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     Electronic Service Delivery
1.   This section provides an introduction to the implementation of electronic service
     delivery to citizens. Although most of the section is about local authority
     services, the principles and practices could apply to any public sector (or even
     private sector) organisation. The section covers access channels for services,
     relevant technologies and the context of government policy.

     Introduction
     Background

2.   The Modernising Government White Paper published in 1999 raised the profile
     of „e-government‟ and presented a major challenge to the public sector to
     modernise and achieve „citizen-centred‟ services by integrating policies and
     programmes, joining up service delivery across departments and agencies, and
     harnessing the potential of ICT.

3.   The government set a number of e-government targets for the public sector to
     achieve. These targets and their supporting measures undoubtedly helped to
     focus the sector‟s attention on the issues needed to be addressed internally, in
     order to ensure that the necessary framework is in place to enable the
     implementation of electronic government.

4.   However, many felt that the emphasis was placed too heavily on the
     technological aspects of change rather than the experience of the citizen in
     accessing public services. Many local authorities also approached this as a box
     ticking exercise, merely reproducing existing paper documents electronically on
     their websites without changing back office processes and systems.

5.   With the publication of Transformational Government in 2005 the emphasis
     shifted. Although subtitled “Enabled by Technology” the key message was the
     transformation required was that services should be more citizen and business
     centred, professional delivered and that opportunities for shared services
     should be pursued. Technology had its place in this transformation but it was no
     longer the driver.

6.   Over the last few years the technological landscape for most citizens and
     businesses has changed. The majority of internet users now have broadband
     connections. More and more mobile phones have access to 3G networks.
     Citizens now expect to access government services electronically.

7.   The electronic delivery of services presents the opportunity to offer improved
     (better and quicker), and more personalised levels of customer service. It also
     offers potential efficiency savings, as well as meeting the expectations of an
     increasingly technologically aware public who expect to be able to conduct
     business over the internet and via other electronic means. These savings are
     unlikely to be achieved without substantial initial investment in ICT.
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      What is e-government or electronic service delivery?

8.    The private sector has prefixed many of its nouns with an „e‟ since the mid-
      1990s, using terminology such as „e-commerce‟ and „e-business‟ to describe
      how companies use new technologies to improve their selling techniques and
      internal processes. Public organisations then started talking about „e-
      government‟ to describe the way in which technology could transform their
      internal processes and improve interactions with citizens.

9.    There is no consensus regarding an exact definition of e-government but ever
      since the late 1990s its techniques and technologies have become increasingly
      important in the business of public sector organisations.

10.   The development of e-business has been driven by the ability to reach more
      customers, to make financial savings and to offer improved, more personalised
      levels of customer service. The implementation of new information and
      communications technology (ICT) systems saves public money by automating
      routine processes, supporting information sharing and improving the services
      provided.

11.   One noticeable area where this applies is by increasing the number of „channels‟
      through which services are provided. For example, citizens and businesses can
      now communicate with public bodies by fax, telephone (landline or mobile), e-
      mail, internet, interactive digital TV, street kiosks, text message or web camera
      (especially for the aurally impaired), as well as by letter or in person. For the
      time being it is important to keep the older, more traditional lines of
      communication open, since a significant proportion of the population are still
      suspicious of new technology, or have no access to it.

12.   In addition, the promise of improved internal communications should mean that
      people are not asked repeatedly for the same information by different
      government departments, their agencies and public bodies (or by different staff
      within the same organisation). This will help to achieve „joined-up‟ working,
      whereby local authorities, central government and the private and voluntary
      sectors act together to deliver services.

13.   Similarly, staff in public sector contact centres will be able to use customer /
      citizen relationship management (CRM) technology (call centre databases) or
      contact management technology to access information about the individual they
      are dealing with, and thus communicate with people in a more personal and
      efficient manner.

14.   The 1999 Modernising Government White Paper put information technology
      firmly on the agenda and encouraged much greater cross-departmental use of
      systems and resources.

15.   Public sector organisations are not only using ICT to automate existing
      processes such as paying housing benefits or handling tax returns, but are also
      transforming those processes, in order to provide a higher standard of new and
      existing services to the community. It is this idea of re-engineering processes,
      rather than simply „bolting on‟ new technology systems to existing work
      practices, that differentiates electronic service delivery from traditional IT
      programmes.
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16.   The UK government instructed most public sector organisations to set out the
      details of their strategies for making all services available „electronically‟ by
      2005. „Electronically‟ was defined as being via the web, or by telephone if the
      person being called is using an electronic device, such as a computer interface
      or call centre database.

17.   These targets were criticised as organisations could just transfer all their
      delivery mechanisms to the internet or call centres, without fundamentally
      reforming them. Nor did they address related matters, such as making the
      electronic services easy to use or relevant to the citizen. Nevertheless, the
      public sector made good progress in meeting this target – by the end of 2005,
      97% of English local government services were online.

18.   Building on this initial work, the Cabinet Office published a strategy document
      in November 2005, Transformational Government: Enabled By Technology. This
      emphasised the role that ICT could play in supporting public sector reform,
      while reaffirming that transformation was a strategic business issue and should
      not be left to technologists. It set out a blueprint for the future of public
      services, in which they are joined up, efficient and designed around the needs
      of the customer.

