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					COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”




                             IT’S TIME FOR A LITTLE
                             PEDAGOGY REFLECTION




         Gaziantep, Turkey, October 2009
                              COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



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      The project “European Journey Through Legends” has been funded with support from the European Commission. This
material reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of
the information contained therein.




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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



                                                 PART I




           GREAT TEACHERS ARE NOT BORN IN THEMINDS OF THE STUDENTS
                 BUT THEY ARE BORN IN THE HEARTS OF THE STUDENTS




         All teachers can’t make impact in the minds of their students. But a very few teachers touch
the hearts of their students thereby becoming legends. There is no specific formula or a secret
mantra in this, except dedication, determination and discipline in the methods of their teaching.
William Arthur ward said, “The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior
teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires”.
         An average teacher teaches the topic, a good teacher converts dull students into bright
students and a great teacher creates great students who in turn excel in their area of chosen line.
And such great teachers become teaching legends. Alexander the Great quoted, “I am indebted to
my father for living, but to my teacher for living well”. The great teachers across the globe are
Aristotle, Galileo, Isaac Newton, Pythagoras and so on to name a few.
         Lola May quoted, “There are three things to remember when teaching; know your stuff,
know whom you are stuffing; and then stuff them elegantly”. Anyone can become a good teacher if
equipped with certain qualities and characteristics. A teacher wears many a hat such as, he should
be an effective communicator, leader, disciplinarian, mentor, guide, parent, friend, philosopher,
motivator, counselor, actor, a role model, well wisher, manager, fair and impartial etc. He should not
take the things for granted. Should carry the entire students along with them as a team leader.
Should have higher levels of energy and enthusiasm. Should remember the names of all the students
in the class. Should always work with sincerity and integrity. A great teacher is not only a teacher but
also a great listener and learner. He teaches what he knows to his students and learns from what the
students’ know. A great teacher always sees big picture. Whenever he finds that the topic is tough
he breaks down the topic into several small pieces and explains the small pieces effectively and
efficiently to the students and gradually assembles the pieces into a one single entity mentally and
explains. He should be a voracious reader of various books, magazines, journals, browser of many
educational web sites and should be a good observer.
         A great teacher always sees big picture. Whenever he finds that the topic is tough he breaks
down the topic into several small pieces and explains the small pieces effectively and efficiently to
the students and gradually assembles the pieces into a one single entity mentally and explains. He
should be a voracious reader of various books, magazines, journals, browser of many educational
web sites and should be a good observer. A great teacher is like a Gardner who plants seeds, waters
and feels satisfied when it starts blooming. He knows the psychology of his students, must be highly
creative, dreamer and must rise expectations and aspirations of his students. He should never be



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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



reactive but should always be proactive. He lays stress not only on education but also on ethical
values and character building. He involves in character building apart from subject building.
         A good teacher should start the class with an inspirational or motivational quotation written
on the blackboard/whiteboard so as to break the class with positive vibes. A good teacher is always a
good storyteller. He should start the topic with a story and should gradually enter into the topic
without the knowledge of the students and at the end of the session, only students should know
that the teacher covered the relevant topics.
         A teacher may start the class with an interesting anecdote, or day-to-day report or a
newspaper report or something sensational and emotional everyday so as to draw the attention of
his students. A teacher can also start delivering lecture by role playing, or by referring an interesting
case studies or by his own personal experience and with his industrial insights so as to bring the
students to the real life from the reel life. He can also throw the topic for open discussion and get
their views or opinions or comments related to the topic. By this the teacher is able to unearth the
hidden talents lying the in the subconscious minds of his students. It is like brainstorming or it
encourages the students to think innovatively, imaginatively and it ignites their minds. It is apt to
quote Chinese proverb in this context, “Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve
me and I will understand”.
         Body language of the teacher must always complement with his oral language as any
inconsistency between body language and oral language can create doubts in the minds of the
students. Body language contributes 93% of communication while the oral language contributes 7%
of the communication. The combination of both is the complete communication. Although men can
talk many things orally but his body language always speaks his sincerity and integrity. The teacher
must best make use of his body language up to the hilt and, if required, he has to act in order to
reach his students. Gail Godwin rightly said, "Good teaching is one fourth preparation and three
fourth pure theatre”.
         A good teacher should be a great learner and he should be fully prepared on the topic by
referring various books and then only he should enter the class as Joseph Joubert correctly said, “To
teach is to learn twice”. A good teacher must step into the shoes of the students and must
empathize. Offer model answers as guide and it helps them to address the examinations effectively.
Preparation of various model answers is a must to have a feel of the examination. Teacher should
adopt multiple methodologies and strategies while teaching, because “more important than the
curriculum is the question of the methods of teaching and the spirit in which the teaching is given”(
Bertrand Russell).
         According to Hindu philosophy, the Mother is the first supreme, the Father is the second
supreme and the Teacher is the third supreme. The teacher is accorded one of the highest statuses
and which is indeed sacred and unquestionable.
         Teachers are not born, but with practice, they can be made. The great teachers are not born
in the minds of their students but they are born in the hearts of their students.
         And the greatest teachers are born in the hearts of the great teachers.




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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”




                     TRADITIONAL VS. MODERN             TEACHING METHODS



        Let me take you back to your school years for a moment. Who was your favourite teacher?
"The old" soldier-like Math teacher who was very strict in the class or "the young", friendly
Literature teacher who was always open to all kinds of ideas, even to the extreme ones. I can hear
you screaming the answer. “The latter one”. Our society these days are divided in to two different
way of thinking on the education. Some believe that modern methods are better than the traditional
method of teaching but yet these two methods are both a successful way.
        Modern, progressive education sometimes causes our denying or ignoring the souls of the
students. Our students study not to learn something new but to pass the exams. The brain, thus,
works as a sort of computer that stores data only, but if we ignore the souls of children and so
remove love from education, what do we get – modern, progressive, dumbing-down education in
which the students have the fear of failure. Because of this pressure they may feel desperate and it’s
a well-known-fact that when the students feel secure they become more successful.
        On the other hand, traditional ways of teaching have a lot of handicaps. The teachers
generally shoulders too much of responsibilities for teaching in the classroom to make sure
everything they taught were understood by the students. There is a typical way and controllable
class where the teacher will teach on the blackboard, explain, ask students to copy and make sure
students pay attention and listen. In this kind of education, the teacher becomes the centre of
classroom interactions, and the students can’t play an active role. Instead of being the dominating
authority in the classroom, the teacher should facilitate the communicative process among the
students. Any unnecessary intervention on the teacher’s part may prevent learners from becoming
involved in the activities and thus hinder the development of their communicative skills.
        Every method in teaching is the same for they deliver the same message to the students.
Therefore there are pros and cons to it as well in these ways of teaching.
        There are a lot of views regarding education and its purposes. If our goal is only to produce
good students who will study to pass the exams, learn what they have to learn without exploring all
the other possibilities and cause no problems to us, then it won’t be a difficult issue to educate
them. If, however, our goal is to produce well-rounded, cultured gentlemen and ladies who are open
minded and capable of solving the problems they faced in the real life and to make the things they
learned during their education at school meaningful, then the means of education will be much
more complicated.
        The pros for traditional methods are that teaches shouldered too much of responsibilities
for teaching in the classroom to make sure everything they thought were understood by the
student. Thus it was a good method, where there was efficient communication between teacher and
students. There was also the typical way and a controllable class where the teacher would teach on
the blackboard, explained, asks students to copy and made sure students paid attention and listen.

