Book 16 (40) Your heart is unbending. But if in your mind you are shunning some oracle, and your queenly mother has declared to you anything from Zeus, yet at least send me forth speedily, and with me let the rest of the host of the Myrmidons follow, if I may prove a light of deliverance to the Danaans.  And grant me to buckle upon my shoulders that armour of yours, in hope that the Trojans may take me for you, and so desist from war. (69) These things will we let be, as past and done. In no way, I suppose, was I to be filled with ceaseless wrath at heart; yet I really deemed that I should not make an end of my anger until the hour when the war-cry and the battle should come to my own ships. But come, put on your shoulders my glorious armour,  and lead forth the war-loving Myrmidons to the fight, if the dark cloud of the Trojans lies over the ships mightily, and those others abide with nothing to support them but the shore of the sea. (96) Listen, so that I may put in your mind the sum of my counsel to the end that you may win me great recompense and glory  at the hands of all the Danaans and they send back that beauteous girl, and give glorious gifts. When you have driven them from the ships, come back, and if the loud-thundering lord of Hera grant you to win glory, be not inclined apart from me to war  against the war-loving Trojans: you will lessen my honour. Nor yet, as you exult in war and conflict, and slay the Trojans, lead on to Ilium, lest one of the gods that are for ever shall come down from Olympus and enter the fray (258) And in the front of all two warriors arrayed themselves for war, even Patroclus and Automedon, both of one mind,  to war in the forefront of the Myrmidons. But Achilles prayed. . . :“Zeus, you king, Dodonaean, Pelasgian, you that dwelt afar, ruling over wintry Dodona, — and about you dwell the Selli,  your own interpreters, men with unwashen feet that crouch on the ground. Aforetime verily you did hear my word, when I prayed: me you did honour, and did mightily smite the host of the Achaeans; even so now also fulfill you for me this my desire. Myself verily will I abide in the gathering of the ships,  but my comrade am I sending forth amid the host of the Myrmidons to war: with him do you send forth glory, O Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, and make bold the heart in his breast, to the end that Hector, too, may know whether even alone my squire has skill to fight, or whether his hands  then only rage invincible, when I enter the turmoil of Ares. But when away from the ships he has driven war and the din of war, then all-unscathed let him come back to the swift ships with all his arms, and his comrades that fight in close combat.” (326) When the Trojans saw the valiant son of Menoetius, himself and his squire, shining in their armour,  the heart of each man was stirred, and their battalions were shaken, for they deemed that by the ships the swift-footed son of Peleus had cast aside his wrath and had chosen friendliness; and each man gazed about to see how he might escape utter destruction. (512) The son of crooked-counseling Cronos took pity when he saw them, and spoke to Hera, his sister and his wife:“Ah, woe is me, for it is fated that Sarpedon, dearest of men to me, be slain by Patroclus, son of Menoetius!  And in two ways is my heart divided in counsel as I ponder in my thought whether I shall snatch him up while yet he lives and set him afar from the tearful war in the rich land of Lycia, or whether I shall slay him now beneath the hands of the son of Menoetius.” Then ox-eyed queenly Hera answered him:  “Most dread son of Cronos, what a word have you said! A man that is mortal, doomed long since by fate, are you minded to deliver again from dolorous death? Do as you will; but be sure that we other gods do not assent to it. And another thing will I tell you, and take it to heart:  if you send Sarpedon living to his house, think how afterwards some other god may also be minded to send his own dear son away from the fierce conflict. 784 Give him to swift conveyers to bear with them, even to the twin brothers, Sleep and Death, who shall set him speedily in the rich land of wide Lycia. There shall his brethren and his kinsfolk give him burial  with mound and pillar; for this is the due of the dead.” (805) But ever is the intent of Zeus stronger than that of men, for he drives even a valiant man in rout, and robs him of victory  full easily, and again of himself he rouses men to fight; and he it was that now put fury in the breast of Patroclus. (916) Phoebus met you in the fierce conflict, an awful god. And Patroclus marked him not as he passed through the turmoil,  for enfolded in thick mist did he meet him; and Apollo took his stand behind him, and struck his back and broad shoulders with the flat of his hand, and his eyes were made to whirl. And from his head Phoebus Apollo knocked the helmet. This time, Hector, you boast mightily; for to you have  Zeus, the son of Cronos, and Apollo, assured victory, they that subdued me easily, for