      Why electronic service delivery?

19.   The key drivers behind electronic service delivery and the public sector
      „modernisation‟ agenda are the need to save money, use assets more
      efficiently, improve the quality of customer experience and offer service users
      more choice in how they access public services.

20.   ICT can provide essential links within an organisation as it strives to improve
      service delivery using a range of management techniques, such as
      benchmarking and performance measurement. These techniques require much
      more sophisticated use of management information taken from a wide range of
      operational systems.

21.   Consequently, the core reasoning behind the implementation of electronic
      service delivery was the same argument e-business reformers adopted in the
      private sector: to improve operational performance. The goal is to transform
      the state into a more effective and more efficient machine. At the most basic
      level, these changes should result in better, faster and cheaper public services.

      Customer Centred Services
22.   In its 2002 report Message Beyond the Medium, the Audit Commission found
      that citizens‟ expectations of local authorities appeared to be growing
      exponentially. Increasingly, the level of service provided by private sector
      companies is the benchmark against which people measure the standard of
      public services.

23.   Technology in general and electronic service delivery in particular provides a
      timely way to meet these expectations, allowing the public access to services
      where and when they want them, in a manner that is convenient. However,
      since local authorities still tend to operate within normal daytime office hours,
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      the idea of 24-hour access to government has great implications for the way in
      which public sector employees work.

24.   Echoing this point, former prime minister Tony Blair said that he wanted to
      shape public services around the needs of their users (the „citizen as
      customer‟), rather than the wishes of the service provider – a point that was
      reiterated in the Transformational Government strategy. The government's
      flagship DirectGov website (www.direct.gov.uk), which aims to be a first port of
      call for electronically available services, has structured its content around 'user
      groups' – such as motorists, parents or the over 50s.

25.   A prerequisite for delivering „citizen as customer‟ services is the presence of
      fully joined-up back office systems. These will allow the easy sharing of
      information across and between government departments, their agencies and
      other public bodies. People will not have to register or fill in the same details on
      forms more than is absolutely necessary. This gives people the opportunity to
      access public sector organisations on their own terms, rather than through
      traditional departmental channels. The boundaries of a number of bodies that
      deal with similar customers have already begun to blur, as the new, combined
      benefits agencies and job centres demonstrate.

26.   Related to this, the government has realised that the proliferation of the
      number of public sector websites has resulted in confusion for the citizen and
      duplication of effort within the government. Early in 2007, the government
      announced that out of 951 sites, only 26 would definitely stay, 551 would
      definitely close and the others would be reviewed with the expectation that they
      would also close. The aim is to have two main sites (Directgov and Business
      Link), one site for each department and a few others such as NHS Direct.
      Although progress on this rationalisation has been slower than planned, it is still
      the government‟s objective to dramatically reduce the number of sites.

27.   Implementing new working practices obviously needs to go hand-in-hand with
      an effective change management programme. Managing the transition to new
      processes is probably the most difficult aspect of electronic service delivery.
      Success will require three elements: an underlying technical infrastructure that
      is fit for the desired purpose, well designed business processes and supporting
      organisational structures.

      Joined-up government

28.   Joined-up government refers to a holistic view of service delivery whereby
      different departments and organisations act in a coordinated manner to deliver
      services and share customer information.

29.   Advocates of identity cards saw their arguments strengthened by proposals that
      they should include personal information, thus allowing cardholders to use
      government services more easily. These „entitlement‟ cards could include
      details of the citizen‟s health records and benefits they receive, as well as more
      standard data such as name, address and date of birth. This would enable
      quicker access to services in hospitals, benefits agencies and other government
      buildings and would be facilitated by the sharing of information across
      departments and organisations.
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30.   However, there are legal and civil liberty barriers, not least the potentially
      conflicting legislation of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 and the Data
      Protection Act 1998. The first of these gives citizens the right to request access
      to information and the second compels organisations to get permission from
      data subjects before they use or share their personal information. There are
      also financial issues as the adding functionality to the ID cards will cost more
      money on a project that is already at the limits of affordability.

31.   Many public sector organisations have been pushed rather than drawn into
      shared services due to their need to save money. Savings can be delivered by
      exploiting economies of scale. An example of this is where several public sector
      organisations join a regional e-marketplace. This involves joint negotiation of
      prices with suppliers, reducing costs by guaranteeing these suppliers business.

32.   Central government encourages partnership working by providing funding
      through initiatives such as the Invest to Save Budget – www.isb.gov.uk. The
      Cabinet Office‟s Shared Services Advisory Group has estimated efficiency
      savings in the region of £40 billion. Forming partnerships with other public
      sector organisations can often be the first step towards true joined-up working.

      Working across boundaries

33.   UKOnline, the forerunner of DirectGov, showed that it was possible for
      government departments to work with one another. The „joined up‟ rhetoric has
      increased since its launch and a number of projects in central and local
      government have proved to be successful. Central government has urged other
      public sector bodies to form partnerships with one another; this will reduce
      expenditure on ICT and other infrastructure through economies of scale, make
      transacting with government easier for the citizen, help to identify common
      goals and assist with the sharing of best practice.