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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



Besides that, the traditional way in disciplining students in school and teaching them was an
effective way in building a good characteristic student where students were afraid of their teacher
and respect them. Talking about the pros there are cons to traditional method way where students
were to afraid to ask their teacher questions. Thus students get board of the same way of teaching
method done by the teacher which is on the blackboard and listening to the teacher talk while they
sit down in class and heat up their chairs. Besides that, disciplining the students with canning and
scolding is not a sufficient way for students get traumatizes in school.
         On the other hand, the pros of modern method in teaching help a lot where there is a
centered classroom which is created by the teacher and accepted by the students. In modern
method students are aware of their learning process through the computers. Thus with the help of
computers teachers prepare their work in their thumb drive and present it to the class through slides
show which is an easier way. And students can do their studying and their work all in the computer
without depending 100% on their teacher in schools. Besides that, there is also classroom contract
which consists on agreement between teachers and student regarding on how each will contribute
to and behave in the classroom to start building a student’s expectation towards independence.
Therefore students even have a bonding relationship with their teacher to be their friend so that
they can share their problems to the teacher without being afraid.
         As for the cons of the modern method of teaching students become too independent where
they think they don’t need guidance from anybody because they think they can accomplish anything
by themselves. Thus with the use of computers in school children gets distracted with online games
and websites to browse on besides their studies which will cause them distraction. Besides that
saving all data’s in the thumb drive can be a problem when there is a virus which can also cause the
students and teacher to get to comfortable and depend too much on technology and forget other
better tools in teaching. Thus students also begin to be too comfortable with their teacher as their
friend in schools and forget their responsibilities and respect over the teacher.
         In this context, it seems really hard to decide which method/theory is better to apply. There
are 2 different ways of thinking on the education; Traditional or Modern Methods? Both sides of the
issue tend to fling mud on the other side. So, traditional and modern concepts can be seen as
opposite because of misunderstanding and misconception, then which of the two assessing methods
would be most efficient to give our students a better education?
         Lastly, I feel that the teaching methods should be balance because it both brings good
intentions in educating a person for the better future of everyone. Thus it sends out the same
message even in different way but yet it is useful. It is clear that modern education technology
changed people’s traditional education idea. It changed the single teacher and student relationship
in the past into relationship of teacher and student, student and teaching resources, student to
student and the change of education elements became a positive contributing factor to the
development of education itself. However, it mustn’t be forgotten that modernization process in
education is a result of countless experiences. As human mind evolves, his perceptions, approaches
and reactions evolve on many areas too. So it is very natural to notice many changes on teaching
and learning methods, starting with the antiquity, reaching to our very day. To give our students
better education, instead of separating the old ways from the contemporary ones, we should mix
traditional and modern values in teaching by getting the best sides of them, because the purpose of
education is to create a new school, where the religion must be the verb “to learn” no matter the
way – a traditional one or a new/modern approach.


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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”




                          TECHNOLOGY- NEW PEDAGOGY
                            NEW

                      ENHANCE LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY




         Computers were originally thought to be programming tools only useful for the technically
inclined. Later, it was thought that computers would replace teachers and all that was needed was
really good software. But experience has taught us that this just is not so. Computer Assisted
instruction was explored over many years, not always successfully. Many software developers
directed their production towards the home market producing what has come to be called
"edutainment" software. Highly graphic and interactive in nature, it filled the role of supervised drill
and practice but it often developed spontaneous rather than reflective thinking. It was difficult to
justify the cost when weighed against the shallow depth of learning taking place.
         There are many ways to enhance the learning process with technology. Most of them
employ one or more of these activities:
               communication
               research
               graphic organizers
               presentation
         In recent years it has developed a different vision.



Integrating technology in the classroom

         Technology is a tool that can promote greater learning, but only if its use is planned and
carried out with that goal in mind. Success of technology implementation depends not only on how
well technical components are planned but, more importantly, on how well the school community
goes beyond technical requirements. The whole endeavor of teaching must be supported and
carried through in a way that demonstrates the benefits of teaching and learning with technology,
addresses an individual’s fears as well as hopes, and helps all involved learn how and when these
tools might best be used. If implementing strategies for using technology to improve student
learning is the overarching goal, educators need the how to’s of creating effective technology plans,
and steps for implementing them. The questions are many: “How do we begin? We’ve had
equipment for years, but how can we use it more efficiently and effectively? What do we do about
the resources we’ll need? What equipment do we really need? What can I do to integrate
technology to enhance learning in social studies (or science, or art, or . . .) and how do I manage that
specific task?”
         Think about these suggestions when planning technology-infused instruction:

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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



   Use cooperative learning groups or teams. Working together, students have a greater
    opportunity to learn to use a computer when the student/computer ratio is high. Groups also
    help students learn to work together amicably.
 Use mentors, volunteers, and/or parents. The more individuals you have in the class to answer
    questions and provide guidance, the easier the task for the teacher.
 Create “trained experts” in class. Students love to be the teacher. Designate one (or two)
    student(s) to be the class expert on word processing, presentation software, and any other
    commonly used software package. This student is then responsible for teaching other students
    how to use the software and for answering any questions a student may have. This frees the
    teacher from having to run to the computer every time a student has a technical question.
 Preplan! Make sure that students use their time on the computer wisely. For some assignments,
    a teacher may want students to have a rough draft of their work before they go to the
    computer. This increases the students’ productive time with the computer. There may be other
    situations in which students are allowed to compose their work at the computer.
 Provide a template or sample of available graphics and fonts. Students can spend far too much
    time trying out graphics and fonts. While they need time to experiment with different looks and
    style options, some limits are needed to be sure they complete the work in a reasonable amount
    of time.
 Create a project rubric. Students are more successful when they know what is expected of
    them. Direct the students in deciding what kind of presentation, what kinds of multimedia, and
    how many slides or stacks are required. When students are involved in creating their own
    assessment tool, they will be more likely to fulfill and surpass those requirements.
 Break the project into small parts. Students can lose interest if a project lasts too long. Allowing
    them to work on parts of an assignment instead of the entire enterprise helps maintain
    enthusiasm.
 Team with other teachers to create more meaningful lessons. Collaboration with other
    teachers can reinforce learning objectives as well as make lessons more interesting. A teacher in
    a science class might expand composition skills by having students write about a chemical
    experiment. A mathematics teacher might broaden art skills by having students draw figures
    that emphasize geographic relationships between shapes and objects. Teachers do not have to
    work in isolation. When they share their work and gain insights from others—students and
    teachers—learning is enhanced for everyone.
         Several noted educational technology users and bloggers have observed that in the early
twenty-first century, we are experiencing a qualitatively different era of content publication
unprecedented in recorded history. It is likely that neither Gutenberg nor Luther could have
imagined the age of global publishing which has dawned for the common man/woman today.
Different words used to describe this new age of Internet idea publication include:
              The Read/Write Web
              Web 2.0
              The Web as Platform
         The rationale for this bold claim of a “new age in Internet publication” is the observation
that the requirements for a person to author digital content on the Internet have changed and
simplified dramatically. As a result, a wide variety of applications which embody the concept of “the
web as a platform” are proliferating. Computing tasks which required specialized software like word

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                      COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



processors, spreadsheet programs, webpage authoring software, or digital imaging software can
now be accomplished using free services available on Internet websites, and the results can be
published for a global audience literally with the click of a button.



Examples of the read/write web in action



   Blogging: A weblog, or blog, can be simply an online diary or journal of thoughts written by an
    individual but published for international consumption via the World-Wide Web. Most blogs
    permit visitors to comment on postings, and thereby participate in the interactive culture which
    personifies the read/write web environment. Blogs are not limited to being solo efforts,
    however. Free blogging services like Blogger (www.blogger.com) allow users to easily create
    “team blogs” in which multiple individuals contribute to blog postings
   Aggregators: An “aggregator” is a software program or website that allows content from
    multiple RSS sources to be collected and displayed on a computer. Typically, an aggregator will
    provide relatively clean, fast, advertisement-free access to RSS content. Author and educator
    David Warlick encourages teachers to think of aggregators as “digital newspapers” that can
    collect and display information sources from a wide variety of sources. Popular web-based
    aggregators include the free Bloglines website (http://bloglines.com) and the “My Yahoo” RSS
    Headlines module (http://my.yahoo.com/s/rss-faq.html.) Web-based aggregators like Bloglines
    also allow users to share their favorite or recommended RSS feeds.
   Wikis: The Wikipedia (http://wikipedia.org) is now the largest encyclopedia in the world. It is
    completely free, available in over thirty languages, and has been entirely authored by
    volunteers. The technology which undergirds the Wikipedia is freely available, open source
    software (http://wikipedia.sourceforge.net/), and has tremendous potential for educational
    users at many levels. Since Wiki software records past versions of created WebPages and tracks
    which users made which changes to the site, this read/write web technology not only offers
    comparative benefits to students needing to collaborate in the creation of joint documents, but
    also offers benefits to instructors wanting insights into the respective contributions (or non-
    contributions) of students in assigned groups.
   Social Bookmarks: Web-based services for saving and referencing Internet website favorites or
    bookmarks have been available for many years, but relatively recently “social bookmarks” that
    conform to the RSS information sharing standard have emerged. One free example is
    http://del.icio.us, a website that allows users to quickly (through the use of “bookmarklets”
    explained in the ABOUT section of the website) save desired website addresses and categorize
    them with one or multiple “tags” that are user defined. As a social bookmarks service, the
    del.icio.us website indicates how many other users have linked to a particular website address,
    and allows users to link to the social bookmarks of those other users. Social bookmarks can be
    an invaluable aid in student research projects, teacher technology workshops, and for personal
    use in keeping track of and sharing valuable Internet resources.
   Online Rubric Construction: Advocates for project-based learning have been fans of rubric-based
    assessment for many years. The availability of free web-based rubric construction tools, like
    Rubistar (http://rubistar.4teachers.org), facilitate not only quick construction of personalized

