Genocide by d8lt3lR1

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									Genocide
   What it is, Where it
    is happening, and
   How you can STOP
           it…
The Causes of
Genocide
Genocide Defined…
                             A form of one-sided mass
                             killing in which a state or other
                             authority intends to destroy a
                             group, as that group and
                             membership in it are defined
                             by the perpetrators.- By Frank
                             Chalk and Kurt Jonasson

Genocide has to consist of acts
committed with intent to destroy,
in whole or in part, a national,
ethnical, racial or religious
group. –Genocide Convention
Genocide Map
Examples of Genocide…

174 million people
 killed throughout the
 world’s history
Chiang Kai-Shek =10
 million deaths.
Lenin and Stalin =6
 million citizens and
 foreigners.
…Cambodian Genocide




 Pol Pot rule from 1975-1979
 Wanted a communist peasant farming society
 Lead to the death of 25% of the country’s
  population.
8 Steps of Genocide

                Classification
                Symbolization
                Dehumanization
                Organization
                Polarization
                Preparation
                Extermination
                Denial
Sociological Aspects…
                 Fall of a government
                 Refugees
                 Destabilization of a
                  region for generations
                 Politics and morals

                 Hobbes: “Hereby it is
                  manifest that during the
                  time men live without a
                  common power to keep
                  them all in awe, they are
                  in that condition which
                  is called war, and such
                  a war is everyman
                  against every man.”
 …Psychological Aspects
 Hobbes:
  “…passions, which
  are the same in all
  men,- desire, fear,
  hope…”
 Victims of genocide
  suffer from trauma
 Lose sense of trust
 Frustrations
 Revenge
 “We” and also “us vs.
  them”
The Sudanese
Conflict
Background…

         Who: The conflict in Darfur
           is between two major
           ethnic groups: the Arab
           Northerners
           (Janjaweed militia) and
           the southern non-Arab
           Africans
         Where: The civil war is
           taking place in western
           Sudan, primarily
           concentrated in Darfur
…Background
When: The conflict
 began in February of
 2003
Why: Although portrayed
 by the media as a racial
 and religious dispute,
 the war is based on:
 “competition between
 farmers and nomadic
 cattle herders who
 compete for scarce
 resources”
How did this all begin?




Origins of the Conflict:
   -Who: (non-Arab) Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa Vs. (Arab) Baggara
   -Arabs and Zaghawa are nomadic herdsmen
   -The Fur and Masalit peoples are agriculturalists

            What does this all mean?
it means…




 Disputes over access to land and water
Government Involvement
          Genocide is motivated by 3 factors:
                -Power
                -Hatred
                -Greed
          Sudan’s government, being
           primarily Arab, dislikes Darfur’s
           “black African” farmers
                “Janjaweed shares the hatred
           towards Darfur’s farmers and is in favor
           of exterminating them in order to selfishly
           gain control of their land.”
          Reports show that the government
           is directly involved in supplying
           Janjaweed Militia with “arms,
           communications, salaries, and
           uniforms”-Human Rights Watch
 …at least 14 people die an hour
                       The average number of people that die a day
  400,000             The percentage of people which humanitarian aid
                        has been able to help
  2,000,000                                                The number
  70%                                                        of people
                                                              who have
 The number of                                               been
  people who will die                                         murdered
  in the coming                                               since 2003
  months because of
  a lack of food
 The number of                                             >500
  refugees that have
  fled the country                                          1,000,00
 The percentage of                                           0
  murders under the
  age of 5                                                  20%
The Problem Of
World
Intervention
US and World Reactions…


             The Holocaust
             Anti-Semitism
             Depression
             Lack of
              involvement until
              US soil attacked
 …US and World Reactions
The Rwandan
 Genocide
 “intertribal violence”-
  instead of Genocide
 US ignorance of
  atrocities
 UN ignored warnings
 UN removed troops
 Somalia conflict fears
 Lack of US funds and
  military personnel
…US and World Reactions
       The Sudanese Conflict
        US declared it GENOCIDE and
         “worst humanitarian conflict today”
        World leaders call it “Chaos”
        UN economic sanctions on oil
        US administration pushing for
         NATO involvement
        China refuses because of
         personal interests
        USAID is currently on site in
         Sudan
Global Awareness




 61% of Americans prefer UN humanitarian aid vs. UN
  arms
 58% of Americans prefer US military involvement to UN
  military involvement
 Only 36% of African people are aware of the situation in
  Sudan
UN Defined Genocide:

