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									Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center

        MODEL GUID E

                          Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
SURVIAC Model Guide
SURVIAC, a DoD Information Analysis Center (IAC), is administratively managed by the Defense Technical Information Center
(DTIC), under the DoD IAC Program. SURVIAC is sponsored by the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) and the Joint Technical
Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness (JTCG/ME). SURVIAC is operated by Booz Allen Hamilton. The Contracting Officer’s
Representative (COR) for the Center is Ms. Peggy Wagner, 780 TS/OL-AC, 2700 D Street, Bldg. 1661, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7404.
She may be reached at DSN 785-6302 or (937) 255-6302, ext. 224.

Inquiries about SURVIAC’s capabilities, products and services, or comments regarding this publication may be addressed to:

780 TS/OL-AC/SURVIAC                                     Donna Egner ext. 282                           Barry Vincent ext. 283
2700 D Street, Building 1661                             SURVIAC Deputy Director                        Model POC
Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7404                    E-mail:                    E-mail:
Com:        (937) 255-3828, DSN: 785-3828                Gerald Bennett ext. 281                        Paul Jeng ext. 273
Fax:        (937) 255-9673                               Survivability Analyst                          Model POC
E-Mail:                        E-mail:                 E-mail:
                                                         Mike Bennett                                   AJ Brown ext. 284
Kevin Crosthwaite ext. 279                               Model POC                                      Model Orders
SURVIAC Director                                         Com: (937) 781-2820                            E-mail:
E-mail:                        E-mail:

Modeling Services
The models in the repository have not been developed by SURVIAC but typically are products of other government agencies,
JASPO and JTCG/ME. SURVIAC provides the DoD community with comprehensive survivability and lethality modeling services that
include model distribution and expert technical support. SURVIAC’s involvement in modeling support involves active support for
current models as well as introduction of new models in the survivability and lethality topic areas. SURVIAC’s modeling services are
described on the following page.

Model Information – SURVIAC provides a range of model information to help users solve their problems. We can discuss key aspects
of the user’s problem and then offer informed advice on selection of models to address their issues. SURVIAC maintains models
that address engagement functions such as detection, track, launch and guidance, and endgame analysis. The 16 models currently in
SURVIAC’s inventory can be applied to analyze:

•   Aircraft Flight Path Generation
•   Warhead-Target Fragment Interactions
•   Air-to-Air and Surface-to-Air Missiles
•   Radar Detection
•   Air Defense Artillery
•   Endgame Analysis
•   Advanced Threats
•   Air Combat

If users have modeling questions on subject areas beyond the survivability and lethality domain such as logistics or cost, then
SURVIAC will refer the users to the appropriate DoD agency for those models.

Model Distribution – The Center distributes the approved model version with documentation and sample data sets. SURVIAC requires
the proper software release documentation to ensure all users are authorized DoD agencies or their contractors. The SURVIAC analysts
provide installation advice for a variety of user hardware configurations. SURVIAC also develops and provides sample cases and results
for new users. SURVIAC maintains a database of all users for each model. This enables us to notify users about updates, new versions or
workshops involving their specific model.

Expert Advice – To maximize responsiveness to users and provide specialized model knowledge, SURVIAC provides a technical point
of contact for each model. This allows SURVIAC to provide users with guidance in such areas as model application, algorithms, and
limitations. We can assist users to exercise model options, understand results and develop or obtain data sets.

Training – SURVIAC hosts model workshops to train community members on the application of specific models. Workshop
attendees receive group instruction on multiple facets of the model in question. SURVIAC also provides individual hands-on training
either at SURVIAC or at the requester’s location as arranged and funded separately.

Configuration Management Support – SURVIAC collects software change requests (SCRs) from the users as they encounter bugs
or designs for new capabilities. SURVIAC coordinates action on these SCRs with the government model managers and configuration
control board and supports beta testing.

Updates – The Center alerts users to changes, including pending improvements and error conditions. SURVIAC also receives and
verifies model versions and model changes.

User Meetings – SURVIAC hosts model user meetings to provide forums for technical interchange. Users meet to discuss individual
problems, work-arounds or fixes, and sample results.

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.

  Survivability of weapons systems is key in today’s defense environment. New lethal threats and asymmetric threat
  innovations have made protection against and reduction of weapon system losses critical to maintaining our defensive
  forces. At the same time, concern and sensitivity to any of our own losses or casualties have never been higher. The
  survivability/vulnerability community must apply lessons learned from combat and tests to improve future system
  design, performance capability, and survivability against anticipated lethal and non-lethal threats. The challenge for
  the survivability professional is to glean insights from combat and test data, find leading-edge technology solutions,
  and apply approved state-of-the-art methodologies. Helping to meet that challenge is why the DoD created the
  Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC)

  SURVIAC is a centralized information resource for all aspects of nonnuclear survivability, lethality, and mission
  effectiveness activities. SURVIAC provides information resources and analytical services to support scientists,
  engineers, analysts and program managers engaged in designing and improving weapon systems for the warfighter.
  In a tight time reaction environment it is essential to make efficient use of credible models and simulations to
  support acquisition, test and evaluation and warfighter operations. Thus, an important part of SURVIAC operations
  is distributing selected computer models to U.S. Government organizations and their contractors. SURVIAC’s
  analysts provide additional value added support on these models by responding to requests and can carry out in-
  depth analysis for special studies and tasks. In addition, SURVIAC maintains a network of experts in Government,
  industry, and academia to draw upon to answer technical questions and support special studies. The Joint Aircraft
  Survivability Programs (JASP) and Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness (JTCG/ME)
  computer models entered into SURVIAC have been specifically designated by these government agencies as standard
  methodologies for wide use within DoD organizations.

  About this Guide

  This Model Guide describes SURVIAC’s model repository holdings, including each model’s capabilities, assumptions,
  and limitations. For each model this guide describes the required input data and resulting output data are also provided
  to help engineers and analysts decide which of these models is most appropriate to solve a particular problem. Model
  acquisition procedures are discussed, and SURVIAC’s model support services are reviewed. The guide also highlights
  the procedure for reviewing candidate models and entering them in SURVIAC.

  How to Acquire Modeling Services

  Model requesters can contact SURVIAC by telephone, letter, email, fax, or visit. Each request should specify the
  computer and operating systems on which the model will execute as well as the desired media. All requesters will
  receive a “Memorandum of Agreement” (MOA) which must be completed and returned to SURVIAC and be on file
  before any software can be released. Copies of the MOA are available on the SURVIAC website. This statement must
  be signed by the requester and, for contractors, also by the contractor’s Government contracting agent to certify need-
  to-know. A charge of $500 will be made to all non-Government users for each model requested. Documentation
  comes on the same CD as the model. Models and documentation are made available to Government agencies free
  of charge.