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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



    rubrics by teachers, but also the sharing of created rubrics with others. Copyright issues aside,
    we in the education field have long been known as organisms who readily borrow and steal good
    classroom teaching ideas when we see them. Services like Rubistar encourage and empower
    teachers to share their assessment ideas and strategies, and personify the nature of open
    information collaboration and sharing in the era of the read/write web.
   Online Graphing Tools: Students at different educational levels are expected to not only
    understand and interpret graphs created by others, but also create their own graphs of data and
    explain the trends and implications of their graphic products to others. Microsoft Excel, included
    as part of the Office software package, has traditionally been the software tool of choice for
    most students and teachers graphing data in the classroom or at home. The US Department of
    Education        has        made        a       new        resource       available,       however
    (http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph), that could alter this preference. This web-based
    graphing tool allows users (for free) to select a desired graph type, enter data, and then format
    the resulting graph as desired so it can be saved or printed for subsequent use. No special
    software is required, just a web browser and an Internet connection. This is the web 2.0 in
    action.
   Online Digital Photo Tools: Creating a website gallery of images to share with friends, family, co-
    workers or classmates used to require specialized software and web publishing savvy, but this is
    no longer true. A myriad of digital photography websites have proliferated thanks to the boom
    in digital camera sales, and these free services offer users the ability to upload photos, edit
    them, organize photos into galleries, and share them with others as well as order paper-based
    copies of selected prints. Some of the popular services offering this functionality now include:
                  www.flickr.com
                  www.buzznet.com
                  www.fotki.com
                  www.dotphoto.com
                  www.shutterfly.com
                  www.kodakgallery.com
                  http://smugmug.com
                  www.imagestation.com
   Flickr and Buzznet also allow the creation of photo blogs. In addition to these website services,
    other companies have web-enabled their digital photography software programs to tightly
    integrate with website services. Examples of these include iPhoto and .Mac for Macintosh users
    (www.apple.com/ilife/iphoto and www.mac.com) and Picassa (www.picasa.com) for Windows
    users, courtesy of our friends at Google.




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    Implications of the read/write web for education



   Every Reader a Writer: The process of acquiring literacy, in both the traditional and digital
    senses, requires time and sustained practice. As teachers, we want students to become not only
    proficient readers, but also communicators using written, oral, and technological modalities. By
    encouraging and supervising student use of web 2.0 communication technologies, teachers can
    help students authentically acquire the essential skills of the twenty-first century “net-izen”
    through experiences and action.
   Simplification and De-commercialization: Web 2.0 technologies are simpler and far easier to
    both use and understand. In many cases, they offer the potential to access content / information
    without accompanying commercial advertisements.
   Increased Idea Transparency: In a traditional classroom assignment, a student or group of
    students create a report for an audience of one: the teacher. When students publish their ideas
    on the global information network, however, fundamental changes are likely in both the ways
    students and teachers approach the assignment process. The results of student work are
    available for many to see and possibly critique, rather than just the teacher who assigned the
    task. This can raise the bar of expectations for student work, allow others to check work for
    quality, originality, and possible plagiarism, and increase student motivation levels since others
    (besides the classroom teacher) will be the ultimate audience for the created work.
   Heightened Need for Safe Internet Practices: Teachers, administrators, parents and community
    members must understand the importance of safe Internet practices. Everyone must work with
    the young people in their charge to insure that students do not disclose more information about
    themselves online than they should, that harassers and bullies are held accountable for their
    behavior whether it happens in a classroom or in cyberspace, and that the communities in which
    we live are marked by perceptions of safety and protection by citizens of all ages.
   Greater Potential for Student-centered Education: The availability of read/write web
    technologies offers exciting potential for educators wanting to transform the instructional
    environment into a more student-centered culture. Teachers wanting to serve more as
    facilitators of learning, rather than founts of knowledge, can utilize these technologies to further
    empower students to view themselves as authors and producers, not merely information
    consumers. Students can utilize these tools to acquire both traditional and digital literacy skills
    which will serve them well in their future.




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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”




m         -Learning



    Quicker, faster, more accessible … this is life as we know it today. As technology advances users
expect and demand a level of instant accessibility within the confines of the environment in which
they work, live and play. Expectations are that instant responses from mobile technologies can be
had from local urban street corners to remote jungles and deserts. Mobile technologies are a
recognized piece of our lives and a necessary attachment to our bodies. Be it a mobile phone, an
iTouch or an iPod, for many, life as usual, would cease to exist if they were not readily available.
    As educators we need to understand and consider the advantages of mobile technologies to
education and exploit their use. Academics such as Gerard Goggin (2006), view cell phones and
mobile technologies from a cultural viewpoint and argue that the mobile phone can be viewed as a
species of popular culture. Understanding mobile technologies from a cultural viewpoint, Goggin
(2006) suggests that the mobile technology culture fits into a broad cultural field and relates
specifically to the social, through cultural studies such as sociology, anthropology and other
disciplines. This culture maintains the ability to “reclaim the sense of rich wonder and importance of
the ways that people do make meaning in their everyday lives” . Art and art education plays a major
role in reflecting culture.
    In the last few years there has been an explosion in worldwide developments of new mobile
technologies as the integration of visual and communication technologies associated with text,
sound, audio, picture, and internet access collapse into single devices. Usage of such devices, which
might have been out of the reach of the majority of students even 10 years ago, has significantly
increased as costs tumble and firms claim their market niche.
    Educators have been keen to incorporate the use of such devices in teaching and learning
activities. Notwithstanding, we identify a need to move beyond training to use the technology, to
examining new pedagogies for enabling their use to support learning more effectively. While mobile
technologies such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and digital music players
(mp3 players) have permeated popular culture, they have not found widespread acceptance as
pedagogical tools in higher education.
    In general, mobile learning—or m-learning—can be viewed as any form of learning that happens
when mediated through a mobile device, and a form of learning that has established the legitimacy
of “nomadic” learners. For the first time in history many pupils are more adept than their teachers
in using a variety of technologies to acquire and transmit knowledge (Kirschner & Selinger, 2003).
Jonassen (2000) claims that these pupils are often prolific and fearless users of technology and can
assimilate new software and hardware as if it were second nature. Further, Kirschner and Selinger
assert that 21st Century pupils are light years ahead’ of their parents and teachers with respect to
the possible uses of information and communication technologies (ICT).


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     Much to the dismay of their teachers and parents, some of these “net generation” pupils rapidly
become bored and frustrated with school. Education systems may feel obligated to provide teachers
with the knowledge and skills to effectively use ICT in the classroom and to work in technology-
supported partnerships with their pupils (Kennedy & Krause, 2007). However, if the goal is simply to
get teachers to use technology in the hope of appealing to a disengaged group of students then the
chances of success are slim.
     We have learnt that teachers cannot just be provided with the technology and left to their own
devices; they need visions of the educational possibilities that the technology can provide. Just
providing the tools is not enough, teachers need to know when, why and how to use these tools,
and this requires just-in-time support, the time to experiment and on-going professional
development (Ison, Hayes, Robinson & Jamieson, 2004). Thus modern technologies need to be seen
as essential tools for teaching and learning, but they are not ‘a panacea for all educational ills’
(Kirschner & Selinger, 2003, p.5).
     Students are not the only learners to demand new forms of knowledge attached to new forms of
delivery. The average user now demands anywhere, anytime access. We become frustrated if our
wireless connection is not instantly available in hotels, airports and classrooms. The ubiquitous
wireless has enabled learning, social computing and social networking to sky rocket. Students now
have unprecedented access to visual and verbal learning through social networking tools such as
YouTube, or Google Videos.
     Video has undergone a profound transformation. Millions of videos are just a click away. World
events (and not so worthy events) are captured on mobile phones and distributed to the world. The
ability to ‘mash up’ data from a variety of sources offers new ways for students to look and interact
with data. An example of successful educational smashups is where Google Earth has integrated
YouTube, allowing users to view videos from specific locations around the world.
     Many teacher education courses offer units or subjects in Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs), in order to prepare neophyte teachers for the 21st century classroom. It is
envisaged that such a classroom is one infused with technology, where students use technologies as
cognitive tools to solve problems and create realistic and accomplished products. However, instead
of preparing these future teachers to use technologies in creative and innovative ways, teacher
education courses often focus on teaching about the technologies themselves, rather than how
students can use them as “partners in cognition” (Salomon, 1991), or to learn with, rather than from,
technologies.
     An m-learning professional development program should include two aspects - a technology
aspect and a pedagogy aspect. The technology aspect needs to include a basic understanding of
telecommunication networks and providers sufficient for participants to know the cost implications
of approaches they may adopt, an understanding of the mobile phone functionality and the ability to
send, receive and manage messages using an SMS.
     The pedagogy aspect needs to include some understanding of the mobile phone communication
culture of young people, and some understanding of the learning styles of young people. This needs
to be supported by a professional learning framework such as action learning in order for teachers to
develop the skills and knowledge needed to successfully integrate m-learning strategies into
teaching programs. Any form of m-learning needs to be used judiciously and in ways that enhance
the work of teachers and their pupils. Action learning sets provide a vehicle for critical discussion
and feedback on evidence that could be provided by mobile phones or other recording devices. To


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support such professional learning education systems would need to provide time for the action
learning sets to meet and the resources (mobile phones, card readers and computers). Most of the
resources are available so the challenge is for education systems to provide the time. Often this
requires money and one way would be to start with a single, action learning set and then target
other sets in subsequent years.



