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					riffraff                                                      noun

They didn’t want him mingling with riffraff.                  low, disreputable, or worthless persons.
                                                              trash; rubbish.

                                                              Synonyms
                                                              horde, mob, populace, rabble, scum, garbage
                                                              Antonyms
                                                              elites, gentries




hamstring                                                     noun

He strained his hamstring from running too much.              tendon at the back of the human knee.
                                                              great tendon at the back of the hock of a quadruped.
hamstrings, hamstrung, hamstringing
                                                              verb
The deployed missile was hamstrung to prevent an              to cripple or disable ( a person or animal) by cutting the
accidental firing.                                            hamstring.
                                                              to destroy the efficiency of; make ineffective.

                                                              Synonyms
                                                              disable, disfigure, mangle, maim, harm, mutilate,
                                                              impair
                                                              Antonyms
                                                              rehabilitate, revive, restore, regenerate, reintegrate,
                                                              reconstruct, renew

resplendent                                                   adjective

It was hard to refuse her because of her resplendent smile.   full of splendor; gleaming; brilliance

Related words                                                 Synonyms
resplendence n. state or quality of gleaming splendor;        radiant, bright, luminous, lustrous, glorious, shining,
brilliance. Also, resplendency.                               splendid
resplendently adv.                                            Antonyms
                                                              dull, wan, pale, lackluster
crop                                                                       noun

With the good weather, we expect our crop to do well.                      any agricultural product growing or gathered for use, as wheat, corn, or
I had a crop of memos to answer.                                           cotton.
                                                                           the entire yield (or any product).
His hair was cut in a crop.                                                group or collection of anything appearing or produced together.
                                                                           a short haircut; style of cutting the hair in this way.
crops, cropped, cropping                                                   pouchlike enlargement of a bird’s gullet in front of the stomach in which
                                                                           preliminary preparation for digestion occurs; craw.
Sheep cropped the grass very short.                                        short whip with a leather loop in place of a lash.
The pages in this book have all been cropped.                              handle of a whip.
He cropped several acres with barley.
                                                                           verb
Related words
crop up (or out) v. 1. to come up or appear unexpectedly: Something        to cut or bite off the top end of.
cropped up and John had to cancel his plans. 2. to come to or appear on    to reap; harvest.
the surface; sprout: The veins of coal cropped out along the side of the   to cut short; trim.
                                                                           to cause to bear a crop; to raise crops on.
mountain.
cropper n. 1. one who or that which crops. 2. Informal. heavy fall, as     Synonyms
from a horse. He took a cropper at the water jump. 3. Informal. failure    harvest, produce, yield; gather, mow, clip, cut, shorten, lop, nibble,
in an undertaking; collapse.                                               curtail, shear, shorn.
                                                                           Antonyms
                                                                           enlarge, widen, expand, swell.

deploy (deploys, deployed, deploying)                                      verb

He deployed his bishop to capture his opponent’s queen.       to place in a desired position according to a plan;
The countries agreed to destroy the deployed missiles as part position strategically.
of their peace treaty.                                        to widen the front of (a military unit or troops) in battle
                                                              formation.
Related word
deployment n.                                                 Synonyms
                                                              display, expand, extend, open, unfold
                                                              Antonyms
                                                              conceal, hide, reduce, remove




clandestine                                                                adjective
The spies had a clandestine meeting.                                       secret, esp. for an illicit (illegal) purpose; furtive.
Related words                                                              Synonyms
clandestinely adv.                                                         covert, concealed, furtive, hidden, private, sly, stealthy,
clandestineness n.                                                         surreptitious, underhand.
                                                                           Antonyms
                                                                           open, overt, plain-sight, public, unconcealed, apparent.
proprietor                                                    noun

