (include PCBs, PBBs and PCTs wastes) was listed as the tenth class
among the
total 47 hazardous wastes in the directory, since 1998 the relevant
statutes applicable to
the management of hazardous wastes as follows were equally applicable to
the
management of PCBs:

Dealing of hazardous waste : In 2004, State Council promulgated
Management
Method on Hazardous Waste Operation License (State Council 408) (Taking
effect
in July 1, 2004) which stipulated that any unit engaging in the
collection, storage and
disposition of hazardous waste should obtain a hazardous waste dealing
license from
local or state environmental protection departments. License of
disposition of
hazardous waster containing polychlorinated biphenyls should be approved
and issued
by SEPA.

Import and export of hazardous waste: On August 20, 1992 the Basel
Convention on
the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their
Disposal
came into force in China. The convention stipulated that wastes
containing or
contacted PCBs, PCTs and PBBs are hazardous wastes, the trans-boundary
movement
and disposal of which should follow the relevant regulations of the
Convention. In 1996,
SEPA issued Interim Provisions of environmental Protection Management on
Waste Import( Huankong [1996] 204 .The sixth category of its
appendixDirectory of
Stated Restricted Import Wastes that Can Utilized as Raw Materialreferred
to all kinds
of waste hardware, electric engines and electric products , including
waste electric
engine, waste wire and cable, waste hardware electric devices; the eighth
category
referred to waste transportation equipment, including ships for
dismantling and other
floating structures. Import of these wastes must be examined and approved
by SEPA. In
the same year , SEPA issued Environmental Protection Control Standards on
Imported Waste (GB16487 Series) , of which GB16487.7--1996 Environmental
Protection Control Standards on Imported Waste--Waste Nonferrous
Metal(trial
implementation), GB16487.8 --1996 Environmental Protection Control
Standards on
Imported     Waste--electric    engine   (trial   implementation),
GB16487.9--1996
Environmental Protection Control Standards on Imported Waste--waste wire
and cable
(trial implementation), GB16487.10--1996 Environmental Protection Control
Standards on Imported Waste --hardware electric devices (trial
implementation) and
GB16487.11-1996 Environmental Protection Control Standards on Imported
Waste --
Ships and Other Floating Structures for Dismantling (trial
implementation) demanded
that no waste with PCBs exceeding the control standard value of GB 13015-
- 91
Standards on pollution control of PCBswastesshould be imported, i.e. PCBs
content in
the waste should no exceed 50mg / kg. In December 2001,the former MFETC,
General
Administration of Customs and SEPA jointly issued Directory of Prohibited
Import
Articles (The third) which prohibited the import of waste oil containing
PCBs and
PBBs (including waster oil containing PCTs).SEPA issued in August, 2002
Directory
of Prohibited Import Articles ( The fifth , prohibiting the import of
waste
electromechanical products (including parts, disjointed ,fractured,
crashed pieces,
unless otherwise regulated by the state).


                                            39
Transfer of hazardous waste : SEPA issued Double Draft Management on the
Transfer of Hazardous Waste( SEPA [ 1999] 5 ) ( Taking effect on October
1,1999)
which required that the transfer of hazardous wastes should draw double
draft and
notice to EPB of departure and destination area.

The disposal of hazards waste: GB18484-2001 the Standard for Pollution
Controls
on Hazardous Waste Incineration issued by SEPA . Standard for Pollution
Control on
the Hazardous Waste Incineration was published by SEPA, December 3, 1999.
For the
issue of pollutant prevention in the process of hazardous waste disposal,
it regulated the
site-choosing principle of hazardous waste incineration, basic
incineration technical
performance index, the highest allowed limit for the discharging of
atmosphere
pollutants, principle of disposal by incinerating the residues and
correspondent
inspection.

It stipulated that burning temperatures in the incinerator of PCBs wastes
should be
higher than 1200°C, retention time should be over 2.0 seconds,
destruction rate should
exceed 99.9999%, the maximum allowable discharge concentration of dioxins
is less
than 0.5TEQng/m3. In December 2001. SEPA, former SETC and the Ministry of
Sciences and Technology issued jointly the Technical Policies on
Pollution
Prevention and Control of Hazardous Wastes. (huanfa[2001]199) The
policies
regarded PCBs wastes as special hazardous wastes and emphasized the
investigation
and the management of the storage disposal of PCBs wastes. PCBs wastes
should be
incinerated according to GB18484-2001the Incineration Pollution Control
Standard of
Hazardous Wastes as soon as possible, the management and storage and
disposal
should comply with the Regulations on Prevention of Environmental
Pollution of
Electrical Equipment ContainingPolychlorinated Biphenyland its Wastes. In
the same
year, GB GB18597-2001 the Standard for Pollution Control on Hazardous
Wastes
storage and GB18598-2001 the Standard for Pollution Control on Hazardous
Wastes
Security Landfill were issued, which did not pay more attention to the
PCBs wastes
than other hazardous wastes.
Amongall the Regulations on Prevention of Environmental Pollution of
Electrical
Equipment Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyl, the GB13015-91 Wastes and
Standards on pollution control of PCBs wastes are the main document and
bases for the
PCBs management in China.

2.2.2 PCBs Commodities


In Januar1999, the former SETC issued the Directory on Obsolete
Production
Capacities, Processes and Products to be Eliminated (the first), which
definitely
listed pesticides such as pesticide containing PCBs, chlordane,
heptachlor are obsolete
products that should be eliminated.

On March 16,1994, the former SEPA , General Customs Administration, MFETC
jointly issued Environmental Control Provision on first-time Import of
Chemicals
and Import and Export of Toxic Chemicals( Taking effect in May 1st, 1994)
which
listed PCBs in Directory of Prohibited or Strictly Controlled Toxic
Chemicals in

                                            40
China (The first), requiring that to import and export PCBs an
application must be
filed, followed by an environmental protection registration certificate
and release
permit, and approval must be obtained from SEPA. Since the implementation
of the
Provision, no application of import or export of PCBs was received.

2.2.3 On Environmental and Health Quality Standard of PCBS


In 1988, the Ministry of Health released GB9674-88 Standards on hygiene
limits of
PCBs in seafood (Taking effect as of June 1st, 1989 ) which stipulated
that PCBs
content in seafood such as fish, shellfish, shrimps and algae should be
less than 0.2mg /
kg. At the same time, the GB9675 88 Measuring Method of Polychlorinated
Biphenyls in Seafood (Taking effect in June 1, 1989 ) (Replaced by GB /
5009.190 -
2003 in January 1st, 2004) was released to specify the measuring method
of
Polychlorinated biphenyls residue in seafood.

GHZB1 -1999 Standards on environmental quality of surface water release
by SEPA
regulated that the PCBs content control standard was 8.0×10- mg/L in of
I, II, III type
                                                               6

surface water

2.2.4 the US. Requirements for PCBs cleanup

Presently, China still hasn't the detailed standards and requirements
concerning the
cleanup of PCBs contaminated soil. Therefore, technical standards and
requirements of
the advanced countries are reported in this document as possible
reference criteria.
The U.S. requirements for PCB Cleanup reflect those from the U.S.'s Toxic
Substances
Control Act (TSCA) (40CFR 761). In addition, in August 1990, the U.S. EPA
issued
"A Guide on Remedial Actions at Superfund Sites with PCB Contamination",
which
establishes cleanup levels of sites contaminated by PCBs. Accordingly,
the
recommended cleanup levels are as follows:

                ·   Soil in a residential area: 1 ppm
                ·   Soil in an industrial are: 10 ppm to 25 ppm
                ·   Sediment in aquatic freshwater: 19 ug/g of sediment
                ·   Sediment in saltwater: 33 ug/g of sediment
In addition, the Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the following maximum
PCB
levels to protect aquatic life:

               ·   Acute toxicity to freshwater aquatic life: 2   ppb
               ·   Chronic toxicity to freshwater aquatic life:   0.014 ppb
               ·   Acute toxicity to saltwater aquatic life: 10   ppb
               ·   Chronic toxicity to freshwater aquatic life:   0.03 ppb.


Moreover, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) specifies the following
maximum
PCB levels in drinking water to protect human health:


                                               41
                 · Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for PCBs in drinking
water:
                         0.05 ppb
                 · Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) (the level of a
                         contaminant in drinking water below which there
is no known or
                         expectedrisk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin
of safety): 0
                         ppb.



2.2.4.1 Requirements for cleanup of low-concentration spills which
involve less than 1
pound of PCBs by weight (less than 270 gallons of untested mineral oil)

Decontamination requirements. Spills of less than 270 gallons of untested
mineral oil,
low-concentration PCBs, which involve less than 1 pound of PCBs by weight
(e.g., less
than 270 gallons of untested mineral oil containing less than 500 ppm
PCBs) shall be
cleaned in the following manner:

(1) Solid surfaces must be double washed/rinsed (as defined under
§761.123); except
that all indoor, residential surfaces other than vault areas must be
cleaned to 10
micrograms per 100 square centimeters (10 µ g/100 cm2) by standard
commercial wipe
tests.

(2) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil and a
buffer of 1 lateral foot
around the visible traces) must be excavated, and the ground be restored
to its original
configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than
1 ppm PCBs).

(3) Requirements of paragraphs (1)and (2) of this section must be
completed within 48
hours after the responsible party was notified or became aware of the
spill.

2.2.4.2 Requirements for cleanup of high-concentration spills and low-
concentration
spills involving 1 pound or more PCBs by weight(270 gallons or more of
untested
mineral oil).

n Immediate requirements

(1) The responsible party shall notify the EPA regional office and the
NRC as required
by other applicable statutes.

(2) The responsible party shall effectively cordon off or otherwise
delineate and restrict
an area encompassing any visible traces plus a 3-foot buffer and place
clearly visible
signs advising persons to avoid the area to minimize the spread of
contamination as
well as the potential for human exposure.

(3) The responsible party shall record and document the area of visible
contamination,
noting the extent of the visible trace areas and the center of the
visible trace area. If
there are no visible traces, the responsible party shall record this fact
and contact the
regional office of the EPA for guidance in completing statistical
sampling of the spill
area to establish spill boundaries.


                                               42
(4) The responsible party shall initiate cleanup of all visible traces of
the fluid on hard
surfaces and initiate removal of all visible traces of the spill on soil
and other media,
such as gravel, sand, oyster shells, etc.

(5) If there has been a delay in reaching the site and there are
insufficient visible traces
of PCBs remaining at the spill site, the responsible party must estimate
(based on the
amount of material missing from the equipment or container) the area of
the spill and
immediately cordon off the area of suspect contamination. The responsible
party must
then utilize a statistically based sampling scheme to identify the
boundaries of the spill
area as soon as practicable.

(6) Although this policy requires certain immediate actions, EPA is not
placing a time
limit on completion of the cleanup effort since the time required for
completion will
vary from case to case. However, EPA expects that decontamination will be
achieved
promptly in all cases and will consider promptness of completion in
determining
whether the responsible party made good faith efforts to clean up in
accordance with
this policy.

n Requirementsfordecontaminatingspillsinoutdoorelectricalsubstations.

(1) Contaminated solid surfaces (both impervious and non-impervious)
shall be
cleaned to a PCB concentration of 100 micrograms (µ g)/100 square
centimeters (cm2 )
(as measured by standard wipe tests).

(2) At the option of the responsible party, soil contaminated by the
spill will be cleaned
either to 25 ppm PCBs by weight, or to 50 ppm PCBs by weight provided
that a label or
notice is visibly placed in the area. Upon demonstration by the
responsible party that
cleanup to 25 ppm or 50 ppm will jeopardize the integrity of the
electrical equipment at
the substation, the EPA regional office may establish an alternative
cleanup method or
level and place the responsible party on a reasonably timely schedule for
completion of
cleanup.

n Requirementsfordecontaminatingspillsinotherrestrictedaccessareas.
(1) High-contact solid surfaces shall be cleaned to 10 µ g/100 cm (as
measured by
                                                                        2

standard wipe tests).

(2) Low-contact, indoor, impervious solid surfaces will be decontaminated
to 10 µ
g/100 cm . 2


(3) At the option of the responsible party, low-contact, indoor,
nonimpervious surfaces
will be cleaned either to 10 µ g/100 cm or to 100 µ g/100 cm and
encapsulated. The
                                          2                        2

Regional Administrator, however, retains the authority to disallow the
encapsulation
option for a particular spill situation upon finding that the
uncertainties associated with
that option pose special concerns at that site. That is, the Regional
Administrator would
not permit encapsulation if he/she determined that if the encapsulation
failed the failure
would create an imminent hazard at the site.


                                             43
(4) Low-contact, outdoor surfaces (both impervious and nonimpervious)
shall be
cleaned to 100 µg/100 cm . 2


(5) Soil contaminated by the spill will be cleaned to 25 ppm PCBs by
weight.

n Requirementsfordecontaminatingspillsinnonrestrictedaccessareas.

(1) Furnishings, toys, and other easily replaceable household items shall
be disposed of
in accordance with the provisions and replaced by the responsible party.

(2) Indoor solid surfaces and high-contact outdoor solid surfaces, shall
be cleaned to 10
µ g/100 cm 2 (as measured by standard wipe tests).

(3) Indoor vault areas and low-contact, outdoor, impervious solid
surfaces shall be
decontaminated to 10 µ g/100 cm .   2


(4) At the option of the responsible party, low -contact, outdoor,
nonimpervious solid
surfaces shall be either cleaned to 10 µ g/100 cm or cleaned to 100 µ
g/100 cm and
                                                     2
2

encapsulated. The Regional Administrator, however, retains the authority
to disallow
the encapsulation option for a particular spill situation upon finding
that the
uncertainties associated with that option pose special concerns at that
site. That is, the
Regional Administrator would not permit encapsulation if he/she
determined that if the
encapsulation failed the failure would create an imminent hazard at the
site.

(5) Soil contaminated by the spill will be decontaminated to 10 ppm PCBs
by weight
provided that soil is excavated to a minimum depth of 10 inches. The
excavated soil
will be replaced with clean soil, i.e., containing less than 1 ppm PCBs,
and the spill site
will be restored (e.g., replacement of turf).

2.2.5 Policies on Wastes Management and PCB Management and Treatment of

Zhejiang Province
       ? Regulations on Preventing PCB Electrical Equipments and Wastes
from
      Polluting Environment, published in 1991 and transmitted by EPB of
Zhejiang
      Province

      ? Circular on Printing Management Method of Hazardous Wastes
Exchanging
      and Transporting of Zhejiang, June,1999 .

      ? Circular on Printing Management Method of Hazardous Wastes
Business
      License, July 2001

      ? Construction Projects Environment Protection Management
Regulations and
      Actualized Opinions of EPB of Zhejiang Province Construction
Projects
      Environment Protection Management Regulations (State Department
No.253)

      ? Zhejiang Province Atmosphere Pollution Prevention and Cure
Regulations

      ? Zhejiang Province Construction Projects Environment Protection
Management

                                              44
     Method

     ? Hazardous Solid Waste Administration Temporary Methods in
Hangzhou,
     December 28, 1999

                         Table 2.4 PCBs related Laws & Regs.



  Laws & Regs            Adoption date &       Decrees Issued by   General
Content
                         Document No.

  Circular on
  Changing                                     National No.1
                                               Ministry of         stop using
trichlorinated
1 Impregnant of          [Jidian 226( 74) ]                        biphenyl
to manufacture
  Power Capacitor                              Machine-Building
                                               Industry            power
capacitors


                                                                   Stop the
import of
                                                                   electrical
installation
  Circular of                                  State Economic
  Preventing Pollution                         Commission &        with
polychlorinated
                                                                   biphenyl
as the medium,
2 Problems of            [Jingji( 1979) 225]   Leader Team of      except
when especially
  Polychlorinated                              Environment         necessary,
in which case
  Biphenyl Harmful                             Protection          is
permitted by the
  Substance                                    Committee           competent
authorities
                                                                   under the
State Council

  Circular on
  Strengthening
  Management on                                                    Forbid
dealing &
3 Abandoned              Huanguan(90)004       SEPA
dismantling of waste
  Polychlorinated                                                  PCBs power
capacitors
  Biphenyl Power
  Capacitors

  Regulations on
  Prevention of
  Environmental                                                     Definitely
regulate the
  Pollution of                                                      use of
PCBs electrical
4 Electrical            Huanguan(90)050    SEPA & State             equipment
and
  Equipment                                    Ministry of Energy
collection, storage,
  Containing                                                        transport,
treatment and
  Polychlorinated                                                   disposal
of PCBs wastes
  Biphenyl and its
  Wastes

                                                                    Stipulated
the pollution

  Standards on
controlling value of

5                                                                   PCBs
wastes as 50mg/kg
  pollution control of GB13015-91          AQSIQ & SEPA
                                                                    & Present
the detect
  PCBs Waste
measurement of PCBs
                                                                    waste

  Circular of                              SEPA &                   Order the
relevant

6 Reporting             1995                                        sectors to
coordinate the
  Countrywide PCBs                         Ministry of Power
countrywide
  Electrical                               Industry
investigation on use,


                                          45
   Installation and Its                                             storage
status of PCBs
   Wastes
electrical equipment

   Environmental
   Control Law of                               the Standing        Special
requirements for
                          President of the
7 Solid Wastes                                  Committee of the    the
management of
   Pollution of the       State[1995]58         National People's   hazardous
waste are
   People's Republic                            congress            included
   of China

                                                SEPA

   National Inventory                           SETC                Define
PCBs waste as
8                         ( Huanfa[1998]89)
   of Hazardous Waste                           MFETC               hazardous
waste

                                                MPS

                                                                    Units
which engages in
                                                                    the
collection, storage
                                                                    and
disposal of
   Management                                                       hazardous
waste must be
                          State Council(2004)                       granted
hazardous waste
9 Measures                                      State Council
   Hazardous Waste        408                                       business
license from

   Business License                                                 local or
state EPA. The
                                                                    disposal
of hazardous
                                                                    waste
containing PCBs
                                                                    should be
examined and
                                                                    approved
by SEPA

   Basel Convention
   on the Control of                            The Standing
Requirements about the
10 Transboundary          Aug. 1992            Committee of the
Transboundary
   Movements of                                National People's   Movements
of
   Hazardous Wastes                            Congress            Hazardous
Wastes
   and their Disposal

   Temporary
   Regulation of                                                   The
Import of the listed
   Environmental                                                   waste
must be examined

11 Protection             Huankong[1996]204)   SEPA                and
approved by SEPA,
   Management of                                                   and the
Import of
   Waste Import                                                    unlisted
waste is
                                                                   forbidden


                                                                   Forbid
importing waste
   Environmental
nonferrous metal, waste
   Protection Control                                              electric
-engine, waste

12 Standards on           GB16487.7~11-1996    SEPA                wire &
cable, waste
   Imported Waste                                                  hardware
metals and

   ( Series)                                                       waste
ships which
                                                                   contains
more than
                                                                   50mg/Kg
PCBs

                                               MFETC,
   Directory of                                                    Prohibit
importing waste
13 Prohibited Import    2001                   General             oil
containing PCBs &
   Articles( the Third)                        Administration of
PBB(Including the TCB)
                                               Customs
46
                                       SEPA

                                       MFETC,

   Directory of                        General             Prohibit
importing the
14 Prohibited Import    2002           Administration of   listed waste
   Articles( the Fifth)                Customs             electric -
engine

                                       SEPA

   Management                                              Define the
procedures
                                                           for the
transfer of the
15 Measures of          SEPA[1999]5    SEPA
   Transfer of                                             hazardous
waste
   Hazardous Waste

                                                           Improve the
                                                           environmental
                                                           performance
of the
                                                           incineration
of the PCBs
   the Standard for                                        waste : the
retention time

   Pollution Controls                  SEPA                should be
over 2.0s, the
16 on Hazardous Waste   GB18484-2001                       temperature
should be
                                       AQSIQ
   Incineration                                            more than
1200°C and
                                                           the
destruction rate and
                                                           the
incineration
                                                           efficiency
should exceed
                                                           99.9999%
&99.9%
                                                           respectively

   Technical Policies                                      The PCBs
waste should
   on Pollution                                            be
centralized to the
17 Prevention and       2001           SEPA                special
incineration
   Control of                                            facilities as
soon as
   Hazardous Wastes                                      possible

   Directory on
   Obsolete Production                                    Define the
pesticide
   Capacities,                                           containing
PCBs as
18 Processes and         1999          SETC              obsolete
product which
   Products to be                                         should be
phased-out
   Eliminated

   Management                          SEPA
   Regulation on First
                                       Custom General     The Import &
Export of
19 Import of Chemicals   1994                             PCBs should
be
   and Import &                        Administration
                                                          authorized by
SEPA
   Export of Toxic
   Chemicals                           MFETC


   Standards on                                          PCBs content
of seafood

20 hygiene limits of     GB9674-88     Ministry of Health such as fish,
shellfish,

   PCBs in seafood                                       shrimps and
algae should
                                                          be less than
0.2mg / kg

                                                          Regulate the
determined
21 Determine Measure     GB9675-88     Ministry of Health measure of
the PCB in
   of PCB in Seafood                                     the Seafood

22 Standards on          GHZB1-1999    SEPA              regulated
that the PCBs


                                      47
environmental             content control standard
quality of surface        must be 8.0×10- mg/L
                                           6

water                     in of? ,? , ? type surface
                          water




                     48
3. Institutional Framework


3.1 Introduction of the Convention Implementation in China

The situation of the Convention Implementation in China is shown in the
following
table:

        Table 6      the requirement of the Convention & the actuality of
China

                      the requirement of the Convention               the
actual situation of China

   PCBs             Stop Production, Import and Export(Article

Stopped
 Chemicals                             3.1&3.2)

                     Stop Import & Export(Annex A,Part II(c))
Stopped

   PCBs             Safely Use(Article 3.6, Annex A, Part II(b))
unregulated
  Electric        Prohibit Recycle & Reuse(Annex A, Part II (d))
unregulated
 Equipment

                Stop Using before 2025 (Annex A , Part II(a))
Estimated to be stopped by

the time

                  Establish the Strategy of the PCBs(constitution,
                     contain) Storage Inventory (Article 6.1(a))
PCBs waste
uncreated
                  Establish the Strategy of the using and the waste
                           PCBs Inventory (Article 6.1(a))

                Investigate the Storage of PCBs(constitution,
                            contain) (Article 6.1(b))
Serious Lack of ability

                                                                      Storage
not Estimated . And
                          Environmental Sound PCB                     allPCB-
containing Products
              Management(constitution, contain) and Storage            belong
to the PCB waste
                                (Article 6.1(C))
except the PCB electric
equipment

             Environmental sound collection, transport, storage
                 and disposal of the PCB waste (consisting,
                 containing, contaminated). (Article 6.1(d))

Serious Lack of ability
                Execute Environmental Sound Disposal of the
             equipment containing more than 0.005% PCBs by
                                     2028

                 Strive for investigation and disposal of other   Lack
Infos in this field
               products with PCB content higher than 0.005%
                             (Annex A, Part II(f))

                Strive for establishing the Strategy used for
                   Investigating the PCBs Polluted Sites.

Uncreated & weakness
              If remediate these sites, the Environmental Sound
                  Method should be adopted (Article 6.1(e))




                                               49
               Report the development of the reduction of PCBs to
                 the Parties Convention every 5 years (Annex A,
                                  Part II(g))

PCB Release     Strive for the minimum release (Article 3.6(e))
Unregulated




3.2 PCBs Management Adopted by the SEPA & other Relevant

Institutions

According to the investigation of the PCBs taken by SEPA and the Ministry
of Energy
in 1996, the problem of PCBs in China mainly lies in the electric power
sectors and
some large scale corporations of other sectors. Therefore, the management
of the PCBs
is mostly related to the environmental institutions, electric power
sectors and other
relevant large scale corporations.

3.2.1 Institutions Related to PCB Management


3.2.1.1 Institution of Hazardous Waste Management

SEPA is the governing department of environment protection that is
directly under the
authority of the State Council.

SEPA is the state contact point and the leading department of the Chinese
government's
delegation in charge of negotiations to join Stockholm Convention, and is
also the
governing sectors and state contact point for the implementation of the
Basel
Convention. Meanwhile SEPA is China's chief sector of the negotiation
delegation to
join the Rotterdam Convention and one of the state contact points.
Pollution prevention,
supervision and management of hazardous wastes are the main functions of
SEPA.
Besides carrying out the Law of the People's Republic of China on
Prevention of
Environmental Pollution Caused by Solid Waste, SEPA associated with other
related
department to issue a series of methods, standards and policy documents
on hazardous
waste supervision.
EPA administrative constitution includes over 200 members, comprised of
many
institutions.   The sectors concerned with the Stockholm Convention
include:
Department of International Cooperation, Department of Pollution Control,
Department of Policies Laws & Regulations, Department of Science,
Technology &
Standards, Department of Planning & Finance, and also the Department of
Supervising
Department. The Department of International Cooperation takes charge of
foreign
affairs such as the Convention negotiation and the international
cooperation etc. The
Department of Pollution Control is one of the main operational
departments of SEPA,
besides being the internal executive department of SEPA as state contact
point for the
Stockholm Convention, Basel Convention and Rotterdam Convention. The
Solid
Waste and Chemicals Management Office is affiliated to the Department of
Pollution
Control, the office has 4 administrative staff, and its primary function
is controlling


                                              50
PCB pollution.

3.2.1.2 Support Institution of Hazardous Waste Management

Because of the specific requirements posed by the technicalities of the
chemicals
management and the state policies of instutional reform, , some of the
governmental
functions may be executed by the institutions affiliated to the
governments; the function
of such institutions is equivalent to the management technical support of
the
government institutions.

The management support institutions affiliated to SEPA include: Chemicals
Registration Center of SEPA, Waste Import Registration & Management
Center of
SEPA, China Training & Technicality Transfer of Hazardous Waste
Management and
Disposal Center.

Chemicals Registration Center of SEPA is a technical support unit
affiliated to SEPA,
specialized in the environmental management of chemicals, the center is
connected to
China Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, and its business are
under the
supervision of Solid Waste and Chemicals Management Office. Chemicals
Registration
Center of SEPA not only deals with the environmental management of first
import of
chemicals and the import and export of toxic chemicals but also engages
in improving
methods and know -how for the environmental management of chemicals on a
national
basis.

Since July 1, 2003, Sino-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center
is
consigned by the SEPA for examination, approval and other relevant works
in
regulating the use of imported wastes as raw material in terms of
technical support.
And the Waste Import Registration Management Center of SEPA is
responsible for the
implementation and enforcement.

China Training & Technicality Transfer of Hazardous Waste Management and
Disposal
Center is subjected to the Solid Waste Control and Resources Research
Institute,
Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department, Tsinghua University.
This
center provides support on the negotiation, training and other matters
relevant to the
Basel Convention for SEPA.

3.2.1.3 Lead and Coordination Mechanism of the Convention Implement in
China

As China joined the Negotiation and the following subscription and
approval of the
Stockholm Convention , the Chinese government established some relevant
institutions
in order to enhance the scope of the convention implementation.

China NIP Development Lead Group of the Convention Implement: the group
was
founded in Nov. 2003, and consisted of the following 11 sectors or
subjected
institutions of the State Council: State Environment Protection
Administration (SEPA),
State Development Planning Commission (SDPC), Ministry of Foreign
Affairs,
Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Science &
Technology,
Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Construction,
State
Administration of Custom, State Electricity Regulatory Commission , State

                                            51
Administration of Work Safety. The function of this group   is to ta ke
charge to organize
the development of NIP, to audit the implementation plans   and give the
decisive
suggestions. The chief of the lead group is SEPA. The NIP   development
communicator
group is affiliated to the lead group and takes charge of   the
coordination and the
connection between different sectors.

3.2.1.4 Convention Implementation Office

In April 2003, SEPA founded the Convention implementation Lead Group &
the
Convention Implementation Preparatory Office in order to effectively
launch
preparation work concerning policy, project, funding and information for
the
Convention Implementation. The main function of the Preparatory Office
is: (1) To
organize and develop the policy research of the Convention, provide
support to the
Convention Negotiation, mainly including studying out the negotiating
plan and taking
part in the negotiation; (2)To support the establishment of the relevant
policies, laws
and the coordination between the sectors, which include organizing the
development of
the NIP and the relevant laws, regulations, policies, also the
supervision would be taken;
(3) To take charge of the screening, preparation and submitting for
approval of the
projects of the Convention Implementation; and organize the execution of
approved
projects; (4) To provide support services for raising domestic supporting
funding of the
projects; (5) To collect and compile relevant data and information,
report to the public
according to relevant regulations, and organize relevant propagandistic &
training
actions; (6) To undertake other tasks handed by the leading group for
Convention
Implement.

As China formally joined Stockholm Convention, the SEPA Convention
Implement
Preparatory Office has now the role of Convention Implement Office.

With the aim to implement the obligation of PCBs elimination and
reduction, the
Convention Implementation Office of SEPA and the State Electricity
Regulatory
Commission founded the joint workgroup in order to enhance the relevant
abilities of
implementation & coordination.

3.2.2 Other Institution Concerning PCB


3.2.2.1 Electric Power Sectors

From the perspective of the production and use, the former Ministry of
Chemical
Industry took charge of supervising the production of PCBs raw materials,
the former
National No.1 Ministry of Machine-building took charge of supervising the
production
of PCBs electric power capacitor, the former Ministry of Electric Power
took charge of
supervising the trade of the PCBs electric equipment.

After the institutional reform, , Chinese electric power sectors have
been disciplined on
the basis of a new system. The distribution of electricity (power grid)
was separated
from the electricity production (power plants). There are two power grid
corporations
in China, i.e. the State Grid Corporation of China and the South Grid
Corporation of
China, and five power generation companies. The State Council delegated
the State

                                            52
Electricity Regulatory Commission to perform the function of supervising
the
electricity enterprises.

( 1) State Electricity Regulatory Commission

According to the authorization of the State Council, the State
Electricity Regulatory
Commission will perform their functions of law execution, and implement
the
responsibility of electricity regulation at country-wide level according
to the laws and
regulations. A few subordinated units were set in the State Electricity
Regulatory
Commission, in which the Power Transmission Regulatory Department is
related to the
management of PCBs electric equipment.

( 2) State Electricity Grid Corporation of China

State Grid Corporation of China is a particularly large scale corporation
established by
incorporating some components of the former Ministry of Electric Power,
and performs
the function of power transmission, power transform and power
distribution. The
corporation is also the demonstration unit of the investigation
institution & state
holding company authorized by the State Council. The leaders of the
corporation are
under the direct guidance of Party Center, and it is operated under the
mechanism that
the president has the legal responsibility for all major activities.

( 3) South Electricity Grid Corporation of China

South Electricity Grid Corporation of China is a state owned enterprise
based on the
grid properties of the State Grid Corporation in Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunan
and with the
grid properties of Guangdong & Hainan provinces. The company is under the
leadership of the Central Government, and it practices the mechanism of
planned
individual list. The main business branch is in the Guangdong, Guangxi,
Yunnan,
Guizhou and Hainan provinces.

( 4) The Five Biggest Power Gene ration Companies

The 5 biggest power generation companies is the Huaneng Group of China,
Datang
Group of China, Huadian Group of China, Guodian Group of China and
Electric Power
Investigation Group of China.
Huaneng Group of China: Huaneng Group of China is a reformed state-owned
enterprise based on the former Huaneng Group of China. The main business
of the
company includes: managing the whole state-owned properties of the group
invested
by the state ; engaging in the investment, construction, management and
operation of
the electric resources, organizing the production and distribution of the
electricity;
engaging in investment, construction, and management of relevant
information,
transmission, new energy, environment protection, trading, fuel etc;
Independently
developing the foreign trade authorizable by the State; engaging in
investment and
financing domestic and foreign activity with the approval of State.

Datang Group of China: Datang Group of China is a particularly large
scale electric
power enterprise group based on parts of the electricity generation
enterprises of the


                                            53
former State Electricity Corporation. The group is a state-owned company
under the
direct supervision of the central government. The Group mainly engages in
managing
the whole state -owned properties of the group invested by the state; the
investment,
construction, management and operation of the electric resources,
organizing the
production and distribution of the electricity; manufacturing, examining
and repairing,
debugging of the electric equipments; development, consultation of the
electric
technology; contracting and consulting with the electricity environmental
projects; new
energy development.

Huadian Group of China: Huadian group of China is a state-owned
enterprise based
on parts of the enterprises of the former State Electricity Corporation.
The group
mainly engages in the investment, construction, management and operation
of the
electric resources, organizing the production and distribution of
electricity; new energy
development, technical development, construction, contraction and
supervision &
management of the domestic and foreign projects, equipment manufacture;
investment
and financing domestic and foreign, independently developing the foreign
trade,
international coordination and other business authorized by the State.

Guodian Group of China: Guodian Group of China is a state owned
enterprise and
one of the 5 biggest electricity generation enterprises groups authorized
by the State
Council. The main business of the group is about the development,
construction,
investment and management of the electricity resources; the investment,
construction,
operation and management of the relevant business such as coal, generate
equipment,
new energy, communication, high & new technology, environmental
protection
industry, technical service, info consultation; investment and financing
domestic and
foreign activities; independently developing the foreign trade,
international
coordination and other business authorized by the State.

Electric Power Investigation Group of China: Electric Power Investigation
Group of
China is a state-owned enterprise based on Electric Power Investigation
Group of
China. The group includes 97 member units, and there are 36 individual
capital
enterprises, 46 holding enterprises, 15 share enterprises, the work force
is 75795.

3.2.2.2 Institution of PCBs Waste Elimination and Disposal

Shenyang Environmental Sciences Institute

Shenyang Environmental Sciences Institute is under the jurisdiction of
the SEPA and
Shenyang Municipal Government, and meanwhile, is also the supporting unit
of the
National Environmental Protection Technical Center of Hazardous Wastes
Disposal
Engineering. Such institute studied the techniques of PCBs incineration
and disposal at
the beginning of 1990s. It completed successively the development of PCBs
incineration technology and the construction of incineration pilot plant,
conducts the
PCBs incineration treatment on a medium-sized test scale and accumulates
certain
experiences in PCBs collection, transportation and disposal. At present,
the institute is
undertaking the construction of a PCBs incineration demonstration
engineering project
set up by the State Planning Commission. The National Environmental
Protection


                                            54
Technical Center of Hazardous Wastes Disposal Engineering with the
institute as its
support unit is presently the only domestic engineering technical center
at national level
in the field of hazardous wastes disposal. Its main responsibility is to
develop the
know-how to control PCBs pollution with PCBs as its principal part and
conduct
engineering demonstrations; to import, assimilate and assess foreign
relevant
techniques; to study and draft relevant economic and technical policies
in the
management of hazardous wastes.

3.2.2.3 PCBs Pollution Monitoring Institution

Since 1973, China environmental protection system has established about
2,340
monitoring centers/stations and 15 monitoring networks with 75,000
personnel. The
monitoring projects involve 300 indexes including air quality, surface
water quality,
groundwater quality, seawater quality, soil, substrate sludge, bio-
samples, ecological
environment, pollution sources (including tail gas from automotive
vehicles), waste
water, sludge, noise, radiation and electromagnetic radiation, etc. 9
technical directions,
16 technical specifications, 400 standard methods and 300 reference
materials/quality
control materials were established. However, the monitoring ability of
China on PCBS
is seriously insufficient.

3.2.2.4 Other Possible PCBs Related Institutions

( 1) Institution of Dismantling retired ships

In China, there are a few dozens of enterprises engaging in dismantling
retired ships.
Because lots of the electric equipment in the retired ships have been
used for tens of
years, it is possible that PCBs were contained in some of these
materials. The PCBs of
the equipment could not have been totally eliminated before the retired
ship import,
therefore, the enterprises that engages in retired ship trading and in
the machining of
shipbreak materials are likely to be PCBs related institutions

China National Shipbreak Association (CNSA) is founded in 1991. The
members of the
association include the enterprises concerned with shipreak enterprises,
shipbreak
material machining, distribution, transmission, metallurgy, science
research, education,
altoether about 100 members. These members may perform their bridge
function by the
time.

( 2) Other Large Scale Enterprises

We import a large quantity of Electric Power Capacity in 1960s and 1970s,
these
electric equipment are mainly used in the large scale enterprises, such
as the steel
facilities. Therefore, these large scale could be the potential PCBs
relevant institutions.




                                             55
3.3 Provincial EPB and other Provincial Institutions of PCBs

Management

3.3.1 Relevant Management Institutions


3.3.1.1 Institutions of Hazardous Waste Management

From the local perspective, each province,        or municipality
directly under the
jurisdiction of the State, and each autonomous region has a local body
dealing with
environment protection, usually called EPB. A lot of autonomous states
and some cities
and counties also set up their own environment protection sectors. The
institutional
setting of the local EPB is similar to SEPA.

In accordance with Regulations on Pollution Prevention of Electric
PowerInstallations
and their Waste Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyls, environmental
protection
departments of governments at all levels conduct uniform management and
supervision
on PCBs pollution prevention in their own governing areas. Therefore, the
pollution
control departments of provincial environment protection bureaus or the
provincial
administrative centers for solid waste take charge of PCBs pollution
prevention within
their own provinces. Pollution control departments or management offices
of city and
county environmental protection bureaus take charge of their own PCBs
pollution
prevention and control. Trans-province transfer is managed by the
provincial
environmental protection bureau in accordance with Double Draft
Management
Method of Hazardous Waste Transfer( SEPA [ 1995] 5) .

Zhejiang Environmental Protection Bureau is a government institution
specialized in
environmental protection in Zhejiang province. The number of personnel is
60. There
are solid waste center, information center, general supervising team,
propaganda and
education center, academy institute and evaluation center affiliated to
Zhejiang
Environmental Protection Bureau. Zhejiang Environmental Protection Design
Institute,
Zhejiang Environment Monitoring Center, Zhejiang Environmental
Radioactivity
Environment Monitoring Station and Zhoushan Ecological Marine Monitoring
Station
directly pertain to Zhejiang Environmental Protection Bureau. The
provincial EPB
consists of management office, planning and finance division, policy and
law division,
human resource division, monitoring science and technology division,
pollution control
and environment supervising division, natural ecological protection
division, nuclear
emergency      division  (environmental   radioactivity management
section), and
construction management division. In addition, there are also a communist
party
committee and an international cooperation office.

Chemicals and solid waste pollution prevention and control are mainly
taken charge by
the Pollution Control Division. Supervising the implementation of
environmental
protection standards, including environmental monitoring, environmental
protection
research and other relevant works, is mainly taken charge by Monitoring
Science and
Technology Department.

                                           56
In order to strengthen solid waste management, Zhejiang Province
established a solid
waste management center in 1999. Zhejiang Provincial Environmental
Protection
Bureau obtained substantive technology supports about solid waste
management, and
entrusted the solid waste management centre to implement some of the
administrative
functions.

3.3.1.2 Hazardous Waste Management Supporting Institutes

Zhejiang Solid Waste Management Centre was established in 1999, with 7
personnel. It
plays an important role in developing provincial solid waste management
and guiding
subordinate administrative organizations in all cities or counties in the
province.
Entrusted by Zhejiang Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau, the
Solid Waste
Management Centre undertakes a great variety of respons ibilities, such
as drafting and
enacting local solid waste administrative regulations, rules and
normative documents,
compiling solid waste administrative program and planning, technical and
economic
policies for the prevention of solid waste pollution, ta king charge of
hazardous solid
waste reporting and registration, hazardous waste operation license,
organizing and
implementing provincial hazardous waste transfer management system,
supervising
solid waste pollution prevention and reclamation works.

In Nov. 2002, Zhejiang Environment-Oriented Enterprise consultative
Program under
Sino-German Government Technical Cooperation started up formally. The
Program
management office is located in Zhejiang Solid Waste Management Centre.
The
implementation of the program will help Zhejiang province to build up the
systems for
hazardous waste environmental management policy and local regulation,
hazardous
waste database, management database and technical database, to carry out
the training
for the management and technical personnel, develop pilot projects and
consultancy for
clean production enterprises, accelerate the construction of hazardous
waste disposal
facility in Zhejiang province, affirm our province as the national pilot
project on
hazardous waste managementand disposal, etc. More than 100 personnel of
hazardous
waste management and disposal and clean production have been trained at
home and
abroad. Hospital waste management and recycling workshop, Eco-efficiency
seminar,
Pilot project of well-regulated hospital waste management in Jinhua,
Incineration
facility technology optimizing workshop, etc. have been held
successfully. The system
plan for hazardous waste management information system is in the process
of being
compiled.

3.3.2 Other PCBs Related Institutes


In Zhejiang province, PCBs mainly exist in electric power industry. Here,
we mainly
explain the organization of electric power industry.

3.3.2.1 Electric Power industry

Zhejiang Provincial Electric Power Company is a company held and
supervised by
State Grid Corporation. It is composed of 16 departments. Zhejiang
Provincial Electric
Power Company is composed of the following departments:


                                           57
                                      Zhejiang Province Electric Power
Company



        security inspection department
department of production


      department of plan and development
sales department


       department ofagriculturalelctric
department of thechnology and information


       department of capital construction
department of general manager


                financialdepartment
department of audit

department of organization and personnel
department of Human Resource

          department of supervision

multi-industry department


     department of ideologyand politics
labour union


        Figure 3.1 The Organization Structure of Zhejiang Provincial
Electric Power
                                                  Company

      Among these departments, the security inspection department is in
charge of the
      management of environmental protection of all the units in Zhejiang
electric power
      industry. This task concerns also the implementation of PCBs
inventory investigation
      and PCBs disposal in the electric power industry. There are totally
12 persons in the
      security inspection department. The structure of the department is
showed in the
      following figure:

                                                    Director
                         Deputy Director
Chief engineer



           Security section       Safeguard section          Environment
integration section
                                                             protection
section



      Figure3.2 Structure of the security inspection department of
Zhejiang Provincial
      Electric Power Company

      3.3.2.2 PCBs Wastes Disposal Institutions

      Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection Co., Ltd

                                                        58
Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection Co., Ltd. is an important
component in the
Chinese-German Environment Cooperation Project and national environmental
protection demonstration project,. Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection
Co., Ltd.
is a province-level hazardous waste disposal center authorized by the
state council in
the framework of the project for the construction of hazardous waste and
medical waste
disposal installations in China. It is qualified for clearing,
transportation, temporary
storage for most hazardous wastes and disposal for part of these wastes.
As to what
concers PCBs, Hangzhou Dadi Environmental Protection Co., Ltd., entrusted
by
Zhejiang Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau and Provincial
electricity
sections, has completed the excavation and removal of PCBs electrical
equipments
storage site in Xiasha Farm for Hangzhou Iron and Steel Works, and the
removal of
PCBs wastes in Humen Transformer Substation, Houzhai Town, Yiwu City. All
the
PCBs wastes are temporarily stored by the company. Presently, the company
is
undertaking preliminary preparation for the clean-up PCBs wastes landfill
site in Jiande,
Hangzhou, which is under the responsiblity of the Jinhua Electric Power
Bureau.

3.3.2.3 PCBs Monitoring Institutions

Zhejiang Environment Monitoring Center

Founded in 1980, the Zhejiang Environment Monitoring Center is a second-
level
station in China's national environment monitoring network, under which
are six
sections: management office, central management, central analysis
laboratory, water
monitoring section, atmosphere monitoring section and quality testing
section.

The center is located in the high-tech development zone northwest of
Hangzhou City,
with a total built area of 5,000m2. Its equipment for organic analysis
includes a LC, two
GCs, and a GC-MS?

The center has a staff of 55 employees, of whom 69.19% is senior
technical personnel.
Its central analysis laboratory is equipped with instruments for
analyzing organic
pollutants. It has 5 staff. All of them are under forty, and four of them
have followed
specialized training in sampling and analysis of organic pollutant in
Japan, the United
States, or Germany.