    Design principles for mobile learning

    From analysis of the data, the following characteristics are recommended for the incorporation
of mobile learning into a higher education learning environment:
         Real world relevance: Use mobile learning in authentic contexts
         Mobile contexts: Use mobile learning in contexts where learners are mobile
         Explore: Provide time for exploration of mobile technologies
         Blended: Blend mobile and non mobile technologies
         Whenever: Use mobile learning spontaneously
         Wherever: Use mobile learning in nontraditional learning spaces
         Whomsoever: Use mobile learning both individually and collaboratively
         Affordances: Exploit the affordances of mobile technologies
         Personalize: Employ the learners’ own mobile devices
         Mediation: Use mobile learning to mediate knowledge construction.
         Produse: Use mobile learning to produce and consume knowledge.
    That is, learning is mobile in terms of space; mobility between different areas of life and mobility
in respect to time. The challenge will be to discover how to use mobile technologies to transform
learning into a seamless part of daily life to the point where it is not recognized as learning at all.
(Naismith et al (2006)).




                                        CONCLU ION    S

     We believe that there is a link between technology and student performance as measured by
traditional assessments; but this link is not direct. In other words, technology alone is not
responsible for increases in student achievement. Rather, improvements in learning result from a
combination of factors, including the way the teacher teaches, ready access to technology,
administrative support, and the classroom environment. More and more, we are realizing that
another crucial factor is the linkage among technology use, the curriculum, standards, and
assessments. technology is only a useful— and in this case, we can say, impactful—tool when used
in the hands of a skilled teacher. The issue is pedagogy, not computer skills.




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                       LEARNING THROUGH DRAMA


     Drama is a universal form of human expression found in cultures all over the world and
throughout history. Examples include Greek tragedies, Japanese Noh dramas, Italian commedia
dell’arte, Balinese shadow puppet theatre, Native American mask rituals, and the French farce
comedies.
     Why use drama games or theatre games in your teaching?
 They are a simple, cost-effective way of accomplishing a wide variety of educational goals, not
     just in theatre class. The games combine elements of creative drama, improvisation, pantomime,
     creative movement, and storytelling. They develop foundational skills needed in theatre arts
     that also have tremendous positive effects on literacy development, academic success, and
     social interaction. The games are easy to integrate with content from other school subjects or
     content areas. The drama game or theatre game is a versatile teaching tool that reaches
     multiple learning styles, content areas, age groups, and levels of language and experience.
 Develops the Imagination
          Albert Einstein said, "imagination is more important than knowledge." He advanced the
     existing knowledge of his day by using his imagination. He turned the knowledge upside down
     and inside out, and dared to think outside of the box. As a result, he created new knowledge.
     Without imagination, education becomes a kind of intellectual recycling of the same knowledge
     passed from teacher to student and back to teacher on the test. Education should do more than
     simply transmit information; it should develop skills such as imagination that evolve our
     knowledge and move us forward as a species.
          History demonstrates the importance of imagination to human progress. The scientists,
     artists, activists, and politicians who dared to think differently are the people who have made
     the most lasting impact on the course of human history.
          Imagination is at the core of innovation, invention, problem solving, science, and the arts.
          Imagination develops students' writing, speaking and creative self-expression.
          Drama teaches students to imagine, explore, create and share in front of others.



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        Drama teaches interpretation, personal creativity and new ways of looking at the same
    information (e.g. how to act out a familiar role or story such as Hamlet or The Tortoise and the
    Hare).
        Students learn to trust and develop their creative imaginations by playing engaging drama
    games.



   Teaches to Multiple Intelligences
         Howard Gardner (1983) compiled data from a variety of scientific fields to come up with a
    list of seven (now eight) distinct intelligences inherent to all human beings. They are
    bodily/kinesthetic, linguistic, spatial, musical, logical/mathematical, interpersonal (social),
    intrapersonal (self-awareness), and naturalistic. Gardner (1983) criticized the modern
    educational system for placing too heavy an emphasis on Linguistic and Logical/Mathematical
    intelligences. His evidence for such criticism is based mostly on the educational emphasis on
    standardized testing and IQ tests, which measure primarily linguistic and mathematical
    concepts. For most of the 20th century, our society has implicitly defined intelligence within a
    very narrow band of the scope of human abilities. This emphasis on reading, writing, and
    arithmetic (the "three R’s") has been to the exclusion of innate human intelligences more highly
    valued in other cultures and at different times in history.
         Education should provide opportunities for validation of each of the intelligences, not only
    the select few emphasized by the "three R's. Teachers should incorporate methods that reach all
    of the intelligences, so that every student is valued, and all students receive a more well-
    rounded and complete education. Drama games, activities, and productions develop all of
    Gardner's intelligences, but are particularly strong in Spatial, Bodily/Kinesthetic, Interpersonal,
    Linguistic, and Intrapersonal Intelligences. Using drama as a teaching tool activates many of the
    innate human intelligences often neglected by traditional methods of teaching. A more balanced
    and equal view of all intelligences opens the door for an educational philosophy that cannot
    ignore the tremendous benefits of using drama as a core teaching method in all subjects.
   A Multi-sensory Mode of Learning
         Drama is hands-on, experiential learning that engages mind, body, voice, and emotions to
    interpret and convey to others information and ideas. Each sense that is engaged provides an
    opportunity to remember the information and the experience. Memory can be triggered from
    what the students saw, smelled, heard, touched, or tasted during the game--even if it was
    pretend or simulated. Each sensory input provides another opportunity to learn and retain the
    information.
         Research has demonstrated that the emotional involvement in drama activities promotes a
    deepening of understanding and improved retention of the information.
         The emotional and energetic nature of drama provides a personal connection to the
    material--one that embeds it more firmly in the mind. For example, the historic Boston Tea Party
    becomes meaningful on a personal level if acted out in a production. Comprehension and
    retention greatly increase by using drama. For example, a student acts out the vocabulary word
    "slippery" in front of the class. She now has a much improved chance of remembering the word
    and what it means than if she had to memorize it for a written test. Rote memorization generally
    diminishes within a few weeks. Most people have firsthand experience with this process. How


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    many times have we studied intensely to learn and memorize a large amount of information for
    a test, only to forget most of it within a short time thereafter. Bodies are alive and moving,
    energy is created and released, and muscles are exercised during drama games. All of these
    factors increase the students' motivation and attention for learning. Drama provides a rich
    experience that engages body, emotions, and senses in dynamic learning.



   A method of Learning Through Play
         Research shows that young children learn primarily through play. They develop social skills,
    physical coordination, and cognitive understanding of their environment through play. Many
    educators argue for an increased allotment of time for children to play during the school day,
    especially in preschool, primary, and elementary grades.
         Benefits of using play as an instructional tool:
               Activates vitality and stimulates players physically, emotionally, socially, and
                  intellectually.
               Provides hands-on learning by doing, feeling, and experiencing.
               Reduces stress and provides a healthy outlet for expression of emotions.
               Brings fun, laughter, and bonding into the learning environment.
               Increases motivation for learning and participating.
               Stimulates imagination and spontaneity in the moment.
         Drama games use noncompetitive play as the basic mode of learning. The games encourage
    cooperation and collaboration in a creative context. Students work together rather than
    compete against each other as in many sports. The games provide a shared play experience for
    adults and students together. When students and teachers play a game , they experience,
    discover, experiment, respond, create, and share with each other
   An Outlet for Gifted and Talented Students
         Research demonstrates that students who test as "gifted" or "talented" are highly creative,
    enjoy humor, and prefer projects that allow for individual expression. Drama provides games
    and projects that incorporate these aspects of gifted students.
         There is ample evidence that the arts, especially drama, provide such students with
    opportunities to demonstrate their abilities. A gifted student may finish a worksheet well ahead
    of others in the class, then quickly become bored. Drama projects provide a motivated and
    talented student with the opportunity to keep working. Gifted students can put in extra effort,
    work independently to research a topic, and come up with creative solutions for a presentation
    in front of an audience.
         Drama games allow for a large range of participation, from minimal to highly expressive and
    creative. Gifted students are given a chance to synthesize learning from various subjects. They
    can take the same idea several layers deeper than an average student and still demonstrate it in
    the same time frame as others. Therefore, teachers can provide for the entire range of learning
    abilities at the same time in whole group drama games
   Practical Advantages
    Portability: most drama games or theatre games can be played in any location with enough
    room for movement.