  Information on model workshops can also be obtained by contacting SURVIAC. SURVIAC will notify all registered
  users about meeting or workshops pertaining to their specific model. Model workshop fees vary based on the resources
  required for workshop preparation and conduct..

  For frequent users, a SURVIAC subscription plan can provide a substantial savings over the individual purchase price
  of models and modeling services. The SURVIAC subscription option is a cost effective way for an organization to
  build its analysis capabilities.

     To obtain SURVIAC models or services or to learn more about them, call SURVIAC at DSN 785-3828 or
     Commercial (937) 255-3828 or address your written request to:

        780 TS/OL-AC/SURVIAC                               E-mail:
        2700 D Street, Building 1661             
        Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7404

  Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
Model Entry into the SURVIAC Model Repository

SURVIAC provides the DoD community with comprehensive survivability and lethality modeling services. However,
the current SURVIAC model inventory does not provide complete simulation coverage for all survivability and
lethality areas. In addition to continually updating versions of current models, the acquisition of new models is
important to SURVIAC’s ability to remain responsive to the user community needs. SURVIAC has established
procedures to incorporate new models. A copy of the SURVIAC model entry procedures is available from SURVIAC
upon request.

Briefly, a new model requires Government review and approval before it can be incorporated into SURVIAC. The
JASP Survivability Assessment Subgroup and the JTCG/ME Vulnerability Committee are key organizations in the
model entry process. These two groups meet semi-annually to evaluate candidate models for SURVIAC. Standards
have been established for various criteria to determine if a model is ready to be incorporated into SURVIAC’s
holdings. Generally the model should:

• Meet a significant assessment need of the JASP or JTCG/ME has established acceptance in the
  assessment community
• Contain validated mathematical models and algorithms
• Produce authoritative and useful results
• Use methodology commonly specific in procurement documents
• Include accurate, detailed, and current documentation
• Contain accurate, detailed, and quality databases
• Be written in generally acceptable coding language

• Use portable code with machine peculiar features minimized
• Have a stable configuration
• Possess a sponsoring government agency
• Adhere to software standards
• Interface easily with other models
• Produce results compatible with other models

When a model has been evaluated, an assessment form is completed and submitted to the SURVIAC Technical
Coordinating Group (TCG). The TCG is a government review group that provides oversight guidance to SURVIAC.
The final decision for incorporating a candidate model into SURVIAC rests with the TCG. Currently, several models
are under active consideration for entry into SURVIAC.

For information on how to submit a model to SURVIAC, the model entry procedure defines the process as well as
standards against which models are judged. To obtain a copy, contact the Center at DSN 785-3828, Commercial (937)
255-3828 or Fax (937) 255-9673. Written requests should be addressed to:

2700 D Street, Building 1661
Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7404

In addition to adding new models, the SURVIAC TCG also periodically reviews the model collection to remove
models that are dormant or of little current interest. This is judged on the user demand for the model, ongoing new
development with the model, analyses done with the model, and the availability of a preferred replacement. When
it is judged that a model has gone dormant, it is archived in SURVIAC. Model services are only offered for archived
models by special arrangements, however, copies of the model, documentation and data are stored for potential future
need. SURVIAC currently has archived the models AASPEM, DIME, HELIPAC, IBDSIM, LTM, MIL-AASPEM,

Looking Toward the Future

SURVIAC continually works to stay aware of current developments in the modeling and simulation communities.
We aggressively pursue new versions and enhancements to current models. We work to bring valuable new models
to the attention of our government sponsors. Most importantly, we attempt to stay abreast of major new programs
impacting modeling and simulation. As new modeling tools come to fruition, SURVIAC will be ready to incorporate
their results for the betterment of modeling and simulation.

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Airborne Radar Detection Model


            AIRADE is an interactive computer program for evaluating airborne radar performance. It is used as a tool for
            design, analysis and mission planning for airborne radar surveillance and fire control systems. AIRADE models and
            evaluates the performance of various moving target indicator (MTI) and pulse-Doppler radar systems. It provides
            useful tools for both radar analysis as well as performance capability reporting of airborne radar systems. Additionally,
            AIRADE has the ability to generate clutter data for the low pulse repetition frequency (LPRF), MTI and pulse-
            Doppler waveform modes. The model was initially developed for evaluating airborne intercept and early warning
            radar systems. AIRADE simulates search, acquisition, and track modes as well as computes coverage diagrams for
            radar-centered azimuth, radar-centered elevation, target-centered azimuth, and target-centered elevation.

            AIRADE can operate in search, acquisition, track,
            coverage, or clutter map mode. The search simulation
            is used to evaluate the radar search mode detection
            performance for specified radar configurations or
            generalized search scenarios. Environmental factors
            such as ground clutter, multipath, and atmospheric

            attenuation are included in the performance evaluation.
            Stand-off and self screening noise jammers may be
            included in the scenario. Pulse-Doppler and LPRF/
            MTI search waveforms may also be specified for the
            radar. The radar platform is limited to level flight,
            while a climb or dive angle may be specified for the
            target. The acquisition simulation mode simulates the
            acquisition function of a fire-control radar. General
            acquisition models can be implemented in order to
            represent a variety of acquisition mode designs. The
            tracking simulation models the ability of a tracking
            system to remain in track. A break-lock condition is
            modeled only for the case of signal loss. Deceptive
            jamming and break-lock due to target maneuvers are
            not included. In coverage mode, both target and radar
            centered analysis can be performed in either the azimuth or elevation plane. The radar centered modes allow user to
            elevate the search volume coverage of the radar instantaneously. The target-centered mode allows target detectability
            to be studied in a region centered around the target. The clutter map simulation generates clutter data for the LPRF/
            MTI and pulse-Doppler waveform modes.

   Input AIRADE is controlled by the user through input panels logically organized by functional data. These panels are
            used for data entry as well as program control. A few of the panels which the user can specify information through
            include: Pulse-Doppler system parameters; LPRF/MTI system parameters; Pulse-Doppler search waveform data;
            Pulse-Doppler waveform parametric data; Pulse-Doppler confirmation and track waveform; antenna parameters;
            RF front-end parameters; target data; environment data; engagement scenario data; coverage data; simulation; plot
            specifications; and print control.