The center began to carry out monitoring DDT and BHC in grains, sea
water, substrate,
and organic bio-samples. It accomplished the study of the GC to analyze
the PCBs in
water and sea water in 1993-95. In 2001 the station took part in the
China-South Korean
joint project for detection of the pollutant concentration in the
sediment samples from
the Yellow Sea (by the GC/ MS method).

Zhejiang environment monitoring center is located within the provincial
environmental
monitoring technical center. In order to improve the ability to analyze
PCDD/Fs,
Zhejiang environmental monitoring center established a series of
cooperation, research
and discussion relations with Germany in the framework of the solid waste
cooperation
project between Zhejiang province and the German government. In 1999,
when some
German experts came to the station to give guidance in the PCDD/Fs
monitoring, the
station carried out the monitoring of possible PCDD/Fs sources (thermal
power plants,
waste gas and fine particulate matter discharged from iron and steel
factories, waste
water treating factories, pesticide manufacturers, and sludge from
canals). Three of the
staff members have received training by German experts and then went to
the MPU

                                             59
laboratory in Germany for further training on PCDD/Fs analysis.

The current work of the center concerning POPs includes: the study on the
feasibility of
monitoringthe content of PCDD/Fs in the solid waste matters and waste gas
discharged
from the incinerators by using HRGC/LRMS, the current situation of
typical organic
toxic pollution in drinking water and countermeasures to be taken.

3.4 The PCBs Management of Local EPB and other related local

Institutes

3.4.1 Hazardous Waste Management Institute


3.4.1.1 Zhejiang Environmental Protection System

There are 2 sub-provincial cities, 9 cities with districts, and 90
counties or county-level
cities or urban districts in Zhejiang province. The government of each
city or county set
up its own environmental protection bureau to take charge of the
management work of
local environmental protection. Zhejiang Environmental Protection System
is
composed of Zhejiang provincial (EPB) and 11 local EPBs, which are the
EPBs of
Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jiahua , Quzhou ,
Zhoushan ,
Taizhou and Lishui.




                                             60
Zhejiang Provincial Environmental Protection




Xianshan EPB

                                                                         Hangzhou
EPB                                                 Solid waste center

Other county EPB                                                Zhejiang

Directly

Yinxian EPB

Information center         Environmental
                                                                         Ningbo
EPB

Other county EPB
pertai

units

general supervis ing         Zhejiang Environment
Province
ned

Leqing EPB                                 team                  Monitoring
Center
                                                                         Wanzhou
EPB
institutes

Other county EPB              Affiliated
        Zhejiang
Information and              Zhejiang Radiant

Tongxiang EPB
                   of                                                  Jiaxing
EPB                                                 education center
Environment


Other county EPB                                                 Monitoring
Station
                        districty
Changxin EPB
                                                                     Huzhou
EPB                                                  academy institute
                           ever
Other county EPB                                                        Zhoushan
Ecological
                                  in
Zhuji EPB                                 evaluation center          Marine
Monitoring
                                                                            Shaoxin
EPB

Station

Other county EPB
                                       Bureaus

Lanxi EPB
                                                                            Jinhua
EPB

Other county EPB

                                                 protection
Changshan EPB                                       Province-level solid waste
center
                                                                            Quzhou
EPB

Other county EPB                                         City-level solid waste
center

Wenling EPB
                                                          nvironmentE      Taizhou
EPB

Other county EPB


Daishan EPB
                                                                            Zhoushan
EPB


Other county EPB


Qingtian EPB
                                                                            Lishui
EPB

Other county EPB


Figure3.3 Relationship among Institutes in Zhejiang Environmental
Protection System
                                                                 The
situation of institutes and personnel

                                                                 There
are totally 114 environmental protection bureaus (EPBs) at the province-
level,
                                                                 city
-level and county-level in the whole province. There are totally 1051
personnel. In
                                                                 Zhejiang
province, there is one province-level EPB with 60 personnel, 12 city-
level
                                                                 EPBs
with 241 personnel, and 83 county-level EPBs with 749 personnel.




Table3.1 The situation of EPB institute s and personnel in every district
in



61
                                                          Zhejiang province

                                  Province-level                      City-level
County-level
           District
                        EPB                   personnel    EPB
personnel       EPB               personnel

            Province          1                  61              /                  /
/               /

        Hangzhou              /                  /               1                 50
13           175

            Ningbo            /                  /               2                 35
10              79

            Wenzhou           /                  /               1                 28
11             142

            Jiaxing           /                  /               1                 16
8              91

            Huzhou            /                  /               1                 20
3              23

            Shaoxing          /                  /               1                 18
5               51

            Jinhua            /                  /               1                 16
7              52

            Quzhou            /                  /               1                 14
6              40

            Zhoushan          /                  /               1                 13
3               10

            Taizhou           /                  /               1                 16
9              51

            Lishui            /                  /               1                 15
8              35

            subtotal          1                  61              12
241             83             749

              total                                         114EPBs, 1051
personnel



                3.4.1.2 Hazardous Waste Management Support Institutions
              At present, Zhejiang province has set up the Zhejiang solid
waste management center
              and four regional solid waste management centers, including
Hangzhou hazardous
              waste management center, Ningbo solid waste management
center, Wenzhou solid
              waste management center and Jinhua solid waste management
center. Jiaxing, Huzhou,
              Shaoxing, Quzhou, Lishui, Taizhou ,Zhoushan EPBs and
county-level EPBs have not
              set up solid wastes. The basic situation is reported in the
following table.

                    Table 3.2 The situation of each regional solid waste
Management center



      name              Year of     Personn             educational
Work time     Quality (full

                    establishment      el        age     background
main tasks      engaged in    time /part

solid waste     time)

 Zhejiang solid                                             Above
Environmental
waste management          1999           7      28-45      graduate
protection, chemical    1-5years      full time
      center
engineeringetc.

   Hangzhou                                                 Above
Environmental
hazardous waste          2002            5      31-49       junior
management          2-3years       full time
management center                                           college

Ningbo solid waste       1999            5      30-49      graduate
Environmental       3-10years       full time
management center
protection, chemical


                                                           62
engineering , law etc.

 Wenzhou solid                                           Above
Environmental
waste management         1999        3       29-35            junior
protection, law etc.      1-3years   full time
      center                                             college


One full
Jinhua solid waste
time
                         2004         2      above40         college
Plant protection,        3months
management center
terrestrial hydrology                 One part

time



             In conclusion, the solid waste network now covers almost all
the province. The
             construction of Zhejiang solid mana gement center and each
regional solid management
             center are almost complete. Usually, each center has full-
time personnel. with good
             professional skill, and strong ability to manage solid
wastes. Of course, a few solid
             waste management centers are understaffed. Their
professional quality needs to be
             improved. Some employees have not engaged in solid waste for
a long time. And some
             have not been trained in the profession, moreover, they are
part-time staff. For example,
             Jinhua solid waste management center and Wenzhou solid waste
management center
             pertain to the environmental supervising team. Actually, the
staff of the center and the
             team is the same. Other regional environmental protection
bureaus have functional
             sections of solid waste to administer, and designate the
stations and personnel of solid
             waste management. But the sections are not established
separately, and do not have
             strong ability to administer solid waste.

             3.4.2 Other PCBs Related Institutes


             3.4.2.1 Institutes in Electric Power Industry
             Zhejiang Electric Power Company governs 11 regional electric
power bureaus,
             including the electric power bureaus of Huzhou, Jiaxing,
Shaoxing, Jinhua, Taizhou,
             Wenzhou, Quzhou, Lishui, Zhoushan, Ningbo and Hangzhou. Each
regional electric
             power bureau has a security supervising department in charge
of environmental
             protection. The regional power bureau governs subordinate
county-level electric power
             bureaus; county-level bureaus also set security supervising
section in charge of
             environmental protection. The county-level electric power
bureaus also administer
             subordinate transformer substations. The described Electric
Power Company, electric
             power bureaus and transformer substations at all levels may
seal up and deposit some
             electric power equipments containing PCBs. Perhaps few
electric power equipments
             containing PCBs are still in use.




                                              Zhejiang Electric Power
Company




                  Hangzhou electric power bureau
Ningbo electric power bureau

                                                          63
                Huzhou electric power bureau
Jiaxing electric power bureau


               Shaoxing electric power bureau
Jinhua electric power bureau


                Taizhou electric power bureau
Wenzhou electric power bureau


                Quzhou electric power bureau
Lishui electric power bureau


               Zhoushan electric power bureau
Zhejiang electric test institute


Zhejiang electricity transfer engineering company
Unltra high voltage construction filiale


  Zhejiang fire-electricity engineering company
Zhejiang electric power design institute




                     Figure 3.4 The Relationship Within Zhejiang
Electricity Sector

         3.5 The Relationship of Each Institute

         The relationship among state, province and local government
follows a "pyramidal"
         hierarchy. The state has the power to enact regulations and
normative documents,
         mainly enforcing the function of supervision and management.
Provincial
         environmental protection bureaus accept the supervision and
management.
         Furthermore, they enforce the function of supervision and
management to regional
         environmental protection bureaus. Regional environmental
protection bureaus are the
         main institutes to execute the management. In association with
them, at the same level,
         other related institutes (for example, institutes in electric
power industry, monitoring
         center/station) cooperate and assist the management institutes.
For the management of
         PCBs, the management institutes play a leading role, and other
institutes cooperate and
         assist the management institutes to execute management.




                                                     64
National Leading Group for


Implementation of the Convention



                                                               Waste
Import Registration Administration Center

State Electricity Regulatory Commission

Chemical Registration Center/SEPA           CIO/SEPA
National


National Environmental Monitoring Center



                                                                Shenyang
Academy of Environmental Sciences




                                            Regional

NationaElectricity Grid Corporations


5 Power Generation Companies
                                                       level



        Provincial
EPBs


Waster Management Centers

                  level
Province Electric Power Companies

Environment Monitor Centers



                       Municipal

EPBs
                                llevel
Environment Monitor Stations
Electric Power Bureaus



                                        County

EPBs

                                                 level

Environment Monitor Stations
Electric Power Bureaus




Other affiliated institution /private


partners involved in PCBs


management and disposal




Figure 3.5 Relationship of Institutes at All Levels




65
4. Inventory of PCBs Wastes in the Zhejiang Province


In May 2001, the government of China signed the Stockholm Convention on
Persistent
Organic Pollutants (POPs). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were included
in the first
POPs list in the Stockholm Convention. The Chinese government developed
the
projects of PCB Inventory Methodology and Strategy Development on PCB
Reduction
and Disposal, PDF-B project (preparation of a demonstration project of
PCBs
management and disposal in cooperation with the World Bank and supported
by the
Italian government and GEF. In January 2004, a combined inception
workshop for the
two projects was held, organized by SEPA and the World Bank. In the
workshop,
Zhejiang and Liaoning were selected as the inventory provinces for the
purpose of
investigation on the existing PCBs amount and contamination situation. On
May 14th
2004, Zhejiang province was ratified formally as the demonstration
province on PCBs
inventory development through Sino-Italian cooperation in China and PCBs
management and disposal supported by GEF in China.

The reason that Zhejiang was chosen as the demonstration province on PCBs
inventory
development and PCB Reduction and Disposal project is the following:
Zhejiang has
some basic information of their PCBs status (total quantity, storage and
disposal, etc.),
and has gained some experiences about PCBs survey, collection, transport,
storage,
disposal: as a result, Zhejiang provinces are well trained in inventory
development;
Zhejiang is outstanding in effective and strong support from the local
government and
from power companies, has a good investment environment and sustainable
infrastructures.

The work of inventory development in the Zhejiang province was carried
out the work
on the basis of the China PCBs Inventory Methodology.

4.1 China PCBs Inventory Methodology

As "PCB inventory" is a database of all the equipment, sites and wastes
which are contaminated or
potentially contaminated by PCB. The aim of the inventory is twofold: i.)
provide and store
information on the presence of PCB in the equipment and environment for
waste management
purposes and ii) guarantee the traceability of contaminated equipment and
wastes for risk
prevention.

The methodology is aimed to provide a uniform and standardized
methodology for
China PCBs inventory development, and the Zhejiang PCBs inventory is one
of the
pilot users of this method. As the methodology contains the general
guidelines for
developing a PCB inventory, it is presented as Annex II. This methodology
is prepared
by Qinghua Unive rsity and supported by the Italian government.




                                                66
4. 2 PCB Inventory Development in Zhejiang Province

In consideration of the actual situation of PCBs in Zhejiang, the
inventory has been
organized as a three-phase activity. Phase 1: Selecting the units and
enterprises of the
electricity sector as the key investigated objectives, which possibly use
PCBs electric
facilities and the manufacturers for PCBs-containing electric facilities.
Phase 2:
Selecting the units and enterprises of the sectors not pertaining to
electricity production
or distribution as the key, which possibly use PCBs electric facilities;
the enterprises
containing PCBs residue in the process flow; the original disassembly
location; the
sealed-up locations need further treatment after cleaning up. Phase 3:
Other systems,
including army, railway, hospitals, etc as the key objectives for the
third round.
( Possibly the army will be investigated.) Up to now part of the first
andsecond rounds
of work has been finished.

PCBs are mostly used as impregnant in electric power capacitors and
transformers.
PCBs have never been used in transformers produced in China. The PCB
containing
transformers in our country were imported with equipment which were
introduced
during the 1960s and 1970s in limited number. However, as pointed out in
the Inventory
methodology (annexed), in China, transformers are not labeled as "PCB
free".
Information concerning maintenance or replacement of transformer oil, or
the
properties of the dielectric oil itself is generally not available.. For
this reason, in this
document also data concerning preliminary inventory results on all the
transformers
pertaining to the electric sector are reported.

4. 2.1 Inventory Development Process


     n Inventory development preparation

(1) Getting support from the relevant institutions

The earlier inventory development got the support from SEPA, State
Electricity
Regulatory Committee, PCBs inventory methodology working group of Qinghua
University, etc, and meanwhile got the support and cooperation from the
provincial
environmental protection bureau, electric power company, the local
environmental
protection and electric institutions.

(2) Identification of inventory development principles
              ·   Industry Priority: Industries that mass produce or
consume PCBs containing
                  equipment are given priority. Considering the reality
of China, the electricity
                  sector that mass consumes PCBs containing electric
equipment is the primary
                  target. Next in importance are large- and medium-sized
industrial entities that
                  mass consume PCBs containing equipment. PCBs or PCBs-
containing
                  capacitors manufacturers in the past rank third..
              ·   Site Priority: sealed storage spots for PCBs electric
equipment are the main
                  concern, then comes separate equipment, and PCBs
contaminated medium.
              ·   Inventory Region Priority: Natural environmental
conditions, economic


                                               67
                  development and history records should be considered.
The principle of "coastal
                  region, then inner land and western areas" should be
reflected.

    (3) Establishment and organization of the investigation team

The investigation team member should consist of the personnel of the
following
authorities:

    ² Related officials from the provincial Environmental Protection
Bureau;

    ² Relatedofficials from the provincial Environmental Monitoring
Center;

    ² RelatedofficialsfromtheprovincialElectricPowerCompanyandProvincial
    Electric Power Experiment Research Institute;

    ²
Representativesandexpertsfromthelocalenvironmentalprotectionbureaus;

    ² Representativesandexpertsfromthelocalelectricpowerbureaus;

Grouping: According to the investigation need, the team is grouped into
three groups:


    ² Organization and coordination group

    ² Site investigation group

    ² Materials investigation and statistic group

    (3) Training

Organized by the provincial Environmental Protection Bureau and the
Provincial
Electric Power Company, the representatives from the local environmental
protection
bureaus, electricity sector, and large and medium enterprises will be
trained. The
training includes: PCBs risk and toxicology, project background briefing,
investigation
method, investigation procedure, individual protection, and on-site
practice.

(4) Inventory Work plan preparation

PCBs investigation team makes a detailed investigation work plan, which
includes
implementation mode, time schedule, questionnaire investigation, site
investigation,
data statistic and processing, etc.

    n Inventoryimplementation

(1) Determination of investigation objectives

According to the preliminary investigation result on PCBs by SEPA and
Ministry of
Energy in 1996, PCBs problems in China mainly exist in the electricity
sector and some
large-scale enterprises of other industrial sectors. The PCBs problems in
Zhejiang are


                                                68
basically same as for the national situation. Thus, the potential sites
and units can be
confirmed according to the electricity sector and the sectors not
pertaining to electricity
production or distribution.

For the electricity sector, the investigation will include the on-line
and no longer in use
electric equipment containing PCBs, and the primary target is the no
longer in use
electric equipment containing PCBs. For the sectors not pertaining to
electricity
production or distribution, the using of PCBs can be closed, semi-closed
and open, etc,
the primary target is the big and medium enterprises using electric
equipment
containing PCBs.

(2) Records search for potentially PCB-containing equipment and PCB waste
sites


     The Zhejiang inventory team must search and collect the related
filing materials of
the environmental protection system and the electricity sector, eg.
Zhejiang electric
power record, the electric power records of different regions, Zhejiang
statistic year
book, etc. especially the record of the storage and disposal of the
electric documents
which contain PCBs in electricity sector. Through the above ways it is
possible to
master the background information to provide the theoretical basis for
confirming the
suspected locations of PCB equipment and waste, and the data for the
theoretical
calculation on the amount of electric equipment containing PCBs in
Zhejiang.

    (3) Confirming preliminarily the suspected PCBs location and units

    Preliminarily identify potential PCB users and manufacturers and PCB
storage sites
    according to the search and collection of the related record

    (4) Questionnaire investigation

         ² Distributing the questionnaire

               The questionnaire is distributed to the potential
locations and units for the
         preliminary investigation. The provincial electric power bureau
is in charge of
         distributing and collecting the questionnaire for the
electricity sector and the
         provincial environmental bureau is in charge of distributing and
collecting the
         questionnaire for the sectors not pertaining to electricity
production or
         distributions.

    ² Summary



               Summarize the inventory results and develop statistical
analysis for the
          possible regional information on equipment and waste containing
PCBs.

    (5) Site investigation

    ²
Basedontheinventoryresults,themostimportantsitestobeinvestigatedhave
    to be selected. In this phase, no sampling and analysis activities
will be done on the


                                             69
    sites, as the main objective of the site investigation is to visually
confirm the basic
    results obtained by the questionnaire.

    ² Developing the site investigation plan;

    ² Carrying out the site investigation.

Each investigation group carries out the investigation accompanied by the
local electric
power and environmental protection departments to know the related
information, such
as equipment sort and type, source, quantity, the surrounding
environment, etc. The
questionnaire has to be filled at site and the investigation results have
to be exchanged.

    ²
Evaluationofresultsfortheformulationofproposalsforthefurthersampling

(6) Investigation summary

The investigation summary report will contain tables, summaries and maps
of the
relevant information obtained with the inventory. Separate statistics and
graphs will be
developed for the different administrative regions. Each region will be
provided with
the pertinent inventory result for verification and feedback purposes.
This part of the
work will be done after the completion of the monitoring activity.

4. 2. 2 The Preliminary Result of PCB Inventory in Zhejiang


The four results can be worked out by material search and collection,
questionnaire and
site investigation, which are the main sources and potential location of
PCBs in
Zhejiang, the amount of theoretical calculation for electrical equipment
containing
PCBs, the results of questionnaire and site investigation.

4.2.2.1Main Sources and Potential Location

 (1) The no longer in use electrical equipments containing PCBs in each
of 11 regions
      in Zhejiang province;

 (2) The on-line electrical equipments containing PCBs in each of 11
regions in
      Zhejiang province;
 (3) The electrical equipments containing PCBs transferred from other
provinces;

 (4) Contaminated material at the original disassembly location of
equipment containing
      PCB;

 (5) Residue PCBs contaminated material at cleanup site;

 (6) Unexpected by-product containing PCBs in chemical industries;

 (7) Enterprises producing or using the electric equipment containing
PCBs.

4.2.2.2 The Calculation of Theoretical Amount for Electrical Equipments
Containing PCBs




                                             70
China never manufactured PCBs-containing transformer, and the PCBs-
containing
capacitors were produced from 1965 and prohibited by Chinese Government
in 1974.
Moreover         Chinese Government further prohibited import of PCBs-
containing
electrical devices since 1979. Hence, whether or not a capacitor would
contain PCBscan be
identified according to the dates when it was installed. Thus the
consumption of the power
company from 1964 to 1980 may be investigated in Zhejiang Province.


On the basis of the preliminary investigation for transformer substations
by Zhejiang
Solid Waste Management Center in June 2004, on-line transformers, and the
overall
transformer capacity (calculated as sum of the capacity each single
transformer) are
provided in the Table 4.8.

     Table 4.8: Tranformer substation, on-line large transformer2 and
overall
                            transformer capacity in 1980 in Zhejiang

    Region           Transformer substations                 On-line
large             Transformer capacity
                                                             transformers
( MVA)


      Jinhua                       52                              100
470


      Jiaxing                      25                              73
640


      Wenzhou                      44                              88
370


      Taizhou                      18                              36
390


      Lishui                       8                                15
80


      Hangzhou                     36                              67
800
      Ningbo                      33                               63
550


      Shaozing                    37                               64
920

      Huzhou3                     20                               40
300

   Zhoushan3                       20                              40
300

      Quzhou3                     20                               40
300


     Total                       313                               626
5,120




(1)The calculation of the theoretical number of capacitors in use in
Zhejiang province.

2The capacity of these transformers is above 35 kva.
3Means that there are no electric power records of these regions, then
the numbers forthese three regions are
estimates.

                                                        71
               Ø Calculationmethod

   Here we use the first method mentioned in the inventory development
Methodology
   to calculate- Calculate the number of capacitors in use according to
technical
   standard for paralleling capacitors SDJ-25-85.

     Qb= Sn *20%              ( 1)
     In which: Qb- the capacity of capacitors, KVar
          Sn- the capacity of capacitors in secondary transformer
substations or Distribution
                    transformer substations, KVar
     Now that the capacity of capacitors is known according to (1), the
number of capacitors in use
     can be estimated by:
       n = Qb / Qb0              ( 2)


  Where n refers to the number of capacitors in use and Q b0 to the
compensable reactive power of
each capacitor in KVar. Estimated by the experts, then Qb0 was generally
from 25 to 75
KVar, Assuming: Qb0 is 50 KVar.

               Ø Calculation

               Y Qb=5117945×20%=1023589KVar

               Y n=1023589/50=20500units

So the theoretical amount about capacitors containing PCBs in use in
Zhejiang
province is 20500units.

(2) The estimated number of incoming dismissed capacitors containing PCBs
from
     other provinces

It's a special phenomenon of Zhejiang Province, that dismissed capacitors
are imported
from other provinces. And in the 1980s, it has even been an industry.
Generally, these
capacitors are bought ,disassembled and reused as material.

The incoming dismissed capacitors containing PCBs from other provinces :
According
to the statistic data, there are more than 1300 units capacitors in
Taizhou and in Yueqing
there are more than 600 units, so there are at least 2000 dismissed
capacitors containing
PCBs coming into Zhejiang province from other provinces.

(3) The total number of capacitors
The total capacitor amount= capacitors in use amount + incoming dismissed
capacitors
amount =22500 units

(4) On-line large transformers and transformer capacity in substations in
2003 in
    Zhejiang

Based on the available information, the number of on-line large
transformers in
Zhejiang in 1980 is 626 units, and the transformer capacity is 5,120 MVA.

According to a 2005 January investigation by Zhejiang Solid Waste
Management


                                                72
Center and Zhejiang Electric Power Company on all on-line transformers in
the
electricity power sector (production and distribution of electricity) for
the province, the
total number of online transformers is 230,733, and overall capacity is
127,794 MVA.
Information is provided in Table 4.9.

Table 4.9 On-line Transformers and Overall Capacity in 2003

         Transf. Class(kV)                 Transf. Number            Overall
Capacity (MVA)
             500kv                                    24
18,500
             220kv                                    187
28,160
             110kv                                    787
29,069
          35( 63) kv                                 1256
10,938
            35/0.4kv                                  387
1,930
           3-10/0.4kv                           228092
39,197
               Total                            230733
127,794



4.2.2.3Questionnaire Result

( 1) questionnaire was addressed to the electric power companies and
selected large
enterprises to develop PCB inventories.

( 2) 130 copies of questionnaires were distributed and 121 filled out
questionnaires
were returned by the electric power companies and selected large
enterprises. The
statistic was done separately according to PCBs pollutant and PCBs-free
pollutant. See
Table4.10 in details.

Table 4.10 Questionnaire Result

                                                            Number
Remarks
                   Questionnaire result sort
                                                         ( unit)

     1     Locations     surely   having      PCBs            43
           pollutant
     2     Locations possibly having PCBs               4
Need further
           pollutant
investigation

     3     Locations     surely   without    PCBs      45
           pollutant

     4     Blank questionnaire and unclear              38
Need further
           information questionnaires
investigation.

  Total                                               130

Questionnaire Result

     ² Table 4.10 shows there are totally 43 confirmed PCBs storage
locations in
     Zhejiang.



                                             73
    ² According to the investigation result, there are 38 copies of blank
    questionnaires and unclear information questionnaires, and there are
4 locations
    possibly having PCBs pollutant .Therefore, not been thoroughly
investigated(only
    the first and second rounds have been finished) , there are 0--42
locations possibly
    having PCBs pollutant. In terms of ignoring the no-feedback answer
sheet , the real
    amount of the PCBs pollutant sites will be larger than that in the
basic information
    report.

    ² Based on the investigation result, the capacitors amount in most
locations is
    unclear, needs further investigation and confirmation.

4.2.2.4 Site Investigation Result

(1) Table Statistic Result

According to the site investigation on the 43 locations having PCBs
pollutants, their
basic information can be seen in Table 4.11. Map 1 is the location
distribution.

                        Table 4.11 Site investigation statistics

 The district city Site code               Disposal condition
Remark
       name

    Shaoxing          01       Cleaned up completely. The capacitors
Site cleaned up
                               in this site have been sent to Shenyang
completely
                               andincinerated.

                      02        The capacitors in this site have been
                                sent to Shenyang and have been
                                incinerated. But the soil need be
                                further treated

                      03       Cleaned up completely. The capacitors
Site cleaned up
                               in this site have been sent to Shenyang
completely
                               andincinerated.

                      04       Still sealed

                      05       Still sealed

                      06       Still sealed
               07   Still sealed

               08   Still sealed

               40   Still sealed
Non-Electric

Power

    Wenzhou    09   The capacitors in this site have been
                    purchased by some people and the local
                    people don't know the whither of these
                    capacitors.   Local   people   said the
                    capacitors leaked when they were
                    removed. So the soil in this site need be
                    further treated.




                                   74
           10   The capacitors and oil in this site have
                been sent to Shenyang and incinerated.
                The contaminated soil still remained in
                the site. So the soil in this site need be
                further treated.

Jiaxing    11   Cleaned up completely. The capacitors          SITE CLEANED
                in this site have been sent to Shenyang        UP
                andincinerated.                                COMPLETELY

           12   The capacitors have been removed and
                the soil needed further treatment.

           13   Still sealed

Taizhou    15   Dismantlement site of capacitors, soil
                need be further treated.

           37   In this site, there are lots of chemical        Non-
Electric
                residues     containing       PCBs       and        Power
                depositing in the open air.

Ningbo     14   The capacitors were stolen and the soil
                         need be further treated.

           16   The capacitors were stolen and the soil
                         need be further treated.

           17   Still sealed

           18   Still sealed

           19   Still sealed                                   Non-Electric
                                                               Power

           20   Still sealed                                   Non-Electric
                                                               Power

Hangzhou   21   Still sealed

           22   Still sealed

           24   Still sealed

           27   Still sealed

           28   Still sealed

           38   The capacitors have been removed and Site cleaned up
                the capacitors still stored in the completely
                warehouse now

           42   The capacitors still store in the warehouse New site
Jinhua   23   The capacitors have been removed and Site cleaned up
              capacitors still stored in the warehouse    completely
              now

         25   Still sealed

         26   Still sealed




                             75
         29   The capacitors have been removed and
              the local people don't know the whither
              of these capacitors. Local people said the
              capacitors leaked when they were
              removed. And the soil needed further
              treatment.

         30   The capacitors have been removed and
              the local people don't know the whither
              of these capacitors. Local people said the
              capacitors leaked at that time. So the
              soil need be furthertreated.

         31   Still sealed

         33   Still sealed                             Non-Electric
                                                       Power

Quzhou   32   Still sealed

         34   Still sealed                             Non-Electric
                                                       Power

         41   Still sealed                                 Non-Electric
                                                           Power

Lishui   35   Still sealed

Huzhou   36   Still sealed

         39   Still sealed                             Non-Electric
                                                       Power

         43   Still sealed                             New site




                             76
                     Map1 PCBs pollutant distribution in Zhejiang




(2) Conclusion:

The distribution of PCBs sites in Zhejiang province is as follow: 3 sites
in Huzhou, 1
site in Lishui, 3 sites in Quzhou, 7 sites in Jinhua, 7 sites in
Hangzhou, 6 sites in Ningbo,
2 sites in Taizhou, 3 sites in Jiaxing, 2 sites in Wenzhou, 9 sites in
Shaoxing. In these 43
sites, 5 sites have been cleaned out completely.

In the present stage of the inventory development, the PCBs wastes are
mainly obsolete
capacitors containing PCBs from electricity sector and large enterprises.
There are no
capacitors containing PCBs use 230,733 large on-line transformers in the
Zhejiang
province in 2003. There are no data concerning the PCB concentration in
these
transformers, thus a sampling and analysis with screening analytical
methods
performed on a significant statistical sample of these transformers will
allow to
estimate the extent of the PCB problem for this class of equipment.




                                               77
5. Detailed Descriptions and Priorities for the Cleanup of the

PCB-Contaminated Sites


5.1 Detailed Description and Environmental Impacts

5.1.1 Analysis of Environmental Risks


According to PCB inventory investigation in Zhejiang, several sources of
PCB
contaminants and dispersed PCB waste storage sites were characterized. At
present 43
PCB waste storage sites have been identified, five in of which have
already been
cleaned up before. During the process of inventory investigation and
cleanup on PCBs
in Zhejiang, the following questions came up:

  n An imperfect inventory methodology may lead to an incomplete PCBs
finding.

  n PCB has no great impact on atmosphere and plant due to its low
volatility and
      lipo-solubility. But PCBs pose great threat to human health and the
environment
      due to their chemical stability and easy accumulation in the human
and animal's
      body.

  n The experience on PCB cleanup in
Zhejiang(forexample,twositesinHangzhou
       Steel Company Group and Yiwu, Jinhua) shows that due to the long
period of
       storage in coffins or caves, leakage of PCBs were found in some
sites.

  n Zhejiang is an area with much rainfall in China, so there is a
possibility to cause
      expanded pollution due to the transportation of pollutants by
runoff and
      percolating water if no water-proof measures are taken after
excavation.

  n The high toxicity of PCBs and their persistence may expose the
operator to
      unacceptable health risk in case of wrong operation.

  n Adequate safety equipment and protection measures are thus required
in order to
      reduce the health risk to an acceptable level.
Concerning the 43 PCB waste storage sites identified in Zhejiang, the
potential risks by
the PCB waste are mainly due to the fact that::

  n TheexactpositionofthePCBstoragesitesisunknown.

  n SomeoftheindividualPCBwastedisposalsiteswhichwerenotconsidered,can
      result in increased costs and more serious environment damage.

  n The mode used for storing PCBs wastes at storage site strongly
influence the
      probability of PCB leakage.

PCBs waste mainly threat the environment and human health by means of
water and
absorption to dust and animal fat. If there is surface water around the
PCB waste

                                           78
  disposal sites or if water percolating through the PCBs wastes can
easily reach the
  ground water, the risk for environment and human health is significant.
In general, the
  following explanation will help to better understand the detailed
description and the
  environmental impact assessment of the PCB storage site.

    n The great ecological environment risks exist around the locations
where the
       animal's activity is frequent.

    n
Differentmodelsofsoilwillhavedifferentbarriertothediffusionandpenetration
       of PCB. The red clayey soil, which is common in Zhejiang, allows
diffusion of
       PCB in a rather slow progress.

    n The shallower the ground water, the higher the environmental risk
of the PCB
       site.

    n The larger number of PCB containing equipments stored, the higher
probability
       of the PCB leakage into the environment.

    n The type of land use affects the level of cleanup (e.g. 1 ppm for
residential areas
       and 25 ppm to 50 ppm for industrial areas. These are used for
reference only.).
       The national standard is 50 ppm.

  5.1.2 Detailed Descriptions of the PCB-Contaminated Sites


At present stage, it is impossible to provide detailed data or
information concerning the
environmental status of the sites because systematic monitoring has not
been made.
However, consultation with professional geologists of Zhejiang indicates
that the ground
water table is normally is between 1 and 2 meter in plain area of
Zhejiang. And it is
complicated in mountainous and foothill area where the ground water is
mostly more
than 2 meters in depth, so the quantitative data is not available. In
addition, due to the
wide seasonal fluctuation of the water table, the exact data cannot be
confirmed.

Based on the site visit, the consultation, the indirect data and
experiences gathered, the
description of the 43 known PCB storage sites can be summarized as
follow:
( 1) No. 1 in Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: Unknown            Number of Capacitors: 100
units

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Mode: Sealed by the stone coffin

Description: The storage site is situated on the mountain of Shaoxing.
The surrounding
soil has been monitored and measured, and no PCB was found. It is
considered that the
groundwater table exceeds 2 meters below the ground level. The PCB
storage site was
cleaned up thoroughly and the capacitors were incinerated in Shenyang in
1999.

( 2) No. 2 in Shaoxing


                                             79
Description of Capacitors: Unknown                  Storage Time: 1986

Number of Capacitors: 1000 units and have been sent to Shenyang for
incineration in
                          2000

Sealed Mode: Stone coffin

Description: The capacitors were sealed up underground directly in 1986
and cleaned up
and sent to Shenyang for incineration in Dec. 1999. Because no perfect
anti-leakage
measures were taken while sealed up, the excavated capacitors were found
serious
corrosion and some of PCBs oil had leaked out. Due to lack of financial
support, the local
environment protection bureau only sealed up capacitors. While the
seepage liquid and
the contaminated soil has not been disposed effectively and now they are
still sealed up in
the pit. The site is 500 meters far away from the residential area and
500 meters from
nearest surface water. It is considered that the groundwater is about 2
meters in depth.
The around soil is clayey. The plant around is mainly bush, no wild
animal activity and
the transportation is inconvenient.

Extent of Pollution: PCBs concentration of the soil exceeds the normal
standard (50ppm)
and needs further characterization to confirm the pollution degree and
coverage.

Environmental Impacts: The soil around was contaminated. Because the
contaminated
soil area is large there, it needs sampling analysis several times to
further verify and
confirm the pollution coverage. The big amount of contaminated soil in
this location
poses great potential threat to the surrounding environment. Perfect
safety protection and
waterproof facility is required due to the large quantity of contaminated
soil, long period
of excavation and cleanup risk while cleaning up.

( 3) No. 3 in Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: Unknown (manufacturer also unknown)

Number of Capacitors: 443 pieces

Storage Mode: The capacitors were directly piled up in the open area of
the factory and
sent to Shenyang for incineration in 1998.
Cleanup Status: Completely cleaned up

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The capacitors is simply
stored in an
open area in the factory where the capacitor was formally installed and
now it is used to
pile up containers and miscellaneous items. The ground is cement and
there is fence wall
around.

( 4) No. 4 in Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: Capacitors containing PCB, with no information
about its
number, manufacturer, or, model.

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Mode: Sealed up in the septic tank, the buried depth is around 3
meters.

                                              80
The Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is located in
the busy
street it is about 15 meters away from the nearest residential area. It
is far away from the
surface water, more than 300 meters. It is estimated that the groundwater
is about 1 and 2
meter in depth, and the ambient soil is arenaceous .The exact position of
the PCB site is
unconfirmed. The construction work is on going in the sealed up area and
to be finished
by the end of year. While cleanup the building needs to be demolished.
The transportation
is convenient and the vehicle is accessible directly to the place.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted and extent of pollution
is unknown.

Environmental Impacts: The site is located near the downtown street in
Shangyu,
Shaoxing, so there are many passers-by and shops are around the PCB waste
storage site.
Due to the long time storage with poor conditions, it is likely that PCBs
has leaked out.
Therefore it is great danger to the health nearby inhabitants. In
addition, the building was
constructed above the storage site and is planned for removed by the end
of year. Because
the site is just below the constructed building, the building owner may
ask for the big
compensation, even oppose the cleanup work if compensation is not made.
The exact
position still has not been located. Before excavation the geological
radar is required to
locate the exact position and thus reduce the excavation cost and the
possibility of
anthropogenic damage to the environment.

( 5) No. 5 in Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: Unknown,                Number of Capacitors:
10 units

Storage Time: 1982

Sealed Model: Stone coffin with about 4 to 5 meters in depth.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is more than 50
meters away
from the nearby residential area. It is about 1000 meters from the
surface water. The land
near the site is relatively flat where the soil is clayey with low
permeability. The
inhabitants in this area have no habit of drinking the ground water. The
approximate
position of the site is confirmed based on the history record of the
factory and memory of
the older workers. Transportation is convenient. It is accessible for the
large transport
vehicle, such as big truck.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted for the soil around the
site.

Environmental Impacts: The PCB site is enclosed by the stone coffin, so
the possibility
of PCBs leakage is low in principle. Due to the deep ground water table,
the low
permeability of soil, the great distance from the surface water, the
possibility of PCB
diffusion into the ground water is not high even if the PCBs leakage
occurs. However, the
exact position of the PCB is still unknown, so the geological radar is
required for
localization in order to decrease the future excavation cost and avoid
the possible
anthropogenic damage to the environment.

( 6) No.6 in Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and models unknown

                                              81
Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: About 1983

Sealed Model: Not sealed up in the stone coffin, only packaged in two
layers of plastic
bag.

Surrounding Environment and Site description: It is about 5 meters away
from the
nearest cemetery, about 100 meters from the residential area, more than
500 meters from
the surface water. The sealed up position has been confirmed. At the
site, some white
plastic package can be found and pungent odor can be smelled. There are
plantation (pine
tree) around the site. it is considered that the ground water table is
about 2 meters in
depth,and the soil is clayey. Transportation is inconvenient and a road
of about tens of
meters long should be built for cleanup preparation.

Extent of Pollution: No monitor was made before, so the extent of
contamination is
unknown.

Environmental Impacts: The capacitors of this site were directly buried
underground
but only packaged in the plastic bags. And now the package has already
exposed above
the ground. It is considered that that a large area around the site has
been seriously
contaminated.. In addition, the PCB waste storage site is just situated
in the cemetery area,
only 3 meters away from the nearest grave. In the future the new graves
may expand to
the site, which will make the cleanup more difficult.

( 7) No. 7 in Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: The manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: About 1991

Sealed Model: Not sealed up in the stone coffin, cement pouring at the
top.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: It is about 300 meters from
the
residential area, 20 meters away from an large area of tea garden, and
about 500 meters
from the nearest surface water. It is considered that ground water is
more than2 meters, in
depth. The soil around the site is clayey. The approximate position of
the PCB waste
storage site is confirmed. An area near the site has been purchased and a
holiday hotel is
planned. And also mostof the land around the site may possibly be
scheduled for future
use within next several years. Transportation is inconvenient around the
PCB waste
storage site, so a road of about tens of meters should be built for
cleanup preparation. The
area surrounding the site is mainly covered with low trees and weed,
indicating no
activity of wild animals.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted; the extent of pollution
is unknown.

Environmental Impact: It was not sealed up by the stone coffin, so it is
considered that
possibly the soil around has been contaminated. But it has little
influence to the
surrounding inhabitants, surface water and groundwater, because it is
located at the peak

                                              82
of the hill,and the the soil is clayey. Once the land is re-used for the
hotel, the cleanup cost
will increase greatly.

( 8) No.8 in, Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and models unknown.

Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Capacitor Owner: Zhuji Electricity Bureau         Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Model: No package, buried nakedly, 4 to 5 meters in depth

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: It is surrounded by
residents alone
the three side of the site, with 30 meters away from the nearest one. It
is about 300 meters
from the surface water. It is considered that ground water is more than 2
meters in depth.
But the position of the PCB storage site has not been confirmed.
Transportation is
convenient and the vehicle is accessible to the place directly. Close to
the site, there is a
warehouse with cemented floor, which also requires cleaning.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted, and extent of
contamination is
unknown.

Environmental Impact: The capacitors have been directly buried in the
site for a long
time. The possibility of the serious contamination is posing great risks
to local inhabitants
around the three-side of the site. The exact position is unknown. The
geological radar is
required to locate the exact position of PCB in order to reduce the
excavation expenses
and possible anthropogenic damage to the environment.

( 9) No. 9 in Wenzhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufactured in Guilin Electrical Capacitor
Factory.

Number of Capacitors: The exact number is Unknown. The capacitors stored
were
removed out in 1985. Information about the capacitors after 1985 is still
not available.

Storage Time: Early 1980s

Sealed Model: It is sealed up in the stone coffin, about 2 meters in
depth.
Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The weed around the site
grows and
becomes very thick. and the ground is flat. Based on the recalling from
local people,,the
capacitors were dug out after they were buried only several years later.
The illegal
digging has caused PCB leakage, but no remediation measures were taken.
The PCB
waste site is about 1000 meters form the surface water., and more than
100 meters away
from the residential area. But transportion is convenient.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted on the surrounding soil;
and
contamination status is unknown.

Environmental Impacts: PCBLeakage of capacitors occurred during illegal
digging, so
it is assumed that the surrounding soil was contaminated which needs
careful


                                                83
environmental characterization. It's relatively far away from the surface
water and the
ground water is more than 2 meters in depth. It is considered that the
influence on the
surrounding inhabitants and the PCB dispersion          are not serious
because of wate
circulation. It was estimated that the surrounding soil was contaminated
due to the PCB
leakage.

( 10) No. 10 in Wenzhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and models unknown.

Number of Capacitors:Unknown( have already been cleaned up and sent to
Shenyang for
incineration)

Storage Time; In 1990

Cleaned up Time: 1997       Sealed Model: In the mountain cave

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is surrounded by a
large
area of farmland. The PCB waste storage site is just opposite to a
forging factory. The
capacitors have been moved and the large amount of contaminated soil is
still sealed in
the cave. It is more than 200 meters away from the nearest residential
area, more than 400
meters from the surface water. It is considered that the ground water is
more than 2 meters
in depth. The soil around is clayey. Transportation is convenient and the
vehicle is
accessible to the place directly.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted and extent of pollution
is unknown.

Environmental Impact: At present, the cave where the contaminated soil is
sealed up
has been damaged. There are neither warning sign nor professional
management in this
sealed site. If the soil remediation can not be taken in time, the cave
should be
temporarily repaired, pasted with obvious warning signs and be
periodically checked by
full time personnel.

( 11) No. 11 in Jiaxing

Description of Capacitors: Unknown            Number of Capacitors: 112
units
Capacitor Owner: Wangdian Substation, Jiaxing         Storage Time:
About the middle of
1980s

Sealed Model: Not sealed up by stone coffin, piled up directly in the
warehouse

Description of the Storage Site: The PCB waste storage site is about
20meters away
from the nearest residential area. Monitoring on surrounding soil done
before shows that
PCBs concentration are below 50 ppm. The capacitors were completely
removed and
incinerated in Shenyang in 1998.

( 12) No. 12 in Jiaxing

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and the model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown, they were produced long ago and the
records were lost.


                                                84
Storage Time: During 1983 and 1984

Sealed Model: In stone coffin, about 2 to 3 meters in depth

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site was originally in
a small hill,
but now its exact position can not be confirmed due to the great change
due to human
activities of ore exploitation. However, it is roughly estimated that the
site is about 200
meters away from the nearest residential area, more than 800 meters from
the surface
water. The soil is clayey and its permeability is low. There are a lot of
stone and a little
vegetation around. Transportation is convenient.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted, and extent of pollution
is unknown.