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    Adaptability: games can be easily tweaked, revised, shaped, and molded to the particular needs
    and population of any classroom, theatre, or other setting. The creative possibilities are endless!
    Most games are easily integrated into a variety of subjects and topics. They are also easily
    adapted to students of any age from preschool through adults.
    Universality: most games are easily played by students of different backgrounds, cultures, or
    learning styles. In creative expression, each player has the opportunity to bring his or her own
    personal background, prior knowledge, and experiences to the activity.
    Ease of use: for most games, the only requirements are a room, a teacher, and players.
    Preparation and equipment are minimal.
    Repeatability: students enjoy playing their favorite games again and again. Skills, confidence,
    and creativity improve as players replay the same games. Also, the same players can produce
    very different material or results each time they play. Creative expression rarely repeats itself in
    the same way twice.
    Minimal cost: To play drama games does not require lights, sets, costumes, props, special
    effects, script royalties, or a theatre. The only expenses are a few teaching props for classroom
    management, and the occasional prop or musical addition that adds texture and variety to some
    games. Playing drama games costs almost nothing, yet provides enormous educational and
    personal benefits for the teachers and students.

    Young children love to "make believe." Whether they are playing house or acting out a favorite
story, children pretend in order to learn about themselves and the world around them. Dramatic
play is a child’s means of exploring the human experience. As teachers, we can capitalize on our
students’ natural urge to pretend by infusing drama activities into our curricula. Because drama
immediately engages a child’s interest, it is a powerful tool for bringing subject matter to life.
    So, playing drama into the educational environment is beneficial because:
          it develops creativity, imagination and flexible thinking
          it requires concentration, focus, and attention to detail
          it develops the ability to communicate effectively through language and movement
          it encourages awareness of inner thoughts, feelings and values
          it builds self-esteem, confidence, and the ability to work with others
    Some teachers may avoid drama because they equate it with the stress of putting on a play. The
most powerful drama activities, however, can be very simple with no need for elaborate materials or
memorization of lines. The drama activities below focus on the personal development of the
students rather than on performing for an audience.


    Example of simple activities using drama technique

   Dramatic Play
       o In this most fundamental type of drama experience, you supply basic costume pieces
           (scarves, capes, hats, etc.) and props (empty boxes, rope, large fabric pieces) and allow
           the students to “play pretend” in any way they desire. You can suggest settings that
           relate to a curricular unit: a castle, an airport, or a dwelling from a specific culture.
   Pantomime


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        o   Young children enjoy the classic experience of “speaking without words”. Try playing a
            guessing game where one child pantomimes a familiar activity - planting a seed, for
            instance - while the others try to guess what he or she is doing. Or, have the whole class
            pantomime a group activity, such as raking leaves or building a snowman.
 Imaginary Journey
         o Take your students on an imaginary journey that focuses on the five senses. Ask them to
            feel the wind in their hair, see birds flying overhead, hear the swish of tall grass, smell
            flowers, and taste fruits they pick along the way. You can relate the journey to your
            classroom studies -if your students are learning about the rain forest, for example,
            encourage them to imagine the sights sounds, smells, tastes and sensations they might
            encounter there.
 Story Drama
         o Read or tell a familiar story or folk tale. Briefly discuss how the story begins and ends,
            and what happens in the middle. Assign students to play particular characters in the
            story and have them “act it out”, improvising their own words and actions. Repeat, with
            different students playing each character. It's fun to see how the story changes each
            time you play it.
    Because students will move about and speak to one another during a drama lesson, classroom
management can be challenging. But, as long as you set clear expectations and reinforce appropriate
behavior, there is no need to fear loss of control. Remember: the more physically and emotionally
involved your students are in an activity, the deeper and more long-lasting their learning will be.
    When leading drama activities, your role will be that of a guide or facilitator, bringing forth your
students' creative responses and encouraging each child to contribute fully. In drama, there is no
one “right” way to do things. It is important to be open to the unexpected - to allow an activity to
move in new, unplanned directions.
    All you need to include drama in your curriculum are a few simple materials, a favorite story or
two, and a willingness to be flexible and play along. Try the suggested activities, or create some of
your own. Using drama in the classroom will spark your students’ interest and curiosity, and lead
them on a journey of self-discovery.



    Storytelling


    Sometimes the dramatization is transformed into a storytelling. It is very important to bring
tales to life using different storytelling techniques. When you use effective storytelling techniques
you can turn a story into a fantastic experience. Storytelling is fun for children and adults alike,
especially if you take the time to create the proper mood and setting. You can learn storytelling by
watching an experienced storyteller or just practice on your own.

    Example of storytelling techniques to enhance a stories.

   Set the Mood:



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             Stories are best received when they are told in a unique setting. Try telling stories
        around a campfire, in a dark room with flashlights, nightlights or candles or out on a blanket
        by the light of the moon. Children and adults alike will get into the story more if you set up
        the storytelling as an event. Setting the mood builds the anticipation.
   Set up the Story:
             Before you launch into telling the actual story, you’ll want to set up your audience to
        know what to expect. If you are telling a funny story, you’ll want to start out with some
        good-natured joking about the story. If you’re telling a spooky story, you’ll want to joke
        about creepy-crawly types of things or about how you hope this story doesn’t scare the kids
        too much. Have fun with your introduction. Look up jokes if you’re not good at ad libbing.
        Again, the point here is to build the anticipation.
   Make Sure Everyone Is Comfortable
             To truly enjoy a story, the audience has to be comfortable. If you’re outside, make sure
        to provide blankets or camp chairs to sit on and use citronella candles or bug spray to keep
        the insects away.
   Exaggerate as You Tell the Story
             The best storytellers practically act out the story as they tell it. Raise and lower your
        voice; use different voices for different characters. Bring along props to help you with sound
        effects. Make sure you’ve memorized the story and have practiced beforehand so you can
        tell the story smoothly, pausing for dramatic effect when appropriate.
   Stay in Character
             It’s easy to get wrapped up in the response of the audience when telling a story,
        especially if you’re making the audience laugh or gasp. However, you need to keep your
        distance and perform so you won’t lose your place in the story or forget key lines. Walk the
        line between interacting with the audience and becoming so flattered by the enthusiasm
        that you lose your authority as the storyteller.
   Have Fun
             Most important, you need to bring enthusiasm to the story. Enjoy yourself and your
        audience will enjoy the story.

In the educational field there is developing another trend regarding the storytelling technique. This
new trend involves the ICT techniques and tools, so we should improve our storytelling way with
digital features – and we will obtain a new category of storytellers: the “digi-storytellers”.




                                       CONCLU ION    S

    Drama education is a powerful teaching and learning tool with profound positive effects on a
student's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. The benefits of regular theatre arts
instruction spill over into all school subjects and everyday life. Creative drama is sound pedagogy
that reaches students of multiple intelligences and different learning styles. It is a multi-sensory


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mode of learning that engages mind, body, senses, and emotions to create personal connections to
the material that improve comprehension and retention.
    Drama games and theatre games are an ideal strategy for differentiated instruction. Students
with language difficulties, learning disabilities, or physical or mental disabilities can shine in drama,
whereas they often struggle in traditional schooling. Gifted, talented, and highly motivated students
who need to be challenged can demonstrate their abilities and synthesize learning in drama. From
the shy to the confident, from the inexperienced to the advanced student, drama games include all
levels of differentiated abilities in a positive successful creative experience.
    In order to present material to others in class or for a full-scale production, the participants must
not only understand the material, but also find a way to communicate it creatively and effectively to
the audience. Therefore, knowledge in not enough; imagination, creativity, and communication are
required to make effective theatre.
    Drama games and theatre games transform the traditional teacher-student relationship from
one of authority-recipient to one of shared experience of discovery and creative exploration. It is
easy to use drama as a teaching tool in any school subject. It provides a practical, effective, and
empowering approach to teaching that transforms the learning environment.