Output Basic outputs of the search and tracking simulations are probability of detection or track break-lock versus range or
            time plot (respectively). Parametric plots are available. AIRADE also has the capability to generate antenna patterns
            and range-Doppler clutter maps in a 2- or 3-D format using X/Z axis rotation pairing. In addition to generating
            screen and file hardcopy x/y coverage, clutter maps, and antenna pattern plots; AIRADE can also be used to create
            postscript, encapsulated postscript, Corel Draw EPS, and FrameMaker files intended for import within electronic
            publishing programs.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Advanced Low Altitude Radar Model


            ALARM is a generic digital computer simulation designed to evaluate the performance of a ground based radar
            system attempting to detect low altitude aircraft. The purpose of ALARM is to provide a radar analyst with a software
            simulation tool to evaluate the detection performance of a ground-based radar system against the target of interest
            in a realistic environment. ALARM can simulate pulsed/Moving Target Indicator (MTI), and pulse Doppler (PD)
            type radar systems and has a limited capability to model continuous wave (CW) radar. Radar detection calculations
            are based on the signal-to-noise (S/N) radar range equations commonly used in radar analysis. ALARM has four
            simulation modes: Flight Path Analysis (FPA) mode, Horizontal Detection Contour (HDC) mode, Vertical Coverage
            Envelope (VCE) mode, and Vertical Detection Contour (VDC) mode.

            The primary application of ALARM is the
            evaluation of target detection range as a
            function of the environment. The model
            now includes the environmental effects
            of atmosphere, terrain masking, clutter,
            multipath, and electromagnetic propagation
            through the use of Joint Aircraft Survivability

            Program Common Modeling Component
            Set (JASP CMCS). Land clutter reflectivity
            probability distributions published by
            Massachusetts Institute of Technology
            (MIT) Lincoln Laboratory and sea clutter
            reflectivity probability distribution from the
            Center for Naval Analysis (CNA) are also
            used in ALARM. Pattern propagation effects such as radar antenna pattern, spherical earth and knife edge diffraction
            and multipath are included by use of the MTI Lincoln Labs Spherical Earth/Knife Edge (SEKE) Diffraction source
            code. Terrain masking is determined based on National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) Digital Terrain
            Elevation Data (DTED), data input into the model for a specific radar site area. Additionally, ALARM supports
            limited modeling of onboard noise (self-screening) jammers, onboard deception (coherent) jammers, and standoff
            noise jammers.

   Input The input consists of user supplied engineering level data such as transmitter power, pulse width, pulse repetition
            frequency, antenna patterns, radar cross sections (RCS) tables, and data needed to simulate pulsed/Moving Target
            Indicator (MTI), and pulse Doppler (PD) processing. FPA mode requires aircraft flight data parameters to be specified
            for each data point. These parameters include; altitude, heading, speed, bank, and pitch. Alternatively, the FPA mode
            can read a BLUEMAX output file for the flight path data. HDC mode requires a single aircraft speed and altitude.
            VDC mode only requires a single aircraft speed. Data sets for threat systems are available.

Output The output consists of an output file and a data diary file. The output file is an ASCII text file which includes a
            summary of the simulation inputs. For FPA mode, the output file also contains the target flight path information
            summary, which gives detailed information for the target, jammers, target masking and radar detection at each target
            location. The data diary file contains the simulation results. Each simulation mode has its own data diary format. The
            data diary can be in ASCII or binary. The supporting post-processing programs use the data diaries for generating plots.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
                                                         Sample Detection Plot

                                                                MTI, Vertical
                                                                Coverage Envelope

                                                                MTI, Vertical Detection
                                                                Contour with Terrain

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Aircraft Flight Path Generator and Mission Performance Evaluation Model

 HOST SYSTEMS: Windows, Linux, SUN

             BLUEMAX is used to construct detailed flight paths for fixed-wing aircraft. The model is also useful as a standalone
             tool for determining aircraft performance characteristics. In addition, the model has the capability to utilize National
             Geospatial –Intelligence Agency (NGA) Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) to construct terrain following/
             terrain avoidance flight paths and determine line of sight information for a user-defined set of ground threats. This
             provides the user the capability to perform exposure studies and quick survivability estimates, as well as mission
             planning. Using a large array of commands available with BLUEMAX, flight profiles can be scripted in an interactive
             mode (flight commands entered from the keyboard) or an automated mode (scripted profiles reading from a scenario
             file). BLUEMAX can also be flown interactively with keyboard/mouse or stick and throttle (joystick) using the
             Hybrid Integration and Visualization Engine (HIVE) which is included with BLUEMAX. In the automated mode,
             commands are read in from the input scenario file and are useful for creating detailed flight paths based on way points
             as well as terrain following flight paths.

                                                                      Flight paths are constructed as a sequence of flight segments.
                                                                      BLUEMAX models the flight of the aircraft during each flight

                                                                      segment. The flight profile during each segment is controlled by a
                                                                      set of command variables such as; heading, altitude, velocity, and
                                                                      flight segment time duration along with a set of aircraft specific
                                                                      maneuver limits such as maximum G-factor and maximum roll
                                                                      rate. BLUEMAX is an “effects model” in that a pilot control
                                                                      actions, such as pullback on the stick, is accomplished by
                                                                      commanding the model to simulate the equivalent change in
                                                                      pitch, etc. that would result from this pilot action. The pilot is
                                                                      assumed to have direct control over time derivatives of roll rate,
                                                                      G-factor rate, throttle setting rate, and speed brake setting rate.
                                                                      All of these rates are limited by the actual characteristics of the
                                                                      aircraft which are specified in the input aircraft data file.

   Input The scenario file specifies the aircraft to be used, the terrain file (if terrain is to be used), the initial starting conditions
             (i.e., location, initial heading, initial velocity, etc.), the number and type of external stores, output options as well as any
             automated commands that may be used during the run.

             The user has total control of the fidelity of the aircraft input data file. The aircraft input data file includes customizable
             data and tables including aircraft description (including aircraft constant), aircraft envelope, power tables, aerodynamic
             tables, limit tables (roll rage, G-Factor rage, yaw rate Max G-Factor and Min G-Factor), control rate tables (throttle
             rate, speedbrake rate, etc.), external stores tables (including external store drag correction, factor table, load factor limit
             and store weight limit tables.)

Output BLUEMAX can create up to fifteen different predefined output files as selected in the input scenario file. A variety of
             output formats are available including a standard format (EAR) for input into ESAMS, ALARM, and RADGUNS.
             Other profiles are formatted for text reports, Excel, and HIVE. Options are also available for an aeronautical
             performance file, debut output file, runtime messages output file, user defined output file, line of sight output file,
             columnar aircraft status information, aircraft data file listing, interactive command summary, and mission summary file.

             Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
Tactical Air Combat Simulation

PROGRAM LANGUAGE: FORTRAN 77, ANSI C, C++ for ICS or Scenario Editor

            BRAWLER simulates air-to-air combat between multiple flights of aircraft in both the visual and beyond-visual-
            range (BVR) arenas. This simulation of flight-versus-flight air combat is considered to render realistic behaviors by
            Air Force pilots. BRAWLER incorporates value-driven and information-oriented principles in its structure to provide
            a Monte Carlo, event-driven simulation of air combat between multiple flights of aircraft with real-world stochastic
            features. The user decides the pilot’s decision process including:

            •   Missions and tactical doctrines
            •   Aggressiveness
            •   Perceived capability of the enemy
            •   Reaction time
            •   Quality of the decisions made

                                                                     BRAWLER Physical System

            Brawler can be used in a confederation with another model EADSIM (Extended Air Defense Simulation). Integration
            of the next generation of the Confederation is intended to have EADSIM model the larger air defense engagement,
            with BRAWLER modeling air-to-air engagements in greater details as they occur. BRAWLER now has the capability
            of dynamic ghosting, the ability to receive vectoring commands from EADSIM controllers, enhanced transfer of
            control mechanisms, and modeling EADSIM digital terrain. While operating in the confederation mode, the two
            simulations rendezvous at regular intervals and exchange information about aircraft they are controlling. Engagement
            status, weapon firing, and kill/no kill messages are also sent from BRAWLER to EADSIM.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
   Input BRAWLER inputs consist of system capabilities which include aircraft performance, weapons performance, and
            sensor systems performance. The simulated scenario consists of number an types of aircraft, their disposition
            and bases, and electronic countermeasure (ECM) effects included. BRAWLER accepts inputs for GCI’s (Ground
            Controlled Intercept), AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System), Surface-to-Air Missile Simulations (SAMS),
            Surface-to-Surface Missiles (SSM) and stand-off jammers. Also the set of rules that the simulation pilots will use to
            make their flight decisions must be specified. BRAWLER’s current configuration is capable of handling a total of
            20 different aircraft in as many as 10 independent flights with up to 8 aircraft per flight. To create an input file takes
            considerable time for realistic combat to be simulated.

Output BRAWLER output consists of five files. The first is a log of the scenario that includes major events such as detections,
            weapons firings, and kills viewed at the terminal. The second file is a printed output file that reflects the input data
            read and provides more detailed information about the activities that took place. User-controlled switches are used to
            control the detail and kind of information and includes the capability to provide specific information during specified
            time windows. The third file is a disk history file which is processed by BRAWLER support programs to provide
            event summaries and graphics output. Another file provides BRAWLER with a checkpoint/restart capability which
            can be used to salvage catastrophic failures in order to fine tune a flight as well as to assist in debugging. The final file is
            used by the Measures of Performance (MOP) database system for statistical calculations in the analysis of multiple runs.


            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Ballistic Laboratory Computer-Aided Design Package


            BRL-CAD is a powerful solid modeling system designed to interactively create and analyze 3D geometric target
            descriptions. BRL-CAD includes an interactive geometry editor (MGED) using Tcl/Tk to provide the graphical user
            interface with pull down menuing and on-line help, a ray tracing library, two ray-tracing based lighting models, a generic
            frame buffer library, a network-distributed image-processing and signal-processing capability, and a large collection
            of related tools and utilities. BRL-CAD supports a great variety of geometric representations, including an extensive
            set of traditional Combinatorial Solid Geometry (CSG) primitive solids such as blocks, cones and torii. Solids can be
            made from closed collections of Uniform B-Spline Surfaces as well as Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS)
            Surfaces; purely faceted geometry; and n-Manifold Geometry (NMG). Geometric objects may be combined using
            Boolean set-theory operations such as union, intersection, and subtraction. BRL-CAD also supports a rich object-
            oriented set of extensible interfaces through which geometry and attribute data are passed to other applications. BRL-
            CAD runs on SGI, SUN, and PCs under BSDI/LINUX/Net BSD, and Other UNIX based Operating Systems.

  Input BRL-CAD input includes coordinate and vector description data for all components included in the 3D geometric
            target description. Inputs can be manually entered through MGED or procedurally through shell scripts and programs.
            Additional inputs include material lighting properties such as reflectivity, transparency, and color.

Output BRL-CAD primary output is a 3D geometric target file in machine dependent binary format. Additional output
            includes a neutral ASCII file format, wireframe plots, rendered images, LOS data files, and text summary files
            (e.g., component code list, solid primitives with coordinate parameters, and object overlap interferences). Additional
            tools are also available for managing and enhancing image files, generating animation, and converting to/from
            BRL-CAD format.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
Computation of Vulnerable Area Tool


          The Computation of Vulnerable Area Tool (COVART) model predicts the ballistic vulnerability of vehicles
          (fixed-wing, rotary-wing, and ground targets), given ballistic penetrator impact. Each penetrator is evaluated along
          each shotline (line-of-sight path through the target). Whenever a critical component is struck by the penetrator, the
          probability that the component is defeated is computed using user defined conditional probability-of-component-
          dysfunction given a hit (Pcd/h) data. COVART evaluates the vulnerable areas of components, sets of components,
          systems, and the total vehicle. In its simplest form, vulnerable area is the product of the presented area of the
          component and the Pcd/h data. The total target vulnerable area is determined from the combined component
          vulnerable areas based upon various target damage definitions.

          COVART is capable of modeling several penetrators: a single missile fragment, a set of missile fragments, a single
          Man Portable Air Defense (MANPAD) missile, a single Armor Piercing Incendiary (API) projectile, and a single
          High Explosive Incendiary (HEI) projectile. The penetrator data used within COVART for vulnerability analyses is
          documented within the Gun Pedigree report and the Missile Pedigree report.

          COVART is capable of modeling the damage mechanisms induced by threat penetrators. Damage is modeled using

          several methods. Analysts’ selection of the damage mechanism modeling method is dependent upon the penetrator
          type and failure modes of the equipment being modeled. Physical damage criteria, such as hole size or damage
          distance, are preferred because they can be directly related to tests. Distance criteria are used to model blast and
          hydrodynamic ram induced damage. Hole size criteria is used to model functional failures due to liquid leaking from a
          container. Air-gap distance criteria are used to model sustained fires from threat induced leaks of flammable materials.
          Other equipment damage is modeled using penetrator impact mass and velocity relationships. A given component
          may be vulnerable to several damage effects. The COVART model uses failure analysis trees (fault trees) to assess the
          cascading effects of damage. The fault trees use data obtained from ground simulators (flight controls simulators,
          hydraulic system simulators, avionics coolant simulators, fuel system simulators, electrical power simulators) to
          enhance the robustness and quality of failure predictions.

          The COVART configuration control is defined in the configuration control plan. Modifications/improvements to the
          COVART code are made through the model manager. Configuration control is obtained by periodic releases on CD-
          ROM. The model manager has authority to implement three-digit version control numbers. While two-digit version
          control numbers require configuration control board approval.

          Users are encouraged to inform SURVIAC or the model manager when they find code errors. Users need to document
          errors using the Software Change Request (SCR) form. Additionally, users are requested to document projects usage.
          This documentation provides the model manager with data to justify requests for headquarters funding.