34.   In order to better facilitate developments in this area the Office of the Deputy
      Prime Minister (OPDM) formed the Government Connects (GC) programme
      (www.govconnect.co.uk). This is a suite of products, standards and guidance
      that offer common technical solutions that allow local authorities to adopt a
      common approach to registering and authenticating users of online services.
      Development of a common infrastructure like this is an essential step to
      achieving true collaboration between different departments and organisations.

35.   To promote GC, a partnership of the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP),
      Communities and Local Government (CLG), the Department for Children,
      Schools and Families (DCSF) and the local government community led by the
      DWP has been formed. They have designated GC as their preferred common
      secure method for the electronic transfer of data between departments and
      local authorities and will be funding the connections until March 2011. From
      April 2009 the three departments will begin phasing out internet and postal
      based solutions that currently exist. The majority of local authorities are now
      engaged with Government Connect.

36.   This drive for joined-up working is being coordinated by the Shared Services
      team within the Cabinet Office. The remit of this group is to investigate how the
      government and wider public sector can achieve financial savings and increased
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      effectiveness by standardising, simplifying and sharing corporate functions,
      particularly finance, human resources and IT.

      National projects

37.   Following the publication of its National Strategy for Local E-government, the
      ODPM (now the DCLG) established a programme of national projects with the
      aim of ensuring that all local authorities have the tools to develop key electronic
      services and building blocks. These projects aimed to bring together local
      authorities, central government and private sector organisations to develop
      products that can be used to deliver electronic services, such as CRM
      technology, e-procurement, digital television, smartcards, online payments,
      online school admissions, etc. The principle was that the solution should only be
      developed once but used many times across the country.

38.   Similar initiatives have been criticised in the past for producing one-off projects
      that are not rolled out nationwide and may not even be developed further by
      the participating councils once the initial funding runs out. To try to avoid this,
      the DCLG allocated £28 million to fund specific projects that build on the
      learning of the national projects and assist with the roll-out of their products
      and findings.

39.   The ownership of products developed by the National Projects programme has
      been transferred to local authorities and other public sector organisations. The
      central funding of these projects has now finished and they are expected to be
      fully self-funding.

      Public–private

40.   Joined-up public–private working is undoubtedly one of the most controversial
      forms of partnership, and the criticisms of the UK government‟s flagship private
      finance initiative (PFI) policy only account for some of the opposition. If
      government bodies share personal information with private companies, this is
      likely to be even more controversial than one public sector organisation passing
      on private details to another.

41.   However, because electronic service delivery by definition involves the
      integration of ICT into public sector processes, technology and communications
      companies need to play an essential role in realising the vision. Furthermore,
      since private sector e-business practices tend to be more established than
      those of government, private companies can use their experience of
      implementing technological change to ensure that public sector organisations
      are well equipped to deal with the problems they had to overcome.

      Ethical and privacy issues

42.   In spite of the apparent benefits of joined-up working, there are considerable
      ethical and political questions relating to partnerships between different public
      sector organisations or between public and private sectors:

         Sharing data between agencies – how data is stored leads to issues about
          who has access to the stored data. Choices have to be made to determine
          the boundaries between a passive and an active data collection regime.
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         As governments begin to adopt information storage, control and
          dissemination technologies, key ethical and political questions arise. How
          will public bodies use personal data? Who controls access to it? How much
          information is required to provide an individual with the level of service they
          want? For example, is it necessary for a hospital to have access to a
          patient‟s entire medical records, when most of the information may not be
          relevant to their current situation? Are revenue streams such as advertising
          or market intelligence profiling acceptable areas of government activity?
          Indeed, are they acceptable areas of business activity if outsourced or
          privatised?
         In recent years „identity theft‟, whereby people are able to masquerade as
          other individuals after stealing their personal details, has become a big
          concern. After assuming their victim‟s identity fraudsters can obtain
          documentation such as passports and driving licences, or make payments
          with credit cards or online banking services.
      E-democracy and revitalising communities

43.   Voter turnout at elections has fallen to around 60% at the last two general
      elections and even fewer citizens have participated in elections for their local
      and European representatives in recent years. The figures are even lower for
      younger voters. Perhaps in response to this, the government set up a website
      (www.edemocracy.gov.uk) and published a consultation document on e-
      democracy in July 2002. This paper acknowledges that the government bears a
      responsibility for low turnout and highlighted how e-participation and e-voting
      could empower citizens, particularly the young.

44.   Most e-democracy activity and discussion in the UK has concentrated on
      electronic voting (e-voting). This term describes the use of the internet, e-mail,
      kiosks, mobile phones and text messages in voting.

45.   In the 2002 and 2003 local elections, a number of English councils piloted
      different kinds of e-voting projects. Turnout increased in each area that was
      involved, although some wards were more successful than others. Subsequent
      concerns regarding electoral security have delayed work in this area and there
      have been no further pilots since 2003. The Department of Constitutional
      Affairs did not think that the 2006 local elections were a suitable time for
      further trials of e-voting or all-postal voting but wants to start projects to
      investigate methods of improving security.