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                                 OUTD    OOR EDUCATION


     Outdoor education has been defined in a variety of ways throughout its history. L. B. Sharp
(1943), one of the earliest advocates of camping education, offered the following rationale for
outdoor education: “That which can best be taught inside the schoolrooms should there be taught,
and that which can best be learned through experience dealing directly with native materials and life
situations outside the school should there be learned”.
     Originally, outdoor education was used mostly for nature study. Today, it includes outdoor
experiences designed to meet objectives in many areas. For example, a teacher could take students
outside to measure objects on the schoolyard for a mathematics lesson, or to a fire station to study
an aspect of the local community. As these examples show, outdoor education appears to have
emerged as a “context” for learning. Although environmental education can trace its lineage, at least
partly, to outdoor education, it is considered a distinct field. The goal of environmental education is
to develop a world population that is aware of, and concerned about, the environment and its
associated problems, and which has the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivations, and commitment
to work individually and collectively toward solutions of current problems and the prevention of new
ones.
     Outdoor education follows the experiential philosophy of learning by doing. It takes place
primarily, but not exclusively, through involvement with the natural environment. In outdoor
education, the emphasis for a subject of learning is placed on relationships concerning people and
natural resources. The outdoor environmental education it is also one of the main goals of the
Comenius Project, which we tried to achieve through our journey to Italy. We had the opportunity to
learn more about the history of this beautiful country, especially by the trips to some impressive
historical buildings very well preserved for centuries.
     Outdoor environmental education is a thematic and interdisciplinary field of education in the
natural and cultural landscape. Through thematic studies and activities in the landscape, outdoor
environmental education tries to animate the often abstract concepts of the subject disciplines, and
thereby create a local, ecological, historic, physical and social sense of place among children,
students and teachers ( Dahlgren and Szczepanski, 1997).
     The classroom walls constitute “a third layer of skin” that separates us from nature, culture, and
society – the systems of the real world for which the classroom try to prepare us. Outdoor education
tries to shift the perspective and the division to the playground/schoolyard and the surrounding
landscape as learning environments. Dewey (1859-1952) argued that we develop through practical
experiences by doing things “under the skin”. The pragmatic (action-centered) educational
philosophy, of which Dewey was an advocate viewed education as a continuous reconstruction of
experiences. In this concept of “learning by doing”, reasoning is connected to action.


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     At school, learning still relies heavily on texts (literary knowledge), an increased amount of
digital texts and virtual reality, and less and less on first-hand experiences. The fundamental idea is
to create more opportunities for concrete experiences in the outdoor classroom. Ingvar (1997),
expresses the significance of our senses: “It is necessary to spend time outdoors for brains to be
stimulated by the flow of sounds, light, shapes and colors that nature offers. We need the outdoor
stimuli for our hearing, our vision and our skin, e.g. singing birds, whispering winds, sunlight
reflections and shadows, moisture and fog, and the colors of flowers and insects. The growth of our
brain cells depends on this special stimulus nature offers”.
     Outdoor education and outdoor recreation can make us experience the living conditions and
problem solving abilities of early Man. In nature’s learning context, members of a group become
dependent on each other. This contributes to personal growth, increased self-confidence, and an
ability to trust others. Perhaps the health pedagogic perspective also is one of the most important
methodological tools for working with outdoor education. Recent studies point to evidence of more
movable learning environments and daily physical activity promoting health and preventing disease
as diabetes type II, obesity, bone-weakness (osteoporosis) and stress syndrome, caused by high
levels of stress hormones (cortisone). The sensory education’s road to knowledge demands a bodily
meeting, where the frame of reference of our sensory capability, which has evolved for millions of
years in a “forest landscape”, becomes stimulated. One of the main reasons for learning in, and
from, reality is offers chances for experiences, and very likely also prevents learning without
reflection. The advantages of learning in outdoor environments are that many senses are activated
and it creates a firmer sense of social community.
     The term “outdoor education” embraces activities and experiences that:
          normally take place in the outdoors;
          frequently have an adventurous component;
          generally involve physical activity;
          always respect the natural environment.
     Learning in the outdoors is active, co-operative and relevant. Can the same be said for much of
the teaching in our schools?
     The factors developed through outdoor education are:
          Self esteem, confidence, motivation
          Cooperation, trust, empathy
          Communication skills including negotiation and decision making
          An ability for critical thinking, lateral thinking, problem solving
          Self reliance, an ability to take responsibility for one's own actions
          Futures thinking
          Feelings of belonging to the natural world and an understanding of our relationship to all
              life on earth
          Creativity, imagination, personal response to the environment
          An ability for reflection and evaluation
     Outdoor Education has the ability to reach the “hearts of people”. In outdoor education, feeling
( heart ), action ( hand ) and thought ( head) are united. Direct experiences in the outdoors are great
motivators; they can unlock talents which remain hidden in more formal situations. Direct contact
with the natural environment, particularly in challenging situations, can be inspirational and lead to
feelings of belonging or oneness with the Earth.

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   Education of the student or child should follow the old axiom:

                “I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand”.

   What kind of outcomes do we expect from the students after an outdoor activity ?

   Heart :

       Care and concern for the environment and other living things;
       Confidence: sense of well-being and feeling safe outdoors;
       Creativity-development of ideas inspired by the outdoor environment;
       Curiosity and wonder about the outdoor world
       Physical and spiritual enjoyment of being in the outdoor environment;
       Sense of personal responsibility towards local environment
       Willingness to co-operate with others.

    Hand :

      Skills for life, developed in outdoor setting;
      Safety and survival skills;
      Technical: using a variety of tools ( e.g. for simulate a battle, for cooking, for making dishes
       etc) and equipment.

   Head:

      Increasing knowledge about:
           o history (e.g. the way of living in 839, in Sweden );
           o geography ( knowing plants and animals, knowing how they have influenced and
               been influenced by their environment, about earth's resources, about environment
               issues, leading to effective action to protect the environment)




                                       CONCLU ION   S
     Outdoor Education could play a vital role in educating tomorrow's citizens. We are working in a
field where we constantly experience success. Many young people who fail in school, fail at home
and sometimes fail amongst their friends will succeed in the outdoors. There is an opportunity to
inspire, to break a mould, to offer alternative views and begin to change attitudes.
     It is important to recognize Outdoor Education's potential, otherwise we may miss opportunities
to redress the balance in education. There is need for outdoor educators to assess their aims and
programs, to consider imaginative ways of using the outdoors for adventure, problem solving,
conservation, community involvement and the creative arts. There is little doubt that Outdoor



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Education can provide a powerful means of developing skills and qualities necessary for our future
citizens. We can all do much more to encourage this process.




                                     FI   NAL CONCLUZION



     It is desirable to have a variety of teaching methods (variety is the mother of enjoyment). That is
the issue of motivation that makes game playing such an attractive method. Before anyone can learn
anything, he has to want to learn it. Many people study a foreign language for many years, but
cannot speak, understand, read or write it. Why? They had no real need to learn. Conversely,
someone who moves to a foreign country can learn the same language in a short time. The
difference? Need. Many students do not see any need for them to learn classroom lessons. They are
concerned with present enjoyment and cannot understand how such learning will help them in the
future.
     However, if, in order to play and win a game, a student must learn something new, he
immediately accepts it. Some games may, however, give our students a taste for sense enjoyment.
For example, one game to learn parts of speech involves removing key words from a story. The
students are then requested to supply nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs to fill in the blanks,
without knowing the original story. The result is a very silly story, the humor of which inspires the
students to understand parts of speech.
     Games can be very simple and free, or complicated and expensive. They can be just a verbal
exchange, played on a board with pieces, or on a computer. Almost any subject, from physical
education to science, can be made into a game at least to some extent.
     The ultimate challenge faced by this type of teaching approaches is to design activities that are
suitable to different age-group students, as well as to students of different interests and abilities.




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                                                PART II


                         GOOD       PRACTICE                         EXAMPLES



               FIELD TRIP : “HOW TO MAKE A GREEN TRIP?”