          The COVART User’s Manual, Analyst’s Manual, Programmer’s Manual are comprehensive documents that outlines
          model usage. The COVART documentation is available with the model.

          Detail and robust verification and validation (V&V) is difficult to complete. COVART routines are based upon a
          combination of empirical equations, test data, and expert rules. COVART has been spot-checked over many years
          and many different applications. Therefore, the Model Manager has a reasonable confidence in the code. Currently
          the documentation of these V&V activities is incomplete. The COVART report contains a small set of test cases.
          These test cases were designed to highlight specific COVART features. These test cases were small in size to simplify
          testing. Therefore, test cases did not demonstrate code functions using a full-up target description database. This type
          of verification is very difficult and time consuming.

          The Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Office is funding the development of selected test cases. These test cases will
          be compared against COVART and Advanced Joint Endgame Model (AJEM).

          Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
   Input COVART requires data characterizing the threat; velocity, material etc. The model also needs specific data on the
            materials and thicknesses of aircraft components. Required inputs for the critical components, for the kill level being
            analyzed, include Pcd/h data and fault tree data for redundant components. COVART accepts line-of-sight data
            from FASTGEN and BRL-CAD computer programs. See the FASTGEN section for further information on the
            relationship between the FASTGEN and COVART Models.

Output The COVART model determines the vehicle vulnerable area as a function of the kill level. Numerous kill levels could
            be modeled. The following sets of kill levels are related to operational capabilities: KK kill level (immediate), K kill
            (less than 30 seconds), pilot has time to eject, A kill (less than 5 minutes), B kill (less than 30 minutes) and mission kill.
            A listing and the location of vulnerable components can be displayed.


            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Enhanced Surface-to-Air Missile Simulation


            ESAMS is a digital computer program used to model the interaction between a single airborne target and a surface-to-
            air missile (SAM) air defense system. Detailed data has been abstracted from intelligence information and incorporated
            into the model to provide comprehensive representation of the Soviet land-based and naval missile systems. The
            CADS1, VT1, Roland 2, Roland 3, Crotale, and IHAWK are also included. The user may individually specify each
            site’s location, or have ESAMS arrange sites in rectangular, concentric circles, or semi-circles. Missile fire control,
            guidance, aerodynamics, and movement are also patterned. The model details the characteristics of both ground and
            missile seeker radar. ESAMS models aircraft from their signature data and optional vulnerability data.

            This simulation provides a one-on-one framework used to evaluate air vehicle survivability and tactics optimization.
            ESAMS can execute simple, straight and level, or complex flight paths. The flight path generator, BLUEMAX, has
            been incorporated into ESAMS and can be invoked with an input parameter. In addition, the user may specify that the
            aircraft execute a special maneuver in reaction to one of several situations. Optionally, the aircraft may be instructed
            to execute a special set of maneuvers, called the initial maneuver set, in reaction to specific event situations such as
            a missile approach. The aircraft may also be instructed to make a final terminal maneuver to attempt to avoid the
            missile if impact seems eminent. If the attempt to avoid the missile is successful, then the aircraft will return to its
            original flight plan. Another optional feature allows the model to base its missile warning system simulation on the

            general performance of a missile approach radar (MAR). When using reactive maneuvers, the model assumes the
            aircraft always detects the occurrence of trigger events such as missile launch. If MAR is enabled, detection occurs
            according to given criteria instead.

            If desired, the model can simulate various environmental effects including; atmosphere, terrain, multi-path and
            clutter. ESAMS can simulate the effects of wind on both aircraft and missiles. The model uses either a curved or flat
            earth model for masking checks. In addition, ESAMS can be run with native (bald earth with a homogenous surface)
            or digital terrain input. If native terrain is used, the model calculates its own back-scatter values. With digital terrain,
            the Ground RAdar Clutter Estimator (GRACE) is used to access site masking and generate back-scatter coefficients
            for site specific terrain.

   Input The ESAMS model consists of software processing components and a simulation database containing missile, target,
            and environmental characteristic files. ESAMS can be run with or without a SAM file. SAM files provide the data
            used to model a particular aircraft/SAM combination; it also instructs the program which data files are required for
            the run. The most common way to run ESAMS requires the use of a binary SAM file and a user prepared input
            file. If a SAM file is used, the preprocessor reads the master or data text files to produce the binary SAM file. The
            preprocessor is designed to; create data, master, or SAM files; update master or SAM files; print the content of data,
            master, or SAM files; and list the data block headers of master or SAM files. If ESAMS is run with direct data inputs,
            either a SAM file is not used or parts of the SAM file are superseded. Common blocks and overlays are input directly
            into ESAMS, where overlays supersede corresponding common block inputs. Vulnerability data, consisting of glitter
            point data, blast data, vulnerable component data, and miscellaneous variables, is required only if an endgame analysis
            is requested and varies with the type of endgame option selected.

Output ESAMS output reports can be produced in either block or column formats. Outputs can be printed to a file or sent to
            the monitor as directed by the user. Users also tailor the run results to show relevant information. If the event output
            flag is turned on, the output will include event messages such as, when the target was acquired and when tracking
            was established. If the missile is launched, several additional messages are output. Detailed missile flyout data are
            output throughout the flight including missile thrust, weight, velocity, angle of attack and seeker tracking data. If the
            summary output flag is turned on, the output will include run summaries such as; missile flyout, missile site, and runs.
            ESAMS also adds an echo of the inputs to every report. Finally, ESAMS includes logic to allow it to make detailed
            endgame calculations. Miss distance, closest approach, Pk, Pk due to blast, and Pk due to fragmentation are reported
            when the endgame is enabled.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
Fast Shotline Generator


           FASTGEN: Prediction of damage to a target caused by ballistic impact of projectiles has been an important long
           time goal of military analysts. A number of analytical procedures and target description techniques have evolved. One
           widely accepted approach to vulnerability analysis is the shotline method. This method involves projecting a number
           of parallel rays through the target with a specified direction and describing the encounters along each ray. The result
           is a sequential list of components, subsets of the target, which are encountered by a shotline.

           FASTGEN traces the path of a projectile’s shotline through a target. The target is composed of objects called
           components. Components are modeled by generating a three-dimensional target database. The set of components
           encountered along a shotline is arranged in the order of encounter. This sequenced set of components along a
           shotline is called a line of sight (LOS). The LOS file contains specific component data: 1) group and component
           identification number, 2) location, 3) thickness, and 4) shotline obliquity angle. A given LOS file is for a specific attack
           orientation. Typical vulnerability analyses are based upon 26 attack orientations (every 45 degrees in elevation and
           azimuth). The sole purpose of executing FASTGEN is to develop LOS data for use in vulnerable area models, such
           as COVART.