Environmental Impacts: The site is situated in the mining area, and
future cleanup and
remediation will not have great influence on the mountain area's
environment. The exact
position is unknown. The geological radar is required to locate the exact
position in order
to reduce the possible anthropogenic damage to the environment during
future cleanup
work. Because it is far away from the surface water and ground water, so
the possibility
of surface water and groundwater being contaminated is very little.

( 13) No. 13 in Jiaxing

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and models unknown

Number of capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: Early1980s

Containment: Sealed up in a dry well, about 5 to 6 meters in depth

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The PCB storage site is
just under a
four-storey office building. When the capacitors were sealed up in the
dry well, they were
simply packaged with the plastic bag. The ground around the site is flat.
It is more than
500 meters away from the surface water and about 100 meters away from the
residential
area. Transportation is convenient.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted and extent of pollution
is unknown.
Environmental Impacts:, The capacitors were sealed   up directly in the
underground dry
well after having been only simply packaged in the   plastic bags so it is
possible that the
contamination may be serious. The ground water may   be contaminated. The
building has been constructed just above the well,   so the cleanup work
appears
problematic and the risk is therefore high.

( 14) No. 14 in Ningbo

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and the model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Still unknown.

Storage Time: Around 1985

Sealed Model: In stone coffin, about 2 to 3 meters in depth

                                              85
Surrounding Environment and Site Description: Thestorage site is located
at a hill,
and its exact position has been confirmed. It is about 300 meters from
the nearest
residential area, and about 1000 meters away from the surface water. The
ground water is
more than 2 meters in depth. The capacitors inside have been stolen.
Transportation
around the PCB waste storage site is inconvenient.

Extent of Pollution: According to monitor in 1998, it has been
contaminated to a certain
extent, about 44.6 ppm for the maximum value. It was monitored long time
ago, so it
needs to be further monitored.

Environmental Impact: The capacitors in the site have been stolen, so it
is very likely that
PCBs is completely dispersed in the environment. Because road needs to be
construction
for cleanup work, the vegetation around site will be damaged. Therefore,
the immediate
turf and tree seeding planting should be done in time after cleanup to
minimize the
negative impact on the ecological environment.

( 15) No. 15 in Taizhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and the model unknown

Number of Capacitors: More than 500 units (have been sent to Shenyang for
incineration)

Storage Time: From1989 to1990                Cleanup Time: Unknown

Sealed Model: Unknown

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is about 30 meters
away
from the residential area, and about 200 meters away from the surface
water. The ground
water is about 1 and 2 meter in depth.

Extent of Pollution: In the soil surrounding the farm land which is
comparatively far
away from the busy street, PCBs has been detected, and the highest
concentration is
226.57ug/kg.

Environmental Impact: The location where capacitors were dismantled is
approximately situated in the populous residential area. The capacitors
have already been
disposed, but PCB was detected in the soil of the surrounding farm land,
indicating that
the soil has been contaminated and the pollution range needs further
confirmation. It is
estimated that a large area will be cleaned.for a relavtive longer time,
which may have
great influence to the surrounding environment.

( 16) No. 16 in Ningbo

Description of Capacitors: Unknown      Number of Capacitors: Unknown, no
records

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Time: Unknown

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The PCB site is enclosed by
tombs
and the distance from the site to the tombs is about 25 meters. There is
a road path nearby
on the north-west. The fall from the PCB waste storage site to the road
is about 20 meters.

                                              86
The mountain is covered with weed. The soil is of some viscosity. Because
it is on the
mountain, the ground water is comparatively deep and transportation is
inconvenient.

Extent of Pollution: No inspection and monitoring was made, so extent of
pollution is
unknown

Environmental Impact: For the future cleanup and site remediation,
transportation
should be a big problem, and the potential risk is high. The capacitors
will be transferred
first from the hillside to the foot of the hill, so the road needs to be
built. In this case, the
work will cause damage to the turf, and water and soil loss will
influence the surrounding
trees. The impact on the environment could be minimized by appropriate
mitigation
measures like immediate turf re-plantation in the damaged area.

( 17) No. 17 in Ningbo

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: Early 1980s

Sealed Model: In stone coffin, about 5 to 6 meters in depth

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The storage site is
situated under the
middle vegetation area of the No.2 provincial-level Road. The ground at
the storage site
is comparatively flat, about 10 meters away from the residential area,
and about
1000meters away from the surface water.The approximate position for the
PCB storage
site can be confirmed. It is convenient for transportation. It is
considered that the ground
water is between 1 and 2 meter in depth,and the around soil is
arenaceous.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted on the surrounding soil,
and
pollution degree is unknown.

Environmental Impacts: It is very close to the residential area which is
posing the great
potential threat to the health of the nearby inhabitants. It has very
small impact on the
surface water and groundwater. Because it is under No. 2 Provincial-level
Road, future
cleanup work will influence the local traffic. Before excavation, a
detour needs to be
constructed to surpass the the excavation site. The excavation should be
completed as
soon as possible, and the No. 2 Road should be recovered right after
excavation.

( 18) No. 18 in Ningbo

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Model: In stone coffin

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is located in a
park, ,about
300 meters away from the surface water. It is considered that the ground
water is between


                                                 87
1 and 2 meter in depth, and the soil around is clayey. The position of
the PCB waste
storage site can be confirmed and it is convenient for transportation.

Extent of Pollution: The monitoring was done on the soil around the PCB
waste storage
site; and the PCB concentration is within the normal standard.

Environmental Impact: The surface water and groundwater is unlikely to be
contaminated. The area around the PCB site has been planed for municipal
program.
Once municipal project is conducted, then the cleanup work will be much
difficult. There
are lots of culture service and facilities there, for example a
basketball field around the
site. Therefore, there is a great potential threat to the human health.

( 19) No. 19 in Ningbo

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown              Storage Time: 1980s

Sealed Model: Buried directly after packaged with plastic bags

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is about 700
meters from the
surface water. It is considered that the ground water is between 1 and 2
meter in depth.
The soil is arenaceous, and the ground is relatively flat. Due to rapid
economic
development, it has included and covered by the urban activities. The
change is so big
that the exact position can't be located. Based on the recalling of some
old workers, the
approximate range of the PCB storage site can be identified.
Transportation is
convenient.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted, and extent of pollution
is unknown.

Environmental Impacts; The capacitors in this site were not sealed up in
stone coffin,
so it is considered that the capacitors may possibly have leaked due to
corrosion based on
the experience. So further monitor is recommended to make sure whether
the soil was
contaminated or not. The geological radar is required to identify the
specific location,

( 20) No. 20 in Ningbo

Description of Capacitors: Capacitors containing PCB3
Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: Around in 1985

Sealed Model: In stone coffin, about 2 t 3 meters in depth

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: It is located at a hill,
where there is
good vegetation nearby. It is about 450 meters away from the surface
water, with few
inhabitants nearby. The ground water is more than 2 meters in depth. The
soil is
arenaceous, so its permeability is low.. The exact locatin of the PCB
storage site can be
confirmed, but transportation is inconvenient. The road needs to be
constructed for future
cleanup.



                                                88
Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted on the surrounding soil,
and
contamination degree is unknown.

Environmental Impact: The PCB site was sealed up in stone coffin. Based
on the
experience, contamination should not be big problem. It is far away from
the surrounding
residential area, and temporarily it can pose no threat to the human
health. The
surrounding trees will be damaged when the excavation is conducted. ,but
it should be
recovered right after the site excavation,in order to reduce the
anthropogenic influence to
the environment.

( 21) No. 21 in Hangzhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: About300 to 400 units

Storage Time: During 1982 and1983

Sealed Model: In stone coffin (there are two site due to ever transferred
to another site for
storage)

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: There are two storage
sites, and
the distance between them is about 50 meters. Both are about 20 meters
far away from the
residential area, and more than 200 meters from the surface water. It is
considered that the
ground water is about 2 meters in depth. The exact position of PCBs site
can be
confirmed. Transportation nearby is not very convenient and road may be
concerned for
future cleanup work.

Extent of Pollution: The results of site monitoring conducted in 1998 and
2001 revealed
that the maximum PCB concentrations were five times higher than the
controlled
standard (50 mg/kg) in China

Environmental impacts:The great number of sealed up capacitors can cause
great range
of pollution in case of leakage.It is near the residential area, so has
potential threat for the
surrounding inhabitants' health. The soil sample has shown the PCBs
leaked, thus the
work of excavation and cleanup should be done as early as possible.
( 22) No. 22 in Hangzhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Quantity of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: 1980s

Source of Capacitors: Yuhang transformer substation

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The sealed up site is
located on a hill,
which is more than 500 meters away from the residential area, and more
than 900 meters
away from the surface water. It is considered that the ground water is
about 2 meters in
depth, and the soil is clayey. The exact position of the site is not
confirmed. The
transportation nearby is very inconvenient, so a road need to be
constructed.

                                               89
Extent of Pollution: In 1998 the soil around the PCB storage site was
tested, and
concluded by the monitoring station of the provincial power company that
the soil
concentration of PCB was below 50 ppm. And the site was not monitored
after this
testing.

Environmental Impact: It is far away from the residential area, so it has
little influence
on the local inhabitants. However, the site clean-up will be of difficult
and high risk.
Future cleanup will cause damage to the plants on the hill which should
be replanted to
avoid water and soil loss. The exact position of the sealed site is
uncertain, so the
geological radar is required before excavation to reduce the possible
anthropogenic
damage to the environment.

( 23) No. 23 in Jinhua

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: Early 1980

Sealed Model: In the cement stone coffin in the form of semi-open
caisson, with the top
covered by soil.

Site Description: The PCB storage site is situated on the foot of a hill.
Thereafter, a
factory was constructed above there. Now the ground has been raised up.
The site was
excavated in 2003, and the capacitors were disposed together with the
contaminated soils.
Still it is necessary to conduct further monitor to determine whether the
remediation of
the soil is required or not.

( 24) No. 24 in Xin'anjiang

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown.

Number of capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time; 1980s

Sealed Model: In stone coffin

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is situated along
the side of
a mountain, and the residential area are about 50 meters away. It is
about 200 meters
away from the surface water. It is considered that the ground water is
about 2 meters in
depth, and the soil is clayey. The location of PCB waste site can be
confirmed.
Transportation is very convenient nearby, so no necessity to construct a
road.

Extent of Pollution; In 2003 the soil around the PCB storage site was
tested, and
concluded by the monitoring station of the provincial power company that
the soil
concentration of PCB was below 50 ppm. And the site was not monitored
after this
testing.




                                             90
Environmental Impact: The monitoring station of provincial electricity
company did
the testing PCB concentration in the soil for this site, and concluded
that the
concentration is below 50 ppm, which is below the national standard. So
monitoring was
not conducted after this testing. Record of the testing was not kept, and
information on
PCB concentration level for this site is not available. Based on the
testing result, it does
not affect surface water and groundwater.

( 25) No. 25 in Jinhua

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: About 200 units

Storage Time: In 1986

Sealed Model: In stone coffin

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is 15 meters above
the foot
of the hill. There is a large area of tombs in one direction, about 20
meters away. It is
more than 300 meters from the residential area, and about 200 meters from
the surface
water. It is considered that the ground water is about 2 meters in depth,
and the soil is
clayey. The location of PCB site can be confirmed. Transportation is very
inconvenient,
so it needs to construct a road for future cleanup.

Extent of Pollution: The soil was monitored in 2003, and its PCBs content
was three
times higher than that of normal standard (<50ppm).

Environmental Impacts: The soil has been contaminated. It is unavoidable
to pass
through the tomb area once cleanup is conducted. It may cause expensive
compensation
for removal.

( 26) No. 26 in Jinhua

Description of Capacitors: Unknown

Number of Capacitors: The records are lost and the number of capacitors
are still
unknown.

Storage Time: In 1980s
Sealed Model: Unknown, but possibly in stone coffin

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site was designed to
temporarily store the remaining capacitors which were beyond the capacity
of No.25.
Now the ground at the site has been raised up and a factory has been
constructed. So the
exact position of PCBs site can not be confirmed. It is about 20 meters
away from the
residential area, and about 500 meters away from the surface water. It is
considered that
the ground water is about 2 meters in depth, and the soil is clayey. It
is very convenient
for the transportation.

Extent of Pollution: The soil has never been monitored, so the extent of
pollution is
unknown.

                                              91
Environmental Impacts: The seal up mode is unknown. It is relatively
close to the
residential area, so the potential environmental risk is high, which
requires cleanup action
as soon as possible. The geological radar will be used to locate the
exact position, which
may reduce the anthropogenic damage to the environment by excavation.

( 27) No. 27 in Chunan

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown
Numbe r of
Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: 1980s

Sealed Model: The ground of site was ever cover a layer of cement and
sand grout and the
top was sealed by cement, which is rather similar to stone coffin.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: It is about 10 meters from
the
residential area. And there is a brook about 20 meters away from site,
which provides
fresh water for the local inhabitants. It is considered that the ground
water is about 1
meter in depth, and the soil is clayey. The site is very close to the
kaleyard, about30
meters from the residential area. Its exact position can be confirmed.
Transportation is not
very convenient.

Extent of Pollution: No historical data on the monitoring, so the PCB
contamination is
unknown.

Environmental Impact: It is situated at the vegetation area so the
probability of corrosion
of the stored capacitors increases greatly due to the much water
penetration in the soil by
irrigation. In addition, the site is very close to the residential area,
surface water and
groundwater, and the nearby brook which serves the drinking water for the
inhabitants.
Therefore, once the PCBs oil leaks out, it will cause great adverse
impact to the local
inhabitants.

( 28) No. 28 in Chunan

Description of Capacitor: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown
Storage Time: Still unknown

Sealed Model: Similar to the stone coffin, with slush covering the ground
and cement
grout covering the top.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is located under
the road
where there is a transformer substation on the hillside, but now it has
been consolidated
and raised up, It is about 40 meters from the residential area, and about
500 meters away
from the surface water. It is considered that the ground water is more
than 2 meters in
depth, and the soil is clayey. The exact location of the site is unknown.
The road where it
is situated is the only path to the local Writers' building.
Transportation is very
convenient nearby, no need to construct a roadfor future cleanup.



                                              92
Extent of Pollution; No monitoring was conducted and the extent of
pollution is
unknown.

Environmental impacts: There is little probability for the surface water
and the ground
water to be contaminated. But it is close to the residential area, which
poses the potential
threat to the surrounding inhabitants in case of PCBs leakage. The PCB
storage site is
under the road, which can cause inconvenience for the traffic nearby if
the cleanup work
lasts for a long time. The geological radar will be used for the exact
localization in order
to reduce the possible anthropogenic damage to the environment. Sample
and analysis is
also required to find the PCB concentration in the soil around the PCB
storage site.

( 29) No. 29 in Jinhua

Description of Capacitors; Electrical capacitors containing PCB3,
manufacturer and
model are unknown.

Number of Capacitors: They were produced long time ago, the records are
lost and the
number is unknown.

Storage Time: Around 1983

Sealed Model: Directly stored in the warehouse of the electric power
company

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The PCB storage site is
more than
900 meters away from the surface water (The drinking water of the local
inhabitants is the
tap water. It is considered that the ground water is about 2 meters in
depth. It is about
800meters away from the residential area. The ground is covered by cement
and
transportation is very convenient. It is known that in 1991 the stored
capacitors were sold
as waste and their whereabouts is unknown.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted and contamination status
is unknown.

Environmental Impact; The electric power company sold out the capacitors
as waste
over ten years ago and it is impossible to get them back, therefore it is
estimated that most
possibly PCBs has completely enter into the environment. The surface
water and
groundwater is less possibly contaminated because the capacitors were
stored in the
warehouse with cemented ground. Contamination of the surrounding
environment is
considered to be little . However, monitoring is also required for
determing possible
further action of remediation.

( 30) No.30 in Jinhua

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Model: In stone coffin.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: Now the evidence shows that
the
capacitors are lost. The residential area around is only about 20 meters
away. The site is

                                               93
located at a land of high elevation,, about 1000 meters away from the
surface water. It is
considered that the ground water is about 2 meters in depth, and the soil
is clayey.
Transportation is convenient.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted on the soil, and the
extent of
pollution is unknown.

Environmental Impact: It is close to the residential area, nobody knows
how the
capacitors were lost, thus the extent of pollution is unknown, and PCB
diffusion can pose
the potential threat to the surrounding inhabitants. So monitoring is
needed to make sure
whether the soil needs to be further remediated.

(31)No. 31 in Jinhua

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: About 100 units

Storage Time: In 1980s

Sealed Model: Directly packed with plastic bags and sealed up.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The PCB site is surrounded
by the
dispersed farmer houses, far away from the residential area. It is on a
higher slope,
covered with few weeds. The entire mountain area is covered with
flourishing
medium -sized trees. Because it is in a higher elevation, about 300
meters over the surface
water. It is considered that the ground water is about 2 meters in depth,
and the soil is
clayey. The location of the storage site is confirmed. Because the PCB w
aste storage site
is on the hill, which is accessible by the small truck or tractor are.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted and the contamination is
unknown.

Environmental Impact: It is packed with some plastic bags and directly
sealed up, thus
it can be concluded that the PCBs-containing oil has probably leaked out,
which causes
severe pollution. Therefore, earlier cleanup is required. The
inconvenient transportation
causes more difficult for future clean up. The immediate turf and trees
are required to
recover the site after excavation.
( 32) No. 32 in Quzhou

Description of Capacitors: Capacitors containing PCB3 and PCB5

Number of capacitors: 44 units

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Model: In stone coffin, about 1 to 3 meters in depth

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: It is enclosed by the arc
fence wall in
the northeast, and the trees in the north and west. There is the
substation in its northwest
corner, and some office buildings nearby. It is about 100 meters from the
nearest
residential area outside of the fence wall, and about 300 meters from the
surface water. It


                                              94
is considered that the ground water is about 2 meters in depth, and the
soil is clayey.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring, still unknown

Environmental Impact: This site has little impact on the surrounding
inhabitants,
surface water and ground water. It may cause some damage to the
vegetation by future
cleanup work. The immediate turf and tree planting right after completion
can reduce the
loss to the local environment.

( 33) No.33 in Jinhua

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown.

Quantity of capacitors: 150 to 200 units

Owner of Capacitors: Zhejiang Huaneng Aluminum Co., Ltd

Storage Time: Middle of 1980s

Sealed Model: The capacitors were packed in some plastic bags and buried
underground
about 4 to 5 meters in depth.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is about 200
meters from the
residential area, and about 500 meters from the surface water. The local
inhabitants uses
the ground water for washing clothes, not for drinking. It is considered
that the ground
water is about 2 meters in depth, and the soil is clayey. But it is
assumed that the pollution
of the surrounding area has reached a great extent because the capacitors
were packed in
plastic bags, which usually has leaked.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was conducted.

Environmental Impact: Packed with the plastic bag, the capacitors usually
should have
leaked. Therefore the site is considered to be seriously contaminate d.

( 34) No. 34 in Quzhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: The records are lost and the number is unknown.

Storage Time: Between1983 and1984

Sealed Model: In stone coffin, about 1 to 3 meters in depth
Owner of capacitors: A big enterprise in Zhejiang, which was enlarged in
1970s and has
ever used a large amount of capacitors.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The local residents use tap
water.
The site is more than 400 meters away from the nearest surface water. The
landform near
the factory is the upland. The soil is the typical red soil, which is low
permeable. And the
site is about 100 meters from the residential area. The groundwater is
about 2 meters in
depth from the ground level.

Extent of Pollution: The surrounding soil has never been monitored.

                                               95
Environmental Impact: The PCB waste was sealed up in stone coffin, so the
contamination should not be serious.

( 35) No. 35 in Lishui

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time: 1980s

Sealed Model: Directly buried underground

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is about 10 meters
from the
residentialarea,almost enclosed by the residential houses, and about 300
meters from the
surface water. The ground water is about 2 meters in depth.It is just
inside the kailyard of
the local residents, where pumpkin, eggplant and waxberry are planted.
The exact
position of PCBs site is unable to confirm. Transportation is not very
convenient. Some
problems, such as house removal and road construction, will be
considered.

Extent of Pollution: There are no monitoring records and the extent of
pollution is
unknown.

Environmental Impact: Because all the capacitors were directly buried
underground,
neither sealed up in stone coffin nor packed with anything. So it can be
concluded that the
capacitors must have leaked greatly. It is about 10 meters from the
residential area and
there is the local kailyard in the surrounding area. Therefore, the
contaminated land area
would extend due to the much water penetration by farm irrigation. It is
possible that
vegetation is contaminated. The problems such as house removal and road
construction
should be considered for future cleanup. The unknown position should
require the
geological radar before excavation. The soil and the ground water all
need carefully
monitoring and then the implementation plan could be decided.

( 36) No. 36 in Huzhou

Description of Capacitors: Unknown          Number of Capacitors: About
230 units

Storage Time: Mid of 1980s, once re-sealed by cement inearly1990s
Sealed Model: In stone coffin, about 2 meters in depth

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The PCB storage sitee is
surrounded
by the greengage trees, with bamboo forest in the north. The site is
labeled and in good
condition. The fall is about 10 meters from the site to the small road.
The soil of the area
is somewhat clayey. The ground water is about 2 meters in depth, The
location is more
than 750 meters from the surface water and the exact position is
confirmed. The
transportation is inconvenient, so a road needs to be constructed for
future excavation.

Extent of Pollution: Never monitored, and the contamination status is
unknown.

Environmental Impact: The PCB storage site is sealed up in stone coffin,
so it is
considered that there is little impact on the surrounding environment,
same for the

                                             96
residents, surface water and groundwater. One road needs to be built for
cleanup, which
will cause the damage to the surrounding trees and turf.

( 37) No. 37 in Taizhou

PCBs Source: The waste slag containing PCBs generated by the production
process.

Time of Slag Produced: July 2003

Products Containing PCBs: Organic fluoride series products( 2,5-
dichloride aniline)

Process Generating PCBs: Double nitrogen pyrolysis, and the temperature
is not
controlled properly.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: Stock dump of a volume of
3000 m3 is
exposed in the open air. And a storage warehouse is planned. The factory
is 20 km far
away the town, located on a coast. The PCB storage site is more than 100
meters from the
nearest residential area, and about 200 meters from the surface water.
Transportation is
convenient and vehicle can be accessible to the site.

Extent of Pollution: The monitoring data shows that PCBs concentration is
120ug/kg.
Further monitoring is required due to the different components of the
waste slag.

Environmental Impacts: The slag is stored in the open air without any
protective
measures taken near the coast, so PCBs can be quickly diffused with the
rain water and
the ground water in the completely open environment. The storage
warehouse should be
built as soon as. It is better to dispose of the slag first and then
remedy the site.

( 38) No. 38 in Hangzhou

Number of Capacitors: 334 capacitors were sealed up. Now they have been
transferred to
the warehouse of Dadi Company for temporary storage.

Storage Time: 1980s           Sealed Model: In stone coffin

Disposal Status:The site has been cleaned up completely, but the PCB
capacitors need to
be sent to Shenyang for incineration.
Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is situated in
Xiasha farm,
with flat ground and flourishing weed nearby. It is about 5 km from the
residential area.
The ground water is about 1 meter in depth, and the soil is arenaceous.
Now it has been
cleaned up completely, but the soil and the groundwater all need further
monitoring.

( 39) No. 39 in Huzhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown

Number of Capacitors: The records were lost.

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Model: Directly buried after packaged with some plastic bags

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The approximate position of
the

                                                97
PCB storage site has been confirmed. According to the recalling by the
local people who
were ever involved in PCB storage, the site is located under the cemented
road which is
outside of the factory area. It is about 200 meters from the nearest
residential area, and
more than 1000 meters from the nearest surface water. The soil is clayey.
Transportation
is very convenient.

Extent of Pollution; No monitoring was done; and the extent of pollution
is unknown.

Environme ntal Impact: Usually it can be concluded that the sealed mode
at this site has
great possibility of PCBs leakage. During future cleaning work, the
cement road have to
be excavated. The fast excavation schemeshould be planned to reduce the
influence on the
traffic.

( 40) No. 40 in Shaoxing

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and the model unknown

Number of Capacitors: Over 100 units

Sealed Model: In stone coffin

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is located on the
hillside, a
highland. The local residents do not used the ground water for drinking.
It is about 450
meters from the nearest residential area, and more than 1000 meters from
the surface
water. It is considered that the ground water is about 2 meters in depth,
and the around
soil is clayey. The PCB site is covered by a little weed, and surrounded
by the flourishing
medium -size trees. The exact position can be confirmed. Transportation
is convenient.

Extent of Pollution: No monitoring was done on the surrounding soil.

Environmental   Impacts: The capacitors is sealed up in stone coffin, so
usually it is
impossible to   cause much contamination. It is considered that there is
little impact   on the
health of the   nearby inhabitants.

( 41) No. 41 in Quzhou

Description of Capacitors: Manufacturer and model unknown
Number of Capacitors: Unknown

Storage Time; In 1980s

Sealed Model: In stone coffin

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The position of the storage
site has
not been confirmed. It is more than 700 meters away from the nearest
surface water. It is
upland around the site. And the soil of is typical red, and its
permeability is low. The
ground water is about 2 meters in depth. It is far from the nearest
residential area, and
transportation is convenient.

Environmental Impacts: The PCBs containing capacitors were originally
sealed up 20
years ago. Before excavation the geological radar is required to find the
exact position


                                              98
and thus decrease the excavation cost and the possible anthropogenic
damage to the
environment.

( 42) No. 42 n Hangzhou

Description of Capacitors: The manufacturer is Xian Electric Power and
Capacitor
Factory; the model is YL310.5-40-1

Amount of Capacitors: 2 units

Owner of capacitors: The transformer substation of a factory

Storage Time: Unknown

Sealed Model: Directly and temporarily stored in the warehouse of the
factory.

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The capacitors are stored
in the
warehouse of the factory, which is connected to the running transformer
substation. It is
about 300meters away from the local residential area, and 300 meters away
from the
nearest surface water. It is considered that the ground water is between
1 and 2 meters in
depth, and the soil around is clayey. The drinking water is supplied by
urban water supply
system. The transportation nearby is quite convenient, so the buildings
dismatle and
roads construction can be avoid during future cleanup.

Extent of Pollution: There isn't any monitoring data available, so the
pollution
condition is unclear.

Environmental Impact: The capacitors were produced in 1973. It's possible
that the
PCBs oils will leak out due to possible improper operation during
cleanup. Therefore, it's
necessary to take some measures to prevent from leaking when cleaning up
the site. In
addition, the transformer substation connected with the warehouse is in
operation, so it's
also necessary to take some measures to keep its normal operation during
cleanup work at
the site.

( 43) No. 43 in Huzhou

Description of Capacitors: The manufacturer and model unknown.

Amount of Capacitors: 30-40 units                Storage Time: Unknown
Owner of capacitors: The local transformer substation

Sealed Model: In stone coffin

Surrounding Environment and Site Description: The site is about 100
meters away
from the transformer substation in Huzhou, about 100 meters away from the
local
residential area, and about 300 meters away from the surface water. It is
considered that
the ground water is between 1 and 2 meters in depth, and the soil around
is clayey. The
drinking water is supplied by urban water supply system. A four-floor
building is just
located on the storage site.

Extent of Pollution:There isn't any monitoring data available, so the
pollution condition


                                               99
is unclear.

Environmental Impacts: The capacitors were sealed up in stone coffin, so
it is
impossible to cause much contamination in principles. It is considered
that there is little
impact on the health of the nearby inhabitants because of application the
urban water
supply system. Before the cleanup work, a lot of problems needto be
solved, especially
dismantle of the four-floor building.

  5.2 The Priority Ranking for Cleanup and Disposal

  In Zhejiang we have many PCBs waste disposal sites, which are scattered
and have a
  complicated surrounding environment, so it is difficult to arrange a
reasonable priority
  order for cleanup and disposal. .

  In order to make a priority classification of the sites, the different
environmental, social,
  technical and geographical parameters have been used as weighting
factors. Each factor
  has been assigned with a weight resulting from the knowledge of the
specific Zhejiang
  situation and expert judgment. For each site the overall priority value
has been
  calculated as the sum of the individual values of the different factors
multiplied by the
  weight for each factor.

  The priority order for cleanup and disposal takes into account the seal
up mode, the
  environmental impact factor and the social impact factor, whereby, the
environmental
  impact factor considers whether the residential area , the surface
water and the
  groundwater may be contaminated, the existing extent of pollution, etc.
The social
  impact factor mainly takes into account the scheduled use of the
location land (i.e. some
  development activities).

  The Number of capacitors in the PCB waste disposal site, however has a
great impact
  on the priority order. According to the current information on the PCB
waste disposal
  site, the priority order is as in Table 5.1 can be adjusted on the
basis of new information,
  as soon as it becomes available

  According to the weighing, marking and sorting order, combine with the
inventory
  investigation on the 43 location. The method for sorting the order and
the result for the
  43 locations see in details in Table 5.1.

  Sealed up mode: sealed up in stone coffin, mountain cave, 10=a=30;
packaged , no
  stone coffin, 30=a=60; no package, 60=a=100. The better sealed up mode
is, the lower
  mark.

       n Distancefromtheresidentialarea: 10m=d=20m, 80=a=100; 21m=d=50m,
       50=a=80; 51m=d=200m, 30=a=50; 200m=d, 10=a=30.The shorter distance
       to the residential area, the greater possibility for it to be
polluted, the higher mark.

       n Distance from the surface water: 0m=d=50m, 70=a=100; 50m=d=300m,
       30=a=70, d=300m,a=30. The shorter distance, the greater
possibility for it to be
       polluted, the higher mark.


                                                100
n Possibilityforthegroundwatertobepolluted: plain,nearseaside,50=a=100;
plain, away from seaside, 30 =a=50 ; Mountain area, away from sea, 10
=a=30.
The higher groundwater level, the greater possibility for it to be
polluted, the
higher mark.

n Extent of pollution: 0ppm=c=50ppm, 0 =a=20 ; 50ppm=c=300ppm, 20
=a=70 ; c=300ppm, 70 =a=100. The extent of pollution is unknown, a= 50,
the
more serious pollution, the higher mark.

n Thelocationhasbeenplannedforuseornot: itwillbeusedwithinoneor
two years, a=100, it will be used two year later and within four years,
a=50,
it will be planned fours later or it has been developed, a=0. The more
pressure
for the land use, the higher mark. The higher mark, the first priority.

n Soil type andthewayofusing:Ifthesoilisclayey,e.g.veryclayey,alittle
clayey, not clayey, 30=a=70, in addition, if the soil is used for garden
or other
purpose need more water, the amount of "a" has increased more in the
basis of the
soil type.




                                       101
                      ? 5.1: The Result of Priority Order for Cleanup and
Disposal of the 43 Location


Social
                                 Environmental factors
factors

                                                            Soil
The
             Distance     Possibility of Possibility of    type
land has              Priority
     Sealed from the      contaminate     contaminate     and the        Extent
been                  order
      up    residential     d surface      d ground        way of          of
planned      Total        for
Code mode      area           water          water          using
pollution or not         mark     cleanup
      0.2      0.12            0.11           0.11         0.08          0.18
0.2          1
27    50       100             100            100           90            50
20        64.2         1
21    30        80             30              40           90            90
80        62.7         2
37    100       30             40              20           50           100
50        62.2         3
  6   60        30             20              20            40           100
100        61.2          4
  8   100       80             30              40           50             50
40        58.3         5
35    90        80             30              30           100           50
30        57.2         6
18    30        80             30              30           60            50
100         56           7
25    30        10             20              30           80            90
90        53.3         8
15    50        50             50              50            50            50
50         50          9
28    50        80             20              20           20            50
50        44.6        10
22    30        10             10              30           50            50
100        44.6        11
  7   50        20             20              20           30             50
80        44.2        12
26    50        70             20              20           20            50
20        37.4        13
13    60        20             20              60            50            50
0         36.2        14




                                                                   102
33   60   30   20   50   20     50   0    33.9   15
4    50   70   20   20   20     50   0    33.4   16
42   20   60   30   10   20     50   30   32.2   17
34   30   50   20   20   30     50   20   31.8   18
17   30   70   10   10   30     50   10    30    19
9    30   10   10   40   50     50   20   29.7   20
2    20   20   20   20   10     80   10    28    21
32   30   20   30   20   20     50   20   28.5   22
24   30   20   50   30   20     20   30   28.4   23
43   30   40   30   10   20     50   20    26    25
20   30   10   20   20   10     50   20   25.4   28
30   30   20   10   10   20     50   20   25.2   26
12   40   20   10   10   20     50   10   25.2   24
10   30   10   20   20   30     50   10    25    27
5    30   40   10   10   10     50   10   24.8   29
31   20   20   30   10   30     50   10   24.2   30
39   20   30   10   10   20     50   10   22.4   31
19   20   30   10   10   20     50   10   22.4   32
16   20   20   10   10   10     50   20   22.4   33
43   30   20   0    10   20     50   10   22.1   34
29   30   10   10   10   20     50   10    22    35
40   30   20   0    10   10     50   10   21.3   36
36   30   10   10   10   30     50   0    20.8   38




                          103
14   20   10   10   10   20     40   10   18.2   39
11   /     /   /    /    /      /    /     /      /
3    /     /   /    /    /      /    /     /      /
38   /     /   /    /    /      /    /     /      /
23   /     /   /    /    /      /    /     /      /
1    /     /   /    /    /      /    /     /      /




                          104
  5.3 The Cleanup Plan
According to the result of PCBs inventory investigation in Zhejiang, the
43 PCB waste
disposal sites in Zhejiang have been confirmed. Still based on the
deduction, we have
20more potential locations containing PCBs pollutant according to the
information of the
electricity department, so there are 61 PCB waste disposal sites
containing PCBs pollutant
totally. The pollution in most locations is unknown. Based on the
theoretic calculation on the
capacitors, the high concentration pollutant in Zhejiang is about 20000
tons, 2000 tons for
the low concentration pollutant. According to the characteristics of the
PCBs locations in
Zhejiang and the pollutants situation, the cleanup for the PCBs locations
can be three
phases:

  Phase 1 (2006.7-2006.12) -- clean up 14 locations

  Phase 2 (2007.1-2007.10) -- clean up 30 locations

  Phase 3 (2007.11-2008.6) -- clean up 12 locations

The cleanup plan for the confirmed 43 locations( 5 of which have been
cleaned up) as
follow:

  The cleanup can be three phases:

  Phase 1 (2006.7-2006.12) -- clean up 10 locations

  Phase 2 (2007.1-2007.10) -- clean up 19 locations

  Phase 3 (2007.11-2008.6) -- clean up 9 locations




                                               105
6. Remediation Procedure for PCB Sites

6.1 Main Activities
Zhejiang has identified 43 PCB storage sites and expects to identify 18
more sites based on
preliminary inventory established. The exact locations where the PCBs are
stored in the 61
PCB storage sites will have to be identified, and the contaminated soil
and wastes will be
sampledand tested, after which the sites will be cleaned up. Concentrated
PCB wastes with
PCB content of over 500ppm will be temporarily stored in Chongxian until
they are
transported to Shenyang for final destruction (See details in Chapter 7
EIA of Temporary
PCB Storage in the Zhejiang). Contaminated soil and other PCB wastes at
concentrations
from cleanup action level up to 500ppm will be treated by a mobile
thermal desorption
facility (in vehicle) site by site (see details in Chapter 8 EIA of the
Proposed Soil
Decontamination Scheme for the Zhejiang Province). In some unusual cases
that the
vehicle can not reach the site, both soil and PCB waste from cleanup
action level to 500
ppm will also be transported to Chongxian of Hangzhou for collectively
treatment by the
thermal desorption facility. The highly concentrated PCB waste generated
by thermal
desorption will then be sent to Shenyang for final disposal. The cleaned
PCB sites will be
further monitored and effectively managed until the remediation values of
those
contaminated sites (with PCB content below cleanup action level) fall
within the standard
set by the Chinese Government.
A mobile thermal unit is intended to be used to decontaminate the soil
around the sites in
the project. However, if the feasibility study on mobile vs fixed thermal
desorption
technology concluded that a fixed unit is more cost effective and
practical for the project,
then a fixed unit will be selected.

6.2 Main Procedure
Basically, the remediation for PCB Sites will comply with the following
procedures:
    a.    Mapping of the Exact Position of the Site and Position of the
Buried PCB Wastes;
    b.    Data Gathering for PCB Site;
    c.    Environmental Characterization Prior to Site Remediation;
    d.    Site Cleanup Design;
    e.    Personnel Training;
    f.    Site Preparation Prior to Cleanup;
    g.    Contaminated Waste and Soil Removal;
    h.    Package of PCBs Wastes;
    i.    Evaluation of Cleanup Activities and Restoration of the Cleaned
Site;
    j.    Site Security during Remediation;
    k.    Site Documentation;
    l.    Transportation of PCBs Wastes;
    m.    Temporary Storage;
    n.    Monitoring One Year after Cleanup;
    o.    Interagency Coordination;
    p.    Information Dissemination and Public Participation.
6.3 Detailed Description of the Procedure

Mapping of the Exact Position of the Site and Position of the Buried PCB
Wastes. The



                                            106
first step of remediation activities is to determine the specific
locations of the PCB storage
sites and position of the buried PCB wastes in the Zhejiang Province to
initiate
environmental sampling.

a. Due to lack of records or information concerning the existence of the
PCB storage sites,
    the institutional reorgnization in the past decades and changes of
the ambient
    environment of the storage sites, the exact location of the site and
position of the buried
    PCB wastes need to be identified by appropriate technologies and
equipment.

b. The exact geographic location of each site will be determined using an
off-the-shelf
    global positioning system (GPS). The position of the buried PCB
wastes within the site
    will be determined using a ground penetrating radar or, in simple
circumstances, by
    probing. The use of the GPS and ground penetrating radar will allow
preparation of
    digital maps of sites and of the buried objects for each site.

c. Very often, the use of a simple probe could not be used and in some
cases that
    methodology could be dangerous. For this reason, using a more
sophisticated technique
    that allows a precise localization of buried capacitors or other PCB
contaminated
    wastes in the Zhejiang Province is recommended. The Georadar (Ground
Penetrating
    Radar) is a technology for locating and obtaining a preliminary
quantification of buried
    PCBs wastes. This technology is based on electromagnetic waves, which
are sent to the
    surfaces to be monitored and received back with a different
reflection due to the
    dielectric characteristics of the elements they go through. It is
effective for locating and
    determining the depth of claddings, caves, cracks, metallic elements
and any other
    objects with a sensible dielectric contrast. The use of Georadar or
probe will allow
    preparation of a digital map for each site, which shows the exact
location of buried
    objects or PCB-containing equipments.

Data Collection. Data collection is a pre-field preparatory activity
which will be
conducted for all identified PCB sites. Information concerning geography,
topography,
land use, soil morphology, hydrogeology (in particular, groundwater depth
and
groundwater flow direction), groundwater use, etc. for each site will be
collected,
organized, and stored in a database for easy retrieval.

Environmental Characterization Prior to Site Remediation. With the exact
location of
the buried objects in caves and coffins, sampling and analysis will be
conducted by
professional monitoring centers or stations recruited for designing the
cleanup work.

a. Site Sampling. Various sampling methods could be adopted, in
accordance with
    different types of PCBs storage and media. For sites where PCB
concentrations have
    been found to be lower than the cleanup action levels and with deep
ground water table,
    most of samples will be taken from the soil; for sites where PCB
concentrations have
    been found to be higher than the cleanup action levels or with
relatively shallow
    groundwater table, then "Grid Sampling Method" will be used for both
soil and
    underground water. However, "Grid Sampling Method" should always be
considered
    for sites where leakage is found. In addition, for the concrete slab,
sampling will be
    conducted based on some common principles on concrete or solid mass;
for industrial
    residue containing PCBs, then "taper sampling method" or "grid
sampling method"
    could be adopted. Also depending on the type of the site, level of
contamination and



                                               107
    experience gained from practice in other sites in Zhejiang, a range
of 66 to 160 samples
    for each site may be taken for characterization.

b. Some basic principles for sampling:
    i.   Depth of sampling: samples could be taken 0~ 0.15m, 0.5 m,1 m,2
m,3 m,4 m,5
         m, and 6 m in depth from the surface according to the depth of
PCBs equipments
         and wastes. However, the normal vertical range of sampling is
0.5 meters
         extension beyond the edge of coffins. Distribution of sampling
will be determined
         according to size and type of the storage site. See details in
the Methodology for
         Investigating the Pollution of Soil, Underground Water, issued
by environmental
         authority.
    ii. Sampling is based on exact identification of the storage site;
otherwise, "Grid
         Distribution of Sampling" method together could be applied and
samples from
         various vertical layers should also be taken.

c. Packaging and Preservation of Samples. Samples should be more than 1
kg in weight.
    They will be packed in aluminium foil paper, contained in brown
terrarium of wide
    opening with label showing name of sample and source, and be
preserved in
    refrigerator (below -36? ). Samples should be pretreated as soon as
possible before
    normal analysis is made. Samples package and transport should avoid
light and ensure
    no leakage.

d. Pretreatment of samples: Samples pre-treatment including air drying
process will be
    taken as soon as possible; prevent samples from getting commingled
during
    preparation and analysis. Analysis will be made based on
consideration of both
    international and national standards. QA/QC will be ensured for the
reliability and
    preciseness of result.

e. Samples Analysis: (1) estimate the range of PCBs content based on
actual conditions;
    (2) Pre-treatment: weighing, extraction, cleaning, condensing for
determining its
    volume, purification, re-condensing, re-purification and finally re-
determining its
    volume; (3) analysis by mass spectrum equipment; (4) data analysis
and statistics; (5)
    data processing and report draft.

f. After the sampling and analysis, a digital map of PCB concentrations
will be prepared
    using geostatistical software. This map will be overlapped with the
map of the buried
    objects location to design the cleanup activity. Zones with high PCB
contamination
    (>500 ppm) and low PCB contamination (cleanup action levels-500 ppm)
will be
    identified.

Site Cleanup Design. Based on the digital map and the available data or
information
concerning the surrounding environment, a comprehensive cleanup plan will
be designed.
Normally, this plan includes the amount of wastes to be removed, the time
schedule of the
cleanup work, standard safety procedures and measures for preventing
further leakage or
dispersion of contaminants tothe environment. The plan will be subjected
to the review by
the environmental protection administration at the provincial level.
Views and suggestions
from the local citizens (including the property owners), representatives
from the
environmental protection administration, and specialists on the cleanup
design will be
obtained, and the design will be modified to address these views and
suggestions.



                                             108
Personnel Training. Cleanup workers will be trained for about five days
on personal
protection measures (PPE), including use of suitable protective clothing,
gloves, boots,
masks; prohibition of smoking, drinking and eating during the work in
contaminated areas;
and access restriction. Training on emergency measures will also be
provided to staff in
charge of emergency actions.

Site Preparation Prior to Cleanup. These preparatory activities relate to
the needs for
additional infrastructure at the site, selection of the field equipment,
leakage
countermeasures, posting of signs, and prevention of soil collapse, etc.

a. Infrastructure. If necessary, access roads will be constructed and
the workplace
    unruffled (including working area, rest area, tools location and
temporary storage area.

b. Equipment. The required machinery will be selected on the basis of
the area features
    and landfill type, generally including dredge, electrical generator,
electrical kevel,
    pump, forklift and transportation trucks.

c.   Leakage countermeasures. Leakage countermeasures will be implemented.

d. Site security. The entire area to be cleaned will be cordoned off,
marked with signs,
    and protected.

e. Prevention of soil collapse. If the excavation is deep, a steel
protective balustrade will
    be prepared in order to prevent soil collapse. Water will be pumped
from the excavated
    area and stored for analysis and required future treatment.