    ARGUMENT

    The main challenge of our world today is to learn living together and in harmony with our
environment on a planet where resources and space are limited. To meet this challenge it is
important to discuss a global vision of the “world” in which we want to live thinking in the long-term
and acting responsibly. A teaching method that could be described as a “big experience” or “big
simulation” is the field trip. A nature walk with a treasure hunt or a visit to a factory is an
experience; a trip to a museum that depicts historical events and artifacts is a simulation - one is not
actually going back in history.
    Field trips have some value simply because they provide variety in the learning environment.
Sometimes the teacher and students need to get out of the classroom just to get a broader
perspective of education. For example, one of the best ways to stimulate writing in children is to go
for a walk and then ask the students to write a description of the surroundings.
    The activity “ How to make a green trip” had two aims:
     to promote the local identity of the town through the benefit of a life experience, through
         cooperation , and cultural dialogue about the local values.
     to practice the pedagogical approaches which were studied along the first year of the
         project.
    The activity took place in our school during the European Day of Modern Languages. This gave us
the opportunity to integrate this activity into an international and intercultural context. This outdoor
educational activity called “ How to make a green trip?” is a natural following of the work session “
How green are you?” that took place in Poland. In this activity students were stimulated to look into
the ecological problems of the area they live in. They also had to present a legend, a myth or a story
which emphasizes the cooperation between man and nature . During the trip, one of the aims was
the creation of a story which combined both fantastic elements and real ecological problems of the
area.
     The activities held on the course of the day followed the pattern of a “learning trip” which had
the following route: Pecica – Bezdin - Pecica. The activities had to fulfill the four main aims of the
Comenius project which has the following theme: “European Journey through Legends”:
      O1. Understanding cultural diversity from schools and living life;


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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



      O2. Developing the natural gifted/skills of pupils
      O3. Improving teaching methods and evaluation methods through ICT
      O4. Improving the pupils’ ability to preserve or enhance the natural environment.
    To reach the first objective O1 the organization and accomplishment of some of the socialization
activities had as a purpose the development of tolerance for :
      age diversity - mixed teams were created from students of different ages( 6th grade and
          11th grade)
      language, ethnical diversity - specific activities had a contribution to strengthen the
          relationships through students of different ethnics: Romanians, Hungarians, Romany,
          Germans, Slovakians
      historical diversity - at the two sessions from the Cultural House and Momac fountain
          different aspects of the local history have been presented
      religious diversity - during the trip different religious sights from the town of Pecica were
          presented.
    The first objective O1 also had the aim to make students aware of the importance of the local
cultural and historical legacy. Thus a series of work sessions presented customs and traditions
connected to the Momac fountain, the former bathing-establishment, the traditional local gate and
the Romanian folk costumes and dancing. Romanian legends, myths and stories were emphasized
through the three plays which had the following themes: ”the Water spirit, the Forest spirit and the
Faith spirit”.
    The second objective O2 was fulfilled through the discussion topics regarding
          the atractivity of school enhancement- by organizing this trip as an interdisciplinary
              activity, which is part of the curriculum as a new format of the counseling hour.
          The involvement of parents in the life of the school by preparing food for the students
              who were going to cook traditional Romania food; and that of the local communities
              such as the director of the Cultural House, news staff, clerical staff, town hall staff,
              during the activities students were involved in
          Students’ creativity was encouraged through drawing expositions, posters in the nature.
    To accomplish the third objective O3 it was used an interactive approach; the necessary material
support were prepared ahead, by using IT&C materials. The dynamic of the lesson was given by the
combination of the three pedagogical approaches studied along the first year of the project: learning
through drama, the usage of ICT tools and materials and outdoor education.
     These activities led to a better communication both horizontally (student-student; teacher-
teacher) and vertically (student-teacher; student- local community) between all the participants to
the learning trip. The activities related to the 4th objective O4 developed the students and teachers’
conservation and environmental protection skills. Outdoor exercises led to the acknowledgement of
some cleanliness and environmental esthetics problems. The beauty of the places they have visited
that day made all of the participants desire to play an active part in the conservation of the natural
environment.

    THE EVALUATION OF THE LEARNING TRIP:

    If we take into account what Schaub and Zenke’s “Pedagogy Dictionary” is saying about
evaluation, its definition would be: “the collecting, good use and learning of the information

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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



resulting from the learning process”. Both the learning process and the revision takes place in
nature.
    The revision is considered a way through which the teacher checks the student’s level of
knowledge and the development of skills tested through the usage of different methods suitable to
the “target goal”. The evaluation methods can be classified in :
         Traditional evaluation methods( classic)
         Alternative evaluation methods( modern)
    Due to the fact that the learning process used alternative learning techniques such as outdoor
education, dramatization, and IT&C skills, it is obvious that the evaluation also has to use alternative
methods. Thus the following evaluation methods were used:
         Small rewards ( candies, biscuits, pens, chestnuts, leaves) are given as prizes to students
            who answer correctly at the frontal evaluation: if a member of a team gives the wrong
            answer or if he doesn’t know the correct one , the team has to give back one of the
            prizes they have previously won. A1& A2 are evaluated this way.
         The working sheet: which evaluates the cooperation, investigation and examination,
            spatial orientation skills
         The map: through it one can verify the discovery of the marked spot on the map, fact
            which assumes the existence of some orientation skills and a good knowledge of the
            town
         Outdoor exposition: which seeks the development of artistic, practical and linguistic
            skills
         Telling/acting a story: which as an aim the development of acting skills and also the good
            cooperation among the members of the community
         Expectation sheet - it is also an evaluation method , both for the beginning and ending of
            the activities which take place during the entire day. At the end of the day each student
            is asked to read a note with expectations which was written in the morning. Thus the
            pupils understand that their expectations were outshined by reality, which tells the
            teachers that the trip was a success.
         The special copy-book - aims to revise individually the whole activity unfolded through
            this learning trip.
         The portfolio of the trip: it’s a tool which evaluates the teachers involved in this activity.
            This portfolio contains:
                       the plan of the trip
                       essays about the learning methods applied along the trip
                       expectations sheet
                       photos, posters, collages made by children
                       an interview
                       the special copy-book
                       the maps
                       the sheet for the outdoor activity
                       the booklet of the activity
                       other materials
        It must be emphasized that if we take each activity as a single unit as we did in the previous
presentations, we no longer have a coherent, homogeneous and consensual process. At this

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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



moment the role of the teacher steps in- who is above all a modeler, and then an evaluator – one
who chooses the proper evaluation methods for each didactic situation and one who makes
everything possible to create a coherent, homogenous and consensual evaluation system.



       THE PLAN OF THE LEARNING TRIP PECICA- BEZDIN-PECICA ROUTE


1. The theme of the learning trip: “ How to make a green trip?”
2. The timetable of the learning trip:

                                           The Program of the Day
                   9: 00 – Meeting if front of the school
                   9: 30 – The departure from the school
                   10:00 – Meeting with the representatives of the Culture House of Pecica
                   11:00 – Meeting with the representatives of the local community at the Momac
                    fountain
                   11:30 – Outdoor exercise- “observe and note!”
                   12:00 – Outdoor exposition
                   13:30 – “A cruise with the raft on the Mures river”
                   15:00 – Outdoor Workshop
                   16:15 – Interview at Bezdin Monastery
                   18:00 – Leaving Bezdin Monastery
                   19:30 – Cooking outdoor Dinner
                   21:00 – The end of the learning trip

3. The unfolding of the activities

A1- “ICE BREAKING”

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY
        At 9:00 o’clock in the morning the two classes meet in front of the school( 6 and 11
           grade): teachers check the attendance and give the students the briefing regarding the
           behavior and safety norms which they need to follow during the entire learning trip.
        The organizer teachers present the students the aim of the trip.
        Students receive badges and ICE BREAKING GAMES unfold
        Students write their expectations on the Expectation Sheet
        The students were distributed in three groups: “DOGS”, “CATS” and “ CHICKEN”. Each
           team has to find their flag, choose a leader( an 11 grade pupil) and a mascot( a 6 grade
           pupil).
        Each team receives its task: until they reach the park they have to compose the hymn of
           the team.
OBJECTIVES

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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



           To develop their socialization skills within an uneven group( students of different age)
           To develop the organization ability of the group they are part of.
MEANS:
          Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students
          Materials: carton, coloured pencils ,decorative stamps, decorative staples, decorative
           scissors, laminating foil, laminator, markers, coloured paper, sticks, block notes, glue,
           pens, clipboard, A4 sheets of paper, copier, prizes ( candies, biscuits, pens, shell nuts,
           leaves, pebbles )
TARGET GROUP : The students and the teachers
TIMING: 30 minutes
RESULTS AND FEED-BACK : The formation and organization of the 3 groups
EVALUATION
        Frontal
        Expectations sheet

A2- “ THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE LOCAL HORIZON AND ITS IMPORTANCE”

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY:
        By the time the group reaches the first destination they have received in Activity 1 such as
        the “Children’s Park”, several local sights are presented and visited : The Catholic Church,
        The Baptist Church, “Dragos” School, The Basket Factory, The Cultural Centre, “Ghiutoaie”
        School, “ At Mimi’s” Sweet-shop, The Serbian Church, “Momac” fountain. Every correct
        answer was rewarded.
OBJECTIVES
        The students have :
    To develop their knowledge about different institutions and representative monuments of
        Pecica
    To develop their interest to discover traditions and customs of the area ( folk dancing, folk
        costumes, trades- going to collect water, weaving baskets, going to church
    To respect the believes and opinions of the people around them
    To be aware of their position within the group and the community
    To be aware of the importance of conserving the local, national and European cultural
        legacy.
MEANS
    Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students
    Materials: carton, coloured pencils, decorative stamps, decorative staples, decorative
        scissors, laminating foil, laminator, markers, coloured paper, sticks, block notes, glue, pens,
        clipboard, A4 sheets of paper, copier, prizes ( candies, biscuits, pens, shell nuts, leaves,
        pebbles )
TARGET GROUP: The students and the teachers
TIMING: 2 hours
RESULTS AND FEED-BACK
   In the next days the students will:
         Write essays, articles about the town of Pecica