           The target database can be at any level of detail consistent with the available data. Ultimately, it should include all
           flight and mission critical components of the operationally configured target. It also includes all components which
           can effectively degrade the ability of a threat effect to cause damage/failure, i.e., providing shielding. All air vehicle
           surfaces (skin and transparencies) are also modeled in detail because they will alter the functioning of the threat.

           A FASTGEN target database is based upon the fact that surfaces of a target may be approximated by a series of lines,
           triangles, quadrilaterals, cones, cylinders, spheres, and hexahedrons. This database preparation process is intricate and
           must be accomplished according to inherent FASTGEN logical requirements and limitations.

           The geometric database source data may be obtained in several forms: 1) engineering drawings, 2) CAD/CAM database,
           3) NASTRAN internal loads model for structural analysis, and 4) other computerized data. Using computerized
           source data greatly reduces the database generation task, but not the debugging and error correction. The FASTGEN
           4 database format improves database development, error checking and correcting, and enhances compatibility with
           computerized processing such as computer graphics and CAD/CAM.

                                                                    Flight Control & Structure

           Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
            Numerous versions of FASTGEN have
            been developed over the last thirty years
            most recently by ASC/ENMM. The most
            significant reason for further development
            of FASTGEN was that the input file
            format was highly error prone and complex.
            FASTGEN input data structure is based
            upon the structural analysis model called

            The FASTGEN configuration control
            is defined in the configuration control
                                                                                        A Typical Shotline
            plan. Modifications/improvements to the
            FASTGEN code are made through the model manager. Configuration control is obtained by periodic releases on CD.
            The model manager has authority to implement three-digit version control numbers. While two-digit version control
            numbers require configuration control board approval.

            Users are encouraged to inform the model manager when they find code errors. Users need to document errors using

            the Software Change Request (SCR) form. Additionally, users are requested to document the projects usage. This
            documentation provides the model manager with data to justify requests for headquarters funding.

            FASTGEN User’s are provided the source code, databases (pending user clearance), user’s manual, limited online
            FASTGEN support, and FASTGEN code updates and patches. The FASTGEN model manager can also arrange
            custom FASTGEN training on site. Typically funding is required for training classes.

            The FASTGEN Users Manual is a comprehensive document that outlines model usage. The FASTGEN Users
            Manual is available from SURVIAC.

            The VISAGE code was developed to display the FASTGEN target models. The VISAGE
            Users Manual is also available from SURVIAC.

            In general, the airframe contractors are using FASTGEN in combination with COVART as a design tool. The
            FASTGEN/COVART models enable designers to optimize the internal configuration of aircraft to minimize ballistic
            vulnerability. Usage of these models early in the design phase, by experienced vulnerability analysts, can result in
            considerable vulnerability reduction. Analysis houses generally have a different usage. Analysis houses use these
            models to assess the potential of hardening concepts or to develop aircraft data for comparison purposes.

            FASTGEN verification and validation was performed by ASC/ENMM. The FASTGEN report contains a robust
            set of small test cases. These test cases were compared to manual calculations or verified with the use of computer
            graphics. These test cases were designed to highlight specific FASTGEN features. These test cases were small in
            size to simplify testing. Therefore, test cases did not demonstrate code functions using a full-up target description
            database. This type of verification is very difficult and time consuming. Given the quantity of large target descriptions
            that have been analyzed with FASTGEN, the Model Manager has a reasonable confidence in the code. The pedigree
            report is titled “Pedigree Database Documentation, Effectiveness Series, Survivability Subdocument: Vulnerability
            Subgroup, Volume 8: FASTGEN Verification and Validation (U)”.

   Input A geometric representation of the target geometry is the key input to FASTGEN. Also required is the desired
            azimuth and elevation of the shotlines and the analysis grid size.

Output FASTGEN outputs a binary line of sight file that records all the shotline intercepts with the target components.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Fast Air Target Encounter PENetration Program

 HOST SYSTEMS: Windows 95 or higher

            FATEPEN is a set of fast running algorithms which simulate the penetration of and damage to spaced target
            structures by compact and non-compact warhead fragments and long rods at speeds up to 5 km/sec. The model
            predicts penetrator mass loss, velocity loss, trajectory change, and tumbling throughout a target. The mass loss model
            includes an impact fracture model that, depending on impact conditions, transforms an incident intact warhead
            fragment into an expanding, multi-particle debris cloud which FATEPEN then tracks through the remaining target
            structure. FATEPEN also predicts multi-particle loading and damage to plate structures.

            The FATEPEN model is based as much as possible on fundamental principles of mechanics together with assumptions
            regarding the principal loading and response mechanisms involved. The latter derive directly from experimental
            observation. Empirical elements have been introduced either to obtain better agreement with available test data or to
            describe phenomena not readily amenable to first principle analytical modeling.

            The penetration algorithms are comprised of deterministic, analytical/empirical engineering models and are contained
            in a separate Dynamic Link Library for easy portability to other calling programs. A Visual Basic, Graphical User
            Interface is used to define and/or select penetrators, targets, and encounter conditions in the stand alone PC version

            of the code.

            The FATEPEN algorithms have been partially validated by comparisons between model predictions and test results
            for a variety of projectile and target combinations.

            The primary application of the code has been target vulnerability and weapon lethality assessments involving air
            targets and lightly-armored surface targets. FATEPEN has
            been transitioned to use by all three Services and is used
            as a submodel in a number of simulations, including the
            Advanced Joint Effectiveness Model (AJEM).

            The government proponent for FATEPEN is now the Joint
            Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness
            (JTCG/ME). The model was developed over the past 20
            years for the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren
            Division (NSWC/DD).
                                                                                       FATEPEN Penetration Modeling

         Required FATEPEN penetrator input includes penetrator
         material, hardness, shape, weight, dimensions, and initial velocity and orientation. Additional material properties and
   Input inertial parameters are computed or assigned by FATEPEN

       FATEPEN predicts the individual particle hole diameter, enlargement of the central hole to a diameter Dn due to
       a combination of multi-particle area removal and/or multi-particle impulsive loading. The individual plate damage
Output output listings include the overall pattern diameters, Dmf and Dmt enclosing both perforating and non-perforating
       penetrator and plate particles, respectively, and the diameters of the circles, Dpf2, Dpf3, Dpt, enclosing just the
       perforating secondary particles of each kind. FATEPEN also predicts the total impulse delivered to the plates by
       perforating and non-perforating particles along with the total area of all the holes and the total mass removed from
       the plate.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
IVIEW 2000
Graphical User Interface for Output Simulation


          IVIEW 2000 is a post-processing graphical presentation, for various computer simulations modeling multiple object
          engagements, used to view player activity in a real-time movie-like three-dimensional (3-D) display. IVIEW 2000 is
          a powerful and dynamic modular software package developed as an engagement reconstruction tool to meet the
          needs of the modeling, simulation, and analysis communities. Research applications include supporting analysis of
          aerodynamic system engagements, supporting dynamic weapon platform analysis models, and visualizing models
          for ballistic missiles and space systems. IVIEW 2000 processes a scenario file, which describes an engagement, and
          displays time-based history files of missile and aircraft trajectories over flat or spherical Earth for viewing on the
          computer screen. Using 3-D representations of each of the objects and animation characteristics from the scenario
          data, the objects appear to fly across the screen. A set of controls allows the simulation to be played and replayed
          in both forward and reverse directions as well as being able to stop, pause, or advance the display frame by frame to
          provide a greater flexibility in control of the scenario. Additionally, a record feature provides the capability to store
          live data to an Aircraft Flight Data Record file (AFDR) for subsequent replay.