Contaminated Waste and Soil Removal.

a. Basically, the actual cleanup will include the following activities:

   i   Excavation. Excavation will be performed according to the
contaminated site
       design and procedures established under this project sub-
component. The collected
       contaminants from heavily and contaminated zones will be placed
separately in an
       isolated area separated by a 1.2-meter-high cofferdam above the
water level. The
       cofferdam will not be located in area where groundwater is
shallow. The floor of
       the cofferdam will be waterproof;
   ii Packaging of PCB-contaminated soil. The contaminated soils will be
packaged
       and labeled for future identification. Excavation will be stopped
whenever a cistern
       or a capacitor is found;

   iii Removal and packaging of PCB wastes. PCB capacitors or other
wastes will be
       immediately sealed after their removal from the site and
transferred into the
       containers. Each container will be labeled for future
identification.

   iv Removal of liquid PCBs. Liquid PCBs will be transferred into
containers. Each
       container will be labeled for future identification.

   v Small tools and personal protective equipment.These tools and
equipment will be
       collected as PCB-contaminated wastes and put into containers,
which will be
       labeled for future identification.

b. The potential environmental risks may include:


                                             109
   i    PCB oil leaking into the environmental or spilling the cleanup
workers due to
        inappropriate operation;

   ii The contaminants might enter the environment with the rain water
due to the
        abundant rainfalls characteristic of southern China;

   iii The safeguard measures are not executed completely;

   iv Emergency caused by engineering accidents, for example, collapse,
accidental
        falling into the pool, etc;

   v Emergency actions not made timely and completely. These measures
include fire
        proofing, poison prevention and water drainage etc.

c. Environmental mitigation measures proposed to address the above risks:

   i    Establishment of the detailed methodology or regulations for
workers or operators,
        including entering and leaving the working area. There will be a
decontamination
        chamber for the cleanup workers to exit the site at the end of
each day. The chamber
        has three compartments: the first one where the workers take off
and clean/package
        their personal protection equipment, the second one to take a
shower, and the third
        one to put on their street clothing. The packaged PPE and tools
will be washed and
        cleaned for reuse;

   ii Special training for the workers and operators on those guidelines
and regulations;

   iii Review and approval of the cleanup plan by a special expert group
established;

   iv Arrange professional staff to monitor and supervise the cleanup
work on-site;

   v Sufficient Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) for high protection
level, ground
        collapse protection facilities to prevent accidents due to
collapse, and special
        drainage system for contamination of ground water will be
available;

   vi Safeguard measures will also take into consideration successful
experiences or
        technology in other countries;
   vii A number of universal or common measures setup in various Chinese
regulations,
        guideline and operation manuals for safety and health purposes,
for example, fire
        protection, rain water protection, arranging a dedicated staff,
an emergency
        chamber with clean water source, soap, normal detoxification
material or chemicals
        and a dedicated doctor, etc. These measures (together with those
listed in
        regulations on hazardous waste management) will be considered in
this project, and
        will be established by the cleanup companies and supervised by
the independent
        expert panel recruited by project;

   viii The whole coffin will be excavated for disposal if it is
contaminated by PCBs;

   ix For the excavation of PCBs in caves, if there is no leakage from
the stored waste,
        then the waste with its plastic wrapping will be removed from the
cave and treated
        as PCB-containing waste; if there is leakage with contamination
of the rock in the
        cave, then the waste, the plastic wrapping, and the contaminated
rock will be
        removed from the cave and treated as PCB-containing waste.


                                              110
   x For PCBs in stone coffins, two cases in Zhejiang will be considered:
      ²
Forthefirstcase,thedismantledPCBsequipmentswereplacedingroups(with
          2 up to 4 in each group) in the coffins and cement was poured
in, thus forming a
          solid mass for each group. In this case, some excavated
equipment in one group
          is held together by the cement, therefore large steel
containers with membrane
          layers inside are needed, since these are considered as highly
contaminated
          wastes and sent to Shenyang for disposal. If leakage is found
in the cemented
          equipment, then measures should be taken to the surface layer
of the coffin. An
          active reagent will be used to clean the surface area of the
coffin and then the
          exterior layer will be taken away, and treated in the same way
as powerful
          contaminants sent for disposal in Shenyang. The thickness of
the layer to be
          cleaned will depend on the level of contamination. If no
leakage is found, then
          the active reagent will only be used for the exterior layer of
the coffin (and no
          further remediation action will be taken for the uncontaminated
concrete
          coffin).
      ² For the second case, the dismantled PCBs equipments were simply
placed in
          the coffins and no cement was used. In this case, the excavated
PCBs
          equipments are separate. If leakage is found, the active
reagent will be used for
          the exterior layer of the coffin. The exterior layer will be
regarded as a powerful
          contaminant and sent to Shenyang. The thickness of the layer to
be cleaned will
          depend on the level of contamination. If no leakage is found,
then the active
          reagent will only be used for the exterior layer of the coffin
(and no further
          remediation actions will be required for the uncontaminated
concrete coffin).

   xi For site with underground water contaminated by PCBs, the water
will be pumped
      out into the isolated area first so that the level of underground
water is lower than
      the buried objects and other contaminants. The solubility of PCBs
in water is very
      low (from 6ppm for monochlorobiphenil to as low as 0.007 ppm for
      octachlorobiphenyls). However, due to the high toxicity of PCB and
the high rate of
      human exposure associated to the ingestion of contaminated water,
the maximum
      allowed PCB concentration in water is very low (MCL for PCBs in
drinking water:
      0.05 ppb; Maximum Contaminant Level Goal MCLG is 0 ppb. Please
refer to
      Chapter 2.2.4 for details). In the case of small volumes of PCB
contaminated water,
      the most practical solution is to dispose the contaminated water in
the Shenyang
      incinerator. In order to do that, the water must be collected and
temporarily stored
      in properly designed tanks and then transported to the Shenyang
incinerator. In the
      case of large volumes of PCB contaminated water, probably it is
more cost effective
      to decontaminate the water by means of an activated charcoal
filter, and then send
      the exhaust charcoal to the incinerator. However, selection will be
made based on
      economic analysis between these two options before decontamination
action.

d. Some Measures Proposed for Emergency

   i If leakage occurs due to wrong operation, segregate the leaking
area and put
      warning symbols around the area. Cleanup of accident area will be
done
      immediately. The leaking material should not be touched directly.
The
      contaminated ground will be scrubbed with soap or detergent in case
of concrete
      ground. Monitoring will also be taken in case of serious accident
which causes a


                                             111
        large area of contamination. To avoid possible accidents in
future, training will be
        strengthened for the workers and operations, or workers or
operators who have
        re-violated the guidelines will be disqualified.

     ii Human poisoning during cleanup activities:
         ² Setup an emergency chamber with clean water source, soap,
normal
             detoxification material or chemicals, and a dedicated doctor
etc;
         ²
Incaseofaccident,washbywaterandsoapforskincontact;undrawtheeyelids,
             wash with water for 15 minute for eye contact; leave the site
for fresh air, drink
             warm water and urge vomit for inhaling PCBs.

Package of PCBs Wastes. Specific requirements should be considered as
follows due to
the environmental risks, including PCB leakage due to the breaking of
packages, barrels or
layers and error or negligence by the workers or operators. Measures to
avoid these kinds
of risks may include:

a. Establish the guidelines for safe package, and provide training for
the workers;

b. In general, the container should be solid with good protecting
ability. Its material, type,
    specs, and quality should be suitable with the character of PCBs
waste and be easy for
    loading & unloading, transportation and storage;

c. Each capacitor will be packed in one bag made of a thick plastic
membrane (The plastic
    membrane should be non-halogenated. PVC is not acceptable, but a PE
would be
    acceptable). The bag will be filled with some sawdust for the
convenience of package.
    Three to six bags containing capacitors will be put in a pallet for
package using a
    special packer with steel packing tape. The whole pack will then
placed in one
    container with a capacity of 200 liters, be made out of iron or
plastic lined inside with a
    thick plastic membrane, and have a sealed cover on the top;

d. Heavily polluted wastes (such as broken capacitors and heavily
contaminated soil) will
    also be packed, labeled and placed in a 200-liter container. For the
packaging of broken
    capacitors, unlike unbroken ones, more sawdust and membranes will be
used ;
e. PCB liquids will be pumped and stored in 10-liter plastic containers.
Separately sealed
    containers will then be put in the same container;

f. The soil with more than 50% moisture content will be packed in the
same way as the
     highly contaminated soil in order to prevent possible leakage of
PCBs; while the soil
     with less than 50% moisture content will be packed in a waterproof
bag.

g. There will be two types of labels required:

    i   Red label for high contaminants (labels in bags and containers
with capacitors,
        transformers, soil, water, and oil.), with information of the
weight, type of
        pollutants, moisture content, the date of excavation,
address of cleanup site,
        address to be stored, and the name of labeling, etc;

    ii Pink label for low contaminants (labels in bags and containers
with capacitors,
        transformers, soil, water, and oil.), with information of the
weight, high/low




                                                 112
        contaminants, type of pollutant, moisture content, the date of
excavation, address of
        cleanup site, address to be stored, and the name of labeling;

   iii Green label for others, with information of the weight, high/low
contaminants, type
        of pollutant, moisture content, the date of excavation, address
of cleanup site,
        address to be stored, and the name of labeling.

Evaluation and Restoration of the Cleaned Site. An evaluation group,
consisting of
member from the local PIU and of the Independent Expert Panel (IEP) will
verify and
evaluate the cleanup activities.
a. Zhejiang Monitoring Station, part of PIU, will monitor the site which
has been
   excavated.
   i.    Basic principles: "Grid and Cross Sampling Distribution" could be
used for
         identified contaminated area; "Site Mixed Grid Sampling
Distribution" is suitable
         for small contaminated areas on soil sampling; "Bisection
Imperforate Plate
         Sampling Distribution" is appropriate for plate type media
(concrete for example);
         and "Conic Stack Sampling Distribution" could be applied for deep
sampling in
         typical areas.
   ii. Some methods: "Site Mixed Grid Sampling Distribution" for sites of
good buried
         conditions or slightly broken coffins. "Non-site Mixed Grid
Sampling
         Distribution" and "Site Mixed Sampling Distribution" could be
used for sites
         without solid concrete inside; and "Non-site Mixed Grid Sampling
Distribution"
         for open storage or caves;
   iii. An average 40 samples per site will be taken during this stage
for all 56 sites.
   iv. Samples preservation, pre-treatment and analysis for verification
should also
         comply requirements described in `c', `d' and `e' under
`Environmental
         Characterization Prior to Site Remediation'.
b. The evaluation group will prepare a final report for each PCB cleanup
site to document
   and evaluate all activities conducted at the site. After the
acceptance and approval by
   this group, the excavated areas will backfilled with clean soil. The
surface and
   surrounding area will be restored after evaluation.
Site Security during Remediation. The site security will be ensured
during the entire
time from the start of site remediation until the end of backfilling.
Therefore, two staffs in
three shifts are required for supervision of the excavated site to make
sure the local
inhabitants do not enter the work area before the monitoring report
approves the excavation
work and the backfilling is completed. The cleanup company will need to
conduct further
excavation if the monitoring data or report shows the work is incomplete.
In this case, site
security will continue.

Site Documentation.         Site documentation will be collected and
archived. The
documentation will include:

a. Basic site information: address, ownership, ambient environment,
sealed-up time, and
   type, etc;

b. Description of cleanup plan, staff involved, type and amount of wastes
cleaned;

c. Description of cleanup work: safety and protection measures taken at
site, excavation



                                             113
   process of PCB-containing equipment, PCB oil, coffin, contaminated
soil and
   backfilling of soil, etc;

d. Package of wastes and contaminants;

e. Transportation of wastes to warehouse;

f. Summary of the site cleanup verification report.

Transportation of PCBs Wastes. As mentioned above, Concentrated PCB
wastes with
PCB content of over 500ppm, and contaminated soil and other PCB wastes at
concentrations from cleanup action level up to 500ppm from very few sites
inaccessible by
mobile thermal desorption vehicle, will be transported to Chongxian for
temporary storage.
The contaminated soil and other PCB wastes at concentrations from cleanup
action level
up to 500ppm will be treated by mobile thermal desorption vehicle; the
concentrated PCB
wastes with PCB content of over 500ppm together with wastes generated by
the thermal
desorption facility will then be collectively transported to Shenyang for
final disposal once
a year from 2006-2008. The transportation of PCB wastes will strictly
comply with the
terms and requirements setup by Regulation on the Transportation of
Hazardous
Wastes of China. Consideration should also be given to the
characteristics of PCBs.

a. Establish the guidelines for safe transportation;

b. Given the characteristics of PCBs, the transportation will be
conducted by the special
   company or institute licensed for hazardous wastes transportation;

c. Management procedure and emergency procedure for transportation should
be
   established in advance. The management procedures should include:

   i    Contract negotiation and signed;

   ii Establishment of transportation team and responsibility assigned to
individuals;

   iii Preparation of vehicle and necessary equipment. Trucks
transporting PCBs must
        contain signs displaying that these are vehicles transporting
hazardous wastes and
        include name of the transportation company and the emergency
telephone
        numbers;
   iv Prior to placement on the trucks, all containers will be inspected
to ensure that there
        are no spills and there is no potential for any spill during
transportation.

   v Contents of handover of hazardous wastes from cleanup site/warehouse
to the
        transportation team;

   vi Planning of route and agenda;

   vii Accommodation and fuel charging;

   viii Measures for addressing troubles or breakdown of vehicles;

   ix Contents of handover of hazardous wastes from the transportation
team to the
        warehouse;

   x Cleaning of the unloaded vehicles;



                                              114
   xi Arrangement of return;

   xii Check, evaluate the transportation tasks completed;

   xiii Periodical sampling and analysis on the vehicles to determine the
necessity of
        environmental monitoring on sensitive sites along the route of
transportation.

d. The emergency procedures for transportation should cover:

   i    Measures to address the breakage of the packages and leakage of
contaminants;

   ii Measures to address traffic accidents;

   iii Measures to address fire accidents;

   iv Measures to address flooding encountered;

   v Measures to address poisoning accident of personnel;

   vi Way or approach for emergency help.

e. For short/provincial transportation of contaminated soil and other PCB
wastes at
   concentrations from cleanup action level up to 500ppm from very few
sites
   inaccessible by the mobile thermal desorption vehicle, a
transportation team will be
   established consisting of 8-10 trucks with the container of a capacity
of 20 tons (180
   tons capacity in total one time, about two times for each site), 1
special commanding
   vehicle and 1 emergency vehicle. The team will have 1 project manager,
12 drivers
   (including 2-4 in standby), 2 safeguard staff, and 3 staff for
emergency actions.
   Normally in Zhejiang, the truck goes 600 km per day sothe team can
start from early
   morning and reach Chongxian in the afternoon of the same day;

f. For long distance transportation between Chongxian of Hangzhou and
Shenyang for
   three batches respectively from 2006 to 2008, a transportation team
will be established,
   consisting of 5 trucks with the container of a capacity of 20 tons
each (100 tons in total
   one time, about 5 times for the first batch of 2006 and third batch of
2008 in about 2
   month, and 10 times for the second batch of 2007 in about 3 months), 1
special
   commanding vehicle and 1 emergency vehicle. There will be 1 project
manager, 10
   drivers (including 3 in standby), 2 safeguard staff and 3 staff for
emergency actions. It
   will take 10 days for each round trip assuming that the team routinely
covers 700 km in
   daytime per day.

g. The workers and staff involved in transportation will receive special
training on:

   i    The physical and chemical properties of PCBs and its impact on
the environmental
        and human health;

   ii Personal protection and emergency measures for PCBs;

   iii Character and types of PCBs wastes to be transported

   iv Emergency plan for controlling the possible proliferation of PCBs
contaminants
        during transportation;

   v The overall plan and special requirements;



                                            115
    vi Communication equipment and its operation;

    vii In addition to the items above, the training for the drivers of
these trucks should
        cover safe driving practices, and proper completion of the
manifest.

h. Risks control and emergency measures;

    i      Avoid transport in bad weather, for example, rainy and snowy
days;

    ii The team should be well organized and form into columns. Each
vehicle will be
        equipped with communication equipment;

    iii It is prohibited to march at night;

    iv The plan should consider possible accommodation in the Service
Station in the
        highway. In this case, the team should arrange 2 to three shifts
in charge of trucks
        with hazardous wastes;

    v The team will be equipped with GPS to locate the exact position of
the team at any
        time, besides PPE, package materials and emergency tools or
equipment as well.

i. Planning of transportation route. Highway and high quality roads
should be planned if
    possible. The route from Hangzhou to Shenyang (2500 km) is
tentatively as follows:


                          Hangzhou-Shanghai                    Beijing-Shanghai
Beijing-Shenyang
                               Highway                             Highway
Highway


           Hangzhou                             Shanghai
Tianjing




                          11102 National Road
               Shenyang                      Xinming of Shenyang
j. Periodical sampling and analysis on the transported vehicle. The
monitoring on some
    sensitive sites, including sampling on soil and sediment along the
transportation route
    from Hangzhou to Shenyang, will be conducted if necessary.

Temporary Storage in Zhejiang. The warehouse which is proposed in Yuyao
District of
Hangzhou will store the highly contaminated PCB wastes (>500 ppm) until
they are
transported to Shenyang for final disposal, and some low contaminated PCB
wastes
(between cleanup action level and 500 ppm) from the sites which the
mobile vehicle can
not reach. This temporary warehouse will be designed and operated
according to the
Standard for Pollution Control on Hazardous Waste Regulation (GB18597-
2001). Detailed
technical description of the warehouse and measure proposed for
environment protection
are illustrated in Chapter 8 Temporary PCB Storage in the Zhejiang.

Monitoring One Year after Cleanup. Non-site Mixed Grid Sampling
Distribution will be
applied, and an average 5 samples per site will be taken during this
stage for all 56 sites.
Samples preservation, pre-treatment and analysis for verification should
also comply



                                                 116
requirements described in `c',`d' and `e' under `Environmental
Characterization Prior to
Site Remediation'.

Interagency Coordination. During the whole process of cleanup activities,
coordination
will be conducted for the successful implementation.

a. The Convention Implementation Office of SEPA (CIO/SEPA) is responsible
for
   day-to-day compliance with the Stockholm Convention. Under CIO/SEPA, a
special
   working group has been established for overall management and
implementation of
   project; Its responsibilities include:

   i    Preparing TORs for activities under the project;

   ii Reviewing project progress reports submitted by the local PIU,
consisting of local
        EPB and power companies;

   iii Managing project procurement and financial resources according to
the Bank's
        procedures;

   iv Organizing and convening project coordination meetings among
stakeholders;

   v Regularly reviewing the consolidated indicators to assess the
effectiveness of the
        project and reviewing project outputs.

b. Local Project Implementation Unit in Zhejiang (local PIU). Zhejiang
will establish a
   project implementation unit (PIU) to conduct day-to-day project
management and
   coordination at the local level. The PIU's location, size and specific
functions will be
   clearly defined in a TOR prepared by CIO/SEPA. The PIU will be jointly
consisted of
   staff from the Zhejiang EPB (two key centers: Zhejiang Environmental
Monitoring
   Center and Zhejiang Solid Waste Management Center) and Zhejiang Power
Company.
   The responsibilities of PIU will include:

   i    Overseeing operation of PCB management in Zhejiang;

   ii Coordinating/organizing local training and seminars to raise
awareness of public
        and to exchange information among different stakeholders;
   iii Monitoring PCB sites before and after their cleanup and the
temporary storage site
        for collected PCB wastes to supervise the effectiveness of the
cleaning operation;

   iv Contributing to advocacy and policy dialogue;

   v Collecting information from all contractors of project activities
and preparing
        progress reports with guidance and assistance from the PCB
project team in the
        CIO/SEPA;

   vi The PIU's staffing will include the following positions: (1)
executive director, (2)
        project officers, financial officer; (3) management information
system specialist;
        and (4) relevant technical specialists. Detailed responsibilities
for these positions
        will be defined in the PIU's TOR.

c. Private Partners. Private companies will be selected through strict
competitive process
   to:



                                              117
   i   Remove, package, transport, temporarily store PCBs and PCB
containing
       equipment;

   ii PCB desorption of contaminated soils (cleanup action level < PCBs <
500ppm);

   iii Test the environmentally sound decontamination technology for PCB-
containing
       transformers.

d. Other Stakeholders. Other stakeholders involves:

   i   Enterprises who still have PCBs in service will be involved in
implementing the
       project activity of decontamination of PCB transformers;

   ii The public at large and NGOs will be involved in the project
through education and
       public awareness activities;

   iii Relevant international organizations and possible bilateral donors
will be informed
       about project progress and invited advice on its implementation.

Information Dissemination and Public Participation. The public should be
involved
from the demonstration preparation all the way through the project
implementation. These
may include:

a. Dissemination of the proposed project to the public during
environmental assessment
   process, including project background, objectives, major activities
and implementation
   arrangements, etc, to welcome and accept the suggestions or opinions
from them;

b. Dissemination of EIA report to the public both internationally and
locally;

c. Awareness raising by education in TV, newspapers, websites,
dissemination of
   brochures or booklets to the public during project implementation
stage;

d. Establishment of a mechanism for public participation and complaints
so that the
   inhabitants affected are encouraged to be fully involved in planning
and
   implementation;

e. Cleanup plan should be reviewed and discussed with participation from
the
   representatives from local area so that the local public should be
well informed about
   the activities conducted, resettlement arrangements, issues for
special attention, or
   compensation negotiation if possible;

f. During cleanup activities, information, signs or notices for example,
should be
   provided to the public to ensure the public safety;

g. After cleanup activities, the affected inhabitants should be resettled
and their normal
   living conditions should be restored. And the public should be
informed of the result of
   cleanup activities and issues for attentions. They are also required
to provide
   suggestions or opinions on this demonstration.




                                            118
7. The Environmental Impact Assessment for Temporary Storage
     Facility of PCBs
PCBs demonstration project will be implemented in Zhejiang Province.
According to
Feasibility Research of Management and Disposal in Demonstrated Province
of China
and the strategy of NIP, and the collected highly contaminated PCB wastes
will be properly
stored before they are transported to PCBs disposal center in Shenyang,
and meanwhile
low contaminated PCB wastes will be disposed of by mobile disposal
facility at the site.
Highly contaminated PCB wastes will be stored in the storage facility
until they
accumulate to a certain amount, then they will be transported to Shenyang
in a batch. The
temporary storage facility is proposed to store all highly contaminated
PCBs wastes and
some low contaminated PCBs waste form a few sites which can not be
accessible by the
mobile disposal facility. When all PCBs waste in China has been
addressed, this storage
facility could be used for other hazardous waste.

This section is to make the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the
temporary
storage facility.

According to the estimation, there are 20,000 tons of low PCB
contaminated waste and
2000 tons high PCB contaminated PCBs waste in Zhejiang province. The
storage facility is
proposed to have two thirds of its capacity for highly PCB contaminated
wastes, and 20%
of its capacity for some low PCB contaminated waste, and 10% for
packaging material.
The construction area of this temporary storage is about 4416.7m2. The
total budget is
estimated about 11,240,000 RMB.
7.1. Siting of the PCB Storage Facility

7.1.1.Identification of the General Locations for the PCBs Storage
        Facility

Chongxian and Qiaosi in Hangzhou city have been selected as the general
locations for
PCBs storage facility. Zhejiang province is poor in land resource, the
alternative sites are
very little, and the base information about them is scarce. So far as the
known data, from
the aspect of environmental impact or the baseline information, the two
sites above are
considerable sound for building of PCBs storage facility. Chongxiansite
(future Dadi site)
and Qiaosi site (current Dadi site) have been approved of land use for
hazardous waste
disposal. General speaking, the proposed sites are with some advantage
conditions for
building PCBs storage facility, such as the long distance from the
citycenter, good traffic
condition, good water and power supply, and engineering geological
condition etc. The
Chongxian site and Qiaosi site have been marked in the map of Hangzhou
City in Annex
? . Also, # 320 national highway, Huhang highway, 01 provincial highway,
and 09
provincial highway etc, have been shown in the map.




                                             119
7.1.2.Natural and Socio-Economic Environment of Chongxian and
        Qiaosi
7.1.2.1Chongxian

  (i)    Geography

HangZhou City is in the south of the Changjiang River Delta, to the west
of the Hangzhou
bay, at the downstream of Qiantangjiang River, which is at the north side
of the Jinghang
Grant Canal, the metropolitan city in Changjiang River Delta and the key
position for
transportation in Southeast part of China. The geographical coordinates
of Hangzhou
urban area is 30º16' in north latitude and 120º12' in east longitude.

                       Figure1 The Local Map of Chongxian




The proposed sites of Industrial Waste Incinerating Plant of Yuhang
district of Hangzhou,
is on Xiwu hill in Chongxian forest center, with geographical coordinate
of 30º24´ in north
latitude and 20º14 ' in latitude, which is 2km away from #320 national
highway in
Northwest, 9km away from #09 provincial highwayin the northeast, and 15km
away from
Hu-Hang highway in the southwest. Those highways have been indicated in
figure 1.

  (ii) Climate

Hangzhou city is in the east and north coast of china, which at the edge
of semitropical
zone, climate is warm and wet, plentiful rain, a lot of sunshine, and
distinguished from four
seasons. According to the statistical climate data, the climatic feature
can be described as
fellow.

                           Table 7.1 Climate Data in Hangzhou
        Yearly Average Temperature                    16.5?




                                              120
       Yearly Average Atmospheric pressure              1011.4hpa

       Yearly Average Precipitation                     1419.1mm

       Yearly Average Relative Humidity                 77%

       Yearly Average Evaporation                       1260mm

       Yearly Average Sunshine Hours                    1783.9Hr

       Yearly Average wind velocity                     2.02m/s

       Main wind Direction SSW                          (13.06%)

  (iii) Topography

The whole area mainly is hill and mound topographically, in which a small
portion belongs
to the North Zhejiang plain, the elevation declining from east to west.
The mountainous
lands is partly composed of the residues from erosion of argillutite,
clasolite, the volcanic
rock, and partly composed of the denudation of carbonate in Karst area.
The proposed site in Chongxian is located on Xiwu hill which extends from
northeast to
southwest, approximately in parallel to the geologic strata. The slope of
Xiwu hill ranges
from 10º to 40º. There are ditches and valleys along the hill side. To
its southwest side is
Fenggao hill, which is 362 meters in height above the sea level. The
north and south peaks
of the mountain are about 150m and 250m. The site faces the mountain in
three directions,
and rest one direction it is open.

  (iv) Strata Lithology

Geological formation of the area can be divided into 7 geologic strata
totally, consisting of
paleozoic clasolite geologic strata, quaternarypleistocene strata,and
holocene series strata.
The first layer is the lax soil, which distributes in the axle of dam
that is planned to be build,
and the engineering geology property is unfavorable, so it is not
suitable for construction.
The second layer consists of clay, sand, and crushed stones Which are
quaternary holocene
pluvial sediments, possessing better engineering performance compared
with the 1st layer,
and can be used as base for common purpose; The 3rd layer consists of
silty clay with
crushed stones, the breccia, and crushed stones are pluvial sediments of
pleistocene series
of quaternary, whose the geological performance is better, so it is a
sound natural base as
the supporting layer; The 4th layer is quartz sandstones, which varied
from heavily
weathered to moderately weathered correspondingly, and particularly
moderately
weathered quartz sandstone and weakly weathered has a favorable
engineering geological
performance that can be used as supporting foundation The 5th layer is
silty mudstone that
buried deeply, and it do not makes sense to serve as supporting layer;The
6th layers is
cracked layer, whose engineering geological performance is unfavorable.

  (v) Hydrology

Donghegang River, which is the tributary of Shangtang River in the hydro-
system of
Chongxian location, comes from Tangxi river network, flows from north to
south and
converges into Shangtang River near the Xingqiao County. The width of
water surface of


                                                121
Donghegang River is about 10m-20m. The velocity of flow is only 0.03m/s
and the water
depth is about 1.5m. Donghegang River has many functions such as
irrigation and flood
diversion.

In addition, near the projected site there is cement factory which has
flood diversion
ditches. These ditches, which are used to drain water runoff from hill
and the flood
resulting from rain or storm, distributes and extends eastwardly and flow
into Donghegang
River near Tangjia village.

    (vi) Hydrogeology

According to the regional hydro-geological data, the groundwater can be
divided into three
types: groundwater in porous media in unconsolidated rock, groundwater in
fractured
media in bedrock, and groundwater in karst fractures in limestone. The
regional
hydro-geological condition can be described as: regional groundwater is
mainly distributed
in low-lying valley. Rainwater infiltrating into fissures, fractures and
pores of various rock
forms groundwater runoff which flows from a place with high water level
(recharging area)
to a spot with low water level. It forms water abundance area along
valleys. From analysis
of landform and geological structure, groundwater has apparent pathway to
recharge, flow
and discharge. Therefore, to a large extent, each valley in the district
constitutes an
independent integral hydro-geologic units which have common properties in
hydro-geologic feature but they are irrelevant. The regional groundwater
sources
(centralized groundwater abstraction area) that have been assured are
located at
Qinglongwu, Nanwu and Furiwu. The hydro-geologic feature around the
location can be
described as: the three categories of fractured water in bedrock belong
to HCO3 Ca type, of

-

which the concentration of HCO3 is 53.92mg/L, the concentration of Ca+2
is 16.31mg/L,
                                    -

the minerality is 94.55mg/L, the pH value is 5.44, which belongs to
subacidity freshwater;
the unconfined water in Quaternary porous media is SO4 Ca type, the
concentration of
                                                               -

SO4 is 33.34mg/L, the concentration of Ca2+ is 14.54mg/L, the degree of
mineralization is
    2-

64.19mg/L, the pH value is 5.45, which belongs subacidity freshwater. The
conditions of
runoff and discharge can be described as: The groundwater around at this
location flows
from northwest to southeast; The outside of syncline of tongjiawu group
in Silurian System
is relative aquiclude, above which are unconfined aquifers of porous
media and fractured
media. And the groundwater in porous media gets recharge through
precipitation
infiltration. On the one hand, groundwater in porous media drains to
fractured aquifer
through vertical seepage and on the other hand it receives recharge at
each side from the
fractured aquifer while it flows to low places. Due to this, at bottom of
valley or ditch it is
wet all year round during a year with mean precipitation.

  (vii) Biodiversity

In Chongxian, the hills around the site of the project are mostly covered
with pines,
camphor trees, bead tree, bamboo and other trees and weeds. The trees are
man-planted, of
which most have a diameter of 10~ 20cm. Vegetation in the project area
keeps in good
condition, and coverage rate is above 70%. Endangered species of wildlife
are not found
near the project site.

  (viii) Soil erosion




                                             122
Yuhang district, in which the construction is well developed, is the
demonstration district
for water and soil conservation in Hangzhou city. The construction
location of the project is
in a valley, which has 400m long and 100m wide approximately. The bottom
elevation of
the valley is 40m, and the top elevation is 100m. At present, it is wood
land with trees as its
main ground flora and ochre clay-quartz sandstone as its top soil layer
which is
approximately 2m thick. The vegetation coverage rate is over 70%, so the
degree of soil
erosion is little. The feature of the top soil layer with high
permeability and water retention
makes it possess a strong ability to endure soil erosion.
  (ix) Socio-economy

The Chongxian town governs 28 administrative villages, a residential
district, and 38.62
square kilometers in total. In the end of 2002, total population in the
whole town reaches
38903, and there are 823 of industry enterprises in whole town in 2002,
the total industry
production is 3,260,000,000 dollars, annual gross domestic production
(GDP) is
97,000,000 RMB, ranking in top 100 villages, key town of Hangzhou Cities
in Zhejiang
province, "3A" industrial villages of the Yuhang District. The
agriculture income
amounted to 87,100,000 dollars in the year of 2002, and the gross
production for third
industry (service business such as touring industry, hotel industry,
trade, and etc.)
amounted to 250,000,000 RMB.

Since the Chongxian town has well developed channel network, plentiful
rain and rich soil,
rice, mulberry, lotus root, bright red chufa and cane shoot are widely
planted. The pattern
of appropriate scale of operation and commercial agriculture has come
into being. So far,
three leading industries (textiles manufacture, textile machinery, paper
making and
packaging), and the three industrial parks (Lujia, Doushan and Buyi
industrial park) have
been built. A number of large scale well-known enterprises boomed. The
total production
value by them is more than 100 million RMB.
Besides, near the candidate site for storage facility, there are some
quarries and cement
plants, which generate some pollution, such as dust, SO2. These plants
and quarries are
sources of dust pollution observed at the proposed site. Dust and noise
and SO2 pollutions
meet the criteria at the observation spot of 1,000m away.

7.1.2.2Qiaosi

(i) Geography

The proposed Qiaosi site is in Yuhang district of Hangzhou city. Yuhang
district is located
in south of Hangjiahu plain, and the west side of Tianmu Mountain. The
exact geographic
position of Yuhang is longitude 119º40'-120º23' east and latitude 30º09'-
30º34' north. It is
in neighborhood with six counties or districts, namely Tongxiang,
Haining, Fuyang, Linan,
Anji and Deqing, to its east, north and west side. To its south is the
Hangzhou urban area.
See Annex III for details.




                                                123
                          Figure 2. The local map for Qiaosi site




(ii) Climate

Qiaosi is about 35 km away from Chongxian, so climate at Qiaosi is same
as that in
Chongxian.

(iii)Topography

The topography in Qiaosi is similar to that in Chongxian location. But
Qiaosi has a
relatively higher sea level than Chongxian.
(iv)Strata Lithology

The land at the project site is flat, which is in littoral-facies
sediment zone, the soil profile
of the land from top to bottom is cultivated soil, plain fill, clay silt
and littoral-facies
sediment sludge, the soil presents powder-sand characters.

(v) Hydrology

Yueya River which belongs to Shangtang hydro-system, lies to the east of
the project site of
Qiaosi Location. Except in flood seasons, the flow velocity in Yueya
River is slow and
smooth. Base on hydrologic information, the water level of Shangtang
river in usual is
4.6m (based elevation of Wusong harbor), and the low water level is 3.8m
and the flood
level is 6.6m.Because the capacity of flood control in drainage
infrastructure is enforced
during late these years, the flood level slightly decreased, and the
highest flood level less
than 6.0m(1998,1999).
(vi)Hydrogeology

Qiaosi locates in the plain area, the groundwater level is about 1 to 2
meters. The soil types
 mostly comprise of cultivate soil silt soil and a portion of clay soil.
Though conductivity
 is comparably high, however the topography is flat, so the velocity of
groundwater is


                                               124
 slow.

(vii) Biodiversity

In Yuhang district, there are rich wildlife resources including decades
of kinds of birds,
over ten kinds of mammals and nearly ten kinds of amphibians and
reptiles; it is also rich in
fish resources including several kinds of fish and shrimp.

In Yuhang district, the climatic conditions are favorable to plants
growth. Except at
cultivated land, the plants generally are biyear herbage, shrubbery,
arbores and 495 kinds
of trees; belong to 77 categories, such as metasequoia, gingko, Chinese
Douglas fir, yew,
eucommia, insense cedar, cinnamomum pedunculatum, and etc. Bamboo forests
and tea
forests grow especially well. Bamboo is the main wild plant. Mao bamboo
spread over
forest farms, while most land-grown bamboo is planted manually. Several
kinds of aquatic
plant, such as water lettuce, common waterrthacinth, alligator
alternanthera etc, distribute
around rivers network region.
Qiaosi site is in the Qiaosi town of Yuhang district in Hangzhou, the
residents in Xingtang
town are considered the protection targets. No wild animals or foliage
live in this area.
Man-plant trees such as willow, privet, fruit trees, and some bushes are
found in there.
Man-breed animal such as cow, pig, chick are frequently seen.

(viii) Socio-economy

The Qiaosi town, with a population of 37091 and an area of 30.12 square
kilometers
including 1703 hectares cultivated land, governs over 22 administrative
villages and a
residential district. In 2002, the gross domestic production of industry
and agriculture
reached 1.755 billion RMB, 26.8% higher than that in 2001; the gross
domestic production
of agriculture is 1.817 billion RMB, 37.7% higher than that in 2001;
financial revenue is
36.83 million RMB, 48% higher than that in 2001; the income of farmer is
7003 RMB per
capita, 7% higher than that in 2001. During latest these years, with the
progress of
urbanization, the industrial economy, the process of integration of urban
and rural areas,
the residence environment and the social enterprises are developing
rapidly and
harmoniously.
7.2. Detailed Description of PCB Storage Sites Considered in
       Chongxian and Qiaosi

7.2.1 Siting Requirements

Requirements for siting are listed as below

      l Geological Structure is stable, and seismic intensity in an area
is less than 7
          degree.

        l The base of storage facility is above the highest groundwater
level

      l The Site is 800 meters away from residential area and 150 meters
away from
          surface water.

      l Ban the building of storage facility at karstic area or the place
that is liable to



                                               125
        suffering from flood, slide, mudslide, tide and so on.

    l The site is to be far away from storage facility for flammable or
explosive
        hazardous goods, from defending area of high-voltage electricity
transmitting
        line.

    l The site will be located at a place in the downwind direction of
the residential
        area's maximum yearly average wind frequency.

    Moreover geophysical detecting method is acceptable to be used in
siting storage
    facility area for the further information.
7.2.2 Detailed Description of the Chongxian Site
    - The proposed site for building PCBs storage facility lies in the
valley of the Xiwu
      hill of Nashan, Xingqiao, in Chongxian district, with the
coordinate of north
      latitude of 30° and north longitude of 20°14´ , the exact position
is marked on the
      figure 1.
    - It is an area mostly covered by low bush, but not the scenery area
with no
      inhabitants within 2 km away.
    - Nanshan Cement Plant and Hangzhou Cement Plant is about 1km to 2km
      respectively from the proposed location. In addition, there are
some quarries,
      among which the nearest one is about 1 km away. These plants and
quarries are
      sources of dust pollution observed at the proposed site.
    - The proposed site in Chongxianis 17km away from the Qiaosi site
    - The proposed site is 2km away from the nearest residential area.
    - The site is 400m in length and 100m in width. It is about 100
meters in average
      above the sea level. The total construction area is about 333,000
m2.
    - The land of proposed site is a piece of empty land, which grows
plenty of grass.
      After completion of PCBs disposal in this demonstration and the
national
      replication program, the facility is proposed to be used as the
hazardous storage
      facility of waste disposal center of Zhejiang after measures are
implemented (See
      details in 7.10).
    - The proposed site includes industrial waste incineration workshop,
medical waste
      incineration workshop, waste treatment station, solidification
workshop,
      transformer station, parking area, administration building-all
belong to Dadi and
      this storage facility which will have its own entrance and
surrounding wall and it
      not belongs to Dadi, shown in figure 3.
    - The surface soil comprises of clay and quartz sandstone of 1 meter
in depth.
    - The groundwater is more than 3 meters in depth.
    - No landscape spot is within 3 km range.
    - The distance from the proposed site to residence area is over 2,000
meters. And the
      road entering the site is not to cross the residence area. The
sensitive spots around
      the site are listed as table 7.2.
    - This area is used for sound disposal of waste. The industrial waste
incinerator and
      the medical waste incinerator owned by DADI are the main
engineering of this area,
      which are about 100 meters from the proposed site for the PCB
storage facility to
      be built. No surface water, school, hospital, and critical natural
habitat within 1 km
      of the proposed site. The figure 3 gives more detailed information.



                                            126
                        Table 7.2 sensitive spots around the proposed site

Sensitive spot              Attribution     Direction Distance
Memo
Depot    of     Chemical Storage       of   South         200m            from
Storing explosive
light material company      dangerous                     incineration area
of Yuhang                   material
Nanshan           cement    Mineral    &    East          1000m
Having    about      100
factory                     Industrial
employees
                            company
Well for drinking of Groundwater            East          1500m
Water     supply      for
Sanlian         electronic
production           and
company
domestic
Hangzhou          cement Mineral       &    East          1500m
Having    about      300
factory                     Industrial
employees
                            company
Tangjiacun Village          Residential     East          2000m~2500m
                            area
Hengshancun Village         Residential     East          2600m
                            area
Country      villa       of Residential     South         2500m
Under construction
Tiandushan                  area            and east
Tiandu             happy Resort area        South         3000m
Occupying     666,000
4-seasons park                              and east
square meters, in use
Residence       area     of Residential     South         3000m
Under construction
Tiandu city                 area            and East




                                                    127
Figure 3 The Sketch for planned land use in Chongxian site




                     128
    Figure 3a Surrounding Environment of Chongxian




7.2.3 Detailed Description of the Qiaoxi Site
    - The proposed location for the PCB storage facility    is in current
Dadi site. Dadi is
       located in the Hispanic industrial park in Qiaosi,   Yuhang district.
    - The proposed location is an empty area inside Dadi    Facility. And
now it is covered
       with grass.
    - The current land use in proposed location is shown    in figure 4. The
farmer
       residential area is about 150 meters away from the   location, where
chicken, duck,
       pig are normally raised.




                                           129
- The Dadi Company is to the south of Huhang Highway, close to the
junction of 01
  Provincial Highway and 09 Provincial Highway. It's just 10 km away from
  Hangzhou city, only 1 km away to the Jiubao town in south and 3km away
from
  Economical developing region of Hangzhou in southeast.
- The north is city ring road, Dongsan County is on the other side of the
highway;
  The east is the Xuejia County, which is 15m away from the proposed
location. The
  south is Jinjiang Municipal Waste Incineration Plant which is 500m away
and some
  residential area of Xuejiacun village. Those spots were considered as
  environmental sensitive spot, see table 7.3.
- The surface soil in proposed location is mostly sandy with high
permeability.
- The nearest river is Yueya River, about 300m from the proposed
location. The
  groundwater level is less than 2m in depth from the ground level.
- There is no surface water, school, hospital, and critical natural
habitat within 1 km
  of the proposed site. The figure 4 gives more detailed information.
- Municipal wastes, solid waste and hazardous wastes are stored in Dadi's
storage
  facility.


                              Figure 4. The sketch of land use in Qiaosi
site




                                        130
131
Figure 4.a Surrounding Environment of Qiaosi




                  132
                            Table 7.3 The sensitive spot in Qiaosi site.

 No.          Spot           Family amount    Population   Direction
Distance/m


At the very
         No. 6 Unit of
  1                                98             330              E
boundary of the
      Xuejiacun Village

planning factory


At the very

  2    Dongsan village            400            1200         NW
boundary of the


planning factory


  3    Wujiacun Village           750            2300         NE
600


             Xuejiacun            45
  4                                              270            S
150
         residence area

       Jinjiang domestic

  5    waste incineration       No date         No data            S
500m

              plant


7.3. Evaluation of Alternative Sites

     Generally speaking, Qiaosi site is very near to the resident area,
surface water,
     moreover many commercial buildings such as factory, are very near,
which is a
     potential danger to the local environment. Biology is abundant in
this site, and wild
     animal are objective to the impact of human activities. The
permeability is this area
     is much high than in Chongxian since Qiaosi site mostly is slit clay
while
     Chongxian is abundant in red clay. Since the gradient of land is
relatively flat, it
     makes surface water and groundwater flow slowly, which is not good
for the
     degrading of pollutants. Comparably, the Chongxian site is in the
valley of a small
     hill, which the surface is covered very heavy clay lay, and the
distance from the
     man-activities areas is far enough. The gradient of ground is
comparably abrupt, so
     the rainfall is easy to run down. There is only some bushes grow in
this site, and no
     wild animals are seen.