The proprietor of the store gave him permission to post a     one who has legal title or right to something, esp. to
sign on the window.                                           property.
                                                              owner or operator of a small business establishment.
Related words                                                 individual granted a proprietary colony.
proprietorship n.
proprietorness n.                                              Synonyms
proprietary adj. 1. of, or relating to, or characteristic of a owner, master, possessor, landlord
proprietor or proprietors. 2. made and sold by exclusive
legal right, such as medicine, record labels, patents, etc. 2.
privately owned and operated: a proprietary hospital.
proprietary colony, any of certain early American colonies
granted by the British Crown to an individual or small group
of individuals vested with full governing power.

disintegrate (disintegrates, disintegrated, disintegrating)   verb

This type of rock disintegrates under pressure.               to break up into particles, fragments, or parts.
The empire disintegrated under his rule.                      to deteriorate by or as if by breaking into constituent
Oxygen can disintegrate iron into rust.                       parts.
                                                              Physics. to decay.
Related words
disintegrator n.                                              Synonyms
disintegration n. act or process of disintegrating; being     crumble, decompose, dissolve, separate
disintegrated.                                                Antonyms
                                                              combine, fuse, join, assemble, unite




radiant                                                       adjective

She had a radiant smile upon her face.                        shining brightly.
The sun’s radiant heat was comforting.                        beaming, as with joy, contentment, or love.
                                                              emitting rays, as of light or heat.
Related words                                                 emitted or transmitted by radiation.
radiance n. quality or state of being radiant.
radiantly adv.                                                Synonyms
                                                              brilliant, beaming, glittering, glowing, luminous,
                                                              resplendent, shining, sparkling
                                                              Antonyms
                                                              dull, wan, dim, lackluster
output                                                         noun

The computer spit out a long output of information.            anything put or taken out.
Our vegetable output was not as good as expected.              amount produced.
                                                               information made available by a computer or any other
                                                               storage or retrieval system.

                                                               Synonyms
                                                               yield, return, produce
                                                               Antonym
                                                               input




perforate (perforates, perforated, perforating)                verb

He perforated his opponent’s shield with his lance.            to make a hole or holes through; pierce.
The edge of the order blank in the catalog was perforated so   to make a row or series of small holes through
that it could be torn out easily.                              (something).

Related words                                                  Synonyms
perforator n. one that makes perforations.                     bore, drill, penetrate, prick, riddle
perforation n. 1. act or process of perforating; being         Antonyms
perforated. 2. hole made by boring or piercing through         plug, close
something: perforations in a sheet of postage stamps.
perforated adj. pierced with a hole or holes.




furtive                                                        adjective

His furtive glances made me uncomfortable.                     done by stealth.; secret; surreptitious.
His furtive eyes look creepy.                                  shifty; sly.

Related words                                                  Synonyms
furtively adv.                                                 clandestine, hidden, skulking, sneaking, sneaky,
furtiveness n.                                                 stealthy, stolen, concealed
                                                               Antonyms
                                                               open, overt, blatant, public, plain-sight, apparent
aftermath                                                                        noun
There was severe damage in the aftermath of the hurricane.                       resulting situation; consequence or consequences.
                                                                                 in the wake of; after.
                                                                                 second mowing of grass for hay from the same land in
                                                                                 the same season.

                                                                                 Synonyms
                                                                                 effect, result, subsequence




debilitate (debilitates, debilitated, debilitating)                              verb

Disease debilitated him.                                                         to impair the strength of; weaken.

Related words                                                                    Synonyms
debility (debilities) n. lack of strength or vigor; feeble-                      enervate, enfeeble, exhaust, prostrate, hamstring
mindedness.                                                                      Antonyms
debilitation n.                                                                  energize, strengthen, enliven, empower, invigorate,
                                                                                 vitalize