          IVIEW 2000’s primary display mechanism

                                                                                                                                      IVIEW 2000
          is the Viewing Window, which gives
          the graphical presentation of multiple
          engagements for a video type replay. The
          scenario file does not include an actual video
          view of the engagement, but instead gives
          step by step information of the position of
          every object, and what each are doing at any
          time. The user determines the point-of-view
          of the information presented in the Viewing
          Window. By adjusting parameters for the
          scene, an analyst can view the engagement
          reconstruction from above for a “God’s
          eye” view, the cockpit for a “pilot’s” view,
          following along behind from a wingman’s
          perspective for a “trail-behind” view, or any
          point in 3-D space for an “observer” view                       RADGUNS Results Viewed with IVIEW 2000
          (the viewing perspective is detached from
          the player’s roll, pitch, and yaw values to allow the model user to see the relative movement of the current player).
          Additional display mechanisms can present information about the displayed file in various ways as the playback
          continues. The Data Window instantaneously prints out numeric values of the scenario information presented in the
          Viewing Window. The Graphics Window graphically plots information from the Data Window, giving the current
          value and values out some time in the past. The Message Window displays messages between objects from the
          scenario as the reconstruction replay is occurring. Several other window options can display messages between objects
          or show sensors (such as radar or IRS’s (Infrared Sensors).
          IVIEW 2000 operates from a processed input file identifying each player’s type, team, and movement in 3-D
          space. Several different non real-time analysis models, including BRAWLER, TRAP, RADGUNS, BLUEMAX and
          SUPPRESSOR can generate the input data. Model users may select or create icons, which accurately represent each
          target and threat.
          In addition to the several on screen display windows, a non-displayed mechanism is presented for writing selected
          portions of the scenario data to an output file for permanent storage and later retrieval. Descriptive feedback messages
          are output to the screen during AFDR file load processing to monitor various errors associated with reading icon
          names and files.

          Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Joint Service Endgame Model


             The Joint Service Endgame Model is a computerized simulation used to evaluate the kill probability attained by a
             missile warhead or projectile detonating near an airborne target. The JSEM computer simulation program evaluates
             terminal effectiveness of a fragmenting munition against a target. Terminal effects (also known as endgame) occur
             after simulated acquisition, tracking, fly out, and intercept phases. These early phases of the endgame input are
             accomplished with other simulation models, and their output is used to define initial conditions of dynamic missile
             orientations to the target (velocities, angles, and miss distances) and fuzing time. The JSEM source code is contained
             in six modules and consists of more than 30,000 lines of code and comments in just under 200 subroutines and

             JSEM calculates endgame kill probabilities from direct hit, blast, and fragments. JSEM uses probability of kill given
             a hit (Pk/h) table output files from the SURVIAC vulnerability model the Computation of Vulnerable Areas Tool
             (COVART) is the most common method of obtaining vulnerability input to JSEM. JSEM requires a collection of
             information to generate effectiveness data: target skin contours, blast contour, fault tree, component location and
             damage option, missile warhead size and fragment characteristics, and encounter geometry. This provides the shielded
             vulnerable area to JSEM without direct simulation of all the intervening shielding components. JSEM is also capable
             of performing a basic fuzing algorithm, which requires fuze characteristics.

   Input There are several files that are produced with each run and several files that can be turned on if desired. The files that
             are produced with each run consists of a file containing the input and output files used for the run, program control
             records, subsets of weapon and target system physical description, and some vulnerability, and a file that sets up the
             geometry for each encounter.

Output The only output file that is created with each run contains a summary of which files were opened and a probability of
             kill averaged over the total number of encounters. Another file containing detailed information including diagnostics,
             sorting of input data and probability of hit and kill per detonation and encounter pass. Other optional files contain
             last component hit versus the detonation position, probability of kill versus detonation for each encounter, probability
             of kill summary, a list of subroutines accessed during the run and fragment intercept coordinates.

             Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Low Energy Laser Weapon Simulation


           LELAWS estimates the probability that a target sensor will be jammed or damaged by a low energy laser system.
           A low energy laser is one which does not operate at power levels sufficiently high to produce thermal “booming”
           (significant heating of the laser beam channel in the atmosphere) or other phenomena such as air breakdown or
           plasma formation. LELAWS models both deterministic and stochastic effects on pulsed propagation, which include
           energy attenuation due to atmospheric absorption and scattering, turbulence-induced beamspread, turbulent beam
           wander, pointing jitter, initial wavefront distortion, diffraction effects, scintillation, and target aperture averaging.
           The model is applicable to existing and proposed low energy laser weapons, rangefinders, and target designators.
           Allowable target sensors include the unaided eye, an eye aided by direct vision optics (DVOs), Image intensifiers (IIs)
           or night vision devices (NVDs), and vidicons or television imaging devices.

           LELAWS is an analysis tool used to evaluate the effectiveness of low energy laser weapons in the anti-sensor role.
           LELAWS operates in two interactive modes which allow the user to edit the inputs prior to each execution of the
           model. The first mode displays inputs only when the user requests display via an input directive, while the second
           mode displays inputs automatically after each edit request. In a single run, LELAWS is able to simulate multiple
           wavelength effects or parameterize over several variables. The user can write a current set of inputs to a file for use

           in subsequent runs, or can open and read a previously saved input file to define all the model inputs. The primary
           measure of effectiveness generated by LELAWS is the probability that a given pulse reaching the target sensor will
           exceed the damage threshold of the sensor. In the case of bio-optical damage, a variety of thresholds, corresponding
           to various damage levels or effects may be selected. For electronic sensors such as television or NVDs, the threshold
           can be chosen to provide for partial degradation or total destruction of sensor functions.

  Input LELAWS is a menu driven model where the user selects a session for a pulsed or continuous wave laser. Then, the
           user can decide to select parameters to change. From the same menu, the user could also decide to display the main
           screen, input multiple wavelengths (by specifying parameters for each laser wavelength), parameterize variables for a
           single run, create a table of beamspread parameters for the output, save the current set or restore a previous set of
           parameters, exit to the Laser Type Screen, or execute a LELAWS run.