of themselves they took the harness from my shoulders. But if twenty such as you had faced me, here would all have perished, slain by my spear. No, it was baneful Fate and the son of Leto that slew me,  and of men Euphorbus, while you are the third in my slaying. And another thing will I tell you, and take it to heart: you shall not yourself be long in life, but even now does death stand hard by you, and mighty fate, that you be slain beneath the hands of Achilles.” Book 18 (26) A black cloud of grief enwrapped Achilles, and with both his hands he took the dark dust  and strewed it over his head and defiled his fair face, and on his fragrant tunic the black ashes fell. And himself in the dust lay outstretched, mighty in his mightiness, and with his own hands he tore and marred his hair. And the handmaidens Achilles and Patroclus had got them as booty shrieked aloud in anguish of heart,  and ran forth around wise-hearted Achilles, and all beat their breasts with their hands, and the knees of each one were loosed beneath her. (86) Your wish has been brought to pass for you  by Zeus, as before you prayed, stretching forth your hands, even that one and all the sons of the Achaeans should be huddled at the sterns of the ships in sore need of you, and should suffer cruel things. (105)  For neither does my heart bid me live on and abide among men, unless Hector first, smitten by my spear, shall lose his life, and pay back what he made spoil of Patroclus. (133) These things will we let be as past and done, for all our pain, curbing the heart in our breasts, because we must. But now will I go forth that I may attack the slayer of the man I loved,  even on Hector; for my fate, I will accept it when Zeus will bring it to pass, and the other immortal gods. For not even the mighty Heracles escaped death, although he was most dear to Zeus, son of Cronos, the king, but fate overcame him, and the dread wrath of Hera.  So also shall I, if a like fate awaits me, lie low when I am dead. (387) But now, Patroclus, seeing that I shall pass beneath the earth after you, I will not give you burial till I have brought here the armour and the head of Hector,  your slayer, my noble friend; and of twelve glorious sons of the Trojans will I cut the throats before your pyre in my wrath (cholos) at your death. Hephaestus (460) Truly then a dread and honoured goddess is within my halls,  she that saved me when pain came upon me after I had fallen afar through the will of my shameless mother, who wanted to hide me away by reason of my lameness. Then I would have suffered woes in heart, had not Eurynome and Thetis received me into their bosom — Eurynome, daughter of backward- flowing Oceanus.  With them then for nine years' space I forged much cunning handiwork Shield of Hephaestus (580) The folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a slain man; the one avowed to pay all,  declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept anything; and each wanted to refer the issue to an arbiter. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, showing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle,  holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoever among them should utter the most righteous judgement. ekphrasis  Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like the one in wide Cnossus that Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other.  Of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet  very lightly, as when a potter sits by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and makes trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein;  and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance. 20. (26-27) These mortals do concern me, dying as they are. Still, I stay here on Olympus . . (30-36) help either side . . . If Achilles fights the Trojans - unopposed by us- . . . I fear he‟ll raze the walls against the will of fate. Achaean: Hera Athena Poseidon Hermes Hephaestus Trojan: Ares Apollo Artemis Leto Xanthus Aphrodite Aeneas (115) no mortal can fight Achilles head to head: at every foray one of the gods goes with him. (126) Achilles sprung from a lesser goddess‟ loins Hera (144-46) Let him know he‟s loved by the greatest gods on high while the gods who up till now have shielded Troy from war and death are worthless as the wind. We swept down from Olympus . . .so Achilles might not fall at Trojan hands this day. Poseidon (157-162) Hera, so hard, so senseless! . . . Leave the war to mortals . . . Achilles (210) in hopes of ruling your stallion-breaking friends and filling Priam‟s throne? QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are need ed to see this p icture . Dardanus Erichthonius Tros Ilus Assaracus Ganymede (269-70) the handsomest man on earth, so the immortals . . Snatched him away to bear the cup of Zeus. Laomedon Capys Tithonus Priam Anchises Aeneas Poseidon (342) Aeneas the innocent (355-56) And now Aeneas will rule the men of Troy in power- his sons‟ sons and the sons born in future years. (381) both a better soldier and more loved by the gods. Achilles (386) the deathless gods must love Aeneas too. (492) I know you are brave, and I am far weaker. True- but all lies in the lap of the gods. Book 22 (124) But now, seeing I have brought the host to ruin in my blind folly,  I have shame of the Trojans, and the Trojans' wives with trailing robes, if perhaps some baser man may say: „Hector, trusting in his own might, brought ruin on the host.