     The criteria comprise those: geologic structure stability, the
distance from the
     nearest surface water, hydro-geological condition, sensitive water
body, protective
     area of fauna and flora, landscape spot, biological diversity,
traffic condition and so
     on. The information is list as table 7.4, which is use to draw the
further comparison.




                                            133
         Table 7.4 Evaluation of two alternative hazardous waste/PCB
storage facility locations
      Criteria
Chongxian                    Qiaosi
                                                 Characteristic
Evaluation         Characteristic       Evaluation
Is   the   geologic   structure   stable with              7
good              7                  good
resistance to a seismic intensity of 7?


Is the base of the storage facility above the            >3
good              <2                 bad
highest level of groundwater?


What is the distance of the storage facility             >2km
good              200m               bad
site from the nearest residential house?


What is the distance of the storage facility             >1.5km
good               300-400m          bad
site from the nearest surface water?



Is the storage facility site located at a karst          no
good              No                 good
caves?


Is the storage facility site located at areas            no
good              No                 good
heavily influenced by natural disasters such
as floods, landslides, mudslides
Is the site far away from storage sites of               >1km
good              200m               bad
flammable or explosive hazardous substances
or protective zones of high-voltage electricity
transmission lines?




134
                          Table 7.4 Evaluation of two alternative
hazardous waste/PCB storage facility locations (continue 1)
    Criteria
Chongxian                                 Qiaosi
                                             Characteristic
Evaluation                       Characteristic           Evaluation
Is the storage facility site located in the              3.1%(WNW)
bad                              1.12%(W)               good
downwind direction of the residential areas'
maximum yearly average wind frequency?

Weather condition                                Rainfall is plentiful;
normal                  Rainfall is plentiful;              normal
                                                 year average is 16.5?
year average is 16.5?

Hydraulic condition                          The gradient of the ground
is        It's very      good    for the Well             developed worse
                                              comparably high. The runoff
goes     waterproof performance of surface                   runoff
                                              down quick.
the building.                    network, River runs

mildly.
Hydro-geological Condition                     thick red soil layer;
Better                             Earth is sand soil, with bad
                                               Good waterproof performance.
high permeability. Flat
                                              In hill land area, ground
water                                        hypsography;
                                              circulation     is    good,
and                                     groundwater
                                              groundwater level is low.
circulation   is    good;

groundwater level is

high
Sensitive water body exists                    The mostly appealed surface
body     Normal                             Yueya river nearby       Bad
                                               is temporary runoff after
rain, so
                                                 there is no sensitive water
body in
                                                 this area




135
                           Table 7.4 Evaluation of two alternative
hazardous waste/PCB storage facility locations (continue 2)
     Criteria
Chongxian                                 Qiaosi
                                             Characteristic
Evaluation                       Characteristic           Evaluation
Pollution source                             Nanshan Cement Plant and
Normal                                        Residents area, most good
                                             Hangzhou Cement Plant is
pollution    source     ,
                                             about 1km to 2km
respectively                                          traffic noise, and
flying
                                             from the proposed location.
In                                         dust, which have little

                                             addition,      there     are
some                                     impact on the proposed

site.
                                             quarries, among which the
                                             nearest one is about 1 km
away.
                                             These plants and quarries
are
                                             sources      of   dust
pollution
                                             observed at the proposed
site.
                                             Dust and noise and SO2
pollutions
                                             meet the criteria at the
observation
                                              spot of 1000m away.
Protective area of fauna and flora exists    Not abundant
Good                             Not abundant

Scenery spot                                 No scenery spot within 3km
range      Good                             No scenic spot within    good

3km range
Biological diversity                          Not abundant
Good                             Not abundant
Anything plantation or farming area near     No
Good for building storage No                               good
the proposed site
facility
Economy Activities near                      The proposed site is an
empty land,   Suitable for building             The site choose is near
Bad for building
                                              which grows a few of bushes.
industrial   park    and

commercial        center
exist
Traffic                                       convenient
Good                             convenient                good
Urbanization                                  Worse
Suitable for building            normal                    worse
Need emigrating                               No
Good                             Yes                      bad
Weather condition                            Rainfall is full;
Bad                              Rainfall is full;        bad
                                             year average is 16.5?
year average is 16.5?

From the above table, the Chongxian site gains much more "good" than
Qiaosi, so the conclusion is Chongxian will be more acceptable




136
to build storage facility.




                             137
7.4. Design of the PCB Storage Facility.
   Besides designed storage facility volume must meet the requirements,
following rules
   below should be well considered.
7.4.1 The rules for design

Generally, the storage facility is to be designed in light of relating
criterions for hazard
waste storage which is to be wind-proof, rainproof and sunshine-proof.

   i.      Rules for anti-seepage
l The floor and curbs are to be made of solid and leakage-proof
materials. All
      construction materials will be compatible with PCBs and other
hazardous materials
      stored at this facility.
l
Impermeablelayerwillbelaidonabaseorapedestal.Impermeablelayershouldcover
      the area where PCBs and its leachate can reach. Leachate collection
system will be
      built on impermeable layer. The materials used in the impermeable
layer should be
      incompatible with PCBs.
l The thickness of impermeable layer that is made of clayis thicker than
one meter
      (coefficient of hydraulic conductivity is less than 10-7 cm/s) or
made of HDPE of 2mm
      thick with hydraulic conductivity less than 10-10 cm/s.
l The floor of storage facility adopts reinforced concrete to safeguard
cracking. The
      surface of the floor adopts concrete and covered with HDPE membrane
of 1.5 mm
      thickness, and then paved a layer of water-proof terrazzo. Heavily
contaminated PCBs
      wastes and lightly contaminated PCBs wastes are stored in different
sub-area
      separately, and heavily contaminated PCBs wastes are with different
composition and
      attribution. Each area is separated by curb.
l There are to be no floor drains, drain valves expansion joints, sewer
lines, or other
      opening that would permit liquids to flow from the curbed area.
Surface water
      drainage system will be built at the outskirt of the storage facility
in order to prevent
      flow runoff into the storage facility and it is to be designed in
light of maximum
      flooding for 25 years. The rainfall is to be collect to treat before
charging.
  ii.      Rules for spilling prevention
l A15-cmhighcontinuouscurbshouldbeconstructedaroundthefloor.Curbsaretobe
      designed to prevent the spills from running out, the volume enclosed
by the ground
     and curb are not to be less than the maximum storage of maximum
vessels or 1/5 of
     total storage.
iii.      Rules for containers
l The floor where the liquid and solid PCBs vessels are deposited should
be hard,
     resistant to erosion, and is ensured no crack on surface of floor.
l The storage facility will be equipped with containers that meet for the
specifications

iv.      Rules for the Inside of the Building
   l A15-cmhighcontinuouscurbshouldbeconstructedaroundthefloor.




                                             138
    l The floor and curbs are to be made of solid and leakage-proof
materials. All
        construction materials will be compatible with PCBs and other
hazardous
        materials stored at this facility.
    l It is to contain leakage collecting, gas vent and gas treatment
(cleaning) devices.
    l Itwilladoptilluminationsystemandmonitoringwindow.
    l It is to be equipped with communication equipment, lighting
facilities, personal
        protection equipment and tools, and emergency protection
facilities.
    l The height of stack allowed is designed according to the strength
of the floor.
    l Incompatible hazardous wastes will be stored separately, and
segregated by a
        partition/room.

  v.     Rule for the outside of storage facility
    l The storage facility will have a fenced wall around its boundary
with 24-hour
        security protection.
7.4.2 Structure facilities

Total area of two floors is 4464m2. The girder of the facility is 10m
above the floor. The
whole building is a heavy steel-structured factory house whose roofing is
of light steel and
all materials used are well corrosion-proof. Its ground is watertight and
involves drainage
system. It is of semi-sealed structure. Each of upper and lower floor is
equipped a mobile
crane. Tool rooms and watching room are designed at the certain side of
storage facility,
and lifting-hook and handling space are designed at the extended end.
Moreover, the
storage facility is well equipped with fire-fighting facilities. PCBs are
sealed in the airtight
drums and deposited in different areas depending on its contents?

So the building includes such functional Components as below:

       l Constructionstructure

       l Seepage-proofTreatment

       l Anti-adsorptionTreatment

       l Analytical instruments

       l Fire-fightingSystem

       l AirCleaningSystem
l WaterandPowerSupplySystem

l DrainageandWaterTreatmentFacilities

l SpecialLoadingandUnloadingMachinery

l PoisonousGasMonitoringandWarningsystem

l SurroundingProtectionFacilities

l MonitoringSystem

l EmergencyToolsandMaterial

l CommunicationDevice



                                           139
    l Curbs are to be designed to prevent the spills from running out,
the volume
         enclosed by the ground and curb should not less than the maximum
storage of
         maximum vessels or 1/5 of total storage.
7.5. Environmental Impact and Risk Assessments
7.5.1 Environmental Impact Assessment

PCBs are sealed by metal drums that are bound by iron tape, supported by
the stacks, and
drums piled no more than 2 floors, after piled, the piles are covered.
The storage facility is
treated to prevent seepage. Loading and unloading procedure are all
conducted inside the
storage facility to prevent PCBs from entering the environment by
volatilization resulting
from wind and solar erosion. Designed according to criterions concerned,
monitoring and
water and electricity facilities are of good performance, and storage
period of PCBs will
not exceed the time limit that is stipulated by SEPA, and ventilation is
good, hence PCBs
have little impact to the environment under normal conditions
7.5.2 Risk Assessment
With respect to the temporary storage facility, environmental risks
should be considered in
case of natural disasters and artificial accidents. The causes can be
classified into natural
factors,artificial factors and unanticipated factors, as is seen table
7.4.




                                              140
                                           Table 7.5 Risk Assessment of
Temporary Storage Facility

  Risk            Natural factor                  Artificial factor
Unpredictable factors                          Measures

              Continuous          Hot    Operation             Artificial
Earthquake       Fire        Preventing measure             Emergency Measure

procedure        rain           drought      failure            damage

Loading   and    1)   No effect, since        1)   Drums or
a) Operation carefully         1)   Stop    loading,
unloading        the loading and              woven-sack with PE
collect litter and
                 unloading procedure          lining is broken, which
b) Demand stuff operating      replace the drum.
                 are carried out in the       leads to leakage.
according to the

                storage facilities.
regulations and enforce    2) Open air cleaning

the training of the stuff. device              that


c) Arrange the shift           connected      to      the


sequence properly            pollution      control

system.




                                                                         141
                                    Table 7.5 Risk Assessment of
Temporary Storage Facility (continue 1)

  Risk                      Natural factor                            Artificial
factor       Unpredictable factors                             Measures

               Continuous rain                Hot drought           Operation
Artificial    Earthquake           Fire     Preventing measure         Emergency
Measure

procedure                                                            failure
damage

Storage.       1)   Unexpected         a)Maintenance                1. Earthquake
causes        1.Enforce the safe        1. Enforce the safe            1) Put out
the fire
               groundwater level           personnel do not           the damage
of              policies                     policies                     at
once.
               increasing lead to          check out the fault        waterproof
layer, the    2.Carefully and

               decline of                  of wiring during           failure of
drainage        periodically inspect      2. Carefully and            2) Pump
away the

             waterproof                construction
engineering, the           safe of facilities in    periodically inspect
pounding water

             abilities.
storage facility.        safe of facilities in       around the
                                   b)Vandalism of the          electric
accidents     3.Install lightning rod     storage facility.
storage facility.
             2)   Water or            storage facility, for 2)Wild fire
of forest.   4.Seal the drum with
             moisture enter into      example, setting         Lighting
leading fire.   wax                    3. Install lightning rod 3)
Imform the

             the facility            fire to storage
5.Fire controlling      4. Seal the drum with                 police office

             unanticipated, thus           facility, stealing.
equipments should        wax                              when stealing

             may cause the
be well equipped,                                         happens

             corrosion of steel        c)Waste registering
5.   Fire controlling
                                       error makes the
and need train the       equipments should be     4) Clog the
             drum and leakage.
seepage source
                                      waste exceed the
staff learning how      well equipped, and
                                      time limit of
to safeguard the fire   need train the staff         and purge the

                                      storage, which
and to use those        learning how to              polluted spot

                                      increase the leakage
equipments.             safeguard the fire and
                                      risk.
to use those

equipments.




                                                                     142
                                            Table 7.5 Risk Assessment of
Temporary Storage Facility( continue 2)

  Risk             Natural factor               Artificial factor
Unpredictable factors                               Measures

              Continuous            Hot     Operation       Artificial
Earthquake      Fire            Preventing measure          Emergency
Measure

procedure        rain            drought    failure         damage

Storing     3)Hot and dry climate may         1)   Animal intrude the
6.Enforce the staff training
            increase the volatilization       storage facility (mice, for
management and the sense
            PCBs contained from the           example, dug holes
of responsibility The
            drums; hot weather may            around the facility)
training should cover spill
            also accelerate the aging of      which lead leakage.
prevention, control and
            plastic thus lead to leakage.
countermeasure etc.


7.Build impermeable floors

and drains.


8.The water in drains will be

collected to send to the

water treatment center. No

floor drains flowing to the

outside of the building.


9.Fire hazards will be

safeguarded in a special

room and incompatible

wastes will be stored

separately.
143
7.6. Operation of the PCB Storage Facility

   l PCBs that are not suitable to be disposed of temporarily will be
stored in
      temporary storage facility, and warning signs need to be setup.
Storage period
      should not exceed the time limit stipulated in Technique Policy for
Pollution
      Control of Hazardous Wastes. 2001

   l PCBs storage organization is to be authorized with specific license
to the
       business. PCBs transfer is to be strictly in compliance with
specifications to
       safeguard the recordkeeping rule of PCBs transfer.

   l Organizationthatstoreswasteistoacquiretheanalysisreportofphysicaland
      chemical characteristics of PCBs completed by qualified
organization before
      they are accepted. Meanwhile necessary checking will be done by
operators to
      assure the PCBs to be stored are the expected wastes, and record to
be done

   l Storage facility operators of PCBs will carefully record the
detailinformation
      about PCBs they dealt with. The record must offer such PCBs'
information as
      condition, origin, quantity, characteristic, the type of packaging
container,
      storage date, position in storage facility, shipping date, and
receiving
      organization and so on.

   l PCBsthatarewithoutlabelorthelabeldoesn'taccordwiththeregulationnot
      allowed to be taken into the storage facility. The PCBs records and
manifests
      of PCBs are to be kept for at least 3 years after they have been
shipped out.

   l The PCBswith similar attributions or properties can be stacked,
however,
      PCBs wastes of different status will be separated by curbs and
there will be
      transport alley between curbs.

   l Inspection of the drums and storage facilities periodically. If any
breakage or
      damage occurs, emergency response measures of cleaning up and
replacement
      of package are to be taken immediately.

   l Storage facility will be equipped with fire-fighting equipments. The
storage
      facility need be looked after in 24 hours of each day.

   l Specialpersonnelareinchargeoftemporarystoragefacilityrunninganddaily
      management. Acceptable work shift is to be worked out, in order
that operator
      work more efficiently.

   l Monitoring of the ambient air quality in the storage facility at
least half a year
      and inspecting of the storage facility and then carefully recording
of
      information everyday will be carried out.

   l Theleakedmaterialaswellastheabsorbentsorotheradequatemeansusedfor
      cleanup will be properly transferred to a non-leaking drum for the
disposal.
   l Any equipment used to handle PCBs that comes into direct contact
with the
      PCBs will be decontaminated by swabbing the surface with an
appropriate

                                        144
           solvent before being removed from the storage facility area. The
solvent
           (approved by the local or provincial EPB) can be reused until it
contains
           50ppm PCBs, and the solvent and any non-liquid PCBs that result
form
           decontamination must be disposed of properly.

7.7. Safety Measures


7.7.1.Preventive Measures

Measures for spill are to cope with emergent leakage accidents and lessen
the effects to
human and Environment will include.

 lStrictly abide by operational regulations on the danger waste
management.

 Personnel   must wear on defense equipments, which are replaced
periodically.

 lCheckthePCBsdrumsperiodically.Ifanydrumisbroken,replaceitatonce.


 lPeople,whoarehurtbyPCBs,shouldbesenttothenearbyhospital.


 lCheck the drainage and power supply facilities, to prevent from the
failure of

 drainage and electrical facilities and get rid of potential problem.

7.7.2.Emergency Measure

1. Emergency Measures for Personnel Security in Accidents Spot

(1.) Emergency Rescue of Inspiration of PCBs

       l Move people to ventilation area

       l Give artificial respiration to the victim if breath ceases.

       l Keep the victim's body temperature and let him/her take a rest

     l Send to the hospital at once
(2.) Emergency Treatment of Skin Contacting PCBS

       l Swabtheskinwithsoaporneutraldetergentatonce.

     l If PCBs has permeate into the clothes, take them off and then
clean it with
        soap or neutral detergent
     l Send the victim to the hospital at once
(3.) Emergency Treatment of Eye Contacting PCBs

     l Opentheeyelidofvictim,rinseeyewithaquantityofwater

                                            145
     l Send the victim to the hospital at once
(4.) Emergency Treatment of Ingestion of PCBs

     l Send victimtothehospitalatonce.

     l Usesiruporfingerinsertingthevictim'sthroattoinducevomiting

     l If victim is out of consciousness, don't carry out vomit inducing.
.

2 Emergency Measures for Pollution Emission Preventing

     l Cleanup of the released PCBs should be initiated as soon as
possible, but no
         later than 24 hours after discovery of a spill.

     l Pumpouttheairintheclosecircumstancewithairpumpwhoseoutletisfixed
         with carbon fiber absorber to safeguard the PCBs emit to the
atmosphere.

     l
Useplasticclothtocoversurfaceofpollutedspottolessenthevaporizationof
         PCBs, and then take away all polluted materials when leakage
occurs in open
         environment.

     l When cleaning the polluted spot cleaning, a sophisticated scheme
should be
         planned to prevent personnel from moving about at polluted spot
in order to
         lessen pollution.

     l PCBs waste solid should be collected and filled into the plastic
sacks and
         sealed. If condition permitting, after the PCBs waste can be
filled into PE sack,
         they are put into steel drum.

     l Ifdrumshavebeencracked,transferPCBswastetosparedrumandwrapthe
         drum with PE bag.

7.8. Employee Training

Before starting to work, all PCB storage facility personnel will
successfully complete a
training program that will cover the following topics.

     l ThedirectionsforPCBsreceiving,transporting,andstoring

     l How to keep the facilities in good conditions.

     l Check and get rid of the breakdown of facilities, such as the
mechanism
         failure of the traveling crane.
     l Accidents and emergency response measures, safety protection,
evacuating
         the people in accident spot.

     l The background knowledge for daily maintenance of pertinent
facilities in
         storage facility

     l Learn how to fill in the maintenance record form, accident form
and other
         kind form.


                                           146
     l Recording of received,stored, and shipped wastes

7.9. Environmental Monitoring

As ref Article 8.2 of GB 18597-2001, the hazardous waste facility that
will receive PCB
wastes for storage will be monitored for environmental discharge in
accordance with
national requirements on pollution source.


The national requirements are as follows:

    1)     Complex Discharge Criterion for air pollution GB16297-1996

    2)     Complex Discharge Criterion for Waste water GB8978-1996

    3)     Identification Criterions for Hazardous waste GB5085.1-3-1996

    4)   Graphical Signs for Environmental Protection solid waste Storage
(Disposal)
         Site GB15562.2-1995

    5)     Emission standards for odor pollutants GB14554-93

    6)    Determination    Measures      for   toxicity of   leachate    of
solid    waste
          GB/T1555.1-12-95

The sampling Criterion is:

     1)   Test and Monitoring measures for Toxicity characteristic of
Industrial Solid
Waste


7.9.1.Monitoring Phase


         1. Environment monitoring in storage facility area before
constructing, in

           order to know the background level of PCBs in soil, groundwater,
and air.

         2. Environmental monitoring duringthe storage facility running,
every a half

           year a time.

           3. Environmental monitoring after storage facility closure.

7.9.2.Criteria for Monitoring
1.   Analytic methods for Environment Monitoring ,SEPA

2.   Experimental Analysis & Appraisal Manual for Solid Wastes, EPA,
translated by Environmental monitoring center of China etc.


                                      147
     3.   Electronic Code of Federal Regulations( e-CFR);

     4. Criterion for Investigation of Soil and Groundwater, Department
of Water
     quality protection of Japan Environmental Protective administrative.

7.9.3.Environmental Monitoring Scheme

PCBs concentration in Environment and in living creatures is the
monitoring focus of
this project.

  1. Monitoring Priority

  Considering that Density of PCBs is heavier than water and the semi-
volatility of
  PCBs, the monitoring Priority is

     1) Soil

     2) Groundwater

     3)Air

     4) Concentration in organism

  2. Monitoring Zone

   Monitoring zone is limited within a circus that radius is about one to
two times of the
  distance of from sensitive spot.

  3. Sample layout

  Soil sample, air sample and biology sample are gained from the spots on
radial shape.
  Groundwater sample needs to be drawn from the drill holes or from the
drinking well.

  4 Monitoring Frequency

  Soil and air monitoring are done quarterly. Water monitoring is done in
low water
  season as well as ample water season. Biology monitoring is done spring
and winter
  separately.

  5 Monitoring sampling

  Soil sample adopts surface soil (0cm ~20cm) and the bottom soil
(20cm~40cm)
  separately. Water sample are drawn from the different depth of ground.
Biology
  samples are drawn from the leave, the stem and the root of plant in
storage facility
  area; moreover the insects and small mammals should be taken into
account
  according to the condition.

  6 Sample Preparations and Analysis

     a) Collected sample should be air dried and analyzed at once.




                                          148
    b) Sample preparation and analysis should prevent from across-
contamination,
        since the concentration difference samples.
    c) Sample analysis should be carried out according to international
standard and
        national standard. Carefully carry out the test to assure the
data accuracy.

So, the environmental Monitoring Plan is given in table 7.6.


                            Table 7.6 Environmental Monitoring Plan
Monitoring    Media               Frequency of    Parameters to be Purpose
of Monitoring
phases        monitored          monitoring          monitored
                                                     PCBs content in soil
The         PCBs     soil
              Soil               Once per year       and soil biological.
background value
                                                     PCBs content and
The      ambient       air
Prior      to Ambient air        Once per year       concentration of
background    value    of
construction                                         hydrocarbons in air
PCBs and hydrocarbons

              Groundwater        Once per year       PCBs    content       in
The PCBs groundwater
                                                     groundwater
background value


Pollution condition and
              Soil               Quarterly           PCBs content in soil
biological accumulative
                                                     and soil biology.
coefficient.
                                 Twice a year
                                 (low and high       PCBs    content       in
The          groundwater
              Groundwater        levels         of   groundwater
contamination control.
                                 groundwater)

During                                               PCBs    content       in

operation                                            emissiongas
              Air discharge      Quarterly           Hydrocarbon content
The discharge quantity

                                                     in emission gas
                                                     PCBs content and
              Ambient air        Quarterly           concentration          of
Environmental quanlity
                                                     hydrocarbons in air
                                Twice a year         PCBs     content    in
Accumulative coefficient
              Biological        (spring       and    organ or tissue of
and harm to the biological
                                winter)              biological
              Surfaces inside   A half year          The PCBs content in
Environmental quality
              the building                           surface

Environmental quality of
              Soil              A half year          The soil PCB content soil
and      leakage

preventing

                                                     PCBs      content     in
Environmental quality of
Atclosure     Groundwater       A year               water
soil     and      leakage

preventing
                                                     PCBs content and
              Ambient air       Quarterly            concentration         of
Environmental quanlity
                                                     hydrocarbons in air
                                                     PCBs content and
              Discharge air     Quarterly            concentration       of
The discharge quantity
                                                     hydrocarbons in air



7.10. Closure of the PCB Storage Facility



                                               149
After exceed lifetime of temporary storage facility, it will be closed.
The possible
activities are to be disassembled and the storage facility for another
hazardous
wastes. Those measures should be taken

u Before the temporary storage facility will be closed, the operators
should
     submit the closure plan, and is to be approved by the government.

u The operators will take measures to eliminate of PCBs pollution in
storage
     facility. Such as cleaning the storage facility using surfactant.
Discharged water
     should transport in Shenyang disposal center as high concentration
PCBs.

u Some facilities that PCBs contained can not be eliminated at the site,
such as
     equipment, soil, wall-paint, are to be disposed of as hazardous
wastes and
     transported to disposal facility of hazardous waste or storage
facility in use

u The warning sign and watching personnel cannot be removed until the
     monitoring results shows that no pollutions exist in storage
facility.

u Retain water and electricity for safety protective use, and security
inspection
     should be done periodically during the closure period.

u Warningmessagepaintedwithstrikingcolorshouldbehungaroundthestorage
     facility.

u Monitor the concentration of PCBs in ground water, soil, air, plant and
animal.
     Prepared emergency measures are to be taken to handle with
unexpected
     matters.

u Arrange personnel to watch over the storage facility in case artificial
damage
     and wild animal destroying.

u Microbiologicalenvironmentalmonitoringinsoilpollutionistobecarriedout,
     by determining the quantities and the components of microbiology in
soil.

If the storage facility is considered to be used for storing another
hazard wastes, the
closure plan is to be added those.

u Swaballtheequipmentanddevicesandthewallwithsurface-active agent, the
     polluted water is treated as high concentration PCBs pollutants and
will be
     transported to Shenyang.

u Torn off the waterproof membrane on the floor, swab the floor (the
waste water
     is treated as 1 planed) and cover a new waterproof membrane. The
obsolete
     membrane will be transport to Shenyang as high concentration PCBs
waste.

u Monitoring the residual concentration of PCBs in storage facility Every
3
     months. Until the PCBs concentration in air is less than the
stipulated value, the
     storage facility can not be used for storage of other hazardous
waste.

If the storage facility is considered to be disassembled, such measures
are to be


                                         150
   included:

   u Swaballtheequipmentanddevicesandthewallwithsurface-active agent, the
        waste water is treated as high concentration PCBs pollutants and
will be
        transported to Shenyang.

   u Tear off the waterproof membrane on the floor, swab the floor (the
waste water
        is treated as 1 planed). The obsolete membrane will be transport
to Shenyang as
        high concentration PCBs waste. Adsorptive materials are placed in
the storage
        facility. The adsorptive materials are to be considered high
concentration PCBs
        pollutants, which need to be stored in another storage bank or
transported to
        Shenyang Disposal Center.

   u Monitoring the residual concentration of PCBs in storage facility
Every 3
        months. Until the PCBs concentration in air is less than the
stipulated value, the
        storage facility cannot be disassembled

   u The anti-adsorption membrane on the wall and the roof are to be torn
off and
        transport to Shenyang disposed as high content PCBs waste.

   u After the facility is disassembled, the site will be recovered.

The owner of the PCB storage facility will submit a written request to
SEPA or
Provincial EPB for a modification to its storage approval to amend the
closure plan
whenever: (i) changes in ownership, operating plans, or facility design
affect the
existing closure plan, (ii) there is a change in the expected date of
closure, or (iii) in
conducting closure activities, unexpected events require a modification
of the approved
closure plan.




                                            151
8. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Proposed Soil and

Transformers Decontamination Technologies for Zhejiang


8.1. Selection of Soil Decontamination Technology

In this section, a three-stage methodology is employed for the evaluation
of alternatives
for decontaminating soils containing low concentrations of PCBs (between
cleanup
action level and 500 ppm).
8.1.1 First Stage Evaluation

In this evaluation stage, several applicable technologies for
decontaminating soils with
low concentrations of PCBs would be identified. And then they are
screened for further
evaluation.
(1) Incineration
Incineration is a high-temperature thermal oxidation process whereby the
molecules are
decomposed into gases and unburned solid. The solids are referred to as
the residue and
comprise ash and slag. A tall chimney or stack carries waste gases into
the air. Stack
gases may contain water, carbon dioxide, acid or toxic gases and toxic
particles,
including ash and metal oxide. To control pollution, the incinerator may
be equipped
with gas cleaning equipment, such as a scrubber and/or electrostatic
filters. The solid
residues are landfilled.

Hazardous waste incinerator has a main chamber for burning wastes and an
afterburner
to achieve maximum destruction of hazardous organic by-products, by
holding
combustion gases at the appropriate temperature (over 1000°C) for at
least 2 seconds
(residence time). Since gas cleaning equipment can not work at the high
temperature of
the gases leaving the furnace, the gases in the stack are cooled down to
temperatures of
approximately 200°C.
Properly managed incineration can, in principle, destroy PCBs waste with
a
Destruction and Removal Efficiency rate of 99.99% or higher. However, the
effectiveness of incineration is influenced by many factors, such as:
design, process
control and maintenance of the correct residence time, temperature and
turbulence;
type of products incinerated; and capacity and effectiveness of air
pollution control
devices. There are various options for the modality of high-temperature
incineration,
including large-scale fixed incinerator, small-scale fixed incinerator,
mobile incinerator,
cement kiln, and the like.
(2) Plasma Transform Technology
Plasma is a high energy technology for treatment of a range of sche duled
wastes. A
thermal plasma is generated by an electric current (alternate at high
frequency or
uninterrupted) passing through the gas; the resistivity energy is
dissipated by the gas
which, with the increase in temperature, becomes conductive and able to
sustain the
electricity flow.


                                            152
The plasma arc technology can create plasma using almost any type of gas
(oxygen,
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, air, etc.) and can be operated in a wide range
of pressures
(vacuum to 20 atmospheres). The plasma arc has a wide spectrum of
temperatures
ranging from 1,500°C to over 7,000°C. The intense high temperature zone
can be used
to dissociate the waste into its atomic elements by injecting the waste
into the plasma,
or by using the plasma arc as a heat source for combustion or pyrolysis.
(3) In Situ. Vitrification
In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is a commercialized mobile, thermal treatment
process that
involves the electric melting of contaminated soils, sludges, or other
earthen materials,
wastes and debris for the purposes of permanently destroying, removing,
and/or
immobilizing hazardous and radioactive contaminants. The ISV technology
is widely
applicable to all types of soil and all classes of contaminants including
organics, heavy
metals and radionuclides.
The ISV process is a batch process that involves forming a pool of molten
soil at the
surface of a treatment zone between an array of four electrodes. The
molten soil serves
as the heating element of the process wherein electrical energy is
converted to heat via
joule heating as it passes through the molten soil. ISV melt temperatures
typically range
between 1,500-2,000°C. Continued application of energy makes melt pool
growing
deeper and wider until the desired volume has been treated. When
electrical power is
off, the molten mass solidifies into a vitreous monolith with unequalled
physical,
chemical, and weathering properties compared to alternative
solidification/stabilization
technologies. Individual melts up to 7 m deep and 15 m in diameter are
formed during
commercial operations. Large volumes of contaminated material requiring
more than
one batch melt are treated by making a series of adjacent melts resulting
in the
formation of one massive continuous monolith. The process is operated on
an around
the clock basis and can achieve treatment rates of up to 150 tonnes per
day.
(4) Thermal Desorption
Thermal desorption has been employed widely as a means of removing
contaminants
from solid waste streams. In some cases, treatment may be effected within
the thermal
desorption unit, whereas in other cases, the off gases are subject to
separate treatment.
Thermal desorption has also been employed or is proposed to be used in a
number of
processes where some contaminant degradation occurs within the thermal
desorption
unit, followed by combustion of the off gases.
Thermal desorption is based on the principle of heating up polluted soil
in a rotary kiln
to desorb PCBs and other organic pollutants from the soil. Gas cleaning
equipment is
used to wash the volatilized gas. The remaining off gas can be emitted
after being
cleaned by a filter. After oil-water separation, the concentrated liquid
containing PCBs
will be sent to a PCB incineration plant, the waste water will be drained
after being
treated. As the process is not a combustion one, but only a phase
transfer enhanced by
thermal energy, dioxin by-production is not expected.
(5) Solvent Extraction
Solvent extraction is a physical/chemical means of separating hazardous
waste
contaminants from equipment, soil or sediment, thereby concentrating the


                                             153
contaminants and reducing the volume of hazardous material that needs to
be destroyed.
This process produces relatively clean soil or sediment which can be
returned to site or
disposed of to landfill. Cleaned equipment may be suitable for reuse or
disposal to
landfill. Solvent extraction is generally applicable to organic wastes,
using an organic
chemical as a solvent to strip the contaminants of concern from the soil,
sediment or
other solid matrix (eg PCB contaminated capacitor internals).
Solvent extraction uses organic solvents such as liquefied gases and low
boiling point
solvents to extract organics from sludges, contaminated soils and
wastewater. Propane,
butane and hexane are some of the solvents used for sludges and
contaminated soils,
while carbon dioxide has been used for wastewater streams. Solvent
extraction
technology is available for continuous flow processes for wastes which
can be pumped
or as a batch process for soils and sludges.
(6) Solvated Electron Technology
Sodium metal is dissolved in liquid anhydrous ammonia to form a
characteristic dark
blue solution. The blue color is due to the presence of solvated
electrons which are
powerful dehalogenating agents. Solvated electron solutions form rapidly
when alkali
or alkaline earth metals dissolve in ammonia or certain amines, forming
solutions that
can be regarded as containing the metal cation and free electrons.
Halogens can be split
from organic halides to yield a fully substituted parent hydrocarbon and
a metal halide.
The application of the technology to waste treatment has been the subject
of a 10 year
development program by Commodore Environmental Services (US). This work
has
resulted in a proprietary re-agent named Agent 313. The technology can be
applied as a
relocata ble system. Treatment of waste with Agent 313 is carried out
without the need
for elevated temperatures and the conversion of the waste occurs in a
matter of seconds.
Solvents Australia states that there is no need for pretreatment,
although some
dewatering of sludges or sediments may be required.
(7) Base Catalysed Dechlorination
The Base Catalysed Dechlorination (BCD) process was developed to treat
halogenated
organic compounds. The process was developed from work by the USEPA on
earlier
forms of dechlorination. The BCD process can involve direct
dehalogenation or
decomposition of the waste material, or can be linked with a pretreatment
step such as
thermal desorption which yields a relatively small quantity of a
condensed volatile
phase for separate treatment by the BCD process.
The base catalysed dechlorination process involves the addition of an
alkali or alkaline
earth metal carbonate, bicarbonate or hydroxide to the contaminated
medium
containing one or more halogenated or non-halogenated organic contaminant
compounds. Then the mixture is heated at a temperature and for a time
sufficient to
totally dehydrate the medium.
This may be performed at atmospheric or at reduced or elevated pressure.
The water
which is included in the aqueous solution allows homogeneous distribution
of the alkali
throughout the mixture and acts as a wetting agent and penetrant. When
the water is
removed from the medium during the dehydration step, the alkali is
concentrated to a
reactive state. The medium is further heated at a temperature between
200? and 400?


                                           154
for a time sufficient to effect reductive decomposition of the
halogenated and
non-halogenated organic contaminant compounds, typically 0.5 to 2 hours.
At this
temperature the carbon source acts as a catalyst for the formation of a
reactive hydrogen
ion from the hydrogen donor compound. The reactive hydride ion then
reacts with the
halogenated organic compounds contained in the contaminated medium.
Finally, the
mixture is neutralized by the addition of an acid, preferably to a pH of
7 to 9.
It is required by the Stockholm Convention that PCB wastes will be
disposed of in such
a way that the persistent organic pollutant content is destroyed or
irreversibly
transformed so that they do not exhibit the characteristics of persistent
organic
pollutants or other wise disposed of in an environmentally sound manner
when
destruction or irreversible transformation does not represent the
environmentally
preferable option or the persistent organic pollutants content is low,
taking into account
international rules, standards, and guidelines, and relevant global and
regional regimes
governing the management of hazardous waste.
And for the disposal of PCB contaminated soil in China, only those
techniques
commercially used in developed countries will be taken into consideration
for further
evaluation.
In that case, all these potential technologies for Soil Decontamination
are then screened
based on:
(i) The Requirement of the Stockholm Convention for the Destruction of
PCBs
 Technologies         Whether destroy or irreversibly     Whether lead to
recovery,
                      transform PCBs, or dispose PCBs recycling,
reclamation and
                      in an environmentally sound direct reuse or
alternative
                      manner                              uses of PCBs
 Incineration         Yes                                 No
 Plasma               Yes                                 No
 In            situ Yes                                   No
 vitrification
 Thermal              Yes                                 No
 desorption
 Solvent              Yes                                 No
 Extraction
 Solvated             Yes                                 No
 electron
 Base catalysed Yes                                        No
 dechlorination



and (ii) the stage of   development and (worldwide) experience of the
technology to date.
 Technologies           Stage of development                Experience of
the technology
 Incineration           Commercialized in China            Mature
application
 Plasma                 Commercialized abroad              Successfully
employed
                                                            abroad


                                                155
  In             situ Commercialized abroad                Successfully
employed
  vitrification                                            abroad
  Thermal              Commercialized abroad               Successfully
employed
  desorption                                               abroad
  Solvent              Under demonstration
  Extraction
  Solvated             Pilot scale testing
  electron
  Base catalysed Commercialized abroad                     Under
demonstration     for
  dechlorination                                           PCB
contaminated soil
From the above comparison and screening, incineration, plasma, in situ
vitrification
and thermal desorption are selected for the second stage evaluation
8.1.2 Second Stage Evaluation

In this evaluation stage, the remaining four technologies would be
evaluated based
following criteria:
i.        Extent of Decontamination
   Technologies                Extent of decontamination
   Incineration                DER of about 99.9999%
   Plasma                      DER of above 99.99%
   In situ vitrification       DER of above 99.9999%
   Thermal desorption          DER of above 99.99%


ii.       Pollutant discharges and requirements for their control
   Technologies         Pollutant discharges                  Requirement
for control
   Incineration         High     technology    incineration Sound APC
system for the
                        with sophisiticated APC system        purification
of flue gas;
                        could      achieve      a    dioxin   Engineered
landfill for the
                        concentration of 0.1 ng /Nm³ for      disposal
of    incineration
                        the flue gas and 1 mg/kg for          residues
                        residues
   Plasma               Compliance       with    regulatory A exhaust gas
treatment
                        requirements      regarding      air system
consists of a quench
                        emissions can be achieved and tank; a jet
scrubber; a
                        dioxins were not detected in the packed-bed
scrubber;     a
                        stack gas during trials               demister;
and     a   stack
                                                              blower
  In              situ Most     heavy    metals and     all Off-gas
collection   and
  vitrification        radionuclides are largely retained off-gas
treatment systems
                       in the melt, which contains no       are
required,   including
                       organic     matter; the    off-gas quenching, two
stages of
                       treatment system is robust and       high
efficiency scrubbing,
                       dioxins are not detected.            de-watering,
heating and
                                                            one or two
stages of high
                                                            efficiency
particulate air
                                                            filtration

                                            156
 Thermal               A low dioxin content of 0.005 Combustion of off-
gases
 desorption            ng/Nm3.                               requires
careful control and
                                                             emissions
treatment   to
                                                              minimize
dioxin formation.
iii.     Preliminary costs
 Technologies                Preliminary cost
 Incineration                $1,000- $2,000 per tonne
 Plasma                      $4,000- $8,000 per tonne
 In situ vitrification       $500 - $750 per tonne
 Thermal desorption          $200- $400 per cubic meters
iv.      Other Consideration:
Of all the above four technical alternatives, in-situ vitrification is
poorly adaptable to
different soil types and soil conditions. Since Zhejiang has fairly
complex terrain
characters, different contaminated sites may be in different states, and
there may even
be various soil conditions and soil types in one site. This actually
seriously hinders the
application of in-situ vitrification for disposal of contaminated soil in
Zhejiang
Province. In addition, after the treatment, soils are changed into
vitreous products,
which would neither be re-utilized as soils, or be excavated for further
treatment. This
actually means that the treated site could never be utilized for
agricultural purpose
again.
Other three technologies, however, are generally adaptable to various
soil types. The
residues from incineration and plasma would be landfilled and thus the
treated soils will
be sent for backfilling of excavated sites. Thermal desorption could
maintain the
original properties of the soil to the maximum extent and thus could be
further utilized.
v.       Summing-up screening
     ² The above evaluation could be summarized as follows:
     ²
Allthefourtechnicalalternativescouldachieveacceptableremovalextentof
          PCBs ;
     ² With the specific regulation for dioxins of 0.5 ng/Nm3, all the
four technical
          alternatives could achieve acceptable emission of PCDD/PCDF;
     ² Due to poor adaptability and inability in maintaining the original
property of
          soils, in-situ vitrification is eliminated for further
evaluation upon the above
          analysis;
    ² Taking into consideration cost for disposal, plasma is much too
expensive for
         the disposal of PCB contaminated soil in Zhejiang Province and
is thus phased
         out for further evaluation.
         Technology           Incineration    Plasma          In-site
Thermal

vitrification   desorption
         Removal extent       Acceptable      Acceptable      Acceptable
Acceptable
         Dioxin emission Acceptable           Acceptable     Acceptable
Acceptable
         cost                 Acceptable      Unacceptable   Acceptable
Acceptable
         Adaptability         Acceptable      Acceptable
Unacceptable Acceptable


                                             157
         Result                               Eliminated      Eliminated
       In conclusion, incineration and thermal adsorption are selected
for the third
stage evaluation.
8.1.3 Third Stage Evaluation

In this evaluation stage, the remaining two technologies, incineration
and thermal
desorption, would be evaluated in details. In that case, Five
alternatives can be
considered for these two technologies: (1.a) fixed incineration at
Shenyang, (1.b) fixed
incineration (in Zhejiang), (1.c) mobile incineration (in Zhejiang),
(2.a) mobile thermal
desorption (in Zhejiang), and (2.b) fixed thermal desorption (in
Zhejiang).
(1) Comparison between incineration and thermal desorption:
i. Incineration
Description of Incineration:

Incineration is a high-temperature thermal oxidation process whereby the
PCB-contaminated soil is decomposed into gases and unburned solid. The
solids are
referred to as the residue and comprise ash and slag. A tall chimney or
stack carries
waste gases into the air. Stack gases may contain water, carbon dioxide,
acid or toxic
gases and toxic particles, including ash and metal oxide. To control
pollution, the
incinerator should be equipped with gas cleaning equipment, such as a
scrubber and/or
electrostatic filters. The solid residues are landfilled.

Hazardous waste incineration have a main chamber for burning wastes and
an
afterburner to achieve maximum destruction of hazardous organic by-
products, by
holding combustion gases at the appropriate temperature (over 1000°C) for
at least 2
seconds (residence time). Since gas cleaning equipment can not work at
the high
temperature of the gases leaving the furnace, the gases in the stack are
cooled to
temperatures of approximately 200°C.
Properly managed incineration can, in principle, destroy PCBs waste with
a
Destruction and Removal Efficiency rate of 99.9999% or higher.


                     Storage
                                Pretreatment            Rotary kiln
Afterbuner
  PCB soil       Storage



             Discharge              Online monitoring
APC




                           Process water treatment system


                                    Control system



                                          158
Major operational parameters:

     DRE: 99.9999%;

     Combustion efficiency: 99.9%;

     Dioxin contents in flue gas: < 0.1TEQng/Nm3

Advantages:
       1) This technology has been developed and thus is reliable.
       2) China has years of experience in the incineration of hazardous
waste
Disadvantages:
       This technology is mainly used in the disposal of highly
contaminated PCB
       waste. The cost for the disposal of light contaminants is much too
high;
Cost: Refer to the disposal cost in Shenyang
ii. Thermal desorption
Description of thermal desorption:

The desorption unit is the main component of the process. Waste is
partially vaporised
in a reductive environment under low vacuum conditions (0 to 50 Pa). The
rotary
reactor operates on a continuous basis. The reactor is cylindrical in
shape, arranged
horizontally and rotates around its axis. The operating temperature in
the reactor ranges
from 500 to 600°C. The waste may be introduced directly. PCBs are
vaporized and thus
desorbed from the soil. And then N2 is applied to carry the desorbed PCBs
to activated
carbon for absorption. The gas stream is cleaned in a wet gas multi
venturi scrubber
prior to discharge. The scrubber process water will be treated with
flocculation,
precipitation and activated carbon filtration before discharged into the
environment.
The solid phase is cooled indirectly and is discharged for later use. All
the activated
carbon used for desorption and filtration will be disposed with
incineration. Refer to the
following flow chart for details about thermal desorption technology.

