7 – AXIAL SKELETON                                 Name_____________________________________
VOCABULARY MASTERY                                 Date___________________________ Pd._______
  1.   AXIAL SKELETON – forms the longitudinal axis of the body; 80 bones, roughly 40% of the bones in the

  2.   APPENDICULAR SKELETON – includes bones of the limbs, pectoral and pelvic girdles that attach limbs
       to trunk; 126 bones

  3.   8 CRANIAL BONES – occipital, parietal, frontal, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid bones; together, the cranial
       bones surround or enclose the cranial cavity

  4.   FACIAL BONES – protect and support the entrances to the digestive and respiratory tracts

  5.   SUTURES OF SKULL – connections between the skull bones – immovable joints called sutures; at
       sutures, bones are tied firmly together with dense fibrous connective tissue

  6.   ORBITS – bony recesses that contain the eyes

  7.   PARANASAL SINUSES – frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, palatine, and maxillary bones; lighten skull bones
       and provide an extensive area of mucous epithelium

  8.   DEVIATED SEPTUM – nasal septum has a bend in it – typically at the junction of the bony and
       cartilaginous area – can block drainage in one or more sinuses

  9.   FONTANELS – largest fibrous areas between the cranial bones

  10. 4 SPINAL CURVES – cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral

  11. 3 VERTEBRAL PARTS – vertebral body, vertebral arch, articular processes

  12. ARTICULAR PROCESSES – arise at the junction between the pedicles and the laminae

  13. BIFID – cut into two parts – a notched spinous process

  14. ATLAS – cervical vertebra C1; holds up the head, articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull…
      Atlas holds the world on his shoulders (GREEK)

  15. AXIS – cervical vertebra C2; during development, body of atlas C1 fuses to C2, the axis – this fusion creates
      the prominent dens, a.k.a., odontoid process of the axis

  16. DENS – prominent dens = tooth; odontoid process

  17. FACET – articular surface on the body of a single vertebra

  18. SACRUM – fused parts of 5 sacral vertebrae

  19. COCCYX – 3-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae – have typically begun fusing by age 26

  20. STERNUM – place of rib attachment; i.e., breastbone – flatbone that forms in the anterior midline of the
       thoracic wall

  21. MANUBRIUM – broad, triangular; articulates with the clavicles and the cartilages of the first pair of ribs –
      widest and most superior portion of the sternum

  22. XIPHOID PROCESS – smallest part of the sternum; attached to the inferior surface of the body – the
      diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles attach to this


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