Output The LELAWS jamming/damage probabilities are provided in the form of tables for each engagement range and
           user specified variables. At the top of each table, a list of varying parameters for the tables and their current values
           are specified. A table of beamspreading parameters is also provided with model output based on user specification.
           The user may select and name an output file which first displays a list of the primary inputs followed with the output
           probabilities. The user may also select an output file to be produced to facilitate plotting of results.

           Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Radar-Directed Gun System Simulation

 HOST SYSTEMS: Windows, Linux, SUN

            RADGUNS is used to evaluate the effectiveness of Air Defense Artillery (ADA) gun systems against penetrating
            aerial targets. It is also used to evaluate the effectiveness of different airborne target characteristics (radar cross
            section (RCS), maneuvers, use of electronic countermeasures, etc.) against a specific ADA system. RADGUNS is a
            complete one-on-one simulation including weapon system, operators, target model (RCS and presented/vulnerable-
            areas), flight profiles, environment (clutter and multipath), electronic attack, and endgame. RADGUNS can assess
            many aspects of a weapon system’s performance including target detection, tracking performance, probability of hit
            (Ph), probability of kill (Pk), expected number of hits, and the effects of jamming. ADA weapon systems are typically
            modeled at either the subsystem or circuit level consisting of acquisition and track radar and/or optical systems, a
            set of rapid fire anti-aircraft guns, a fire control computer (FCC) and servo system to aim the guns, and a crew to
            operate the system.

            Weapon systems in RADGUNS can acquire,
            track, and engage aerial targets. After the
            acquisition radar detects a target, it is handed

            off to the target tracker radar (TTR) system.
            Thereafter, the target is tracked automatically
            and the FCC generates gun-pointing
            information. When the FCC has computed an
            intercept solution, the operators may fire at the
            target according to prescribed firing doctrine.
            Acquisition, tracking, and shooting engagement
            simulations may be executed for either single
            or multiple flight path scenarios. A single
            simulation performs a single weapon-versus-
            target engagement, while a multiple simulation
            performs several single weapon-versus-target
            engagements where the initial target position or
            velocity is varied from engagement to engagement. Each of these flight paths can be run with Monte Carlo simulation
            by selecting multiple replications of each flight path. With the Monte Carlo option, initial search azimuth, radar
            wavelength, receiver noise, glint frequency, and optical tracker parameters are varied from replication to replication
            (changing the radar wavelength causes the clutter and multipath returns to vary as well.) The weapon system models
            are deterministic or transfer function type, rather than stochastic; only the endgame is stochastic. Pulse-by-pulse radar
            receiver model process target (including multipath), jammer and ground clutter returns. Ph and Pk are calculated using
            distribution theory.

   Input RADGUNS allows the user to select the weapon system configuration, target and battlefield parameters, and program
            output. The scenarios, weapon system, target, and optional jammer parameter files must be identified when executing
            RADGUNS. RADGUNS has several built in flight profile types and can also read BLUEMAX flight paths. Target
            RCS and presented/vulnerable-areas data are also input from files.

Output The output generated by the program takes three basic forms tabular data files, data files for plotting, and graphics
            output files. For each simulation, an event-by-event tabular file recording input parameters and simulation results is
            generated. Depending on simulation type and user selection, files can also be generated for tabulation and plotting
            of simulation results. For single flight paths, the user may also select a data file used for post-processing display of
            a weapon versus target scenario for use with the IVIEW, HIVE, or SIMDIS graphics programs or faceted target
            models and RADGUNS-generated shotlines for use with the ModelVU graphics program. For multiple flight paths,
            the user may select target position with either target detection, initiation of target track, or first shot (of each flyby)
            intercepting target data files.

            Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.
 Terrain/Rotorcraft Air Combat Evaluation Simulation


           TRACES simulates helicopter air combat explicitly including helicopter aerodynamics, missiles, guns, and avionics
           with incorporation of the environment. The helicopter flight dynamic models include a generic model characterized
           by state vector containing roll, pitch, velocity, and body frame angular rates. The missile model includes aerodynamics,
           guidance, seeker, and fuzing and is characterized based on acceleration, heading, and climb angle rates. The missile
           guidance model allows proportional navigation, pure pursuit, and beam guidance methods to direct the course of the
           missile and calculate desired heading and climb angle rates. The missile seeker model (active, semi-active, and infrared
           (IR)) specifies the type of signal the seeker detects and the field of view (FOV) of the seeker. The missile fuzing
           model contains fuzing conditions and patterns. The turreted gun model aims the gun and tracks the target within the
           turret boundaries. The avionics models include radar, identification friend or foe (IFF), fire control, and IR, optical,
           and passive sensors. The fire control model applies constraints for each weapon type. The high resolution terrain
           database interface is an important feature of TRACES and consists of the data structures, calculations of the height
           over terrain (HOT), and performing a line of sight (LOS) calculation between two points.

           In TRACES, the simulations use event-driven controls, which provide a natural mechanism for more realistic
           interactions among asynchronous processes by executing the modules at varying rates determined by the modules. A

           sequence of events of the same type is called a “stream”. A stream of events effectively simulates both continuous
           and discrete processes. The continuous process of a helicopter flying along a trajectory is simulated by the periodic
           execution of helicopter flyout events. As events in a continuous stream end, the next event in the stream is scheduled
           to make the stream self-perpetuating. Continuous processes are executed periodically as in time-sequenced simulations,
           but the interval between events in each stream can be tailored. A discrete process, such as gun firing, occurs at irregular
           intervals scheduled from some other event and is not self-perpetuate. Sequences of discrete events are determined by
           the simulated situation and are executed only when needed.

  Input All aspects of the engagement to be simulated are specified from input data files. The scenario file specifies initial
           engagement conditions including placement of helicopters and equipment relative to each other and the terrain
           origin. Also the input includes an unformatted binary file, produced by a preprocessor program, containing data
           associated with the coordinates and values characteristic of a selected region. Library files containing physical and
           functional data for variables associated with missiles, helicopter models, weapons, and devices are required. A file
           containing attributes of pilot behavior is also required.

Output Output data includes an echo file, which is an image of the input data from the scenario, pilot behavior, SAM,
           weapon, and device libraries, and can be used in the debugging effort. A dedicated diagnostic output file receives
           detailed information about user selectable modules of the simulation code; this is controlled by a set of logical flags
           in the input data so diagnostic output can be requested or suppressed. The engagement summary files contain a
           complete time history of aircraft and missile kinematics state throughout the engagement, and important weapon
           effects such as kills, firings, and detection. This diagnostic output file optionally records standard data records that
           can easily be read by statistical analysis packages. The summary file supplies input data to a graphics postprocessor
           program, which displays a full color terrain, map and replays the engagement using icons.

           Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release.

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