46.   The e-democracy programme aims to develop a „two way conversation‟
      between the electorate and politicians, and thus to foster a greater feeling of
      community involvement in the democratic process. Methods of achieving this
      include the use of websites and web-logs by MPs, MEPs and councillors.
      Communication of this sort allows citizens access to information quickly and
      easily. Community organisations can download government consultation papers
      or legislation from the web as soon as they are ready, rather than having to
      wait for a hard copy to be published, sent in the post and then delivered
      through internal mail systems. This gives them much more time to consider and
      draft their responses to the proposals.
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47.   The UK government already allows (and in many cases prefers) opinions on
      draft legislation or policies to be sent via e-mail. Many local authorities take a
      similar position on planning or licensing applications. Online consultation (via e-
      mail or discussion forums) can occur before decisions are made, to ensure that
      all relevant parties can have their say on probable outcomes, or after new laws
      are enacted, to assess how effective they have been. Many citizens find this
      way of registering their opinions far more convenient than writing and posting a
      letter. The European Union often arranges for its commissioners to answer
      online queries in real time and thus discuss issues with people in all member
      states simultaneously.

48.   Local authorities are being encouraged to develop their role as community
      leaders. This requires them to be much more proactive about their role in
      promoting the economic, social and environmental well-being of the community
      and, in particular, in building partnerships with other agencies in the
      community. Electronic service delivery has a major role to play in providing
      these linkages, by improving communications and helping to raise skill levels
      within the communities they serve.

49.   For example in July 2005 the London Borough of Islington became the country‟s
      largest provider of a free wireless broadband internet service when it launched
      the „Technology Mile‟ or „Streetnet‟. This was designed to increase internet
      accessibility for residents who did not previously have access, to improve
      customer feedback and to help residents and businesses take pride in the look
      and feel of their borough.

50.   In 2003 Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council launched an ICT bus facility to
      increase the opportunities in the community for people to learn IT skills. This
      offers ICT „taster sessions‟, basic skills and accredited courses at the locations
      that are most convenient for service users. This service has been popular
      across the borough in varying community groups including users of Sure Start
      schemes for young people, senior citizens groups and local businesses.

51.   Although the introduction of technology into traditional political practices is not
      a panacea for the problem of people not turning up to the polls, many believe it
      will provide new ways of involving citizens in the democratic process between
      elections. Indeed, it has the potential to transform the relationship between
      government and governed, through easier access to information, increased
      transparency, and discussion and feedback mechanisms.

      Cost Savings
52.   Many people see the principal driver of electronic service delivery as the
      opportunity to save money, for example, by automating manual processes. This
      is often taken as a euphemism for reducing staff numbers.

53.   A key idea in service design has been the separation of the „front‟ and „back‟
      offices. The front office is the organisation‟s external face and is made up of
      those staff members who are responsible for dealing with customers directly, in
      call centres or one-stop shops for example. In contrast, the back office consists
      of work processes that are done behind the scenes, away from customers. In
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       most cases this separation will lead to the creation of new opportunities for
       staff affected by changing organisational structures.

54.    The desired outcome of this change is to address any inefficiencies such as
       delaying factors or duplication of effort within internal processes and
       procedures. This has helped in the delivery of the Gershon efficiency savings
       (see below) during the last Comprehensive Spending Review period and the
       new efficiency target required during the current CSR period 2008-2011.

55.    Additional financial savings also result from other aspects of electronic service
       delivery, including reduced office overheads due to higher numbers of home
       workers, reduced transaction costs via the use of e-procurement systems and
       cheaper staff training programmes through e-learning. These savings can be
       redirected to other areas of priority spending at the 'front line', passed on more
       directly to the public through tax cuts, or used for the continuous improvement
       of all services.

56.    Public sector organisations must invest heavily in ICT in order to reap the
       financial benefits of electronic service delivery over the medium and long term.
       As a result, many managers are understandably reluctant to spend money on
       new systems that are not guaranteed to provide a return on investment within
       the first few years. Furthermore, the money provided by central government to
       help fund the agenda falls short of what most local authorities estimate will be
       the total cost of implementation.

       Gershon report and efficiency savings

57.    Peter Gershon's report Releasing Resources to the Front Line, published in July
       2004, increased the importance of ICT-supported change in public sector
       organisations. Gershon identified the potential for delivering over £20 billion in
       efficiencies by 2007/08. This represented the first serious attempts to get a
       return on the government's ICT investments. His findings were then translated
       into a technical note for local authorities.

58.    This technical note asked councils to deliver and demonstrate efficiencies of
       2.5% over the three financial years 2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08, half of
       which have to be 'cashable' – that is, delivering a direct financial saving or
       benefit, releasing money that could be spent elsewhere or recycled within a
       service to deliver better results. These gains were to be delivered across the
       following four 'workstreams' and another 11 service areas, and ICT has a role
       to play in each of them.