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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



       Make a photo album containing pictures from Pecica
       Make a power point presentation of the town
EVALUATION: Frontal

A3- “ OBSERVE AND WRITE”- OUTDOOR ACTIVITY

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY
       Each team shall sing/acting/mime their anthem/hymn. In 10 minutes, each team will solve
       the quiz from the sheet. Teachers will asses all teams’ sheets. They will establish the
       winners after another quiz regarding students’ knowledge about the regional words and
       regional types of food. After that there will be formed 2 new teams. Each team will have
       new tasks: each team must find a market places, based by a map reading.
OBJECTIVES
   Students will have to:
    Discover and emphasize their artistic skills in order to develop their personal creativity
    To develop their collaboration skills and also the distribution of tasks
    To develop their investigation skills
    To improve their ability to read a map
    To develop their spatial orientation skills by using a map
    To improve their foreign language skills
    Students , teachers, parents and the local community will have to become more open to
       outdoor education
MEANS
    Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students
    Materials: carton, coloured pencils, decorative stamps, decorative staples, decorative
       scissors, laminating foil, laminator, markers, coloured paper, sticks, block notes, glue, pens,
       clipboard, A4 sheets of paper, copier, prizes ( candies, biscuits, pens, shell nuts, leaves,
       pebbles )
TARGET GROUP: The students and the teachers
TIMING: 30 minutes
RESULTS AND FEED-BACK
    The hymn of every team
    In the next days the students will make a map with all the objectives they have encountered
       during the learning trip
EVALUATION
    Frontal
    Expectations sheet
    The special copy-book

A4- OUTDOOR EXPOSITION

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY:



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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



       Groups of 2-3 children present their posters and promotional materials they have made in
       the previous days. The aim of this presentation is to promote the Bezdin monastery.
OBJECTIVES:
     Students have to develop their artistic and linguistic skills
MEANS:
     Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students
     Materials: carton, coloured pencils ,decorative stamps, decorative staples, decorative
        scissors, laminating foil, laminator, markers, coloured paper, sticks, block notes, glue, pens,
        clipboard, A4 sheets of paper, copier, prizes ( candies, biscuits, pens, shell nuts, leaves,
        pebbles )
TARGET GROUP : The students and the teachers
TIMING: 1 hour and 30 minutes
RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP
     Students have an outdoor exposition before their journey on the raft
OBSERVATIONS:
     Weak points: the poor hygiene of the area

A5- “ ADVENTURES ON THE MURES RIVER”- A cruise with the raft on the Mures river

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY
       The students are going to look for different flora and fauna species on the other side of the
       river
OBJECTIVES
        To identify flora and fauna species
        To understand the importance and the necessity of the environmental conservation

MEANS:
          Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students
          Materials: carton, coloured pencils , decorative stamps, decorative staples, decorative
           scissors, laminating foil, laminator, markers, coloured paper, sticks, block notes, glue,
           pens, clipboard, A4 sheets of paper, copier, prizes (candies, biscuits, pens, shell nuts,
           leaves, pebbles )
TARGET GROUP: The students and the teachers
TIMING: 2 hours
RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP
        Students will pick up different natural items which will be put in the treasure-box
EVALUATION
        Frontal
        Special copy-book
        Posters, photo albums, collages and advertisements

A6- “GREEN PECICA, GREEN ROMANIA, GREEN EUROPE” - OUTDOOR WORKSHOP



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                       COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY:
        The students are organized in three teams( new teams) : The spirit of the forest”, “The
           spirit of the water”, “ The spirit of faith”. Each team receives an envelope which has as a
           task to create a story with a specific theme. To emphasize their affiliation to a certain
           team, the students received a sticker on their cheek.
        A dissemination session of the activities unfolded during the Comenius project (
           Comenius- Sweden , Comenius multilateral partnership) takes place. Activities with
           ecological thematic which were part of the projects previously mentioned are
           presented and shared along with the personal experiences of the participants at the
           meeting in Poland. This meeting is part of the multinational partnership “ European
           Journey through Legends”
OBJECTIVES:
        Students have to create and interpret the stories
        Students are active participants at every activity
        Students have to revise the environmental problems and identify active measures to
           solve those problems.
MEANS:
        Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students
        Materials: carton, coloured pencils ,decorative stamps, decorative staples, decorative
           scissors, laminating foil, laminator, markers, coloured paper, sticks, block notes, glue,
           pens, clipboard, A4 sheets of paper, copier, flags with European countries
TARGET GROUP: The students and the teachers
TIMING: 1 hour
RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP
        The Story- its interpretation will be done at school the next day
        The students will manufacture an advertisement presenting “ The green trip” theme
           which will be exposed on the school’s hallway.

A7 - OUTDOOR INTERVIEW

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY:
       The students take an interview to the nun from Bezdin monastery. They gather historical,
       spiritual and cultural data using authentic written and unwritten sources.
OBJECTIVES:
        To emphasize the importance of discovering and conserving the local, national and
            European cultural legacy.
        To develop their ability to dialogize with a personality.
MEANS:
        Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students, monastic personal
        Material Resources : camera, video camera, block notes, pens
TARGET GROUP: The students and the teachers, local community, local authorities.
TIMING: 1 hour
RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP: The interview- written and filmed


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                      COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



A8 - “LIVING ROMANIAN’S TRADITIONS”

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY
       The students are going to cook an outdoor traditional Romanian meal
OBJECTIVES:
        Students have to inform themselves in the matters of outdoor traditional cooking
        Students learn how to survive in a natural habitat
        Students learn about personal, group security and how to protect the environment
        Students become aware of the fulfillment of the objectives discussed at the beginning of
           the trip.
MEANS:
        Human Resources: the organizing teaching staff, students
        Material Resources: garbage bags, barbecue sticks, knives, forks , bacon, onion, cheese,
           bread, apple, water, napkins, matches.
TARGET GROUP: The students and the teachers, local community, local authorities.
TIMING: 2 hour
RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP:
        Cooked food
        Fun 




                                       CONCLU ION   S

     This experience illustrates some valuable lessons from outdoor education. It demonstrates that
good education is holistic; it is concerned with mind, body and spirit. motivation and enthusiasm are
essential ingredients of effective learning. Adventure is a great motivator. Time spent alone or in
small groups in natural areas also motivates. Young people who under-achieve in the classroom may
suddenly come alive and show a range of skills that have remained hidden in formal teaching.
     We think Outdoor Education could play a vital role in educating tomorrow's citizens. We are
working in a field where we constantly experience success. Many young people who fail in school,
fail at home and sometimes fail amongst their friends will succeed in the outdoors. There is an
opportunity to inspire, to break a mould, to offer alternative views and begin to change attitudes.




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                     COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”




                                     WEBOGRAFY


http://www.scribd.com/doc/6895497/Greatteacher-are-not-born-they-are-born-in-the-mind-of-the-
learners
http://ro.uow.edu.au/edupapers/91
http://www.wtvi.com/TEKS/04_05_articles/read-write-web.html
http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/index.htm
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/story-telling-language-teachers-oldest-technique
http://www.life123.com/parenting/education/storytelling/effective-storytelling-
techniques.shtml#STS=g0nppg35.l1f
http://www.life123.com/parenting/education/index.shtml#STS=g0nqkyrj.1o87
http://www.musicalenglishlessons.org/youngchildren/tables+spellings.htm
http://www.unisa.edu.au/hls/documents/Outdoor%20education%20documents/The%20Role%20of
%20Outdoor%20Education%20for%20the%2021st%20Century.pdf
Learning Through Drama by Helen Landalf (e-Book)
Evaluarea alternativă – Ioan Scheau
Curs DeCeE




                                      SU   M          ARY


   PART I

       §1.Introduction …………………………………………………………….…………………………...2
       §2. Traditional vs. modern teaching methods………….………………………………4
       §3. New technology - new pedagogy…………………………..……………………………..6
       §4. Learning through drama……………………………………….………………………………14
       §5. Outdoor education……………………………………………….………………………………21
       §6. Final conclusion ………………………………………………..………………………………….24

   PART II


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            COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”



§7. Good   practice examples………………………………………………………………………25




    Realised by prof. Camelia Kallos, Simona Szedlak and Ioana Nicodin
                    GRUP ȘCOLAR “GHEORGHE LAZĂR”
                  - Pecica, ROMÂNIA, Septembrie 2009 –




      .r   O-cOmEnIuS.
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COMENIUS 2008-2010 “European Journey through Legends”




                        36

				
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