The Genocide Conventions
 defines genocide as any act
 committed with the idea of
 destroying in whole or in
 part a national, ethnic,
 racial or religious group
Killing members of the
 group
Causing serious bodily or
 mental harm to members of
 the group
UN Defined Genocide:
The Genocide Convention, unlike most other human rights
   treaties, doesn't establish an expert committee, or an
organization to monitor its provisions. Instead, it allows any
 country that is party to the Convention to ask the relevant
parts of the UN to take appropriate action (according to the
     UN Charter) to prevent or stop acts of genocide.
…UN Peace Keeping
            Begins in security council
            Months of debate regarding severity
            6-9 months of preparation after
             approval
            Gradual deployment problems
            Military observers, police,
             humanitarian aid, and election
             monitors
            Language Problems
            3rd world country troops
            Recent conflicts can merit use of
             limited force: Haiti and the DRC
            No use of force permitted in Sudan
            Spread of AIDS and trafficking
             through UN solders
            Cost Effective compared to US
 What does this mean for
 Darfur?
 US declared Genocide on
  September 9th, 2004
 UN Commission denies
  Genocide
 Fear that if declared
  genocide, action becomes
  necessary and required
 Funds are too limited to
  act
 Berndt and Muse: “Public
  interests can only be
  identified and articulated
  only when individuals
  listen to one another, only
  when they modulate their
  own voices so that the
  voices of others can be
  heard.”
 What does this mean for
 Darfur?
Reflection of Rwanda: Kofi Annan
 “One of the reasons for our failure in Rwanda was that beforehand we did
  not face the fact that genocide was a real possibility. And once it started,
   for too long we could not bring ourselves to recognize it, or call it by its
                                    name.
If we are serious about preventing or stopping genocide in future, we must
not be held back by legalistic arguments about whether a particular atrocity
 meets the definition of genocide or not. By the time we are certain, it may
   often be too late to act. We must recognize the signs of approaching or
            possible genocide, so that we can act in time to avert it.
   Mr. Chairman, such reports leave me with a deep sense of foreboding.
      Whatever terms it uses to describe the situation, the international
                         community cannot stand idle.”

Berndt and Muse: “Talk that does not foresee action and look forward to
   consequences is just a game or a pleasant pastime or an intellectual
                               exercise.”
US Action
   In Sudan
…Sudan Peace Act




 On October 21st, 2002, President George W. Bush signed
  into law the Sudan Peace Act, which under Federal Law,
condemned the Sudanese Government for acts of Genocide.
Sudan Peace Act…
             The pact authorized
              U.S. Government to
              spend $100 million in
              the years 2003, 2004,
              and 2005 to assist
              Sudan
             Every 6 months the
              President receives
              information regarding
              the “good faith” of the
              country
 US and The Sudan…




 If the Sudanese government interferes with
  peace efforts, the US will seek a UN Security
  Council resolution for an arms embargo
 The Secretary of State must report every six
  months on the steps taken to collect
  information, including any findings or
  determinations made by the State
  Department
Current US Policy…

This act has not
 created any changes
 or influences as of
 now towards the
 efforts of ceasing the
 genocide
It has provided aid
 and support to those
 who have survived
Sources
   www.about.com
                                          www.survivorsunited.com
   www.wikipedia.com
   www.itdg.org                          www.darfurgenocide.org
   www.austin.indymedia.org              www.democracy-project.com
   http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcthree/t       www.lnsart.com
    v/conflicts/sudan.shtml
                                          www.commondreams.org
   http://www.darfurgenocide.org/l
    earn.php#Campaigns                    www.unitedhumanrights.org
   http://hrw.org/english/docs/200       www.prisonersoverseas.com
    4/07/19/darfur9096.htm
                                          www.edcnews.se
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
    ge:Darfur_map.png                     www.smh.com.au
   www.msnbc.com                         www.whitehouse.gov
   www.worldrevolution.org               www.bj.org
   www.dhushara.com
                                          www.valkyriearms.com
   www.herodote.net
   www.members.fortunecity.com           www.nafsa.org
     sources cont…

   http://www.savedarfur.org/action/educate
   http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=1160&id=2128502005
   http://www.americanprogressaction.org/site/pp.asp?c=klLWJcP7H&b=195053
   http://washingtonsolidaritybeta.awardspace.com/
   http://homepage.mac.com/dougmercado/PhotoAlbum23.html
   http://discussions.ushmm.org/genocide_prevention/comment_list.php?ProjectTopic_
    _TopicId=27
   http://www.nrc.no/engindex.htm
   http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.thewe.cc/thewei/%26/images3/d
    arfur/anger_at_pro_government_speech.jpe&imgrefurl=http://www.thewe.cc/contents
    /more/archive/darfur_sudan.html&h=278&w=370&sz=63&tbnid=9KB4rq_5jRKt5M:&t
    bnh=88&tbnw=118&hl=en&start=8&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddarfur%2Bgovernment%
    26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DPCTA,PCTA:2006-
    08,PCTA:en%26sa%3DN
   Berndt and muse
   hobbes
    sources cont…
 http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/holocaust/response.html
 http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/responses.html
 http://www.globalcontact.idv.tw/Download/PDF/Why_the_United_States_Let_the_Rw
  andan_Tragedy_Happan.pdf
 http://service.spiegel.de/cache/international/0,1518,338612,00.html
 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec04/sudan_genocide.html
 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec04/sudan_7-05.html
 http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-03-01-darfur-edit_x.htm
 www.worldopinion.com
 Hentoff, Nat. "The Un Ignores Genocide." Washington Times.The New York Sun
  (2004).
 Encyclopedia, Wikipedia The Free. Sudan Peace Act. March 2006 2002. Wikimedia
  Foundation, Inc. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan_Peace_Act. 4/16/06
  2006.
 portland.indymedia.org/en/2002/09/21593.shtml www.churchill-society-
  london.org.uk/1944SOND.html www.anglo-boer.co.za/concentrationpics.html
  http://www.aeronautics.ru/archive/wwii/baltic_nazis/latvia/contact.htm
  http://fp.seattleschools.org/SmartTools/genocide/rwanda/pictures.htm
  http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3797889292300937848&q=nazis&pl=true
  Songs Angels and Airwaves- Valkyrie Missile 28 Days Later Soundtrack- The
  Beginning and Frank’s Death
                GENOCIDE




 To find out more about what you can do to STOP
genocide, visit the following websites, or speak with
  one of the members of the peer teaching group.
               www.ourpledge.org
           www.ushmm.org/stop-genocide

								
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