      Workstream                Role of ICT
      Procurement               • Better IT sourcing
                                • Joint purchasing
                                • E-procurement
                                • Reducing office space requirements from flexible
                                working
      Corporate services        • Simplifying, standardising and automating work
                                processes
                                • Improving partnership working
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                                 • Measuring baselines and performance
      Transactional services     • Supporting business process change
                                 • Supporting information sharing with voluntary sector
                                 intermediaries (such as Citizens Advice Bureaux)
                                 • Adopting best practice on electronic transactions, as
                                 developed by the national projects (particularly
                                 Valuebill, e-Pay, enterprise workflow and customer
                                 relationship management (CRM))
                                 • Integrating service delivery and authentication of the
                                 customer with existing initiatives so councils are not
                                 'reinventing the wheel'
      Productive time            • Increasing flexible working
                                 • Reducing the costs of the organisation's property
                                 portfolio
                                 • Reviewing business processes and staff management



59.    The technical note also required councils to produce annual efficiency
       statements to outline how they are progressing with the agenda. These
       statements have shown that ICT played a major role in delivering the gains. In
       addition, tools embedded in many software solutions provided managers with
       information that helped them to measure savings, making a potentially onerous
       data collection exercise much easier.

60.    The Comprehensive Spending Review 2007 introduced a new single target of
       3% cashable efficiency savings across the public sector. The amount of data to
       be reported has reduced significantly but the higher target will continue to drive
       the need for efficiencies that can only be provided by continued investment in
       ICT.

       Access Channels for Services
61.    In recent years there has been much blurring of the line between the public and
       private sectors, with government agencies run as businesses, corporate entities
       operating public services, and mixed public and private funding, but the
       fundamental distinction between the two is very real. Government does not
       have to operate with shareholders in mind; instead it has to consider the
       interests of all stakeholders (its staff, suppliers, industry, trade unions, interest
       groups and citizens) when making decisions.

62.    As a result, private companies are able to decommission older, unprofitable
       delivery channels and concentrate on those aspects of their business that will
       deliver the greatest return for their shareholders. This has allowed banks to
       close down their rural branches, replacing them with cheaper online services,
       even though many account holders in the countryside do not have access to the
       internet.

63.    In contrast, the public sector must provide a wider service and must therefore
       continue to use traditional methods until they are no longer wanted. This is
       likely to result in a long and expensive process of delivering services through a
       variety of options.
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64.   Since the full financial benefits of electronic service delivery will only be realised
      once the older delivery mechanisms are closed down, a substantial marketing
      campaign will be required to ensure sufficient take-up of online services. In
      particular, organisations have had problems in convincing older people of the
      web‟s benefits. Recognising this, a number of local authorities have
      concentrated on service delivery via call centres rather than the internet, since
      the great majority of people can use a telephone while a much smaller
      proportion can use the web. Other routes, such as interactive digital television,
      have also been developed since many socially excluded groups that don‟t have
      access to the internet are able to access services via their set top boxes.

65.   Ensuring proper integration and communication with the customer-facing front
      office should also result in better all-round service delivery, as more skilled staff
      are able to concentrate on complex, higher-value work, rather than having to
      answer routine telephone calls. Customer relationship management (CRM)
      systems and contact management systems can also give frontline staff more
      information about their customers, which allows them to provide a more helpful
      service.

      One-stop shops

66.   These allow customers to access all services at one point instead of having to
      visit different locations to access different services. This traditional face-to-face
      method of service provision is labour and time-intensive for both the service
      provider and the customer.

67.   Efficiencies and improved service delivery can be achieved through one-stop
      shops by use of integrated systems. For example, if someone calls in to deal
      with a planning enquiry, the one stop shop employee can also see if they have
      other needs that can be dealt with at the same time or receive payment for a
      number of different services through a single transaction.

      Contact centres

68.   Contact centre technology gives customers one point of telephone access into
      the whole organisation. If the organisation‟s back office is sufficiently „joined
      up‟, callers can often have a range of different issues dealt with at the same
      time. CRM systems give customer service advisors access to useful details
      about the caller, such as when they last contacted the organisation, the subject
      of that contact and how the issue was dealt with. As a result, the caller can
      receive an improved, more personalised service.

      Websites

69.   The internet has the potential to deliver many services that previously relied on
      paper-based processes, although some are more suited to this channel than
      others. Although payments can be made via the web, a number of
      „transactional‟ services require the public to sign documentation. This can
      create problems, such as authentication of the user. For example, UK citizens
      cannot currently complete the process of applying for a passport online, since
      this requires a signature and photograph, as well as payment of a fee.
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      Alternatively, some advice may be better given by telephone or face-to-face,
      especially if it concerns issues that people want to keep private.

70.   On the other hand, the UK was the first country to allow minor crimes to be
      reported via the web (through the website www.online.police.uk). This process
      does not require financial transactions and authentication is not a major issue;
      indeed some victims may prefer the relative anonymity of the internet to
      entering a police station environment.

71.   Internet-based service delivery reaps the greatest benefits in those areas that
      are used most often and require the least state involvement, such as repeat
      requests for prescriptions, registering on the electoral roll, applying for housing
      benefit and paying council tax.

72.   The internet is also a useful medium for disseminating information quickly to a
      large number of people. For example, the Environment Agency website draws
      attention to areas that may be at risk of flooding, the Met Office publicises
      severe weather warnings on the internet and the Foreign Office includes a link
      to current advice on travel to specific countries on its homepage.

      Public access points

73.   Public access points such as kiosks give people a place to find information,
      access the internet and use e-mail free of charge, or transact with an
      organisation without the need for any personal contact. These can be useful in
      areas of low internet penetration or where tourism is an important industry.