‟ So will they say; but for me it would be better by far to meet Achilles man to man and slay him, and so get home,  or myself perish gloriously before the city. The chase (188) Thereby they ran, one fleeing, and one pursuing. In front a good man fled, but one mightier far pursued him swiftly; for it was not for beast of sacrifice or for bull's hide  that they strove, such as are men's prizes for swiftness of foot, but it was for the life of horse-taming Hector that they ran. And as when single-hoofed horses that are winners of prizes course swiftly about the turning- points, and some great prize is set forth, a tripod perhaps or a woman, in honour of a warrior that is dead;  even so these two circled three times with swift feet about the city of Priam; and all the gods gazed upon them. (248) But when for the fourth time they were come to the springs, then the Father lifted on high his golden scales,  and set therein two fates of grievous death, one for Achilles, and one for horse-taming Hector; then he grasped the balance by the midst and raised it; and down sank the day of doom of Hector, and departed unto Hades; and Phoebus Apollo left him. (309)  Then with an angry glance from beneath his brows Achilles, swift of foot, spoke to him: “Hector, talk not to me, you madman, of covenants. As between lions and men there are no oaths of faith, nor do wolves and lambs have hearts of concord but are evil-minded continually one against the other,  even so is it not possible for you and me to be friends, neither shall there be oaths between us till one or the other shall have fallen. (350) And Hector knew all in his heart, and spoke, saying: “This is the end. The gods have called me to my death. For I deemed that the warrior Deiphobus was at hand, but he is within the wall, and Athene has beguiled me.  Now is evil death near, and no more far from me, neither is there way of escape. So of old was it the pleasure of Zeus, and of the son of Zeus, the god that smites afar, even of them that formerly used to help me with ready hearts; but now has my doom come upon me. No, but not without a struggle let me die, neither ingloriously,  but in the working of some great deed for the hearing of men that are yet to be.” (419) I know you well, and anticipate what will be, neither was it to be that I should persuade you; truly the heart in your breast is of iron. Think now in case I bring the wrath of the gods upon you on the day when Paris and Phoebus Apollo shall slay you,  great though you are, at the Scaean gate. Does Hector‟s reaction to his impending defeat and death detract from his character? Simone Fraser Januray 18, 2008. Despite his attempts to flee, Hector’s actions in response to his impending death are consistent with his portrayal in the Iliad. Hector’s heroic character is on display throughout the epic, but especially in book sixteen, where he kills Patroclus. Homer deepens his character portrayal with an affecting description of his meeting with his wife Andromache in book six. But the central focus of the epic is Achilles’ anger, and in book twenty-two Hector’s defeat is used to explore that anger at its peak. Hector is revealed as human – he has fear – but he is also noble, dignified, and humane throughout. Hector is a formidable fighter. Achilles concedes that Hector has brought more Achaean losses than the rest of the Trojans combined (Il. 22.449). His killing of Patroclus in Achilles’ armor is Hector’s crowning achievement, and Achilles has to catch himself in order to turn away from reveling in Hector’s death and back to mourning Patroclus (453-59). The defeat of Hector is such an event in itself. Hector is also a lover. Loved by his parents (43-90, 93-7) and especially by his wife Andromache, his character is the most well developed in the epic. In a lengthy description of Andromache’s mourning to close the book, Homer emphasizes the importance of Hector not only as a warrior and son but also as a husband and father (525-606). At the beginning of book twenty-two Hector is cut off from Troy (45) and the stage is set for his one-on-one confrontation with Achilles. Subtle hints have been dropped throughout the epic that Hector will die, and now, with Achilles’ wrath provoked to its most furious both by Hector’s killing of Patroclus and now by his appearance within Achilles’ grasp, the epic’s narrative demands Hector’s death. The pretext is that he takes responsibility for allowing the Trojan army to be caught outside the walls during Achilles’ rampage (118-131). The breadth of Hector’s character is revealed in his final narrative. He considers all his