fertile                                                                          adjective
They settled in the valley because of the rich, fertile soil.                    producing or capable of producing crops or vegetation
A fertile egg becomes a chick in 21 days.                                        abundantly.
He has a fertile imagination.
                                                                                 capable of reproducing; to able to produce young eggs,
Related words                                                                    seeds, pollen, or the like.
fertility n. state or quality of being fertile; productiveness.                  capable of developing into a new individual.
fertilization n. 1. a fertilizing or being fertilized. 2. Biology. the           producing offspring abundantly; prolific.
uniting of a sperm cell with an egg cell to form a cell that will develop
into a new individual.
                                                                                 causing or aiding productiveness.
fertilize (fertilized, fertilizing) v. 1. to make fertile; render productive:    mentally productive; inventive.
Rain fertilizes the soil. 2. to spread fertilizer, such as manure or nitrates,
on (land). 3. Biology. to make (an egg cell) capable of reproducing a            Synonyms
new individual by fertilization.                                                 bearing, breeding, fecund, prolific, exuberant, fruitful,
fertilizable adj.
fertilizer n. 1. any of a wide variety of substances added to the soil to
                                                                                 productive, rich
promote the growth and yield of plants by ensuring that the proper kinds         Antonyms
and amounts of nutritional elements, as nitrogen, potassium, and                 infertile, sterile, unproductive, barren, unfruitful,
phosphorus are present. 2. one who or that which fertilizes.                     fruitless
perpetrator                                                              noun

The perpetrator of the hoax fooled even the newspaper                    one who performs or commits to act (a crime, trick, or
crew.                                                                    the like).

Related words                                                            Synonyms
perpetrate v. to do, perform, or commit (a crime, trick, or              performer, doer, actor
the like).
perpetration n.


defile (defiles, defiled, defiling)                                      verb

The building was defiled with graffiti.                                  to spoil the purity of; profane.
Don’t defile our streams with garbage.                                   to make filthy, dirty, or impure.

Related words                                                            Synonyms
defilement n.                                                            dirty, foul, soil, stain, sully, tarnish, contaminate,
defiler n.                                                               debase, poison, pollute, taint, corrupt, violate
defile v. to march in a line or by files.                                Antonyms
n. narrow passage in a mountain region, esp. one that                    cleanse, clean, purify, refine, purge
permits travel only in a narrow line.


fruitful                                                                 adjective

Our fruitful discussion yielded into a happy handshake.                  producing results; profitable.
The fruitful tree gave us bushels of apple.                              bearing fruit or offspring in abundance; prolific.
                                                                         conducive to productiveness.
Related words
fruitfully adv., fruitfulness n.                                         Synonyms
fruit n. 1. any edible plant product. 2. ripened ovary of a              fertile, fecund, productive, abounding, plentiful
plant. 3. any useful plant product. 4. result of an action: the          Antonyms
fruit of hard work. – v. to bear or cause to bear fruit.                 fruitless, barren, unproductive, unprofitable
fruition n. 1. realization or accomplishment of one’s efforts
or desires; fulfillment: After many years he brought his
ideas to fruition. 2. bearing of fruit.
fruitless n. 1. producing no effect or result; useless. 2.
bearing no fruit or offspring; barren.
impact                                                                   noun
The car hit the stone wall with great impact.                            impetus or force on one object striking against another.
The glass shattered upon impact.                                         action of one object striking against another.
The impact of trade on the economy has got people worried.
                                                                         forcible impression or influence; strong effect.
impacts, impacted, impacting
                                                                         verb
After his bat impacted the ball, the ball flew up into the bleachers.
The commuters were impacting into the overly crowded subway car          to hit with force.
during rush hour.                                                        to force tightly together.
Related words
impaction n.                                                             Synonyms
impacted adj. 1. (of a tooth) pressed between the jawbone and another    collision, impulse, impression, shock, force; collide,
tooth so that it cannot grow out. 2. closely packed together or wedged   crash, strike
in.
decipher (deciphers, deciphered, deciphering)                             verb

It was hard to decipher his messy handwriting.                            to make out the meaning of (something illegible,
We tried to decipher the coded message.                                   obscure, or difficult to understand).
                                                                          to interpret or translate (something written in code) by
Related words                                                             using a key.
decipherable adj.
decipherer n. one who or that deciphers                                   Synonyms
decipherment n.                                                           explain, decode, expound, reveal, solve, unfold,
                                                                          unravel, read


lucrative                                                                 adjective

He became rich by running a lucrative business.                           yielding profit; profitable.