74.   Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council has a network of 23 public information
      points that offer a wide range of services to users. These include access to e-
      mail, selected websites, council service information, a „contact my local
      councillor‟ service, Crimestoppers, local job vacancy information, tourist
      information, public transport information and a local business locator. The
      council aims to establish a total of 38 of these facilities and hopes that 63% of
      the borough‟s population will live within an eight-minute walk of one. Kiosks
      have proved popular, some receiving over 1,000 visitors in the first month after
      installation. This is however an expensive technology; rental and maintenance
      fees at an external location can exceed £18,000.

      Technologies for Improving and Enabling Access
75.   This section is based on the technologies and systems listed as enablers,
      connections and core systems in the government‟s model of the building blocks
      of the successful e-enabled organisation.

76.   Details of the infrastructure that underpins these technologies can be found in
      the ICT Infrastructure section.

      Internet and intranets

77.   The internet allows individuals and organisations to communicate with the
      outside world, via e-mail or websites, whereas intranets enable (usually secure)
      internal communication with colleagues and employees through an
      organisation‟s own network. One intranet can also be linked to intranets of
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      other organisations that work together, forming an „extranet‟ and reinforcing
      multi-agency working and other types of collaboration.

78.   The internet and intranets provide a number of advantages. They can:

         provide an alternative publishing medium to printed paper;
         communicate a range of data types such as graphics, images, voice and
          video as well as text;
         link automatically to other complementary sources of information (i.e. other
          websites);
         provide information for immediate dissemination, stimulating interaction
          and dialogue;
         allow access to information electronically from any desktop or laptop PC;
         reach anyone with a connection, at any time of the day or night.
79.   Increasingly, organisations use intranets as the basis for their own networks.
      They provide employees with easy and quick access to relevant corporate
      information and documentation. This can be protected from external influences
      by company firewalls. In addition, intranets normally include discussion areas,
      which facilitate protected online dialogue with staff that are not based in the
      same building.

80.   Whitehall‟s Government Secure Intranet (GSI) allows for e-mail, information
      sharing, directory facilities for GSI users‟ details and access to the external
      internet. It enables staff in central government departments and agencies to
      communicate with each other more effectively, thus increasing the speed and
      level of debate on policy. Providing staff with easy access to information
      through the intranet also improves their external communications with
      businesses and the public.

81.   The NHS uses a secure intranet called NHSnet. This was developed in
      partnership with BT and provides a similar range of communication services and
      information to the internet. This includes the ability to send e-mail and SMS
      text messages, and access to professional information and to the internet itself.
      This network can be accessed from around 18,000 sites and locations across
      the country. It allows for very fast transmission of visual data such as video and
      x-rays between these sites.

82.   People with mobility or language problems can access relevant government
      information, vote or transact with public bodies much more easily via the
      internet and e-mail – provided that information is presented in a format that is
      accessible to them. New technology can also help break down barriers to
      employment opportunities.

83.   More information regarding these technologies can be found in the Applications
      section.

      Smartcards

84.   Smartcards can hold information about an individual that allows them to pay
      fares or fees, gain access to buildings, book tickets etc. Bracknell Forest and
                                                                                         14

      Ipswich Borough Councils have been pioneers in this area. The most widely
      used is Transport for London‟s Oyster card scheme. This has the largest user
      base of all smartcards the UK with more than 2.2 million users. More than 3
      million journeys are taken every day using this technology.

      Video conferencing

85.   Video conferencing and teleconferencing (on a one-to-one basis or for large
      meetings) cut across distance and save travelling time and costs.

      Digital television

86.   Digital television is often cited as the technology that will help bridge the „digital
      divide‟ – the gap, which reflects socio-economic differences, between those who
      have access to the internet and those who do not. The Communications Act
      2003 allows local authorities to compete with private companies to secure
      restricted service licences. Suffolk County Council, Ipswich District Council and
      Babergh District Council have formed a partnership to offer two new
      information channels to local residents.

87.   As mentioned above, digital television can also be used via the “red button”
      interactive services to provide access to services to citizens that don‟t have
      internet access. This was the focus of a national project that was subsequently
      taken over by Kirklees Council who now market this under the banner of
      DigiTV.

      Mobile technologies

88.   Mobile telephones, SMS text messaging, wireless application protocol (WAP – a
      technology that allows mobile phones to access the internet), General Package
      Radio Service (GPRS) and high-bandwidth third-generation (3G) mobile
      services are options that can allow citizens to access their local authorities (and
      vice versa). For example, some councils offer news and alerts via e-mail or text
      messages. A number of councils piloted voting by text message or mobile
      phone in 2002, and the DCLG is keen for other authorities to do the same.

89.   The government is developing plans to use SMS text messages to alert
      geographical areas in the event of terrorist attacks. Fife Council currently uses
      text messages to inform council tenants about rent arrears.

90.   Further details about the use of mobile technology can be found in the Mobile
      and Remote Working section.

      Technologies for Improving Internal Management
91.   Behind the technology that aids communication with the public is a supporting
      set of technology that improves internal management. More information is
      available on some of these technologies in the Applications section.