options, even the possibility of returning Helen (136-150). When Achilles approaches, he is likened to the god of war; anyone would be frightened, and Hector flees, his nerve temporarily gone (163, 298). Little is said about his mental state during the chase; Homer focuses largely on its visual spectacle (165-200). Hector considers a run for the gates (231-8), but Achilles cuts him off. In his final moments he appears wholly heroic. He is the victim of Athena’s deception (271-92). It was not his own failure that brings him down. He demands a mutual pledge not to mistreat the other’s body, but Achilles rejects him (301-07). When he realizes that he has been tricked and that he will die, he accepts it and takes solace that in death he will have glory (360). Just before Achilles spears Hector with the fatal blow, Homer draws attention to the fact that Hector is wearing Achilles’ armor (380). The poet highlights the identification of the two warriors, that Hector’s death portends Achilles’ own (423). The two warriors are very alike, but Hector’s mind is not overwhelmed by destructive wrath. Book 24 (26) Thus Achilles in his fury did foul despite to goodly Hector; but the blessed gods had pity on him as they beheld him, and bestirred the keen-sighted Argeiphontes to steal away the corpse.  And the thing was pleasing to all the rest, yet not to Hera or Poseidon or the flashing-eyed maiden, but they continued just as when at first sacred Ilium became hateful in their eyes and Priam and his folk, because of the folly (atê) of Alexander, for he put reproach upon those goddesses when they came to his choice,  and gave precedence to her who furthered his fatal lustfulness. (592) In Achilles he roused desire to weep for his father; and he took the old man by the hand, and gently put him beside him. So the two thought of their dead, and wept; the one for man-slaying Hector wept sore,  while he huddled at Achilles' feet, but Achilles wept for his own father, and now again for Patroclus; and the sound of their moaning went up through the house. Achilles: (615) For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he gives, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurls the thunderbolt, gives a mingled lot,  that man meets now with evil, now with good; . . . Even so to Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts  from his birth; for he excelled all men in good estate and in wealth, and was king over the Myrmidons, and to him that was but a mortal the gods gave a goddess to be his wife.  And also upon him the gods brought evil, in that there hardly sprang up in his halls offspring of princely sons, but he had one only son, doomed to an untimely fate. Neither may I tend him as he grows old, seeing that far, far from my own country I abide in the land of Troy, vexing you and your children. (707) But for this present let us bethink us of supper. For even the fair-haired Niobe bethought her of meat, although twelve children perished in her halls, six daughters and six lusty sons.  The sons Apollo slew with shafts from his silver bow, being angry at Niobe, and the daughters the archer Artemis, for Niobe had matched her with fair-cheeked Leto, saying that the goddess had borne but two, while she herself was mother to many; wherefore they, for all they were but two, destroyed them all.  For nine days' space they lay in their blood, nor was there any to bury them, for the son of Cronos turned the folk to stones; then on the tenth day the gods of heaven buried them; and Niobe thought of meat, for she was wearied with the shedding of tears. And now somewhere amid the rocks, on the lonely mountains,  on Sipylus, where, men say, are the couching-places of goddesses, even of the nymphs that range swiftly in the dance about Achelous, there, although a stone, she broods over her woes sent by the gods. But come, let us two likewise, noble old sire, think of meat. (776)  “If you indeed are willing that I accomplish for goodly Hector his burial, then in doing this, O Achilles, act according to my wish. You know how we are pent within the city, and far is it to fetch wood from the mountain, and the Trojans are sore afraid.  For nine days' space will we wail for him in our halls, and on the tenth will we make his funeral, and the folk shall feast, and on the eleventh will we heap a barrow over him, and on the twelfth will we do battle, if so be we must.” “Thus shall this also be aged Priam, even as you would have it;  for I will hold back the battle for such time as you bid.” Andromache to Astyanax: (862) And you, my child, will follow with me to a place where you will labour at unseemly tasks, toiling before the face of some ungentle master, or else some Achaean shall seize you by the arm  and hurl you from the wall, a woeful death, being angry because Hector perhaps slew his brother, or his father, or his son, since many Achaeans at the hands of Hector have bitten the vast earth with their teeth; for hardly gentle was your father in woeful war.
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