                                                        Pretreated Soil
    Contaminated Soil            Material Treatment
Thermal Desorber
                                                          Fuel

                                                      Off-gas
Treated Soil

               Off-gas                Off-gas
Treated Soil Handling
    Discharge            Scrubber       Absorption

                Wastewater
Backfill

            Flocculation,               Residue Incineration
            Precipitation, Filtration



                  Discharge


Major operational parameters:

                                         159
     DRE: 99.99%;

     Dioxin contents in flue gas: undetectable
Advantages:
         1) This technology has been developed and thus is reliable;
         2) High thermal desorption efficiency;
         3) Low cost and controllable technical conditions;
         4) High adaptability to soil types, soil conditions and disposal
load.
Disadvantage:
     1) Microorganisms in the soil would be destroyed and it may take
several years to
recover;
     2) There might be some residues from the process which will be
disposed by
incineration.
Cost: A disposal cost of 200-400 dollars per ton.
Upon the above comparison, it can be concluded that both incineration and
thermal
desorption process could achieve high destruction and removal efficiency
of PCBs.
Both, with properly equipped air pollution control system, wastewater
treatment
system and landfilling technologies, could achieve acceptable discharge
level of
polluants. And both are highly developed, with years of application, and
are thus
reliable technologies. Under this condition, it is obvious that
incineration is much more
expensive than thermal desorption. In addition, thermal desorption is
more adaptable to
soil types and soil conditions, and property of treated soil can be
maintained to a
maximum extent so that soils can be backfilled to the original position
for further
utilization after treatment In that case, thermal desorption is the most
preferable
technologies for the disposal of PCB contaminated soil in Zhejiang
Province.
(2) Comparison between mobile thermal desorption and fixed thermal
desorption
Of the 5 alternatives proposed in the beginning of the 3rd evaluation
stage, two
alternatives remaining from the above comparison (2.a) mobile thermal
desorption (in
Zhejiang), and (2.b) fixed thermal desorption (in Zhejiang) are compared
based on:
i. Cost
There's a huge amount of contaminated soil (about 20,000 tonnes) for
disposal in
Zhejiang Province. And all the contaminated sites are widely distributed
across the
province. A fixed thermal desorption would require the package and
transportation of
all contaminated soils before treatment. And after the soils are treated,
they will have to
be packed and transported back to the original positions for backfilling.
And this
package and transportation may cost more. A mobile thermal desorption
facility,
however, could treat the soils site by site, thus reducing the cost for
package and
transportation. The feasibility study will be conducted to compare the
cost of the two
options.
However, a mobile thermal desorption unit would require demobilization
after the job
is completed at one site, transportation to the next site, and
mobilization at the next site.
A fixed thermal desorption unit would require transportation of
contaminated soils


                                            160
from different locations to a fixed site, and there are cost involved.
Thus, there are cost
tradeoffs between the mobile and fixed thermal desorption options.
ii. Environmental Risk
The fixed thermal desorption alternative would be associated with
environmental risk
of accidents and spills of PCB contaminated soils during long-distance
transportation
of soils. A mobile disposal facility could treat the soil at the same
time when cleanup is
being conducted, and there is no need for large volume storage of
contaminated soils,
thus reducing the risk during storage. Moreover, once the soils are
disposed, they could
be backfilled immediately and thus facilitate the restoration of the
cleaned site.
Re-assembly (during site mobilization) of the mobile thermal desorption
unit at each
new site and different conditions at these sites may lead to more
inadvertent
environmental discharges of pollutants than the fixed thermal desorption
unit. With the
presently available information about the PCB sites, there are no
rational bases for
selecting the mobile versus the fixed thermal desorption alternative. A
detailed
feasibility study will be conducted to compare the merits of mobile
versus fixed thermal
desorption alternatives after all the locations of the PCB sites have
been identified and
the amounts of low concentration PCBs have been estimated for these
sites, and more
detailed cost information has been developed.
However, a mobile thermal desorption unit would require demobilization
after the job
is completed at one site, transportation to the next site, and
mobilization at the next site.
As one can see, there are cost tradeoffs between the mobile and fixed
thermal
desorption options.
8.2 Modality for the Site of the Facility

8.2.1 Location of the Facility

The disposal facility is proposed to be located in Zhejiang province for
the following
reasons:

² The principle that hazardous waste (including PCBs) is better to be
disposed at the
    site;

²
Thedisposalcost,includingthecostforpackageandtransportwillgreatlyincrease
    with the long distance transport of the wastes;

² There would be much higher environmental risk in case of the long
distance
    transport;
² Thelongdistancetransportwill not facilitate the backfilling and
restoration of the
    cleaned site.

8.2.2 Determination of the Facility Capacity

Without concrete monitoring data, it is difficult to determine the
pollution level, the
quantity of soil waiting for disposal in each site and thus the disposal
capacity of the
facility. In that case, the following methodology is proposed for the
determination of
the disposal capacity.

(1) Carry out monitoring for contaminated soil in each site during the
clean up stage;

                                               161
(2) Fill out the following matrix in accordance with the monitoring data.
This matrix is
    based on the U.S. EPA's "A Guide on Remedial Actions at Superfund
Sites with
    PCB Contamination" (August 1990), which includes the action/cleanup
level of 25
    ppm for industrial (or low occupancy) areas and 1 ppm for residential
(or high
    occupancy) areas.
                               Low occupancy (low          High occupancy
(high risk) areas
                          risk) areas                      (residential)
              Action           >500         25-500         >500
10-500             1-10
         level            ppm           ppm            ppm            ppm
ppm
              Site 1

             Site 2
             Site 3
             ...


             Site 41
             ...


             Site 61

                Total

(3) Based on the result of the above filled out matrix, the quantity of
soil to be treated
    under this project could be estimated.

(4) The capacity of the thermal desorption unit will be determined based
on theamount
    of low concentration PCB-contaminated soils in the Zhejiang Province
and the
    operating schedule (number of hours per day) of the thermal
desorption unit.

Based on the above assumption and the information from the matrix, the
disposal
capacity of the thermal desorption facility will be estimated.
8.2.3. Site Selection of the Thermal Desorption Facility

(1) Selection Principles and References for Siting of Thermal Desorption
Facility
    i. Siting of thermal desorption facility will comply with the
professional plan for
         local environmental protection and the requirement for the local
air control,
        water resource protection and ecological preservation. The
selection will pass
        environmental impacts/risks assessment;
    ii. Site selection of thermal desorption facility will be identified
according to
        relevant national regulations on solid waste storage and disposal
as follows:
        ²
Thefacilitywillnotbeconstructedat1stclassand2ndclassfunctionalareas
             as regulated by the environmental quality standards for
surface water and 1st
             class functional areas for air quality as regulated by GB
3095;
        ² The facility will not be constructed at the windward side of
residential
             regions;
        ²
Thefacilitywillbeconstructedatregionswithstablegeologicstructures;
        ² The facility will be established at regions with a distance of
at least 150
             meters to surface waters and at least 800 meters distance to
residential areas;
        ² The facility will be kept away from vulnerable area of natural
disasters such


                                             162
             as tides, floods, earthquakes and so on;
         ² The facility will be kept away from storerooms of combustible
and
             explosive materials and high voltage electricity transmit
network.
    iii. The selection of disposal sites will integrate the service area,
traffic conditions,
         land utilization status, infrastructure condition, transport
distance, public
         opinions, and the like;
    iv. The site restoration and temporary storage and transport of the
residues will be
         taken into account.
(2) Reference
    i. State or local policy, statutes, standards and regulations on
environmental
         protection, such as the national regulation on siting of
hazardous waste storage
         facilities (GB 18597-2001) and national regulation on siting of
hazardous waste
         incinerators (GB 18484-2001), and land utilization and
protection regulations
         of regional general plan and environmental plan;
    ii. The basic status of the disposal site, including the size, soil
type, soil
         characteristics and so on;
    iii. State and regional management regulations on occupational
security and
         sanitation.
(3) Special Siting Requirements for Mobile Thermal Desorption Facilities
    i. Traffic condition: The traffic requirement for the mobile disposal
facility to enter
         and exit the site and the transport of the residues after the
disposal will be met;
    ii. Electricity condition: The facility and electricity for the sound
operation of
         disposal and service facilities will be guaranteed. And if not,
generation units
         will be installed;
    iii. Water supply and drainage condition: There will be reliable
water supply and
         drainage system to guarantee dependable water resource and
wastewater
         drainage after treatment.

8.2.4 Environmental Impact Estimation


The facility is operated under a reduced pressure and does not use large
amounts of
excess air or water during treatment. Also, the post treatment of the gas
and solid phases
are separate from the main process treatment. However, treatment of off-
gases requires
careful control and emissions treatment to minimize dioxin formation. As
a conclusion,
there's little environmental impact if the off-gases from the disposal
facility are
properly treated.

Since there was no soil or other PCB contaminated material in the
facility after one site
was treated, there will be little environmental risk during the
transportation process
between two sets of treatment.

The fixed thermal desorption alternative would be associated with
environmental risk
of accidents and spills of PCB contaminated soils during long-distance
transportation
of soils. A mobile disposal facility could treat the soil at the same
time when cleanup is


                                             163
being conducted, and there is no need for large volume storage of
contaminated soils,
thus reducing the risk during storage. Re-assembly (during site
mobilization) of the
mobile thermal desorption unit at each new site and different conditions
at these sites
may lead to no more inadvertent environmental discharges of pollutants
than the fixed
thermal desorption unit.

However, a detailed environmental assessment for the thermal desorption
facility will
be prepared after determination of the mobile versus fixed mode of
operation. The
environmental assessment will evaluate alternative thermal desorption
processes,
estimate the environmental discharges from the selected process, propose
mitigatory
measures along with monitoring requirements.
8.2.5 Operational Monitoring

l
Processmonitoring.Thetransport,accepting,loadandunloadofcontaminatedsoil
    will meet the regulatory requirement to prevent pollution diffusion
and guarantee
    personnel's safety;

l Operation monitoring. The implementation of the disposal technique, and
the
    control of technical parameters including the desorption temperature,
time and the
    pressure of protection gases;

l Release monitoring. Refer to Section 8.3 Environmental Monitoring for
the
    Disposal Process for details.

8.3 Environmental Monitoring for the Disposal Process

The major monitoring items include:

(1) Monitoring and control of PCBs, including PCB content in the treated
and untreated
    soil, the desorbed gas, and treated water;

(2) Monitoring and control of PCDDs/PCDFs, including the content of
PCDDs/PCDFs
    in treated soil, released gas and particulates in the ambient
atomosphere;

The monitoring frequency will be specified in the full environmental
assessment of the
thermal desorption facility.
8.3.1 Monitoring for PCBs
8.3.1.1. Collection and Storage of PCB Sample

Since PCBs are fairly stable during the collection and storage process,
regular
approaches could be employed in the sampling.

(1) Particulates

For particulates, HV samplers will be employed for sampling. The membrane
will be
made of quartz, fluorin resin or nitryl cellulose. The air flow will be
measured in the
beginning and end of the sampling process and then the air volume could
be calculated.
The weight of the membrane will be determined before and after the
sampling process


                                            164
so as to calculate the particulate content in the air.

(2) Water sample

For water sample, the sampling spots locate at the surface level, that is
,about 0.5 m
below the water level. Samplers for water include buckets, scoops, or
vertical and
horizontal water samplers, which will be made of inertia materials, such
as synthetic
resins and glass. The samplers and containers must be clean, and will be
washed by
purified organic solvents.

In the sampling process, 10 liters of water will be taken for each spot
and then filtered
by C18 membrane. During the filtration, isotope marked by C13 will be
added as
substitute. Then after extraction, the sample could be used for analysis.

(3) Soil sample

The tools used for sampling soil include shovels and drills which are
made of stainless
steel. Brown glass bottles with a plug will be employed for PCBs. All the
samplers and
container will be clean, and will be washed by purified organic solvents.

The soil sample from the surface to a depth of about 5 cm will be taken.
And 3-5
sampling spots will be set within a distance of 10 meters. And in the
mean time,
sampling date, sample name, exact sampling position, altitude, and
relevant
environmental conditions, such as surrounding pollution sources, the
utilization of soils,
terrain, and climate conditions will be recorded.

8.3.1.2 Laboratory Analysis

The basic procedure of PCB analysis includes the transfer of PCBs from
samples to
appropriate solvents, the separation of PCBs from disturbance, and
finally, the
quantitative and qualitative analysis of PCBs by GC/ECD or GC/MS. The
following
analytical methods are particularly adopted for professionals with
specific training to
use special equipment, with the total amount of PCB congeners as the
target. Please
refer to relevant EPA methods for laboratoryanalysis of PCBs (EPA Method
505, EPA
Method 508, EPA Method 608, EPA Method 617, EPA Method 625, EPA Method
8080A, EPA Method 8081, and EPA Method 8250)
8.3.2 Monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs

8.3.2.1 Collection and Storage of PCDD/PCDF Sample

(1) Particulates

For particulates, HV samplers will be employed for sampling. The membrane
will be
made of quartz, fluorin resin or nitryl cellulose. The air flow will be
measured in the
beginning and end of the sampling process and then the air volume could
be calculated.
The weight of the membrane will be determined before and after the
sampling process
so as to calculate the particulate content in the air.

(2) Water sample



                                            165
For water sample, the sampling spots locate at the surface level, that
is, about 0.5 m
below the water level. Samplers for water include buckets, scoops, or
vertical and
horizontal water samplers, which will be made of inertia materials, such
as synthetic
resins and glass. The samplers and containers must be clean, and will be
washed by
purified organic solvents.

In the sampling process, 10 liters of water will be taken for each spot
and then filtered
by C18 membrane. During the filtration, isotope marked by C13 will be
added as
substitute. Then after extraction, the sample could be used for analysis.

(3) Soil sample

The tools used for sampling soil include shovels and drills which are
made of stainless
steel. Brown glass bottles with a plug will be employed for PCDD/PCDFSs.
All the
samplers and container will be clean, and will be washed by purified
organic solvents.

The soil sample from the surface to a depth of about 5 cm will be taken.
And 3-5
sampling spots will be set within a distance of 10 meters. And in the
mean time,
sampling date, sample name, exact sampling position, altitude, and
relevant
environmental conditions, such as surrounding pollution sources, the
utilization of soils,
terrain, and climate condition will be recorded.

8.3.2.2 Laboratory Analysis

The basic procedure of PCDD/PCDF analysis includes the transfer of
PCDDs/PCDFs
from samples to appropriate solvents, the separation of PCDDs/PCDFs from
sample
disturbance, and finally, the quantitative and qualitative analysis of
PCDDs/PCDFs by
HRGC/HRMS. The following analytical methods are particularly for
professionals
with specific training to use special equipment, with the total amount of
PCDDs/PCDFs
congeners as the target. For more details, please refer to EPA method
1613.

8.4 Management and Decontamination of PCB Contaminated

Transformers
8.4.1 Current Situation of PCB Contaminated Transformers in Zhejiang
Very few are known concerning the situation of PCB contaminated
transformers in
China. Despite PCBs containing transformers were not produced in China,
it cannot be
excluded that transformers imported in the past are PCB free; moreover in
the case of
PCBs free transformers imported after 1979 the possibility still exists
of PCBs
contamination due to improper refilling with PCBs containing oil.

Near 630 main transformers were present in the Electricity substations in
Zhejiang in
the period 1964-1980; there is however not information on the current
situation of these
transformers and on their PCB contamination status.




                                           166
8.4.2 Main Points of Proper Technology Selection of Decontamination of
PCB

Contaminated Transformers

Considering also the experience of other countries, where the problems of
PCBs
contaminated transformers is very widespread, it will not be excluded
that in a more
advanced state of the inventory project, the problem of PCB contaminated
transformer
may arise, and in that case it could be a great shortcoming if a suitable
technology for
dealing with that problem has not been properly individuated and tested.
However, due
to lack of information on the number of contaminated transformer, it is
recommendable
to limit that activity to the testing one technology, by renting of the
proper equipment.
In selecting the proper technology for this testing activity, the
following points have
been considered:
China is a fast growing nation, in which the demand of electricity may
increase more
rapidly than the building of new plants; thus, the management of the
electrical system is
very sensitive, and in the case of individuation of a large number of PCB
contaminated
transformer, a sound plan for their decontamination will be developed in
order not to
affect the production or distribution of electricity;
A large size transformer is a very valuable piece of equipment (near
200.000 for a 25
MVA transformer); its disposal and replacement with a new PCB-free
transformer
could be justified only if the transformer is at the end of its
operational life; otherwise
decontamination and re-use is the preferred solution.
Beside the environmental aspects, dielectric oils are also very valuable
and expensive
goods and their recycling and regeneration may present significant
economic benefits.

8.4.3 Available Technologies for Online Decontamination of Transformers

(1)Metallic Sodium Technologies
Under this category fall all the technologies based on the use of
metallic sodium to
dechlorinate the PCB molecules. These technologies may be adopted for the
decontamination of transformer oil in closed loop decontamination
processes, or for the
decontamination of PCBs contaminated oils. The use of dispersed sodium
for the
destruction of organic compounds is based on the Wurtz reaction, which
general
expression is:
2RX + 2Na ? R-R + 2NaX
Where R is the alkyl radical and X is the halogen atom. In the case of a
chlorinated
compound, X is the chlorine atom.
The concept of the Wurtz reaction was expanded by Fittig in the mid
1860s, who
discovered that, in the presence of metallic sodium, hydrocarbons could
be synthesized
which contained the combination of an alkyl radical and an aromatic
residue. The
general representation of the Wurtz-Fittig reaction is:
ArX + RX + 2Na ??? ???Ar-R + 2NaX
The efficiency of the destruction/reaction process is based on the
formation of sodium


                                             167
compounds with bonding enthalpies that are higher than those between the
non-sodium
ions and the stripped ion. For example, the formation enthalpy of a
carbon-chloride
bond is 328 kJ/mol, while that of a sodium-chloride bond (which exists
following
destruction of a chlorinated halogen) is 411 kJ/mol. Hence, once the bond
is broken
and a new molecule is formed with sodium, the reaction is not reversible
under the
conditions that exist in the reactor. This situation eliminates the
formation of toxic
halogenated byproducts from the treatment process. The destruction
process is also
applicable to many non-halogenated compounds containing reactive groups
that are
sensitive to attack by sodium. (Bilger, 2004, Sodium for Destruction of
Polychlorinated
Biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil)
Due to the fact that sodium is a reactive metal which reacts violently
with water to give
hydrogen gas, creating a potential fire hazard, processes using metallic
sodium usually
require the degassing and dewatering of the media to be treated in order
to avoid
unwanted exothermic reactions. An inert gas (nitrogen or argon) is also
required for
filling the head space of the reactors. The residues from the treatment
process include
sodium salts and various aromatic, non-halogenated hydrocarbons. Under
pilot- and
full-scale conditions, the organic byproducts are either combusted or
recovered
following refinement for appropriate post-treatment uses (e.g., energy
recovery, reuse
as dielectric fluids). The inorganic byproducts (together with the excess
sodium added
initially to the system) must be recovered and disposed of in an
appropriate manner.
Sodium is a commercially available non expensive chemical and is offered
by
manufacturing companies in different physical forms. Some of the
providers of metallic
sodium dehalogenation processes also produce dispersed sodium in order to
reduce the
treatment cost.
The introduction of metallic sodium into a PCB oil leads to a reaction
whose rate is
dependent on the metal-oil interface. The rate of reaction between the
solid metal and
the PCB-containing oils depends on the extent of this interface, in that
the finer the
metal particles, the faster will be the reaction.
Secondary reactions can occur when PCBs react with metallic sodium.
During the
dechlorination step, the intermediate chlorinated molecules can
polymerise and lead to
the formation of a solid (polymer) containing chlorine. This product can
no longer be
dechlorinated and settles out of the reaction as a solid. (UNEP, 2000)
The metallic sodium based technologies have the advantage to lead to a
complete
reaction in a short time; the oil decontaminated by metallic sodium
dechlorination
usually may be reused, also if a potential shortcoming of the technology
lies in the fact
that the strong oxidizing power of the metallic sodium could in some
cases affect
negatively the dielectric properties of the oil. In order to overcome
this shortcoming,
these technologies are often associated with technologies specifically
designed for the
regeneration of dielectric oils. Other advantages are:
The rate of reaction (and, hence, the rate of exothermic heat generated
by the reaction)
must be carefully controlled by the rate at which the waste is added to
the sodium
dispersion. The process requires the dewatering and degassing of the
matrix to be
treated. The process may affect the dielectric properties of the oil.


                                             168
(2)Continuous Dehalogenation Process (CDP)
Glycolate dehalogenation makes use of a chemical reagent called APEG.
APEG
consists of two parts: an alkali metal hydroxide (the "A" in APEG) and
polyethylene
glycol (PEG). The metal hydroxide that has been most widely used for this
reagent
preparation is potassium hydroxide (KOH) in conjunction with polyethylene
glycol
(PEG) (typically, average molecular weight of 400) to form a polymeric
alkoxde
referred to as KPEG; Sodium hydroxide has also been used for this
process.
A patented improvement of the APEG process designed specifically for the
treatment
of PCB containing transformer oils (CDP Process, US Patent 5663479, 1997)
makes
use of a non alkali metal, (preferably a mixture of aluminum and
titanium, but also iron,
manganese, magnesium, nickel, palladium, silicon and zinc are suitable),
a long chain
polyalkeneglycol and a alkali or alkaline earth metal hydroxide or
alcoholate.
The process uses for the reaction a mixture of glycols (PEG, PPG) and
strong bases that
by reacting with the chlorinated compounds present in the oil,
progressively replace the
atoms of chlorine in the molecules into hydrogen (dechlorination
detoxification by
mechanisms of nucleophilic replacement and hydro dehalogenation).
Residual
products of such reaction are normal, non-toxic potassium, calcium and
magnesium
salts, absorbed by the reagent itself.
The active principles, mixed in the appropriate proportions, are absorbed
by a particle
solid support with a high surface area. The reagent (S/CDP Reagent)
obtained in this
manner, is pre-packaged in cartridges creating a filtering bed on which
the oil to be
decontaminated flows, pre-heated to temperature of 80 = 100 °C.
In order to make the process flexible for the decontamination of power
and distribution
transformers on-site or in a dedicated centre, the process is provided by
a mobile plant
composed of one or more units that can be integrated among them or
modulated, as
required.
The configuration of each unit includes the following systems:
Oil heating system: equipped with low specific power electric heater (1
W/cm2) for a
total power from 40 through 100 kW;
Oil circulation system: it includes a suction pump and delivery between
1,000 and
5,000 1/h;
Oil degassing system: composed of a vacuum lamination chamber (tower)
with
relevant single or dual stage evacuation circuit;
Oil filtration system: composed of mechanical filters with different
porosity (up to 1 p
nominai)
Oil dehalogenation system: composed of a series of columns containing
particle
chemical reagent (S/CDP Reagent)
Oil depolarization system: composed of a series of columns containing
high porosity
and adsorbing surface filtering supports (active clays);
Oil supply, control and monitoring system: including supply general
electric board,
plant controls and automatic monitoring and control centralising all
safety functions.
The units, components and design manufacturing criteria of the plant are


                                           169
"state-of-the-art" in accordance with "the best available techniques",
complying with
the "EC" requirements for safety and quality assurance.
Despite less fast than the Sodium based process, the Continuous
Dehalogenation
Process is more safe in the sense that does not require dangerous
chemical reagent; the
residual concentration of PCBs confirmed after 90 days is normally
reduced to less than
25 ppm; this process allow also the complete recovery of the dielectric
oil due to the
fact that it removes sludge and polar products from the oils, thus
extending the
operational life of transformer in operation.

Sodium Based Processes: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Discharges.
Emissions in the Atmosphere : There are no process emissions in the
atmosphere. The
process is a non-combustion process, thus there are no off-gases deriving
from
combustion. Before entering the dehalogenation process, however, the oil
need to be
degassed and dewatered.. The process consists in mixing the oil in a
reactor (whose
head space is filled with nitrogen) together with the reagent; the
treated oil is then
filtered with clay and dried under vacuum conditions.
Emissions of Wastewater or Liquid Wastes. The process does not generates
wastewater or liquid wastes. Dehalogenated oil is usually reused in the
transformer as
PCB free oils.
Generation of Solid Wastes: For each 100 kg of oil to be treated, the
process requires
5 kg of clay, 20 lt/min of nitrogen (which are comp1letely recycled), an
amount of the
Na emulsion which depends on the PCBs concentration of the oil; the
process return 95
kg of decontaminated oil, 10 kg of a clay/oil mud containing a variable
amount of NaCl,
and a variable amount of non halogenated light hydrocarbons and low
volatile
compounds.
Continuous Dehalogenation Process: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Discharges.
Data concerning the solid, liquid and gaseous emissions from the CDP
process derives
from the patent documentation: US patent 5663479 (sept. 2, 1997).from the
"Technical
Specification of the CDP process" (March 3rd 2003, Sea Marconi
Technologies) and
from "Inventory of World-wide PCB destruction technologies" (UNEP,
2004)..
Emissio ns in the Atmosphere : There are no process emissions in the
atmosphere, as
the process occurs in a completely close circuit. The process is a non-
combustion
process, thus there are no off-gases deriving from combustion. Before
entering the
dehalogenation process, however, the oil need to be degassed; in order to
d that, it
passes through a degasser which is composed by a vacuum lamination
chamber with
relevant single or dual stage evacuation circuit. The maximum temperature
in the
degassing chamber is 80°C. Emissions from the degassing unit (with a flow
of few
cubic meter/hour) are treated on-board by the plant and filtered on
activated carbon
prior to inlet into the atmosphere.
Emissions of Wastewater or Liquid Wastes. The process does not generate
wastewater or liquid wastes. After the dehalogenation, the regenerated
dielectric oil can
be classified as "PCB free" and is reused directly into the transformer.
Generation of Solid Wastes: The process generates a small amount (an
average of 0.5
kg per tons of oil treated) of exhaust CDP reagent, which is a PCB free
sludge (with

                                           170
PCB and PCDD/PCDF concentration under detectable level with GC/MS)
containing
neutral salts (potassium, calcium and magnesium salts.); these wastes are
classified as
"non toxic special wastes" following the Italian legislation. The exact
amount of these
wastes depends on the PCBs concentration in the oil; higher the
concentration of PCBs,
higher the salts generated during the dehalogenation process.. The
process also
generated exhaust activated carbon after the degassing treatmemt, which,
being using
for filtering an outflow deriving from a degassing process at low
temperature, is
expected to contain mainly non-halogenated, volatile compounds.

8.4.4 Selection and Origin of Technology of Decontamination of
Transformers

The online decontamination technology for PCB containing transformer will
be
selected after enough data on the size, location, typology, and
contamination level of
the transformer will become available.
The equipment of the selected technology will be shipped from abroad to
China; after
arrival of the equipment, all the necessary permits procedures for
operation will be
completed. The plant will be installed at the sites (industry, power
plant sites,
transformer substation sites) where the transformer to be treated will be
located. The
personnel present at the sites will be trained by the provider of the
technology on the
use of the equipment, in order to guarantee the safety of the
decontamination procedure;
moreover, the provider team responsible for the operation of the
dehalogenation
equipment will be trained by local experts on specific requirements for
working at the
site.

8.4.5 Test Execution of Decontamination of Transformer

The test will have the purpose to decontaminate power transformer in two
separate
missions, each one lasting for at least four weeks.
The decontamination test will consist in the execution of onsite chemical
dehalogenation of transformers with mobile equipment, in closed loop,
without the
removal of the dielectric oil contained in the transformers.
According to the experiences available in literature, mobile
dehalogenation
technologies in Europe are mostly used to handle transformer with oil
contaminated up
to 1000 ppm of PCB; higher concentration can be handled too, but with
unfavorable
economics. However, because the economics of the dehalogenation
technology
depends strongly on reagent costs and manpower costs, it is possible that
the highest
concentration level which can be economically treated in China is
somewhat different.
One of the purpose of the test, beside is technical performance, will be
to understand its
economic performance in China. In order to do that, equipment to be
rented must be
commercial equipment normally used in western countrie s (not pilot or
experimental
equipment).
In the first mission, at least 3 transformers with an overall cumulative
internal volume
of 45.000 - 75.000 liters of contaminated oil will be decontaminated,
following the
BAT outlined in IEC regulation IEC 60422            ed. 2004 12.3.3.
(Supervision and


                                            171
maintenance guide for insulating mineral oils in electrical
equipment).The target level
will be to obtain a final decontamination level between 2 and 25 ppm,
determined on
the basis of the IEC regulation 61619 (Insulating liquids - Contamination
by
polychlorinated biphenyls "PCBs" - Method of determination by capillary
column gas
chromatography) or equivalent methodologies
Moreover, aim of the test is to demonstrate the possibility to preserve
or improve the
initial (pre-test) dielectrical properties of the oil, thus avoiding the
economic and
environmental costs associated to the disposal and replacement of the
dielectric oil. The
dielectric property of the oil, before and after the test, will be
measured following the
already quoted IEC 60422 regulation.
In the second mission, further 3 transformer will be treated; in this
mission moreover
transformer treated in the previous mission, for which the PCB
concentration in the oil
raised over the 50 ppm level after treatment, will be further treated.

8.5Assessment of the Potential Environmental Impacts

The main issue concerning the environmental impact assessment of the on-
line
dehalogenation technologies, like the CDP process or the metallic sodium
processes, is
that these processes operate are non combustion ones operating at low
temperature (less
than 200°C). This will prevent the formation of dioxin and other toxic
compounds.
Generally the on line dehalogenation processes may be operated by means
of
transportable equipment which can be easily and quickly transported near
to the
transformers to be decontaminated. Thus, storage, site preparation,
construction or
dismantling phase are not required.
All the equipment normally fit into a single truck and may be easily
mobilized by
forklift.
Emission into the Atmosphere. The chemical dehalogenation technologies
does not
generate emissions into the atmosphere, except for the oil degassing
unit. The gasses
emitted from the degassing unit are filtered on activated carbon prior to
the inlet into
the atmosphere.
Waste Generation. Residual for the CDP process are potassium, calcium and
magnesium salts.
As far as the sodium process is considered, for each 100 kg of oil to be
treated, the
process requires 5 kg of clay, 20 lt/min of nitrogen (which are
comp1letely recycled),
an amount of the Na emulsion which depends on the PCBs concentration of
the oil; the
process return 95 kg of decontaminated oil, 10 kg of a clay/oil mud
containing a
variable amount of NaCl, and a variable amount of light hydrocarbons and
low volatile
compounds Residual from the metallic sodium process are generally sodium
chloride
Noise: the noise generation is very limited, and generally within 80 dBA
1m far from
the installation.
Water Consumption/Discharge. Dehaloogenation unit do not consume water,
nor
generate wastewater.
Safety: Safety is a main issue, due to the fact that these plant usually
operate at very
sensitive installations. Generally speaking, the mobile dehalogenation
units must be


                                          172
equipped with the following safety and monitoring automatic systems:
    · safety thermostats measuring and controlling the process
temperature

    · safety pressure switches controlling the process maximum pressure

    · flowmeters measuring and controlling the oil flow

    · smoke detectors

    · spill protection systems both for the connection pipes and for the
reactors


8.6 Environmental Monitoring for the Decontamination of PCB


8.6.1 Environmental Monitoring for the Decontamination of

Transformer

The online decontamination of transformers is a closed loop technology
which does not
produce off-gases (except for a small volume produced during the oil
degassing process,
which is treated by adsorption on activated carbon); the solid wastes
generated
(exhausted reagents) are confined inside the reactor until the end of the
process. Thus,
no monitoring of soil, water or ambient air is needed during the process.

The major monitoring items include:

(1)Sample and analysis of solid and liquid wastes generated by the
dehalogenation
plants at the end of the process: this is required in order to classify
the waste generated
for compliance with the local waste regulation;

(2)Sample and analysis of the off-gas generated from the degassing
section of the
dehalogenation plants. This is an activity usually not required; this
activity may be
performed for demonstration purposes in order to verify the absence of
organics from
the off-gas;

(3)Monitoring and control of PCB in transformers oil before and after
decontamination:
The concentration of PCBs, PCTs, PCBts will be determined for these
plants by a GC
analysis in accordance with method CEI-EN 61619-1998-11 and method EN
12766
part 1,2,3 on oil samples taken from each equipment at the end of the
decontamination;

The check of the concentration of PCBs, PCTs, PCBts is generally repeated
after at
least 90 days from the end of the decontamination to ascertain the
possible release from
impregnated solid insulations within the transformers, in accordance with
European
standard CENELEC EN50225 - December 1996. This check is done by taking a
sample of insulating oil from the equipment and gas chromatographic
analysis in
accordance with the method described above.

The monitoring period will be identified based on the specific spot
situation and
requirement.



                                             173
8.6.2 Monitoring for PCBs

(1) Collection and Storage of PCB Sample

Since PCBs are fairly stable during the collection and storage process,
regular
approaches could be employed in the sampling. The sampling sites are
determined
based on the specific status of the investigation objective. The sampling
instrument and
containers will be made of glass, stainless steel, polytetrafluoroethene
and other
non-contaminating materials. For atmospheric particulates, large flux
samplers are
employed. The filtering membrane will be made of quartz, fluororesin or
nitrylcellulose.

(2) Laboratory Analysis

The basic procedure of PCB analysis includes the transfer of PCBs from
samples to
appropriate solvents, the separation of PCBs from disturbance, and
finally, the
quantitative and qualitative analysis of PCBs by GC/ECD or GC/MS. The
following
analytical methods are particularly adopted for professionals with
specific training to
use special equipment, with the total amount of PCB congeners as the
target.

A. Pretreatment

    l Extraction

In general, SPE, LLE and CLLE are employed for PCB water samples. Soxhlet
Extraction will be adopted for soil and atmospheric particulate samples.
As non-polar
chemicals, PCBs are inclined to enter hydrophobic organic solvents from
water phase.
Thus LLE is employed in all standard analysis methods for water sample.
The solvents
applying include dichloromethane, hexane and mixed solvents. Some
problems during
the extraction process, such as the volatilization in condensing process,
the adsorption
on experimental apparatus, the contamination of samples and so on, will
be highlighted

    l Purification

Purification is necessary, able to eliminate those chemicals serving as
disturbance to
PCB analysis. As the purification technologies for PCB analysis, the
currently used
methods include column chromatography, high performance liquid
chromatography,
thin-layer chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography and chemical
decomposition. Of all the methods, column chromatography is most commonly
adopted, which generally uses florisil, silica gel, aluminum oxide and
activated carbon
are employed as sorbents. Since there is difference in the activity and
filling efficiency
among different sorbents, it is required that the dissolving range of
PCBs will be
identified in advance under the same operational condition. And during
the adsorption
process, nitrogen or air could be used to accelerate the effluence.

    l Concentration

K-D concentrator is generally employed for concentration. And during the
process,
zeolite, beading or capillary will be added to the solution to prevent
ebulliency. And

                                            174
rotary evaporator could also be adopted with the precaution that all the
solution not be
vaporized.

    l StandardRepertory

Standard repertory could be confected with standard PCBs. If the purity
of the standard
substance exceeds 96%, weight revision could be passed over to calculate
the
concentration of the standard repertory.

B. Analytical methods

It is suggested that following methods be employed in the analysis of
PCBs

    l GC/ECD

ECD has high selectivity and sensitivity to halogens. Therefore it is a
suitable and most
widely used method in PCB analysis. However, Linear range of quantitative
analysis is
narrow, and calibrate instrument before analysis. And what's more, there
is Great
difference among the detection responses of different PCB congeners;

    l GC/MS

When MS is adopted as the detector for GC, data including the number of
chlorine
atoms and molecular weight could be accessed. And it will also result in
more accurate
qualitative result. However, MS can not distinguish among isomers and the
sensitivity
for PCBs of low concentration appears inferior to ECD.

For more detail, refer to standard methods for PCB analysis presented by
USEPA,
including EPA Method 505, EPA Method 508, EPA Method 608, EPA Method 617,
EPA Method 625, EPA Method 8080A, EPA Method 8081, and EPA Method 8250?

8.6.3 Monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs

(1)Collection and Storage of PCDD/PCDF Sample

Since PCDDs/PCDFs are fairly stable during the collection and storage
process, regular
approaches could be employed in the sampling. The sampling sites are
determined
based on the specific status of the investigation objective. The sampling
instrument and
containers will be made of glass, stainless steel, polytetrafluoroethene
and other
non-contaminating materials. For particulates in the atmosphere, large
flux samplers
are employed. The filtering membrane will be made of quartz, fluororesin
or
nitrylcellulose.

The basic procedure of PCDD/PCDF analysis includes the transfer of
PCDDs/PCDFs
from samples to appropriate solvents, the separation of PCDDs/PCDFs from
sample
disturbance, and finally, the quantitative and qualitative analysis of
PCDDs/PCDFs by
HRGC/HRMS. The following analytical methods are particularly for
professionals
with specific training to use special equipment, with the total amount of
PCDDs/PCDFs
congeners as the target.



                                            175
A. Pretreatment

    l Extraction

     In general, SPE, LLE and CLLE are employed for PCDDs/PCDFs water
samples.
Soxhlet Extraction will be employed for soil and atmospheric particulate
samples. As
non-polar chemicals, PCDDs/PCDFs are inclined to enter hydrophobic
organic
solvents from water phase. Thus LLE is employed in all standard analysis
methods for
water sample. The solvents applying include dichloromethane, hexane and
mixed
solvents. Some attention will be paid to some problems during the
extraction process,
such as the volatilization in condensing process, the adsorption on
experimental
apparatus, the contamination of samples and so on.

    l Purification

Purification is necessary, able to eliminate those chemicals serving as
disturbance to
PCB analysis. The most commonly used purification techniques for
PCDDs/PCDFs are
minitype alumina column, double column, and the like. The alumina could
eliminate
weakly polar chemicals, including chlorobenzene, PCBs and PCDBEs, which
are first
washed out by a mixture of dichloromethane and hexane (1+50). And the
remaining
PCDDs/PCDFs could further be washed out by another mixture of
dichloromethane
and hexane (1+1). This treatment could also remove polychlorinated
phenoxylphenol
(a precursor of PCDDs/PCDFs) to avoid its disturbance. During the double
column
process, the extraction is first absorbed by activated carbon, then
washed by
dichloromethane to separate complanate chemicals from non-complanate
chemicals
(such as non ortho PCBs and PCNs). This method is particularly applicable
for
complicated bio-samples and has been commercially produced.

    l Concentration

K-D concentrator is generally employed for concentration. And during the
process,
zeolite, beading or capillary will be added to the solution to prevent
ebulliency. And
rotary evaporator could also be adopted with the precaution that all the
solution not be
vaporized.

B. Analytical Method
In general, HRGC/HRMS is employed in the analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs. The key
points in the analysis are as follows. The addition of internal standard
C-13 and
pretreatment will be carried out simultaneously. The recovery of the
analysis sample,
the accuracy of isotopic dilution and GC-MS will be confirmed. The
analytical quality
control for GC separation and quantitative and qualitative analysis of MS
will be
conducted. The washing, extraction and recovery of silica gel, silica and
magnesium
absorbents, alumina and activated carbon will be strictly controlled. The
resolution of
HRMS will be above 10000 to guarantee the sensitivity and stability of
SIM. The
quality control measures include system blank, recovery experiment,
linear range,
retention value of all chemicals, ratio of peaks, GC separation of
isomers, resolution of
MS, SNR and qualitative analysis with 3 ions. For all the target ions,
the identification
of PCDDs/PCDFs require that SNR be above 3:1, the divergence between
molecular

                                            176
area ratio and standard ion fragment will be less that 10% and the ion
spectrum of
standard substance and internal ion will be consistent. Method 1613 has
become the
basis for laboratory analysis due to its stringent analytical quality
assurance system.




                                            177
9. Capacity Building in Zhejiang

It is necessary to strengthen the capacity of Zhejiang in PCBs management
and provide
trainings to support timely and effective implementation of mitigation
measures.

9.1 Institutional Strengthening

This component aims to strengthen the institutions of Zhejiang in PCB
management on
sustainable basis. It includes the following:

(1) Establishment of PIU in Zhejiang. A Project Implementation Unit (PIU)
will be
established to assist CIO in supervising and monitoring the
implementation of
demonstration activities in Zhejiang. The local PIU will consist of
members from the
provincial EPB, financial bureau, and power company. Its main
responsibilities under
the supervision and guidance of CIO - are to:

     a Implement some activities concerning institutional strengthening
(for example
        PIU strengthening, policy research and provincial training) under
direct
        contract with CIO/SEPA;

     b Assist CIO/SEPA and the national Independent Expert Panel in
supervising the
        project activities conducted by local consulting firms or
engineering companies
        in Zhejiang.

(2) Capacity Building for Provincial PIU:

     a Procurement of equipment such as computers, printers, copiers,
camera, and
        laptops;

     b Development of a database for storage and application of data;

     c Operating cost such as renting for offices and the meeting room,
transportation,
        and communication, etc;

     d Training of PIU staff on POPs and project management.

9.2 Development of a Policy Framework for PCB Management and Disposal

Current policies and regulations on hazardous waste management in China
provide
some specific requirements on PCB management, although they are
insufficient to
support the effective implementation of this demonstration project which
involves a
full-spectrum    of    activities   covering   identification,
monitoring,   cleanup,
containerization, transport, treatment, and disposal of PCB wastes.
Therefore, an
improved policy framework in China is needed in accordance with the
Stockholm
Convention. This can be achieved through revision of the existing rules
or standards,
development of new technical guidelines and standards.

This component will develop and improve the legal and regulatory
framework for safe

                                            178
management of PCBs in Zhejiang, as the pilot province for China under
this
demonstration project.
(1) Development of a pollution prevention/control regulation for PCBs in
the Zhejiang.
This regulation is to establish the objectives, pollution control
principles, its coverage,
institutional arrangement and responsibility sharing for management and
disposal of
PCB-containing equipment and PCB wastes to ensure a successful
implementation of
this demonstration project in the Zhejiang. It will include:
² Identification of PCBs. It will clearly define the responsibility
shared by PCBs
     owners, and functionality by the government of different levels;
² Collection, transport and storage of PCBs waste. It will define the
management of
     license for PCBs disposal, enforcement of PCBs safe transfer system,
and
     measures for PCBs emergency;
² PCBs Contaminated Sites. It will setup related requirements, technical
standards
     and responsibility shared by stakeholders for the full process of
sites management;
² In-use PCBs Equipments. It will define the responsibility of the owners
and
     management organizations;
² Monitoring of PCBs. This includes the verification of cleanup
activities and
     disposal process;
² AwarenessRaising.Thiswilldescribethemajorcontentsoftrainingandeducation
     on PCBs pollution control, and responsibility mechanism in this
aspect;
² Punishment Mechanism. This sets some principles for violation of this
regulation.

The draft provincial regulation will be prepared basedon a comprehensive
review and
evaluation of relevant documents available in China and other countries,
and
considering the PCB-related experience gained through the past years in
China. The
draft guidelines will be presented for discussion at an expert workshop
to provide
comments and suggestions for revisions. Then the revised guidelines will
be applied at
specified pilot sites in the Zhejiang and further improved, if necessary.