      Electronic document and records management systems

92.   Document and records management systems allow incoming documents to be
      copied as images and all outgoing documents to be filed with them. This allows
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      for much better management of workflow through the creation, amendment or
      reading of documents and records. In addition, an accurate audit trail is
      available when the employee comes into contact with the customer. These
      systems also free up space by reducing the need for storage cupboards. A
      number of private sector companies (including the low cost airline EasyJet)
      have already made the transition to a true „paperless office‟. There is however a
      legal requirement for public sector organisations to retain certain types of
      documents.

93.   An electronic document management system will also allow the organisation to
      respond to Freedom of Information queries with more speed and efficiency. See
      the XXXX section on EDRMS.

      E-learning

94.   Websites such as www.learndirect.co.uk and intranet-based training
      programmes for employees offer access to educational materials that would
      otherwise be very difficult to provide.

95.   In 2003 the Department for Education and Skills launched the UK e-university.
      This was a publicly funded company set up to promote online degrees offered
      by UK universities. The company was closed in 2004 having only recruited 900
      students at a cost of £40,000 each, making it more expensive than an
      education at the universities of Oxford or Cambridge. In a review of this failure
      the Education and Skills Committee however recognised the global potential of
      e-learning and recommended that the government adopt an overarching
      national strategy to ensure consistency, coherence and clarity of purpose in
      developments across the sector.

      E-mail

96.   E-mail allows    rapid   dissemination   of   information   within   and   between
      organisations.

      Electronic diaries

97.   These allow employees to plan their time and facilitate meeting planning by
      allowing event organisers to check attendee availability and issue invitations.

      Data warehousing

98.   This brings together unrelated sets of data for sophisticated management
      information (e.g. information about customers).

      Geographical information systems (GIS)

99.   These enable operational and management data to be assigned a geographic
      location and placed on digital maps, for spatial analysis and presentation of
      information.
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       Mobile technology

100.   Devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones may also
       reap benefits by helping staff to work remotely. This can result in financial
       savings through lower fixed office costs, service improvement through easier
       access to staff who are often away from a fixed location (such as social workers
       or surveyors) and more satisfied employees, who no longer have to commute
       as often and have a better balance of work and family life. (See the Mobile and
       Remote Working section for more information about mobile working.)

       Workflow systems

101.   These automate routine processes, direct tasks to the appropriate member of
       staff and provide valuable management information about how the organisation
       functions.

       Extensible Mark-up Language (XML)

102.   This is a programming language that allows organisations to invent „tags‟ that
       describe their products, information or services. As a result, one type of
       software can identify the topic of information that is stored on a different
       system (or a different type of device) and „joined-up‟ working can become a
       reality. The government has made XML the centrepiece of its e-Government
       Interoperability Framework (e-GIF) to ensure that electronic devices in all parts
       of the public sector will be able to „talk‟ to each other.

       Electronic Service Delivery in the UK
103.   With increased financial support for core policy areas such as health, education,
       defence and transport, the role of public services in Britain has undergone a
       quiet but significant shift since the late 1990s. Up until recently, the
       government‟s agenda in the UK has concentrated on electronic service delivery,
       with most minds focused on the 2005 target.

104.   The Transformational Government strategy tried to move attention away from
       electronic services and onto business change across the public sector, although
       it acknowledged that ICT can play an important role in supporting this
       programme. It pointed out that transformation was necessary in three areas in
       order to deliver this agenda:

          focusing services around the customer rather than the provider – by
           involving customers and their representatives in the design of these
           services;
          moving to a „shared services‟ and joined-up culture;
          developing ICT professionalism in leadership, planning, supplier negotiation,
           delivering and managing change.
105.   The strategy set out a plan to replace silo-based delivery with shared services
       that are designed around customers by 2010. By this time it hopes that radical
       change should be sufficiently embedded in public sector organisations, and the
       boundaries between departments and levels of government, as well as public,
       private and voluntary sector, will become less visible.
                                                                                    17


       Local government

106.   The BVPI 157 target helped ensure that local e-government focused on
       transactions and direct interaction with citizens more than managerial and
       internal reforms. The approach was fairly pragmatic and aimed at government-
       to-citizen (G2C) or government-to-business (G2B) transactions, whereas
       national projects tended to be more strategic and focused on government-to-
       government (G2G) relationships.

107.   In autumn 2002, the then ODPM published a strategy document built on the
       modernisation White Paper and attempted to outline a clear national framework
       of priorities and standards, while not preventing local innovation. This came
       with extensive online resources and case studies. The local e-government
       programme officially closed in April 2006. Detailed information about the
       programme and its legacy can be found at the Local e-government part of the
       DCLG website.

108.   E-government has now been subsumed within the more general heading of
       improving service delivery and efficiency within local government as well as the
       transformational government agenda.

       Health Service

109.   In 1998, the government published its Information for Health strategy, which
       stated that it wanted to see the following by 2005:

          electronic health records for every person in the country;
          NHS staff able to access patient records and information about best clinical
           practice online;
          „seamless‟ care for patients, facilitated by patient information sharing
           between GPs, hospitals and community services;
          online and telephone information services to which the public has 24-hour
           access.
110.   Progress on some of these targets has been good. NHS Direct, which provides
       patients with 24-hour access to health advice by telephone or via the internet,
       was completed on schedule and has proved to be one of the UK‟s most
       successful e-government projects. The major IT initiatives in health have been
       brought together as part of the National Programme for IT in the NHS (NPfIT),
       under the responsibility of the Connecting for Health departmental agency.