Related words                                                             Synonyms
lucratively adv.                                                          advantageous, gainful, paying, remunerative
lucrativeness n.                                                          Antonyms
                                                                          unfavorable, unrewarding, unprofitable



shard                                                                     noun

The windshield shattered into shards upon impact with the                 fragment of some brittle material, as of glass.
stone wall.




bore (bores, bored, boring)                                               verb

They bored a tunnel through the mountain.                                 to make a hole or a passage, as by drilling, digging, or
He bored a hole in the plank for the screw.                               pushing.
The mole bored into the ground.                                           to make a hole in or through, as with a rotating tool.
                                                                          to be drilled or drillable by an instrument.
The speaker bored me to sleep.
                                                                          to weary by being dull or monotonous.
He is a bore when all he does is brag about himself.
                                                                          noun
Related words
bored adj. state of not being interested in some one or some thing;       hole made by or as if by boring.
wearily idle. I am bored with nothing to do.                              long, hollow interior, as of a tube or gun barrel.
boring adj. 1. dull, tedious. 2. making holes.
borer n. one that bores, or makes holes.                                  one who or that bores (by being dull and monotonous).
bore n. a tidal wave that breaks in the estuaries of some rivers and,     Synonyms
impeded by a narrowing channel, rises in a ridge and courses along with   drill, perforate, pierce, tunnel; annoy, dull, fatigue, tire.
great force and noise.                                                    Antonyms
boredom n. state of being bored; tedium.                                  excite, enliven, entertain
liberal                                                           adjective
                                                                  characterized by or inclining toward opinions favoring progress
He is liberal with his money, as well as his politics.            and reform, as in politics.
A liberal interpretation of the law gives room for many           free from prejudice; broad-minded; tolerant.
arguments.                                                        characterized by generosity; bountiful.
                                                                  ample or plentiful; abundant.
Being a liberal made him an outcast among his conservative        not literal or strict.
colleagues.
                                                                  noun
Related words
liberally adv.                                                    one who has liberal opinions or advocates progress and reform.
liberalness n.                                                    Liberal. member of a Liberal Party, esp. in Great Britain, U.S., or
                                                                  Canada.
liberalism n. liberal principles and ideals; belief in progress
and reform.                                                       Synonyms
liberalize v. to make or become liberal.                          charitable, open-hearted, tolerant, magnanimous, unbiased,
liberality n. 1. generosity. 2. tolerant attitude or beliefs;     unbigoted, generous, humanizing
broad-mindedness.                                                 Antonyms
                                                                  conservative, prejudiced, intolerant, moderate, uncharitable,
                                                                  literal, strict


refuse                                                            noun
There was refuse everywhere in the dingy city.                    anything discarded as useless or worthless; waste.
refuses, refused, refusing                                        verb
He wanted to refuse the bribe even though he needed the           to withhold acceptance of; turn down.
money.                                                            to withhold the giving or granting of.
They refused him permission to stay out late.                     to be determined not to (do something); be unwilling.
You always refuse to see my point of view.                        (of a horse) to stop short at (an obstacle) instead of
He can’t refuse if you ask him politely.                          leaping.
                                                                  to withhold acceptance, consent, or compliance.
Related word
refusal n. 1. act of refusing. 2. opportunity or privilege of     Synonyms
rejecting or accepting before others may; option.                 discard, dross, dregs, garbage, junk, rubbish, litter;
                                                                  reject, decline, deny, disallow, rebuff, rebuke, veto
                                                                  Antonyms
                                                                  treasure, valuables, goods; accept, allow, approve,
                                                                  acquiesce, permit

				
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