(2) Development of an emergency plan for PCB wastes in Zhejiang. The
objective of
this plan is to provide the detailed procedures, actions and measures in
case of PCB
accidents resulting in adverse impact to human health and the
environment. The draft
plan will include measures to address such cases as illegal dismantling
of PCB
equipments (in particular, stolen PCB equipment); and possible unexpected
leakage of
PCB oil during collection, cleanup, transport and storage. The draft plan
will be
prepared based on a comprehensive review and evaluation of similar plans
in China and
other countries, and considering the specific conditions in the Zhejiang.
The emergency
plan will be reviewed by an expert group for improvement. The trial
implementation of
the plan in the Zhejiang will provide a more practical experience for
further
improvement.

9.3 Trainings in Zhejiang

These training programs will be extended to the key stakeholders in the
Zhejiang,
which include: (i) PCB management institutions; (ii) environmental
departments of the


                                            179
power companies; (iii) PCB monitoring stations; and (iv) companies
dealing with
hazardous waste. Simple plan for these stakeholders are as follows;
(1) PCB management (to include the entire PCB identification to final
disposal process)
training for administrative staff:
     · Participants: 160 participants from EPB and the power companies at
the
        provincial, city, and county levels.
     · Training materials: These materials - to be provided by the
Technical/Policy
        Experts - will cover environmental sound management principles.
     · Training workshops: Four 4-day workshops.
(2) Training on PCB site monitoring for the monitoring staff:
     · Participants: 60 participants from EPB and the power companies at
the
        provincial, city, and county levels. The participants will be in
charge of
        monitoring work at the PCB sites.
     · Training materials: These materials - to be provided by the
Technical/Policy
        Experts - will cover sampling, sample preservation, sample
analysis, data
        evaluation, and quality assurance/quality control.
     · Training workshops: Two 10-day workshops.
(3) Training on PCB site cleanup for the PCB cleanup staff:
     · Participants: 20 participants from the selected company/companies.
     · Training materials: These materials - to be provided by the
Technical/Policy
        Experts - will cover the cleanup technology and personal
protection measures.
     · Training workshop: One 5-day workshop.
(4) Training on transporters of PCBs wastes.
      l Participants: 20 participants from the selected company/companies.
      l Training materials:These materials - to be provided by the
Technical/Policy
           Experts - will cover PCBs characteristics, the rules which
should be strictly
           obeyed during transportation, emergency procedures and measures
etc.
      l Training workshop:One 3-day workshop.
(4) Training on in-use/stored PCB equipment management for operational
staff:
     · Participants: 40 participants from power companies and enterprises
having
        PCB equipment.
     · Training materials: These materials - to be provided by the
Technical/Policy
        Experts - will cover sound management practices for PCB equipment
that are
        in use or stored.
     · Training workshop: One 2-day workshop.
(5) Training on remediation of PCB contaminated sites for decontamination
personnel:
       · Participants: 15 participants from the company selected for PCB
soil
       decontamination.
    · Training materials: These materials - to be provided by the
Technical/Policy
       Experts - will cover remediation of PCB-contaminated sites.
    · Training workshops: One 3-day workshop.
(6) Training on emergency measures for staff in charge of emergency
actions:
    · Participants: 30 participants from EPB at the provincial and city
levels.



                                             180
· Training materials: These materials - to be provided by the
Technical/Policy
  Experts - will cover emergency measures to be taken during collection,
  cleaning and transport of PCB wastes.
· Training workshops: One 5-day workshop.




                                  181
10 EMP Implementation Plan and Project Cost Estimation

The project has six components: (1) institutional strengthening; (2)
development of a policy framework for PCB management and disposal; (3)
PCB management and disposal in Zhejiang; (4) disposal in Shenyang of
highly-contaminated PCB wastes; (5) project monitoring and evaluation;
and (6) design of a national replication program. The environmental
management plan for the Zhejiang element of the project will be
implemented
during the whole project circle, especially the personnel training,
emergency plan development, PCBs sites remediation (cleanup, package,
label,
and transportation), PCBs waste temporary storage, long distance
transportation, soil decontamination and site monitoring after cleanup.

10.1 Implementation Plan for the Zhejiang Element of the Project


2005     2006           2007            2008        2009
          Components                                       Activities

3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q

1.Local Project Implementation l Personnel capacity strengthening
X
Unit (PIU)                     l Infrastructurestrengthening
X
                               l
Developmentofadatabaseforstorageanduseofcollected         X X X
                                    data
                               l Development of a PCBs management and
monitoring            X X X
                                    software
                               l ZhejiangPCBsmanagement
X X X    X X      X X    X X    X X      X X  X X
2.Provincial training          l Managementtraining
X
                               l Monitoring training
X

                               l Cleanup training
X
                               l Thetrainingonin-
use/storedPCBsequipmentmanagement               X

                               l The training on remediation of PCBs
contaminated sites                                X

                               l Thetrainingonemergencymeasures
X
3.Public awareness             l
Informationcollectionandstageddissemination            X X   X X        X X
X X    X X
182
2005     2006         2007       2008     2009
           Components                                   Activities

3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q
                                 l Information arrangement, verification
and staged          X X   X X   X X    X X    X
                                    dissemination
                                 l Information compilation and staged
dissemination             X X X     X X   X X   X X
                                 l Dissemination of information
X

                                 l Thetrainingonemergencymeasures
X
4. Develop a technical guideline l
Reviewofrelevanttechnicalandlegaldocuments          X
for   PCB      management    and l Development of draft guideline
X X
disposal in Zhejiang              l Circulation for comments in an
expertworkshop                X
                                  l Revision based on comments
X

                                  l Issuance of the guideline
X
5.Development of a pollution l Research of related policies
X
prevention/control regulation for l Information collection
X
PCBs in Zhejiang                  l Study tour
X
                                  l Draft file
X

                                  l Expert workshop
X

                                  l Revisionandfinalization
X
                                  l Issue of the regulation
X

6.Develop emergency plan forl Research of related policies
X
PCBs waste in Zhejiang           l Informationcollection
X
                                 l Study tour
X

                                 l Draft plan
X X
                                 l Expertworkshop
X
      l Revision and finalization
X




183
2005    2006        2007            2008     2009
           Components                                      Activities

3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q

                                    l Issue of the plan
X

7.Remediation/Cleanup         andl Site Characterization and Assessment
X X
transportation                      l Development of 1st cleanup plan(10
spots)                        X X

                                    l Evaluation of 1st cleanup planwith
public consultation             X
                                    l Implementation of 1st cleanup
plan(Collection, temporary                 X X
                                      storage and transport to Shenyang)
                                    l Development of 2nd cleanup plan
(24spots)                                X X

                               l Evaluationof2ndcleanupplan with public
consultation                    X
                               l Implementation of 2nd cleanup
plan(Collection, temporary                   X X
                                  storage and transport to Shenyang)
                               l Development of 3rd cleanup plan(25
spots)                                        X
                               l Evaluation of 3rd cleanup planwith
public consultation                           X
                               l
Implementationof3ndcleanupplan(Collection,temporary
X X
                                  storage and transport to Shenyang)
8.PCBs waste temporary storage l Development and certification of the
construction plan X

                                    l PreparationandApprovaloftheEA
X
                                    l Preliminary engineering design and shop
drawing design   X
                                    l Publicbidingandequipment procurement
X

                                    l Earthwork and outdoor tube & cable
installation            X X
                                    l Indoortube&cableinstallation
X

                                    l Equipment installation and system
debugging                     X X
            l Environmentalmanagementduringthe
operation    X X X    X X   X X   X X   X X




184
2005      2006       2007             2008   2009
            Components                                        Activities

3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q

9.Decontamination      of      low   l Feasibility study for mobile vs.
fixed thermal                    X   X
concentration PCBs                       desorption
                                     l Contracting for the construction and
operation of                   X X
                                         the thermal desorption facility

X X
                                     l EA for the thermal desorption
facility (with approval)

X X
                                     l Construction and startup of the
thermal desorption facility
                                     l Thermal desorption of PCB-
contaminated soil                                X X X X    X X        X X
X X
10. Monitoring after cleanup       l Monitoring after cleanup
X X X X X     X X      X X     X X X



10.2 Cost Estimation

The EMP components and their cost estimation are listed in the following
table.
                                                               Components
Estimated Cost(US$)
               1.Zhejiang Project Implementation Unit (PIU)
297,220

               2.Provincial training
460,170

               3.Public awareness
169,290

               4.Development of a regulation that establishes a funding
mechanism for PCB management                             5,800

               5.Development of a pollution prevention/control regulation
for PCBs in Zhejiang Province                          37,250

               6.Develop emergency plan for PCBs waste in Zhejiang
36,520

               7.Remediation/Cleanup and transportation
4,458,850
            8.PCBs waste temporary storage
1,359,130

            9.Decontamination of PCBs polluted soil
4,137,430
            10. Monitoring after cleanup
516,660




185
Total         11,478,320




        186
11. Public Participation


11.1 Objectives and forms of public participation

11.1.1 Objectives

Zhejiang provincial PCBs Management and Disposal Demonstration Project is
financed by the Global Environmental Fund, aiming to carry out in
Zhejiang province
the demonstration work, such as environment management, detailed list
investigation,
temporary storage and disposal of PCBs contaminants and wastes. The
implementation
of the project will benefit to perfect the PCBs inventory in Zhejiang
province, know
better the polluted situation of PCBs in Zhejiang province, and execute
the reduction
plan PCBs wastes, meanwhile it is useful to perfect the PCBs inventory
methodological
research of China and make out the NIP(national implementation plan)
which is to
reduce and delete PCBs. The implementation of demonstration project is
helpful to
alleviate the environmental risks in Zhejiang province, improve
residential living
environmental quality and level, and to offer solid basis for sustainable
development of
Zhejiang province. However, the implementation of the demonstration
project will
involve occupying land, demolishing and removing and resettlement; it is
possible that
the improper settlement causes the local environmental risks. According
to the
requirements of our country's Environmental Protection Law and Management
Rule
and World Environmental Assessment Policy(OP4.01), public participation
are carried
out in environmental assessment by collecting the feedback views and
suggestions
from experts, management departments, regional units concerned by the
project and the
residents on the project construction plan.
The information about this project was publicized in Zhejiang's Daily on
February 8,
2005, which provides the locations where the hard and electronic (i.e.
website) copies
of the EA Report have been made available. Since February 8, 2005, the
electronic
copy of the EA Report has been available at Zhejiang EPB's website
(www.zjepb.gov.cn), and hard copies of the EA Report have been made
available at
both the Zhejiang Solid Waste Management Center of Zhejiang EPB and the
Zhejiang
Provincial Academy of Environmental Science (which is responsible for
providing
public inquiry service).


11.1.2 Principles of public participation and investigation

Public participation and investigation are executed with definite aim and
in random, it
is just, without any subjective problems of being influenced by
individual bias or
feeling, covering the regional range defined by the environmental
assessment of this
time as PCBs wastes storage spots, i.e. Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou,
Shaoxing, Jinhua,
Taizhou, Huzhou, Jiaxing and Lishui.
11.1.3 Method of public participation

Under regional distribution, "public participation questionnaire table"
is distributed to
units, residential community committee and residents near the project
location. At first,
the introduction to the basic conditions of the project is appended to
the form,
explaining to the public the project situation, as well as environment
and social efficacy,
the good points and potential risks may be caused on regional environment
quality and
life quality, the measures to be taken in the project to minimize the bad
effects, also the
risk prevention measures, furthermore, views and suggestions are put
forward on the
environmental protection concerned by the public.

11.2 Situation of working organizations of public participation

The organization and execution of "public participation" takes each city
as unit,
combines the environment assessment units and local solid wastes
management
department of environment protection, collecting viewpoints and
suggestions from the
local residents by taking the methods of distributing questionnaire,
random individual
visits and oral investigation.
300 questionnaires were put in for the public participation
investigation, and 259 were
called back, with the callback rate of 86.3%, in which 251 were
effective, accounting
for 96.9% of the called back inquires.
The representative of the mass for public participation included all
ranks of lives,
including people of different educational backgrounds from the
perspective of cultural
level; from the perspective of career, it included civil servants,
teachers, students,
technicians, public accountants, workers and farmers; the age spanned
from younger
than 20 to older than 50. Please refer to Table 11.1-1 for details.

          Table 11.1-1 Public Participation and the Related Situation of
the Mass
       Age            < 20          20-30           30-40          40-50
>50
      Amount           22             63             72             43
51
 Percentage (%)       8.8            25.1            28.7          17.1
20.3
                   Less than 5                  More than 10
   residing time                 5~ 10 years
                   years                         years
     Amount          50              65           136
   Percentage       19.9            25.9          54.2
       Sex         Female          Male
     Amount         101             150
 Percentage (%)     40.2            59.8
                                 Junior high   Senior high     Above the
  Culture level Primary school
                                  school         school      junior
college
     Amount           10            7             71            163
 Percentage (%)      4.0           3.8            28.3          64.9
11.3 Result of investigation statistics

Please see Table 11.3-1 for the statistic result of this public
participation investigation.
The situation acquired and the statistic result of the questionnaires are
summed up as
follows:
(1) The opinions of the objectives to the environmental quality of
inhabitant locations
are: 38.2% of the objectives expressed satisfied, 18.3% expressed the
environmental
quality status quo was mediocre, those expressed dissatisfied accounts
for 15.5%, and
still 27.9% of the investigated did not show their opinions.
(2) Among the main aspects for affecting the local environmental quality,
exhaust
emission ranks the first, accounting for 31.8%, the second is waste
water, with the rate
of 26.7%, the affect of noise ranks the third, accounting for 14.4%, and
the discharge of
solid waste accounting for 8.1%. Besides, some people did not deliver
their opinions or
suggestions, or they presented some other facts, such as over population
and the too hot
in summer.
(3) When referred to the intended PCBs projects in Zhejiang Province in
the past,
around 51.4% of the people expressed their knowing, but 35.9% said they
had never
heard of that before.

             Table 11.3-1 The Statistics Form of Public Investigation
Result

                                                           The result of
investigation
        Investigation questions           Attitude      Amount

Percentage (%)
                                                        (persons)
                                      Satisfactory         96
38.2%
     1.What's the opinion on your     Mediocre             46
18.3%
       residential environment?     Dissatisfactory        39
15.5%
                                           Other           70
27.9%
                                           Noise           34
14.4%
                                    Exhaust emission       75
31.8%

     2.What's the primary factors   Waster water
                                       discharge         63
26.7%
     affecting local environmental    Solid waste
                quality?               discharge         19
8.1%

                                        Unclear          56
23.7%
                                          Other          64
27.1%
     3.Did you hear PCBs remove            Yes          129
51.4%

     program will be developed in          No            90
35.9%

           Zhejiang province?          Not clear         32
12.7%
                                     Government          40
23.7%

    4.What are the source channel     News paper         50
29.6%
                                     Hear from others    50
29.6%
     of information                     Internet         15
8.9%
                                     Other (explain)     14
8.3%
                                     Very concerned      44
17.8%
                                     Fairly concerned   109
44.1%
        5.How do you think this        Not clear         67
27.1%
               program?              Notconcerned        27
10.9%
                                     Very indifferent     0
0.0%
                                     very extensive      36
14.0%
         6.Do you consider this
        program will affect your          extensive         88
34.2%
        living space? Positive or     Not so extensive      89
34.6%

                  negative?            No influence         19
7.4%
                                           Positive         76
29.6%
                                           Negative         20
7.8%
    7.Will the development of this           Yes            84
33.5%

       program improve your living           No             19
7.6%

     environment? What primary            Not clear         148
59.0%
       aspects will be showed ?
     8.When this program started,           noise           123
49.0%
       it will be taken following      Exhaust gas          136
54.2%
                                        Waste water         121
48.2%
        disadvantage aspects for      Soil/ Solid rubbish   85
33.9%
      environment, what are the            ecology          98
39.0%
    effects do you care for in your
              living area.?               Not clear         42
16.7%

(4) When touched the sources of the information, both newspaper and
hearing from
others accounted 29.6% respectively, the second is through the
introduction of the
government departments concerned, the rates from other sources are fairly
low.
(5) For the concern rate about this project, 44.1% of the people
expressed relatively
concerned, 27.1% expressed unclear whether concerned or not, those
showing much
concerned only accounts for 17.8%, and also 10.9% of the people expressed
their
indifference toward the project.
(6) With regard to the influence of project construction, 34.6% of the
people thought
there would be no big influence; however, 34.2% of the total considered
there would be
fairly big influences, 14% thought very big, but also 7.4% out of the
total thought of no
influence. Those assumed positive influences accounted for 29.6% and
negative
influences accounted for 7.8%.
(7) When referred to whether the implementation of the project would
affect the living
environment quality of those being investigated, 59% out of the total
were not clear (the
majority of the people did not fill in the blank), but 33.5% of the
people thought there
would be both influence and would also be favorable.
(8) when asked which affect elements of the project were much concerned
about, 52%
of the people expressed they were much concerned about the exhaust
emission, 49.0%
of the investigated showed their concern about noise, and also 48.2%
about waste water,
the rates for those concerned about solid waste and ecological
environment facts were
33.9% and 39.0% respectively. 16.7% of the people under investigation
expressed not
clear or did not fill out the item.

11.4 General public concern and suggestion

According to public participation and investigation, the public,
generally speaking,
have insufficient knowledge about PCBs. People of lower educational level
show less
enthusiasm to the investigation, but they are basically in support of the
project. What
the public concern most are mainly common pollution factors like waste
gas,
wastewater and noise, with less awareness of impact of solid waste,
comparatively.
In the investigation, the public put forwards various opinions that
mainly include the
following:

1. It is suggested to strengthen the popularizing so that the public
will have proper

    knowledge about PCBs;

2. It is suggested that competent specialized company be in charge of
the

    implementation of the project so as to ensure the environmental
safety;

3. It is suggested that the project be finished within less time as
possible, avoiding

    long period taken for the treatment and transportation;

4. The storage place must be prudently selected so as to prevent
secondary pollution;

5. It is suggested that the PCBs waste from other provinces be forbidden
to enter

    Zhejiang Province, and that no PCBs waster be stored or treated in
Zhejiang

    Province; and

6. The governmental authority shall improve supervision and
administration in the

    implementation of the project so as to prevent secondary pollution.


11.5 Plan for further information exchange

Presently, the project, still in the previous phase, is considerably
subtle. So, pursuant to

the request from Zhejiang EPB, the information disclosure and exchange
about the

project should be under control in some certain extent. However, it is
planned to

publicize the status quo in respect of the implementation of the project
through media

channels, after this project is approved by SEPA and the WB. The
announcement

methods for the EA report are as follows:
     1.    Publicize information about this project in "Zhejiang Daily"
which has a

            wide circulation in the whole province. Meanwhile, provide the
sites for

            consulting written materials, contact methods and the website
for the

            E-version inquiry.

     2.    The written EA report is kept at Zhejiang solid waste
management center of

           Zhejiang EPB , Zhejiang Provincial Academy of Environmental
Science and

           the Performance Office of State Ministry of Environmental
Protection, which

            are responsible for providing public inquiry service.

     3.    The inquiry of the electronic version of EA report is
available at the website
           of Zhejiang Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau.

According to the WB requirement, in order to obtain public views, the
demonstration

project will be held further consultation activities to the public. The
project will be

carried out in 4 years, and will the disposal of PCBs contaminants and
wastes will be

cleaned in three phases for 2 - 3 years. The following is the schedule
for consultation

activities:

Date: Public opinion consultation symposiums is scheduled to be held in
three times.

Each consultation symposium will be held in half a year earlier after the
cleanup list is

determined. That is, the symposium for consultation public opinions on
the first

cleanup project approximately will be held in June-July, 2005;

Consultation representatives: the villager representatives, villager
heads and residents'

committee directors of the affected villages or neighborhood committees,

representatives from affected enterprises, the provincial EPB and the
local EPB, the

provincial electric power corp. and the local electric power company, and
the project

implementation corp. and the environmental impact assessment corp..

Notification method: Deliver invitation letters to enterprises and
government

authorities, and the villager representatives of the affected villages
and neighborhood

committees shall be informed by the respective villages and committees.

Agenda of the activity: include five aspects (1) introduction of PCB and
the project

background; (2) announcement of project implementation plan and the
relevant events;
(3) compensation method and standard for residents resettlement; (4)
security

protection and points for attention and; (5) consultation of reasonable
suggestions and

requirements.

Results of the activity: After the activity, a summary will be made which
will be

submitted to the model projects administration departments and all
implementation

units, so as to modify the cleanup plan and compensation program and make
the

demonstration project more reasonable.
11.6 Conclusion

It can be concluded from this public participation investigation that the
public mostly

feel satisfied or commonly satisfied with the environmental status quo,
with concern

mainly on waste gas, wastewater and noise; that more than half of the
people

investigated know something about the project, most of whom express their
close

attention to the implementation of the project, though have little idea
about whether the

implementation of the project may affect the quality of their living
environment or not.

Some people also put forward reasonable opinions and suggestions, which
mainly

include that the project shall be implemented by competent specialized
company, and

active measures shall be taken to improve the planning, process control
and

management of the project so as to prevent secondary pollution.
Annex I: Questionnaire of Public Participation Investigation

Brief introduction on the PCBs management and disposal project
The China PCBs Management and Disposal demonstration project is financed
by
Gobal Environmental Facility (GEF) with the support or Chinese government
by
counterpart financing and bilateral co-financing. PCBs is a kind of
carcinogen which
could severely damage the surrounding area and threaten the human health
if leaking.
The objective of designing and executing this project is to enhance the
management
capacity and control so as to effectively avoid the impact of PCBs
leaking to the
environment.
This demonstration project involves two provinces, one is Zhangjia as
demonstration
for management and the other is Liaoning as demonstration for disposal.
The objective
of this project is to identify and safely dispose the PCBs capacitors,
PCBs oil and the
wastes including devices and soil contaminated by PCBs of Zhejiang
province, resume
the environment of storage sites so as to realize the temporary storage,
packaging of
high concentrated PCBs and the safe transportation of them to the
Liaoning waste
disposal sites. The disposal of the PCBs waste will be conducted in
Liaoning province.
Through the investigation, the storage sites of Zhejiang province are in
Shaoxing,
Wenzhou, Taizhou, Ningbo, Hangzhou, Xinanjiang, Chunan, Jiahua, Quzhou,
Huzhou,
Lishui, and so on. The questionnaires and visit have been conducted to
the local
residence. "We focus on the possible changes in your the residential area
brought by
this project. In order to conduct the work effectively, we hope you could
answer some
questions relating to your current situations. Your cooperation will be
great appreciated
and we promise your answer will be safely kept in secret and will not be
used outside
our study. Please also feel free to let us know if you have any question.
In addition, it is
also your own willingness to join us, and you are not asked to answer all
the questions.
It is appreciated if you could leave your name and address; we may need
to visit you the
second time if possible.
                                       The Questionnaire

    Your age
<20 ?   20-30? 30-40? 40-50? >50?


residing time


Less than 5 years?   5-10 years ? More than 10 years?


Sex: Female? Male?            occupation:               nation:


Culture level


Primary school ?     Junior high school?


Senior high school? Above the junior college?
1.What's the opinion on your residential environment?


2.What's the primary factors affecting local environmental quality?


3.Did you hear PCBs remove program will be developed in Zhejiang
province?



4.What are the source channel of information

Government ? News paper? Hear fromothers?

Internet? Other (explain):

5.How do you think this program?

Very concerned?     Fairlyconcerned? Not clear?

Not concerned?      Very indifferent?

6.Do you consider this program will affect your living space? Positive or
negative?

very extensive? extensive? Not so extensive?

No influence?     Positive? Negative?

7.Will the development of this program improve your living environment?
What primary

aspects will be showed ?



8.When this program started, it will be taken following disadvantage
aspects for

environment, what are the effects do you care for in your living area.?
    Noise
    Exhaust emission
    Waster water discharge
    Soil or Solid waste discharge

     biogeocenose

     Why do you think so?:



10 Do you can give us some questions? Do you think How can reduse the
Negative
impact?




11 If you want to participate in the project farther, Please give us your
name and address,

we may need to visit you the second time if possible.
Annex II Draft PCB Inventory Methodology of China




           China PCBs Inventory
                    Methodology

                Third Edition (Revised)




PCB Inventory Methodology Group, Tsinghua University




                        January 2005
                  China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University



                                                               Index


0. 0.
INTRODUCTION.............................................................
........................................................................3


1. SCOPE OF
APPLICATION..............................................................
........................................................4


2.
CITATION.................................................................
.........................................................................
..............4

  2.1         DOCUMENTS OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
................................................................4
  2.2         RELATEDDOMESTIC
REGULATIONS..............................................................
............................4
  2.3         RELATEDDOMESTIC STANDARDS
.........................................................................
....................4

  2.4         DOMESTIC PCBS
MANAGEMENTHISTORY........................................................
.....................5

3. DEFINITION
LIST.....................................................................
...................................................................6


4. INVENTORY PREPARATOR Y
PHASE....................................................................
.........................10

  4.1         SUPPORT FROM
GOVERNMENT...............................................................
...............................10
  4.2         INVENTORY PRINCIPLES
.........................................................................
...................................11
  4.3         BACKGROUND
INVESTIGATION............................................................
.....................................11
  4.4         TEAM
ORGANIZATION.............................................................
....................................................11

  4.5         METHODOLOGY TRAINING
.........................................................................
..............................12
  4.6         WORK
PLAN.....................................................................
...........................................................12

5. INVENTORY IMPLEMENTATION
PHASE....................................................................
...................12

  5.1 PCBS CONTAINING EQUIPMENT & SITES
IDENTIFICATION...........................................................
.....12

     5.1.1    Potential Sites & Units 12
     5.1.2    Questionnaire 15

    5.1.3     Questionnaire Summary                              21
  5.2 PCBS CONTAINING EQUIPMENT & SITES
INVESTIGATION............................................................
.....21
    5.2.1 Site Investigation Procedures                          21

     5.2.2 Investigation Records 23

   5.3 SAMPLE ANALYSISOF REPRESENTATIVE SITES
.........................................................................
.........25
     5.3.1     PCB Containing Sample Collection & Storage 25
     5.3.2     Simple Test ? ? PCB Identification
25

     5.3.3    Spot Test ? ? PCB Content Estimation
26

    5.3.4     Laboratory Analysis ? ? A ccurate Content Analysis 26
  5.4 PERSONAL PROTECTION IN
INVENTORY................................................................
................................27

     5.4.1    PCB Hazard to Human Health
27
     5.4.2    The Selection of PCB Personal Protective Equipment
28
     5.4.3    The Use of PCB Personal Protective Equipment
28

     5.4.4    First Aid 29
6. INVENTORY
SUMMARY..................................................................
......................................................30


7. QUALITY ASSESSMENT & QUALITY
CONTROL..................................................................
....31
                China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


8.
APPENDIX.................................................................
.........................................................................
.........33

  APPENDIX 1 COMPUTATION OF PCBS QUANTITY IN ELECTRIC
POWERSYSTEM................................33
  APPENDIX 2 INVENTORY
FORMS....................................................................
................................................34
                     China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University




0. 0. Introduction


     PCBs are a category of synthetic substances, which can be expressed
as C12H(10-n)Cln
 (n=1-10).




     For its persistence and hazard to human beings and the environment,
in the
Stockholm Convention, PCBs were listed as one of the first 12 POPs
required to be
eliminated.
     China began to produce trichlorobiphenyl in 1965 and stopped in
1974. In the ten
years, total production amounted to 9,000 ton. Major producers include
Xi'an Chemical
Plant, Shanghai Electric Chemical Plant, and Suzhou Solvent Plant.
Products were mainly
consumed as dielectric in electric equipment. Major consumers include
Xi'an Electric
Capacitor Factory, Guiling Electric Capacitor Factory, Wuxi Electric
Capacitor Factory, and
Zhejiang Electric Capacitor Factory. YL and YLW series phase shift
capacitors, CL series
tandem capacitors, and RLS, RLSI series capacitors all use
trichlorobiphenyl as dielectric.
   The production of pentachlorobiphenyl in China lasted for a relative
short period. Total
production amounted to 1,000 ton. Major producer was Shanghai Sanzhao
Chemical Plant.
The products were mainly consumed as paint additives in various series of
paint, rubber
paint, primer, and enamel paint. Major producers of pentachlorobiphenyl
containing paint
include Shanghai Paint Factory, Shanghai Zhenghua Paint Factory, Tianjing
Paint Factory,
Dalian Paint Factory, Harbin Paint Factory, Xi'an Paint Factory, and
Gansu Paint Factory.
   Investigation also showed that electrical equipment imported from
Belgium, France,
Germany and Japan also contained PCBs as dielectric. For example: power
transformers
and electric capacitors imported by Liaoyang Synthetic Fiber Company,
Wuhan Steel Co.,
and Shanghai Bao Steel Co. all contained PCBs. The amount of import is
not clear.
   As part of the obligations as signatory country, China should carry
out nationwide PCBs
inventory as early as possible to investigate the use, obsolete, storage
and disposal of
PCBs containing equipment and PCBs environmental impact to storage sites
in China,
thus technically support China's ultimate goal to eliminate PCBs
pollution.
    The guideline intends to support and technically direct China PCBs
inventory. In the
course of the work, PCBs inventory methodology group would continuously
revise and
improve the guideline for the establishment of China PCB Inventory
Methodology.
                       China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University



1. Scope of Application


      The guideline directs the planning, implementation and compilation
of PCBs
inventory, and is applicable to various levels of regions including
provinces, counties, and
multi-level administrative regions.



2. Citation



2.1       Documents of International Organizations


        ²
UNEP,GuidelinesfortheidentificationofPCBsandmaterialscontainingPCBs,

              1999.8

           ² UNEP, Inventory of PCB-Containing Equipment, 2002.8

        ²
JamesWillis,PCBInventories:ApproachestoCompilingInventoriesofPCBs,

              PCB-Containing Equipment, Proceedings of the Subregional
Workshop on

              Identification and Management of PCBs and Dioxins/Furans, La
Habana,

              Cuba, April 23-26, 2001


2.2       Related Domestic Regulations


           ² Dangerous Chemicals Packages and Containers Licensed Production

              Administrative Regulation, National Committee of Economics &
Trade,

              2002.10

           ² Dangerous Chemicals Registration Administrative Regulation,
National
              Production Safety Supervisory Bureau, 2002.11

           ² Dangerous Chemicals Safety Administrative Regulation, the State
Council,

              1987.2


2.3     Related Domestic Standards


           ² PCBs Containing Wastes Pollution Control Standard (GB13015-91)

           ² Dangerous Chemicals Safety Label Standard (GB/T 15258-94),
which

            regulates the required content and information, format,
print, and use of safety
                 China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University



        label

    ² Dangerous Cargo Transportation Package General Technical
Requirements

        (GB12462-90), which regulate the technical aspects of dangerous
cargo

        package in transportation

       ² Dangerous Cargo Transportation Categorization Standard (GB/T 15089-
94),

      which regulate the principles of Dangerous Cargo categorization.
Dangerous

      Cargoes are categorized into level ? , level ? , and level ? based
on their

        danger

       ² Commonly Used Dangerous Chemicals Storage Standard (GB15603-1995),

        which proposes storage standard, warehouse in and out management,
and

        waste treatment requirements.


2.4 Domestic PCBs Management History


    ² The Stop of PCBs Containing Electric Capacitors Production (1974):
required

      the stop of all PCBs containing electric capacitors production.
However,

      unused PCBs and produced PCBs electric capacitors are not
registered.

        Companies and management authorities did not establish related
files

    ² Limit on PCBs Import (1979):               required limit on PCBs
import. However,

        imported PCBs were not checked and inventoried. The Custom did not
have
      technical standard to identify PCBs containing equipment, thus had
difficulties

      in their approval and control.

    ²
PCBsContainingElectricEquipmentDeclaration&CentralizedStorage(1991):

      required operational units which held PCBs containing electric
equipment

      report to local environmental protection authorities according to
the technical

      requirements of "PCBs Containing Electric Equipment Declaration
Form". It

      was the first time in China that declaration and inventory of such
equipment

      were clearly asked for. It also established base for following
inventory in the

      electric industry. The regulation also required centralized storage
for obsolete

      PCBs containing electric equipment, PCBs liquids and contaminated
materials.

      Centralized storage or temporary storage site should be authorized
by

      provincial environmental protection authorities and related
activities should be

      supervised by city or higher level of environmental protection
authorities.

    ² Preliminary Nationwide Inventory (1995): required that all
provinces,

      autonomous regions, & municipality environmental protection
bureaus, all
                      China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University



             electricity management boards and electricity bureaus
seriously carry out

             inventory on local PCBs containing electric equipment's use
and storage. It

             was the beginning of Chinese PCBs inventory, and was the
only nationwide

             preliminary inventory. However, due to several reasons,
investigation did not

             achieve satisfactory results.



3. Definition List


(1) PCBs
    "PCBs" is the abbreviation for Polychlorinated Biphenyl, whose
commodity name is
Aroclor, etc. The 10 hydrogen atoms of biphenyl are substituted by
chlorine at various level,
and form monochloro-, bichloro-, trichloro to decachloro- biphenyls.
There substances are
called PCBs. There are theoretically 209 PCBs congeners in total.
    According to China "National List of Hazardous Wastes", inventory on
PCBs should
include:
      ² In use PCBs containing electric equipment (capacitors &
transformers);
      ² Over supplied, obsolete, sealed, and PCBs containing electric
equipment to be
            substituted (capacitors & transformers);
      ² Dielectric oil, insulation oil, cooling oil and heat transfer oil
from PCBs containing
            electric equipment;
      ² Cleaning liquid from or contaminated by PCBs containing electric
equipment;
      ² PCBs contaminated soils or packages;
      ² Other PCBs containing equipment or mixtures.

      According to the "PCBs Containing Wastes Pollution Control
Standard"

( GB13015-91) , the control level of PCBs contaminated wastes in China is
50mg/kg
(50ppm).


(2) Stockholm Convention.
The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs) was
adopted as an
international treaty aimed at restricting and ultimately eliminating the
production, use, release
and storage of POPs by the world's government on May 22, 2001. The
convention came into
force on May 17, 2004 when the fiftieth country ratified it and has
become effective to China
since Nov 11, 2004.
PCBs are among the first 12 particular toxic POPs targeted by the
convention for reduction and
eventual elimination. The convention includes following requirements
concerning the
identification of PCBs in Part II of Annex A:


"Each Party shall:
(a) With regard to the elimination of the use of polychlorinated
biphenyls in equipment (e.g.
                      China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


transformers, capacitors or other receptacles containing liquid stocks)
by 2025, subject to
review by the Conference of the Parties, take action in accordance with
the following
priorities:
(i) Make determined efforts to identify, label and remove from use
equipment containing
greater than 10 per cent polychlorinated biphenyls and volumes greater
than 5 litres;
(ii) Make determined efforts to identify, label and remove from use
equipment containing
greater than 0.05 per cent polychlorinated biphenyls and volumes greater
than 5 litres;
(iii) Endeavour to identify and remove from use equipment containing
greater than 0.005
percent polychlorinated biphenyls and volumes greater than 0.05 litres;


... omission...


(f) In lieu of note (ii) in Part I of this Annex, endeavour to identify
other articles containing
more than 0.005 per cent polychlorinated biphenyls (e.g. cable-sheaths,
cured caulk and
painted objects) and manage them in accordance with paragraph 1 of
Article 6;
(g) Provide a report every five years on progress in eliminating
polychlorinated biphenyls and
submit it to the Conference of the Parties pursuant to Article 15;


It is the direct requirement of the Stockholm Conventionthat PCB
inventory be carried out by
each party. What's more, as the fundamental activity during the
convention implementation,
the inventory would provide basis for further activities to reduce
exposures and risk to control
the use of PCBs. As part of China's National Implementation Plan of the
Stockholm
Convention, the development of PCB inventory must follow the Stockholm
Convention
requirements listed above.


(3) Applications of PCBs
       PCBs are mainly used as dielectric in transformers and capacitors.
In addition, they
are also used as additives in paints, pesticides and polymers, etc. The
applications
covered by this guideline are mainly PCBs containing capacitors and
transformers related
products and services.


(4) Closed Application
         Applications such as capacitors and transformers where the PCBs
are in totally
   sealed containers. PCBs are less likely to escape to the environment
from a closed
   application.


(5) Partially Closed Application
         Application in which PCBs are only partially consumed by the use
or process.
   Some of the PCBs are recoverable by the end of the product life. In
partially closed
   applications, PCBs are able to escape to the environment slowly and
more indirectly than
   open applications (e.g., hydraulic fluids, heat transfer fluids).


(6) Open Applications
       Open systems are applications in which PCBs are in direct contact
with their
                      China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


surroundings and thereby may be easily transferred to the environment.
During the
applications, PCBs are totally consumed or irretrievable at the end of
their us es, e.g., PCBs
in plasticizers, or paints additives.


(7) "In use" electrical equipment and unlabeled equipment.
         In China, transformers are not labeled as "PCB free". Information
concerning
maintenance or replacement of transformers oil, or the properties of the
dielectric oil itself
is generally not available. Moreover, in the absence of factory
certification stating the
absence of PCBs in the dielectric oil, it is also not possible to
guarantee that imported
transformers are PCB free; in the case of PCBs free transformers imported
after 1979, the
possibility still exists of PCBs contamination due to improper refilling
with PCBs containing
oil. Therefore the strategy "Equipment of a type which may contain PCBs
shall be treated
as if it contains PCBs unless it is reasonable to assume the
contrary"should be adopted in
the determination for presence of PCBs.
         In China, considering the evolution of the PCB regulation,
transformers and
capacitors not labeled as PCB free could then be categorized in three
classes:
·    Electrical equipment produced before 1980: this equipment is almost
surely PCB
     contaminated and near or after its operational life; any transformer
or capacitor
     produced before 1980 should then be considered as a PCB equipment to
be listed
     under high priority. (Equipment to be soon dismantled or
decontaminated). During the
     pilot phase, analysis of a significant sample from this class should
be performed in
     order to confirm the assumption of PCB contamination. A plan for the
decontamination
     or dismantling and disposal of these pieces of equipment should be
drafted soon after
     the completion of the inventory.
·    Electrical equipment produced from 1980 to 1995. As this equipment
has been
     produced or imported after the promulgation of the law ...., it is
less likely PCB
     contaminated; however, mostly in the case of transformers, improper
maintenance,
     cross contamination during the production, contamination of the
mineral oil used may
     have lead to PCB contamination of the equipment. Thus, any
transformer produced or
     imported in this period should be listed under a low priority list
(equipment to be soon
     subjected to sampling and analysis for PCB determination). During
the pilot phase,
     analysis of a significant sample from this class should be performed
in order to derive
     statistics on the percentage of PCB contamination.
·    Electrical equipment produced after 1995. Very likely, this
equipment is not PCB
     contaminated; moreover, it should be easy to obtain documentation
(from the producer
     or import/export files) stating that the equipment is PCB free.
Thus, this category
     should be ranked as "non priority", requiring immediate sampling and
analysis only if
     the certification as "PCB free equipment" is incomplete or lacking.


(8) PCBs Containing Capacitors
      PCBs (mainly trichlorobiphenyl) are used as dielectrics in
capacitors. In China, these
capacitors include:
       ² PCBs containing series phase shift capacitors: YL, YLW series;
       ² PCBs containing series tandem capacitors: CL series;
       ² PCBs containing series electric heat capacitors: RLS,
RLSIseries.
                      China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


     For example, YL-10.5-60-1 indicates phase shift PCBs containing
capacitors for 10.5 KV
level, 60 Kvar, and single-phase circuit. The main structure of a
capacitor consists of
electrical conducting surfacesseparated by a dielectric material,
frequently a dielectric fluid
that may or may not contain PCBs. Typically, a capacitor that contains
PCBs is a
completely sealed metal can with two electrical leads or contacts.
Compared with
transformers, capacitors are more widely distributed and more difficult
to collect.


(9) PCBs Containing Transformers
Transformers that contain PCBs (mainly pentachlorobiphenyl) or mixture
with other
substances as dielectric. Domestic transformer producers have never used
PCBs as
dielectric, thus, PCBs containing transformers in China are mainly
imported with
equipment in 60s or 70s.
      The transformer is a very important component in many different
types of electrical
circuits, from small-signal electronic circuits to high-voltage power
transmission systems.
The physical size and shape of transformers vary greatly, from not much
bigger than a pea
up to the size of a small house. The main structure of a transformer
consists of one or more
electrical coils (or windings) linked together magnetically by a magnetic
circuit or core. For
most large transformers, the entire unit is filled with a dielectric
fluid (often an oil possibly
containing PCBs) to increase the insulation between and to cool the
electric coils. Thus,
any damage to the transformer's outer casing may result in PCB-fluid
leakage. It is
important to note that although mineral oil transformers do not
intentionally contain PCBs,
they often become contaminated by the use of common filling equipment or
maintenance
filling with used or recycled oil.
      Step-up transformers are installed at the power plants to raise the
voltage of the
electricity produced in order to increase the efficiency of the long-
distance energy
transportation. Step-up transformers can be easily found and listed
simply by contacting
the management staff of each power plant. For this reason, a list of all
the power plant e
should be provided for the inventory.
      Once the high voltage line reach urban or industrial areas, the
voltage must be
reduced for the short distance transportation. This is generally
accomplished at the main
transformer substations, were the energy usually enter at high voltage
(380 kV in Europe,
up to 500 kV in China) and exit at a much lower voltage. In these
substations generally are
located several big-size distribution transformers. Distribution
transformers are commonly
found near the top of electric utility poles where they function to lower
the voltage on the
distribution line for household use. Due to the fact that usually
transformed in China are not
labeled as PCB free, each transformer at the distribution substation
should be identified
and listed for the inventory.
      Many little distribution transformers can be found in the urban
areas; the role of these
transformers is to lower the voltage down to voltage required by the
final users. Most of
these transformers are within the control of the electricity generating
and distributive
companies, but in several cases these transformer may be under the
control of the final
users. For this reason, a complete inventory of these transformers may be
difficult.
      Synthetic PCB-oils are commonly used where fire resistant
transformers are required,
as inside buildings and in nuclear power plants. Transformers are also
found in many
communication circuits where they function to match a load to a line for
improved power
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


transfer and to improve transmission quality. Most transformers are
within the control of the
electricity generating and distributive companies, although some
industries privately
generate electricity. These industries, such as military installations,
steel mills, assembly
and manufacturing plants, and railroads, often have transformers on site.


(10) Electrical equipment in sensitive sites

     Capacitors, transformers, heat exchangers potentially contaminated
by PCB and used
in foodprocessing industries must be urgently analyzed for PCB
concentration; in case of
PCB contamination, these equipment must be replaced with PCB free
equipment
     Capacitors, transformers, or other devices potentially contaminated
by PCB and
located at sensitive sites like hospitals, schools, hotels, office
buildings, commercial
buildings, or any other building normally opened to the public, should be
listed and checked
for PCB presence as soon as possible; in case of PCB contamination, the
equipment
containing PCBs must be regularly inspected and checked; a plan for the
be replaced with
a PCB free equipment must be developed.


(11) Net Weight" & "Gross Weight"
     In the inventory, both the concepts of "Net Weight" and "Gross
Weight" are used to
indicate PCBs weight. Generally, Net Weight indicates the weight of
dielectric oils or heat
transfer oils themselves, while Gross Weight counts in the equipment that
contains these
liquids. Contaminated soils are calculated by Gross Weight. According to
literature, when
the weight of equipment is unavailable, the volume of liquid can be
converted to equipment
weight. For example:
     Gross weight of transformers (kg) = Dielectric liquid volume (L) ×
4.5
     Gross weight of capacitors (kg) = Dielectric liquid volume (L) × 6
     In other applications other than electric equipment, the net weight
of liquid is used to
calculate the amount of wastes.
     Net weight of liquid (kg) = liquid volume (L) × 0.9 kg/L
4. Inventory Preparatory Phase



4.1     Support from Government


     Before the inventory is carried out, support and coordination from
national and
provincial environmental protection agencies and local electricity
management board are
crucial. In addition, provincial environmental protection bureau and
electricity management
board should co-issue a document on the inventory, indicating the
significance of such
project, and highlighting possible measures that may help related units
to solve PCBs
pollution problems, thus will encourage every inventory related unit to
pay attention to the
project and take it seriously. Meanwhile, the document should emphasize
that the inventory
is closed related to all units' own interest. The sooner their inventory
is complete, the
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


sooner they will resolve the PCBs problem, and the less they will have to
pay.