111.   There have been some recent high profile news stories over the delays to the
       NPfIT with the withdrawal of another major supplier. There has also been a
       select committee report that identified that the programme is now four years
       late when two years ago it was running two years late. This has led to a review
       of how this programme will be delivered in the future.

       Progress So Far
112.   During 2002, public sector watchdogs the Audit Commission and the National
       Audit Office produced three reports. They emphasised that a great deal has
                                                                                      18

       been achieved, with a number of councils and agencies progressing well in
       delivering the vision. However, they also identified the following difficulties:

          Many projects have not concentrated on delivering real value – they look at
           achieving electronic service delivery rather than taking the opportunity to
           change and improve processes. This approach will not deliver the full
           benefits of e-government.
          A number of public sector organisations have poorly prioritised their e-
           government projects and set unrealistic targets for delivery. The studies
           found that successful bodies have concentrated on a small number of local
           objectives that are more likely to be achieved.
          There is a possibility that services will be available online but nobody will
           want to use them due to poor marketing, lack of incentives for the public to
           opt for newer access channels, or poor choice of channel for the delivery of
           services.
          Low-income groups and the elderly may have access problems and
           therefore may not use online services. Ways to combat this could include
           putting computers in nursing homes and job centres and providing training
           where necessary. This could help the elderly maintain contact with relatives
           or help the unemployed to find work. Alternatively, other ways of accessing
           services (such as by telephone or one-stop shops) could be used.
          In some cases, opposition to change and lack of ICT skills among staff could
           prove problematic in e-enabling internal processes.
113.   The true outcome will not be known for some time, since those services that
       are made available electronically first have tended to be the easiest to e-
       enable, often using simple web publishing tools to make information available
       on the internet. Transactional services, where most of the benefits of electronic
       service delivery can be realised, are much more difficult to make available
       electronically, since distributing or receiving money online often requires
       authentication and additional security tools.

114.   The Society of Information Technology Managers (www.socitm.gov.uk) looks at
       local authority websites every year in preparation for its Better Connected
       reports, which aim to provide definitive annual snapshots of the standards of
       council websites. This shows an increasing number of council websites that are
       “transactional”, i.e. allowing real business to be conducted rather than
       providing information only.

115.   Perhaps the most important thing to remember when changing the way
       services are provided is to involve customers in the decision-making process. If
       customers are presented with something that they do not want or are unable to
       use, it will not be a worthwhile investment. Liverpool City Council took this into
       consideration when it decided that a contact centre was more important than
       concentrating on its website.

       Summary
116.   The following ten points will help to ensure successful implementation of e-
       government:
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       1. Involve the customer

117.   There is no benefit in providing a resource that the customer (the citizen or
       constituent) will not use. Focus groups, consultations, surveys or citizens‟
       panels can ensure that the technology fits the customer.

       2. Involve the service provider

118.   A sophisticated front-office system (the customer interface) requires a suitably
       sophisticated back-office system (the service provider interface). The latter
       group must be involved from the outset to ensure that the service can be
       delivered in the desired way, and that the most appropriate options are
       considered.

       3. Beware leading-edge technologies

119.   It is easy to be convinced that only the latest, state-of-the-art technology will
       suffice. Most successful systems make the best use of all available and tried
       and tested technologies.

       4. Secure partnerships

120.   Most large systems would benefit from the technical and financial support of an
       appropriate technology partner. Usually this is a network, database or internet
       technologies specialist.

       5. Exploit existing resources fully

121.   Most organisations probably utilise less than 50% of the full potential of their
       existing infrastructure and systems.

       6. Do not underestimate the training requirements of staff

122.   The best system in the world serves no purpose if nobody knows how to use it.

       7. Develop a strong corporate IT strategy

123.   A successful back-office system is only as good as its weakest link, which is
       usually a department or a group of users that does not comply with minimum
       standards for infrastructure, technology or training. A corporate IT strategy that
       has the full backing of all departments is essential, and usually this also
       requires a strong IT client to ensure compliance.

       8. Ensure that the corporate IT budget is sufficient

124.   Corporate IT infrastructure cannot rely on departmental budgets. Corporate
       investment must be available to ensure the successful implementation and
       maintenance of back-office systems.

       9. Utilise all technologies

125.   IT forms part of the communication process but is not always a substitute for
       tried and tested methods of communication.
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       10. Ensure that processes are truly re-engineered to provide
       benefits from the customer’s perspective

126.   If IT is just bolted on to existing systems, the full benefits of e-government are
       unlikely to be realised.

       Useful Websites Relating to E-government
          IPF homepage: www.ipf.co.uk
          CIPFA-SOCITM Network for Improvement Through Technology (ITT):
           www.cipfaitt.net
          DCLG Local e-Government homepage: Local e-government
          DirectGov: www.direct.gov.uk
          Office of Government Commerce: www.ogc.gov.uk
          Kable: www.kablenet.com
          Cabinet Office IT in Government Unit:
           http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/government_it.aspx

				
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