4.2    Inventory Principles


(1) Industry Priority: Industries that mass produce or consume PCBs
containing equipment
are given priority. Considering the reality of China, electric power
system that mass
consumes PCBs containing electric equipment is the primary target. Next
in importance
are large and medium industrial entities that mass consume PCBs
containing equipment.
Third come PCBs or PCBs containing capacitors manufacturers in history.


(2) Site Priority: PCBs electric equipment sealed storage spots are the
main concern, then
comes separate equipment, and PCBs contaminated medium.


(3) Inventory Region Priority: Natural environmental conditions, economic
development
and history records should be considered. The principle of "coastal
region, then inner land
and western areas " should be reflected.




4.3    Background Investigation


     Background investigation should access general information at city
level by filling
Form 1.
                                   Form 1. General information
     Region:
   Year            Population   Local GDP      Overall
Overall
                                               electricity consumption
electricity production
   1965
   1970
   1980
   1990
   2000
   Now
     Current records should be collected and analyzed, especially the
records on the
centralized storage and disposal of PCBs containing equipment in electric
power system.
Meanwhile, preliminary investigation results of 1991 and 1995 within
electric industry
should be retrieved.
     Background investigation should also include management history and
current status
of local electricity system, as well as the history of status quo of
local large industrial
companies.




4.4    Team Organization


  Inventory investigation group should include following experts:
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


    A Concerned officials from provincial Environmental Protection
Bureau;
    B Concerned officials from provincial Electricity Management Board;
    C Representatives and experts from regional Environmental Protection
Bureaus;
    D Representatives and experts from regional Electricity Management
Board
    Leader of the investigation group should clarify the tasks,
qualifications and
responsibilities of each member. Generally, representatives and officials
from electricity
boards are responsible for the PCBs containing equipment applied within
the electricity
system, while representatives and officials from environmental protection
bureaus are
responsible for equipment in other applications and unclaimed equipment.
Sampling and
analysis personnel should have correspondent qualifications, and take
necessary personal
protective measures.




4.5    Methodology Training


    All members of the Investigation Group, and some representatives from
key
companies should participate in the training session organized by FECO/
SEPA, assisted
by the Methodology Group, NTA, CTA, and international inventory expert.
The training
session will cover: hazards of PCB, inventory methods, inventory
procedures, sample &
analysis methods, personal protective equipment, and first aids. Site
visits will be
conducted.


4.6    Work plan


  Detailed inventory work plan should be scheduled by the Investigation
group in advance.
The work plan should include specific contents, procedures and timetable
of inventory
questionnaire, sampling & analysis, and data processing, etc. It should
also clarify the
responsibilities of all members. If possible, the contact information of
person in charge
should be publicized on public media to enable self-report and public
supervision.



5. Inventory Implementation Phase



5.1 PCBs Containing Equipment & Sites Identification


5.1.1Potential Sites & Units


    According to the preliminary investigation on PCBs carried out by
SEPA and Ministry
of Energy in 1996, PCBs problems in China mainly exist in electric power
system and other
large scale industrial companies. Thus, potential sites and units are
divided into electric
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


power system and non-electric power system.


   A Potential Sites & Units Identification in Electric Power System
   ( 1) Investigation on Electricity Consumption Trend
   For electric power system, Forms 2 to 4 are distributed.


                   Form 2. Investigation onElectricity Consumption
                               Power Generation & Distribution Capacity
                             Number and         Number and          Number
and
   Year        Consumption      cumulative          cumulative
cumulative              Notes
                                Capacity of          Capacity of Capacity of
Power
                                  Primary            Secondary
Distribution
                                Substations          Substation
Substations
  1965

  1970

  1980

  1990

  2000

   now


      Form 3. Location & Capacity of Substations Built, Rebuilt or
Extended

                                                                       Rebuilt
or    Capacity   Notes on
No.    Substation                           Construc Original
after
         Name          Location               tion Date Capacity      Extension
Rebuilt or
                                                                          Date
Rebuilt or

Extension     Extension
         From 4. Location & Capacity of Working and Obsolete Power Plant

Status    Notes on
No. Plant Name       Location   Construction Power Number of
                                     Date        Capacity Modules
( Working/Obs   Rebuilt or

olete)     Extension




   B Computation of PCBs Quantity in Electric Power System
   According to the data of Form 2 and Form 3, and referring to Appendix
I, theoretical
quantity of PCBs containing capacitors in each region can be estimated.
                       China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University




     C Potential Sites & Units Summary in Electric Power System
     From above estimation and regional substation and power plant
records on PCBs
containing electric equipment storage and managem ent, potential PCBs
sites & units can
be identified. Fill the following Form 5 accordingly.
                               Form 5 PCBs Potential Sites & Units
     Region:             No.:

Status
  No.          PCBs             Site & Unit
             Application           Name                Address
Tel / Fax         (Working

/Obselete)




     D Potential Sites & Units Identification in Non-Electric Power
System
     For non-electric power system, the primary targets are large scale
enterprises.
Referring to Form 6 and 7, potential sites and units can be identified.
Fill the Form 8
accordingly.
     Form 6 Potential PCBs Closed Applications in Non-electric Power
System

    Potential Target Locations                                      PCBs
Application

Industrial     Facilities     (including
aluminum, copper, iron and steel,            Transformers, Large
Capacitors, Small Capacitors,
cement,      chemicals,          plastics, Heat Transfer Fluids, Hydraulic
Fluids (equipment),
synthetics, and petroleum refining Voltage Regulators, Circuit Breakers
industries)

Railroad Systems                              Transformers,                Large
Capacitors,      Voltage
                                              Regulators, Circuit Breakers
Underground Mining Operations                 Hydraulic Fluids (equipment),
Earthing Coils
                                              Transformers, Large
Capacitors, Small Capacitors,
Military Installations                     Circuit Breakers, Voltage
Regulators, Hydraulic
                                            Fluids (equipment)

Residential/Commercial Buildings           Small Capacitors (in washing
machines, hair dyers,
                                            neon tubes, dishwashers,
power supply units, etc.)

Research Laboratories                      Vacuum Pumps, Fluorescent
Light Ballasts, Small
                                            Capacitors, Circuit Breakers

Electronics Manufacturing Plants           Vacuum        Pumps,
Lighting     Ballasts, Small
                                            Capacitors, Circuit Breakers
Waste Water Discharge Facilities            Vacuum Pumps, Well motors
Automobile Service Stations                 Re-Used Oil
Landfills (including industrial and Decommissioned Equipment, Building
Demolition,
municipal waste sites)                      Fluff, Spills
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


             Form 7 Potential PCBs Partially Closed or Open Applications

         Application                                     Typical
Location(s)

Heat transfer fluids              Inorganic chemical, organic chemical,
plastics and
                                   synthetics, and petroleum refining
industries

Hydraulic fluids                  Mining equipment; aluminum, copper,
steel, and iron
                                   forming industries
                                   Electronic       components
manufacture;       laboratory,
Vacuum Pumps                      instrument and research applications;
and waste water
                                  discharge sites
Switches                          Electric utilities
Voltage Regulators                Electric utilities

Liquid FilledElectrical Cables    Electric utilities, and private
generation facilities (e.g.
                                  military installations)
Liquid Filled Circuit Breakers    Electric utilities

Lubricants                        Immersion oils for microscopes
(mounting media), Brake
                                   linings, Cutting oils, Lubricating
oils
Casting Waxes                     Pattern waxes for investment castings
                                  Paints (Paint on the undersides of
ships)
                                   Surface treatment for textiles

Surface Coatings                  Carbonless copy paper (pressure
sensitive)
                                   Flame retardants (On ceiling tiles, On
furniture and walls)
                                  Dust control (Dust binders, Asphalt)
                                  Natural gas pipelines
Adhesives                         Special adhesives, Adhesives for
waterproof coatings
                                   Gasket sealers, Filling material in
joints of concrete, PVC
Plasticizers                      (polyvinyl chloride plastics), Rubber
seals (Around vents,
                                  Around doors and windows)
Inks                              Dyes, Printing inks
Other Uses                        Insulating materials, Pesticides
              Form 8 Potential industriesin Non-Electric Power System

    Region:             No.:

Status
 No.        PCBs
         Application      Industry Name           Address
Tel / Fax        (Working

/Obsolete)




5.1.2 Questionnaire


    Distribute Forms 9 "PCBs Containing Equipment & Sites Inventory Form"
to potential
sites, units and industries in the region according to Forms 5 and 8,
together with file
co-issued by provincial environmental protection bureau and electricity
management board,
                       China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


indicating the significance of such inventory, and highlighting possible
measures that may
help related units to solve PCBs pollution problems. A comprehensive list
of PCBs
containing equipment will be provided, together with directions including
return deadline,
address and contact person.


       Form 9. Potential PCBs Containing Equipment & Sites Inventory Form
                                Region:                Record No.:
   Form 9.1 Potential PCB Containing Capacitor Inventory Form


     1.      Name


     2.      Address

     3.      Address of site:
             (if different)
             Phone:
     4.      Fax:
             E-mail:
     5.      Name/position of contact:


             Type        of   company/industry
     6.
             type

                                                     A. phase shift
capacitors, YL series

                                                     No.:

                                                     B. phase shift
capacitors, YLW series

                                                     No.:

             Are        you   presently    using     C. tandem capacitors,
CL series
                                                     No.:
             electrical capacitors in the

     7.      right lists? If yes, please             D. electric heat
capacitors, RLS series

             check the items and give the            No.:
             numbers.                             E. electric heat
capacitors, RLSI series
                                                  No.:

                                                  F. unknown type or
unlabeled capacitor

                                                  (A). Produced before
1980, No.:

                                                  (B). Produced from
1980 to 1995, No.:

                                                  (C). Produced after
1995, No.:
             Have      you    ever   used    or A. phase shift
capacitors, YL series
       8.
             accepted electrical capacitors No.:

             in the right lists? If yes, please   B. phase shift
capacitors, YLW series

                                                  No.:
                China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


         check the items and give the            C. tandem capacitors, CL
series

         numbers.                                No.:
                                                 D. electric heat capacitors,
RLS series
                                                 No.:
                                                 E. electric heat capacitors,
RLSI series
                                                 No.:
                                                 F. unknown type or unlabeled
capacitor

                                                 (A). Produced before 1980,
No.:

                                                 (B). Produced from 1980 to
1995, No.:

                                                 (C). Produced after 1995,
No.:
         Fate of such capacitors( eg:

         disposal, landfill, sell, N.A.)

  9.     Please           specify     disposal

         technology          &      company,

         landfill site or purchaser.

         Have       you      ever   imported

         electrical    equipment          with
 10.     capacitors? If yes, compile

         lines from 11 to 12 once for

         each imported capacitor.

         Capacitor name and company
 11.
         name

         Date of Import
 12.

         Note (Please indicate the

         source of information, e.g.
       design       records,   purchase

 13.   records,                production

       management          records,    or

       environmental           protection

       sector.)

 Record of questionnaire


 Company official (s)

 Name, position, signature, date




Form 9.2 Potential PCB Containing Transformer Inventory Form
              China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University



1. Name


2. Address


   Address of site:
3. (if different)


   Phone:
4. Fax:
   E-mail:
5. Name/position of contact:


     Type       of   company/industry
6.
     type

                                            A. Step up transformer

                                            (A) Produced before 1980:

                                            (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

                                            (C) Produced after 1995:

     Are      you    presently      using   B. Distribution transformer

     transformers in the right lists?       (A) Produced before 1980:

7. If yes, please check the items,          (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

     give the numbers and specify           (C) Produced after 1995:
                                            C. Small transformers
     the capacity.
                                            (A) Produced before 1980:

                                            (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

                                            (C) Produced after 1995:
                                            D. Unknown type, unknown age:


           Have you ever used or            A. Step up transformer

      accepted transformers in the          (A) Produced before 1980:
8.
      right lists? If yes, please   (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

      check the items, give the     (C) Produced after 1995:

      numbers and specify the       B. Distribution transformer

               capacity.            (A) Produced before 1980:

                                    (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

                                    (C) Produced after 1995:
                                    D. Small transformers (from ...
to ....MW)
                                    (A) Produced before 1980:

                                    (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

                                    (C) Produced after 1995:
                China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


                                                    E. Unknown type, unknown
age:


       Fate of such transformers( eg:

       disposal, landfill, sell, N.A.)

  9.   Please           specify        disposal

       technology          &      company,

       landfill site or purchaser.

       Have       you      ever       imported

       electrical    equipment       with
 10.   transformers? If yes, compile

       lines from 11 to 12 once for

       each imported transformer.

       Transformer             name         and
 11.
       company name

       Import date
 12.

       Note (Please indicate the

       source of information, e.g.

       design        records,         purchase

 13.   records,                   production

       management              records,        or

       environmental              protection

       sector.)

 Record of questionnaire


 Company official (s)

 Name, position, signature, date
9.3 Other potential PCB containing equipment inventory form

  1.   Name


  2.   Address


       Address of site:
  3.   (if different)


  4.   Phone:
       Fax:
              China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


       E-mail:
5.     Name/position of contact:


       Type       of     company/industry
6.
       type

                                                   A. equipment produced before
1980
       Are      you      presently     using

       equipment             other       than
                                                   B. equipment produced between
1980 and
     capacitors and transformers
7.                                                 1995
     includedForm 6 and 7?If yes,

       please give the item names
                                                   C. equipment produc ed after
1995
       and numbers.


       Have       you      ever   used       or A. equipment produced before 1980

       accepted         equipment        other

     than       capacitors       and               B. equipment produced between
1980 and
 8. transformers included Form 6                   1995

       and 7? If yes, please give the

       item names and numbers                      C. equipment produced after
1995


       Fate of such equipment( eg:

       disposal, landfill, sell, N.A.)

 9.    Please           specify      disposal

       technology          &      company,

       landfill site or purchaser.

       Note (Please indicate the
      source of information, e.g.

      design       records,   purchase

13.   records,                production

      management          records,    or

      environmental           protection

      sector.)

Record of questionnaire


Company official (s)

Name, position, signature, date
                  China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University



5.1.3 Questionnaire Summary

    Summarize returned questionnaires and identify further confirmed
sites & units in the
region. For electric power system and non-electric power system, fill in
Form 10
accordingly.
                               Form 10 PCBs Sites & Units
    Region:          Record No.:

 No.        PCBs
        Application        Site & Unit Name                         Address
Tel / Fax




5.2 PCBs Containing Equipment & Sites Investigation

5.2.1 Site Investigation Procedures

       Step-by-step procedure for site investigation:


        1. Pre-planning


                      Communicating with site manager


                                 Obtain cooperation of facility manager


                                      Explain purpose of the inventory


                                              Schedule site visit


                                   Select equipment to beinvestigated

                                      and identify equipment locations


                          Learn Safety Regulations


                                      Learn plant safety procedures
                Select personal protective equipment


                Measures taken in case of emergency


2. Site Visit
        China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University




 Work with site staffs to locate the equipment


          Investigate PCB-containing equipment


                                  Inspect the equipment


                                        Manufacturer's nameplate

                                       Other records or information


                                 Inspect equipment s tatus


                          Inspect the condition of the equipment


                                        Leakage, spill or damage


 Sampling and Analysis (recommended, but not required)


                           Direct sampling ofdielectric fluids

                                 Sample leaks and spills

                          Sample contaminated soils and water


                                      Test for PCBs



               Completing inventory forms


                                  PCB Inventory Form

                            Check and Confirm Information


3. Post-Inventory Check

     Exchange experience and ideas on the inventory
 Post-inventory meeting with facility staffs

Return the inventory forms and retain copies
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University



5.2.2 Investigation Records

    For each PCBs containing equipment or site, fill in the following
Form 11 and 12
respectively.


               Form 11. PCBs Containing Equipment Investigation Record

                                   Region:            Record No.:


Information related to PCBs containing equipment

(repeat this section on a separate sheet for each additional type of
equipment)

  1.     Name of manufacturer and country of
         origin
  2.     Type (transformer, capacitor, etc.)

  3.     Number

  4.     Producer or import country

  5.     Power rating (voltage)

  6.     Date of fabrication

         Weight Equipment (dry weight in kg)

                   Oil/liquid (L or kg)

  7.               Total weight (kg)

                   Size of equipment (length,

                   width, height in ft or m)

         PCB             >10%

         content    of   >0.05% or 500ppm

         liquid          >0.005% or 50ppm

                         <0.005% or 50ppm
  8.
                         No PCBs
                       N. A.

                       Equipment emptied of

                       liquid

      PCB analysis performed?
9.
      If yes, which method and when?

      Source of the above information(e.g.,
10.   a plaque or name plate on the
      equipment)
      Operational     In use: yes / since

11.   status      of   On stand -by
      equipment
                       Decommissioned

12.   Condition of     Leaking?
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


            equipment      Immediate          action

                           needed

                           Storage situation (e.g.

                           open        air,   locked

                           enclosure etc.)

           Other observations:
     13.


           Record of Site Visit




     1.    Company official(s) involved
           Name, position, signature, date




     2.    Government inspector(s)
           Name, position, signature, date




                          Form 12. PCB Wastes Sites Investigation Record
                                   Region:               Record No.:


Information related to PCBs contaminated sites

(repeat this section on a separate sheet for each site)

1.         Site address

2.         Site contact Info.

3.         Current use of the site
           Nature    of   the   wastes    (e.g.,
     4.    transformer    oil in    drums     or
           reservoirs)
     5.    Estimated quantity

     6.    Are containers leak-proof?
      Is the place of storage clearly
 7.   marked to show the presence of
      PCB?
      Have soil or buildings been
      contaminated by leaking PCB?
 8.   (indicate magnitude of problem if
      possible, e.g. tonnes or cubic
      metres of contaminated soil)
      Brief history of any previous
      remediation efforts, e.g., removal
 9.   of PCB-containing equipment and
      waste PCB for disposal (when, by
      whom, where to, etc.)
      Other relevant information (e.g.,
10.   results of any sampling and
      analysis already undertaken)
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University



          Record of Site Visit




 1.       Company official(s) involved
          Name, position, signature, date




 2.       Government inspector(s)
          Name, position, signature, date



5.3 Sample Analysis of Representative Sites

     Select representative sites according to the sites investigation
reports, and collect
samples from each site. Analyze content of PCBs in the samples to check
the estimated
quantity.


5.3.1 PCB Containing Sample Collection & Storage

     In inventory taking, samples are normally PCBs containing oils or
soils contaminated
by leakage, in which PCBs contents are generally over 50 ppm.
     Since PCBs are stable in collection and storage, they can be
collected by regular
methods. Sample locations should be distributed according to the
situation of target sites.
Equipment and containers required for sampling are made of glass,
stainless steel, teflon,
or other non-polluting materials.


5.3.2 Simple Test ? ? PCB Identification

     Simple tests are applicable to those equipment or sites which are
very likely to contain
PCBs, but can not be confirmed by observation, especially to oils
contained in closed or
partially closed PCBs applications. However, simple test can only be used
as a preliminary
analysis and can not provide accurate quantitative results of PCBs
content.
     A. Density Test (oil samples)
     This test compares the density of transformer oil to water to
determine PCB presence.
By observing if the oil sample floats or sinks, one can determine if PCBs
are present -
PCBs are heavier than water while mineral oils are lighter than water.


     B Chlorine Presence Test (oil samples)
     This method checks for the presence of chlorine in transformer oil
to determine PCB
presence. PCB presence is determined by observing the color of a flame
after heating or
burning the substance on a copper wire in a gas flame. Chlorine will
color the flam green
when heated on a copper wire. Since PCB transformer oils contain chlorine
while mineral
oils (the other typical transformer fluid) do not, this coloration will
indicate the presence of
PCBs.
                      China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University



5.3.3 Spot Test ? ? PCB Content Estimation

     For sites contaminated by PCBs leakage, soils are tested by "Hach
Portable Soil
PCBs Test System", which is recommended by UNEP. The test semi-quantifies
PCBs
pollution in the site. Please refer to product directions for detailed
guidance.


5.3.4 Laboratory Analysis ? ? Accurate Content Analysis

     The principal of PCBs laboratory analysis is first to transfer PCBs
from sample base to
specific solvent, then eliminate interference from sample base by certain
purification
process, at last identify and quantify PCBs through GC/ECD or GC/MS.
Following analysis
methods require professional instrument and trained personnel. Some may
only yield
results on PCBs gross amount, while others may identify and quantify
certain PCB
substance.
     A Sample Pretreatment
     ( 1) Extraction
     Extraction methods in common use are Solid Phase Extraction (SPE),
Liquid-Liquid
Extraction (LLE), and Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction (CLLE), etc.
PCBs are
non-polarity substances, which can easily be extracted to hydrophobic
organic solvents.
Thus, LLE are specified as the standard method for water quality
analysis. Solvents are
dichloromethane, n-hexane or their mixture. In extraction process, some
points are worth
mentioning, such as the volatilization loss during concentration process,
adsorption on
experimental instrument or sample pollution.
     ( 2) Purification

     Purification is necessary to eliminate interference of potential
disruptive chemical
substances. Current techniques include adsorption chromatography, high-
performance
liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography, or chemical analysis
using acids or
bases. Among these methods, adsorption chromatography is most widely
used.
Magenesium silicate, silica gel, alumina, and activated carbon are
normally used as
adsorbents. Since the activity of adsorbent and packing efficiency
differ, the dissolution
range of PCBs under identical condition should be confirmed in advance.
In desorption
process, nitrogen gas or air can be used to raise pressure to expedite
effluent speed.
     ( 3) Concentration

     K-D concentrators are normally used. Rotary evaporator can also be
applied. In
former situation, zeolite, glass beads or glass capillaries are added to
prevent abrupt
boiling, while in latter, evaporation to dry should be prevented.
     ( 4) Standard Solution
     PCBs standard substances are used to prepare standard solution.
Certified standard
solution can also be bought. If the standard substance reaches purity
over 96%, mass
correction can be omitted in calculation.
     B Analysis Methods
     PCBs analysis involved various methods. Following methods are
recommended.
     ( 1) GC/ECD

     ECD are high-selective and high-sensitive to high electronegative
compounds
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


(including halogen), so GC/ECD is the most widely used identification and
quantification
methods for PCBs analysis. However, the linear range for quantification
of ECD is relatively
narrow, which requires correction before analysis. In addition, the
responses of ECD differ
a great deal. Monochlorid and polychlorid are 100-10,000 times different
in response
magnitude. Different isomers may also have different sensitivity.
     ( 2) GC/MS
     When applying MS as the censor for GC, the number of chlorine atoms
and molecular
weight can be obtained, thus more accurate in PCBs identification.
However, isomers can
not be identified, and sensitivity for low concentration PCBs are lower
than ECD sensors.
     For detailed methods, please refer to PCBs analysis standard methods
published by
USA EPA. Such as: EPA Method 505, EPA Method 508, EPA Method 608, EPA
Method 617,
EPA Method 625, EPA Method 8080A, EPA Method 8081, EPA Method 8250.


5.4 Personal Protection in Inventory


5.4.1 PCB Hazard to Human Health


      PCB is one of the examples of human's misuse of chemicals. From
1930s to early
1960s, PCB was only regarded as the cause of Chlorance, a kind of
vocational dermatosis,
and its environmental hazards were paid little attention to. In early
1960s, when Sweden
Chemist Dr. S Zenenu was studying the remains of DDT in the environment;
he happened
to find that PCB was also widely remained, due to the similarity between
their molecular
structures. Because of its high solubility in adipose, and its
persistence to biodegradation,
the entireworld began to notice its remains in the environment and human
beings through
food and drinking water. Western scientists have found that the remains
of PCB in Atlantic
oceanic plants may amount to 0.03 to 1.5 ppm, and in some seafood to
hundreds of ppm.
In some fish in Hudson River, the remains of PCB amount to an astonishing
1834 ppm.
     Besides Chlorance, PCB may cause hepatic ill function, endocrine
disruptive, many
cancers and reproductive failure. Its incipient symptoms include:
fatigue, lack of appetite,
nausea, vomiting, and swelling limbs. Characteristics symptoms include:
excretion of milky
gums in the eyes; whelk-like macula, pimple; black fingers, skin,
gingival, and lip; and
swollen eye-lid.
     In China, we still have large amount of PCBs ineffectively treated.
Due to lack of
management and long time span, part of the PCBs containing electric
capacitors records
are unable to be found. Some storage sites have been redesignated for
other use, and
formed long-term pollution sites. In some areas, serious pollution
accidents of obsolete
electric equipment have occurred. Thus, obsolete PCBs containing
equipment have
become "timing bombs" to human health. During the treatment,
transportation and analysis
of PCBs equipment and samples, proper personal protective equipment have
to be chosen
and used to protect human health.
                      China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University



5.4.2 The Selection of PCB Personal Protective Equipment


    When selecting personal protective equipment (PPE), we should first
understand how
the toxic substances entering human bodies. Generally, toxic substances
enter human
bodies through inhalation, oral, dermal exposures. During the inventory,
inhalation and
dermal exposure are the major routes. In addition, we have to identify
the nature of
activities and related danger, thus determine the protective index of
PPE, and select
appropriatePPE. At last, we should test the intensity and suitability of
every PPE,
    According to the characters of PCB, and hazard during the inventory,
PPE are
selected as follows:
(1) In open environment, when taking preliminary inventory, require:
gloves
(2) In confined space, when taking preliminary inventory, require:
gloves, boots, and
    goggles
(3) In open environment, when taking samples and transportation, require:
gloves, boots,
    goggles, and overalls
(4) In confined space, when taking samples and transportation, require:
gloves, boots,
    goggles, overalls, and respiratory equipment.


5.4.3 The Use of PCB Personal Protective Equipment


(1)    Goggles: Goggles offer brow protection and side shield. They
should also use
       non-absorbent straps.
(2)    Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE): When choosing Full Face
Vapor Mask
       (FFVM), face size and shape, facial characteristics, work rate and
wear time should
       be considered. During high work rate, the wear time of vapor mask
should be
       reduced. Before using the mask, it should also be inspected for
shelf life. When using
       some complex RPE, personnel should be trained. Staffs should also
be assigned to
       supervise the RPE.
(3)    Gloves: When we look at gloves, we should not only consider its
chemical resistance,
       but also its physical strength, in order to prevent scratchduring
transportation. After
       wearing overalls, he gloves should be worn under the elasticated
cuffs of the
                            t
       coveralls. This prevents contaminants from rolling down the sleeve
and into the
       glove.
(4)    Boots: Boots offer protection to feet, meanwhile prevent
contaminating surroundings
       with working shoes. After wearing coveralls, the boots should
beworn under the legs
       and elasticated ankles of the coveralls. This prevents c
ontaminants from rolling down
       the coveralls and into the boots.
(5)    Coveralls: Before wearing coveralls, please check the directions,
surface damage,
       elasticityof cuffs and production date (if in the shelf life).
Coveralls should not prevent
       free movement. Normally, coveralls have a protective flap designed
to prevent the zip
       fastener from becoming contaminated. When we remove our coveralls
we should
       always assume the outer surfaces are all contaminated. The key
here is after
       removal of the gloves only the inner surface (not contaminated) of
the coverall is
                      China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


        touched. Details are as follows:


    I       Gloves on when touching the contaminated outer surfaces.
    II      Zip cover removed. Zip is clean.
    III     Glove off.
    IV      Gloves held on their inner surfaces - free from contamination
as the cuffs were
            over the glove.
    V       Undo zip and use hand to pull coverall off the shoulder.
    VI      Repeat with the other side.
    VII     Roll the coveralls down to the waist.
    VIII    Roll the coveralls down to the knees.
    IX      Step out of the coveralls. Note the tops of the boots are not
contaminated as the
            ankles of the coveralls were over the top.
    X       Finally step out of the boots.
    XI      Coveralls rolled into a ball with the clean inner surfaces
outermost.


Notice
   (1)     Please remove the contaminated equipment soon after the
activities. Only reuse
           or discard after washing. Please notify the laundry staff of
the hazards.
   (2)     Smoking, food and drinking are forbidden during the
activities.
   (3)     After removing coveralls, please wash your hands carefully.
   (4)     Please keep the neatness of the working area.


5.4.4 First Aid


       If PCBs related acute symptoms appear, please first isolate
patient from the toxic
substances. Keep breath, and blood circulation, while seeking for medical
treatment. When
waiting, please keep recovering posture, identify toxic substances and
collect evident. If
the patience falls unconscious, please do not use emetic. According to
exposure routes,
first aid measures are introduced as follows:
(1) Respiratory Exposure
      I      Move patients to open environment
      II     If respiratory arrest occurs, please keep artificial
respiration
      III    Keep warmth and rest
      IV     Seek medical service immediately
(2) Dermal Exposure
      Immediately rinse by soap or neutral detergent with water
      Remove cloth if permeated, and rinse by soap or neutral detergent
with water
      Seek medical service immediately
(3) Eye Exposure
      I      Wide open the eyelid and rinse with large amount of water
      II     Seek medical service immediately
(4) Oral Exposure
                       China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


    I        Seek medical service immediately
    II       If immediate medical service is not available, put finger
deep into patient's
             throat or use emetic
    III      If patient is unconscious, please do not use emetic


6. Inventory Summary


    Inventory results will be analyzed for data on different regions and
categories, and
Form 13 be filled accordingly. Maps will be drawn to reflect the
pollution situation in the
region and GPS will be used to position the representative pollution
sites.
    The final report will consist of two parts, work report and inventory
report. Work report
should detail the whole inventory process, while the inventory report
should summarize the
result of the inventory.


 Form 13. PCBs Containing Equipment & Contaminated Sites Inventory in XXX
Province


                                        PCBs Containing Equipment (Net
weight / t)

                     Capacitors      Transfor-         Other             Soil
&        Soil &   Total
                        (t)(No)         mers         equipment           Other
Other
     Region                            (t)(No)        (t) (No)          Wastes
Wastes
                                                                         (PCB
(PCB
                                                                        50-499
>500
                                                                         ppm)
ppm)
                                                                           (t)
(t)




       Total
There should be a discrimination between highly contaminated soil (with a
PCB content
over 500 ppm) and light contaminated soil (with a PCB contaminated
content between 50
and 500 ppm) since different cleanup and disposal strategies will be
carried out for these
two categories of soil(for example: incineration for highly contaminated
soil and thermal
desorption for lowly contaminated soil)after the inventory. In that case,
data in this table will
be used to calculate the disposal capacity of each of the disposal
facilities respectively.
    Results will be returned to related regions and industries for
verification and revision to
obtain the final inventory.
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


     Data will be checked and analyzed by specific software (e.g. FORM
R). Suspicious
data will be required for verification. Test programs will be added into
the software to
analyze the reliability of the data and deleteincorrect data, thus
enhance the credibility of
the inventory.
     For electric power system, data will be checked by electricity
consumption figures. For
detailed information please refer to Appendix 1.



7. Quality Assessment & Quality Control


     Quality assessment and quality control should be developed in
advance to ensure the
maximum completeness and reliability of the inventory.


(1) In general, a good approach should be the use (for cross validation
of the data) of data
    from different sources: for instance one source could be the local
and central
    environmental administration, and the other could be industries: the
electric power
    system and distribution networks, the chemical and petro-chemical
industry, ferrous
    and non-ferrous metallurgical plants, mechanical engineering. In
general, data from all
    the sectors where large capacitors and transformers are used are
valuable for quality
    assessment.
(2) A consulting firm should be responsible for the development of PCB
inventory
    methodology under support and guidance of international inventory
consultant and the
    national technical adviser hired by CIO. At the same time, the firm
will guide and assist
    the Investigation Group by providing initial guidelines and in
specifically dispatching 1
    or 2 qualified experts into each of the two pilot provinces to work
together with the
    Investigation Group, while through this way, the Methodology Group
may update and
    revise its guideline according to feedback of these qualified
experts.
(3) It is also important to develop a mass-balance based on data
concerning
-   Information on the production of PCBs

-   Information on the production of PCB-containing equipment

-   Information on the use of PCB-containing equipment

-   Information on PCB-contaminated wastes

-   Import/export flows of PCB and PCB containing equipment.

     The mass balance estimate will be used as a reference to be compared
with the
inventory results.

(4) If sufficient amount of reliable data are available to establish a
proven relation between
    the electricity consumption and the amount of PCBs in electric
utility, the inventory
    could be checked with records of electricity consumption in certain
areas. This can
    sever as a reference term to be compared with the inventory results
as the figure of
    electricity consumption is relatively accessible. Please refer to
Appendix for detailed
    information.
                  China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


(5) Local environmental departments should be responsible for the
sampling and the
    analysis of PCB concentration in certain sites to check the
credibility of the inventory
    results. As these sites may be in large number and separately
located, it is neither
    practical nor necessary to do the sampling work in each site due to
limited time and
    resources. In order to optimize the use of the available resources,
it is more practical to
    select several of the sites for checking and the criteria for the
selection should be
    planned carefully. Please refer to 5.3 for detailed information.
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University




8. Appendix



Appendix 1 Computation of PCBs Quantity in Electric Power System

1. Calculatethe number of capacitors in use according to technical
standard for paralleling
capacitors SDJ-25-85

   According to the technical standard for parallel connecting capacitors
SDJ-25-85, the

   capacity of capacitors can be estimated by:
       Qb= S n *20%                 ( 1)

    In which: Qb- the capacity of capacitors, KVar
           Sn- the capacity of capacitors in secondary transformer
substations or
                     Distribution transformer substations, KVar
    Now that the capacity of capacitors is known according to (1), the
number of
    capacitors in use can be estimated by:
       n = Qb / Qb0                 ( 2)

    where n refers to the number of capacitors in use and Qb0to the
compensable reactive
    power of each capacitor in KVar. Usually Qb0=20KVar.
    The transmission of electric power is shown in Figure 3:




Distribution substation


10KV~380V




     Generator                                                 Secondary
transfomer
                step-up transformer     Primary transformer
Distributionsubstation
                                                               60KV 10KV
                 10KV     500KV       500KV      60KV
10KV~380V
2. Calculate the number of capacitors in use according to the capacity
   Here the capacity can be evaluated by:
             Qb=2pfcv2              ( 3)

  where Qb is the capacity of capacitors in KVar, f refers to the
frequency which is 50Hz, c
   to the capacitance in µF and V to the voltage in volt.
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


  Then the number of capacitors in use can be estimated as follows:
            n = Qb / Qb0            ( 2)

     where n refers to the number of capacitors in use and Qb0to the
compensable reactive
     power of each capacitor in KVar. Usually Qb0=20KVar.


3. Verify whether a capacitor contains PCBs according to the date when it
is installed
    ² If a capacitor was installed before 1975, it
isalmostcertaintocontainPCBs.
    ² If a capacitor was installed between 1975 and 1980, it may contain
PCBs. But
          further investigation is required for confirmation. Either
description about the
          selection of a capacitor in its user manual or its serial
number can be referred for
          confirmation.
    ² If a capacitor was replaced between 1975 and 1980, the exact time
of its
          decommissioning, the procedure of its management, regulations,
storage site
          and person in chargeshould be examined carefully.
     Local PCBs or PCBs containing capacitor manufacturers should also be
inspected in
the inventory for their technical standard, company records, production,
market channels
and list of major consumers for further investigation.



Appendix 2 Inventory Forms

Potential PCBs Containing Equipment & Sites Inventory Form

Region:               Record No.:


   Form Annex 2-1 Potential PCB Containing Capacitor Inventory Form

      1.    Name


      2.    Address

      3.    Address of site:
            (if different)
            Phone:
      4.    Fax:
            E-mail:
      5.    Name/position of contact:


            Type      of   company/industry
      6.
            type

            Are     you    presently       using A. phase shift capacitors,
YL series
      7.    electrical capacitors in the No.:

            right lists? If yes, please
                                                     B. phase shift
capacitors, YLW series
            check the items and give the
                                                     No.:
             China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


       numbers.                               C. tandem capacitors, CL series
                                              No.:

                                              D. electric heat capacitors, RLS
series
                                              No.:

                                              E. electric heat capacitors,
RLSI series
                                              No.:

                                              F. unknown type or unlabeled
capacitor

                                              (A). Produced before 1980, No.:

                                              (B). Produced from 1980 to 1995,
No.:

                                              (C). Produced after 1995, No.:
    Have          you   ever   used      or A. phase shift capacitors, YL
series

       accepted electrical capacitors         No.:

    in the right lists? If yes, please        B. phase shift capacitors, YLW
series

       check the items and give the           No.:

 8. numbers.                                  C. tandem capacitors, CL series
                                              No.:
                                              D. electric heat capacitors, RLS
series
                                              No.:
                                              E. electric heat capacitors,
RLSI series
                                              No.:
                                              F. unknown type or unlabeled
capacitor

                                              (A). Produced before 1980, No.:

                                              (B). Produced from 1980 to 1995,
No.:

                                              (C). Produced after 1995, No.:
       Fate of such capacitors( eg:

       disposal, landfill, sell, N.A.)
 9. Please          specify        disposal

      technology         &      company,

      landfill site or purchaser.

      Have    you        ever      imported

      electrical       equipment       with

10. capacitors? If yes, compile

      lines from 11 to 12 once for

      each imported capacitor.

      Capacitor name and company
11.
      name

      Date of Import
12.
                China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


       Note (Please indicate the

       source of information, e.g.

       design       records,        purchase

 13.   records,                production

       management            records,      or

       environmental             protection

       sector.)

 Record of questionnaire


 Company official (s)

 Name, position, signature, date




Form Annex 2-2 Potential PCB Containing Transformer Inventory Form

 1.    Name


 2.    Address


       Address of site:
 3.    (if different)


       Phone:
 4.    Fax:
       E-mail:
 5.    Name/position of contact:


       Type        of   company/industry
 6.
       type

       Are       you    presently       using A. Step up transformer

       transformers in the right lists? (A) Produced before 1980:
 7.
        If yes, please check the items,      (B) Produced from 1980 to
1995:

        give the numbers and specify (C) Produced after 1995:

        the capacity.                        B. Distribution transformer
                                             (A) Produced before 1980:

                                              (B) Produced from 1980 to
1995:

                                              (C) Produced after 1995:
                                              C. Small transformers
                                              (A) Produced before 1980:

                                              (B) Produced from 1980 to
1995:

                                              (C) Produced after 1995:
             China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


                                                D. Unknown type, unknown age:


                                                A. Step up transformer

                                                (A) Produced before 1980:

                                                (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

                                                (C) Produced after 1995:
        Have you ever used or
                                                B. Distribution transformer
      accepted transformers in the              (A) Produced before 1980:
        right lists? If yes, please
 8.                                             (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:
       check the items, give the                (C) Produced after 1995:
       numbers and specify the                  D. Small transformers (from ...
to ....MW)
                 capacity.                      (A) Produced before 1980:

                                                (B) Produced from 1980 to 1995:

                                                (C) Produced after 1995:
                                                E. Unknown type, unknown age:


      Fate of such transformers( eg:

      disposal, landfill, sell, N.A.)

 9. Please           specify         disposal

      technology         &          company,

      landfill site or purchaser.

      Have     you       ever       imported

      electrical      equipment          with

10. transformers? If yes, compile

      lines from 11 to 12 once for

      each imported transformer.

      Transformer            name        and
11.
      company name
      Import date
12.

      Note (Please indicate the

      source of information, e.g.

      design        records,    purchase

13. records,                   production

      management          records,     or

      environmental             protection

      sector.)
              China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University



 Record of questionnaire


 Company official (s)

 Name, position, signature, date




Form Annex 2-3 Other potential PCB containing equipment inventory form

 1.    Name


 2.    Address


       Address of site:
 3.    (if different)


       Phone:
 4.    Fax:
       E-mail:
 5.    Name/position of contact:

       Type        of   company/industry
 6.
       type

                                             A. equipment produced before
1980
       Are       you    presently    using

       equipment           other      than
                                             B. equipment produced between
1980 and
      capacitors and transformers
 7.                                          1995
      includedForm 6 and 7?If yes,

       please give the item names
                                             C. equipment produced after
1995
       and numbers.
       Have       you    ever       used     or A. equipment produced before
1980

       accepted         equipment          other

      than       capacitors                and     B. equipment produced between
1980 and
  8. transformers included Form 6                  1995

       and 7? If yes, please give the

       item names and numbers                      C. equipment produced after
1995
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


                Fate of such equipment( eg:

                disposal, landfill, sell, N.A.)

        9.      Please        specify      disposal

                technology        &       company,

                landfill site or purchaser.

                Note (Please indicate the

                source of information, e.g.

                design        records,     purchase

       13.      records,                  production

                management            records,     or

                environmental             protection

                sector.)

       Record of questionnaire


       Company official (s)

       Name, position, signature, date




             PCBs Containing Equipment Investigation Record
                                      Region:             Record No.:


Information related to PCBs containing equipment

(repeat this section on a separate sheet for each additional type of
equipment)

  1.         Name of manufacturer and country of
             origin
  2.         Type (transformer, capacitor, etc.)

  3.         Number

  4.         Producer or import country
5.   Power rating (voltage)

6.   Date of fabrication

     Weight Equipment (dry weight in kg)

              Oil/liquid (L or kg)

7.            Total weight (kg)

              Size of equipment (length,

              width, height in ft or m)

     PCB             >10%
8.
                   China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition,
Tsinghua University


         content      of   >0.05% or 500ppm

         liquid            >0.005% or 50ppm

                           <0.005% or 50ppm

                           No PCBs

                           N. A.

                           Equipment emptied of

                           liquid

         PCB analysis performed?
  9.
         If yes,which method and when?

         Source of the above information(e.g.,
  10.    a plaque or name plate on the
         equipment)
         Operational     In use: yes / since

  11.    status       of   On stand -by
         equipment
                           Decommissioned

                           Leaking?

                           Immediate           action
         Condition of
  12.                      needed
          equipment        Storage situation (e.g.

                           open       air,    locked

                           enclosure etc.)

         Other observations:
  13.


         Record of Site Visit




  1.     Company official(s) involved
         Name, position, signature, date
     2.   Government inspector(s)
          Name, position, signature, date




                   PCB Wastes Sites Investigation Record

                                  Region:              Record No.:


Information related to PCBs contaminated sites

(repeat this section on a separate sheet for each site)

1.        Site address
2.        Site contact Info.
               China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third Edition, Tsinghua
University


3.    Current use of the site
      Nature    of   the   wastes    (e.g.,
4.    transformer    oil in    drums     or
      reservoirs)
5.    Estimated quantity

6.    Are containers leak-proof?

      Is the place of storage clearly
7.    marked to show the presence of
      PCB?
      Have soil or buildings been
      contaminated by leaking PCB?
8.    (indicate magnitude of problem if
      possible, e.g. tonnes or cubic
      metres of contaminated soil)
      Brief history of any previous
      remediation efforts, e.g., removal
9.    of PCB-containing equipment and
      waste PCB for disposal (when, by
      whom, where to, etc.)
      Other relevant information (e.g.,
10.   results of any sampling and
      analysis already undertaken)

      Record of Site Visit




1.    Company official(s) involved
      Name, position, signature, date




2.    Government inspector(s)
      Name, position, signature, date
                                 China PCBs Inventory Guideline -Third
Edition, Tsinghua University


Annex III Map of Hangzhou City

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:12/3/2011
language:English
pages:463