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Draft Report 26 August

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					Towards a Sustainable Learning Culture in Sheffield

LEARNING CHAMPIONS: A VITAL
LINK IN THE CHAIN




source: Sheffield First for Inclusion


Sheffield Learning Champions Forum

August 2004


Martin Yarnit Associates




MYA version 2.0    24.08.04




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain     1
Produced for Sheffield Learning Champions Forum
c/o SPELL
301 Buchanan Rd
Sheffield S5 8AU
0114 249 8100
http://www.spelldirect.org/
August 2004
by Martin Yarnit Associates
martin.yarnit@virgin.net




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain     2
Contents

Introduction

Summary

PART ONE: FINDINGS

1 Context

2 Brokerage and Neighbourhood Renewal

3 Case Studies and Impact

4 Issues

PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT PLAN

5 Strengthening the Chain

6 Quality, Review and Tracking

7 Training and Development

8 Funding

Appendix:
   Methodology
   Interviewees;




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain   3
Introduction
What is the extent of Learning Champion activity in Sheffield, and how should
it be organised and funded in the future? That is the brief for this report set by
the Learning Champions Forum, an umbrella group that links to Sheffield First
for Learning and Work. Specifically, the objectives for this report were to:

    1. Identify the range of roles Learning Champions perform in the city
    2. Map current activity in all areas of the city
    3. Collate any existing data on the impact of Learning Champions’ work,
       including the experience of individual learners and their progression
       onto courses
    4. Produce a development plan for the future of this work in Sheffield,
       identifying potential sources of funding
    5. Publish a report incorporating the information above which would form
       the starting point for a dissemination conference to be held later this
       year.

The report, produced and written by Martin Yarnit Associates, falls into two
parts:
   1. Findings
   2. Development Plan.

The second part picks up four key issues identified in the first part, considers
the options in each case and makes recommendations. Those issues relate to
    Strengthening the brokerage chain
    Quality, review and tracking
    Training and Development
    Funding.




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                 4
Summary
Learning champions and learning reps. make an important contribution to
widening participation and engaging with hard to reach groups in Sheffield.
But there is some scope for improving their impact and making better use of
existing resources. This report sets learning champions within the local
context, shows how they contribute to education brokerage and provides
case studies of three of the most significant initiatives. The report identifies a
number of common concerns and puts forward a development plan to address
them under four headings:

       Strengthening the brokerage chain
       Quality, review and tracking
       Training and Development
       Funding.

Recommendations
Strengthening the brokerage chain

1. Area Multi-Agency Teams

One way of making the connection between system change and bottom up
feedback would be to create local bridge or multi-agency teams along the
lines of transition teams linking primary, secondary and further education. The
teams would bring together voluntary and community sector learning
providers and intermediary agencies such as NUCA and SPELL with statutory
providers, IAG and basic skills specialists who would work towards a
systematic offer of entitlement for adult learners, on the model of antenatal
care. The teams would be attached to local learning fora and would together
report to ACLAB on a regular basis. They would require minimal funding,
mainly for training.

2. Learning Champions: Improving Coverage

ACLAB should establish a priority order for setting up learning champions
schemes in all areas of Sheffield and should bid with area panels for funding
from NRF and NLDC to supplement mainstream funds.

Quality, review and tracking

1. Learner Centred System Re-Design

This involves analysing the information needs of agencies like SPELL that
combine the functions of outreach/referral through learning champions and
direct delivery, and designing a system that can
     report on internal learner progress
     provide reports for funding bodies


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                 5
      be used to cross-reference the College system through name,
       postcode and date of birth
at the same time attempting to negotiate a simplification of paper trail
requirements so that there is one form for all enrolment purposes with optional
additional sections where these are required for European funding. The costs
are
     consultancy to design and implement the system
     training staff to operate it
     paying staff to re-input data.

2. A Sample Review And Tracking Procedure

A lot of useful intelligence can be gleaned by tracking individual students
through the system, looking for explanations for success and failure. Learning
champions could reasonably be expected to follow through a sample of the
students they had referred on through their own organisation and through
other providers as part of their normal working practices. The advantages of
this approach, apart from comparative simplicity, are that
 champions get to find out for themselves how their contacts have fared
 they are stimulated to consider the effectiveness of the brokerage process
 by learning at first hand the workings of other agencies, they are able to
    provide informed feedback.

3. Exchange Of Effective Practice

One of the most effective quality improvement systems is benchmarking, by
comparing one’s practice with others and asking searching questions about
approaches and processes. Quality circles using this technique have made
their mark in industry across the world. We recommend that the Learning
Champions Forum reconstitutes itself as a Quality Circle, with members acting
as each other’s ALI inspectors, carrying out audits, identifying good and bad
practice and understanding how to spread the first and eradicate the second.
Learning champions as well as managers, naturally, would form the
membership.

4. Building in Feedback

If learning champions have valuable information – qualitative and quantitative
– about what works and what needs changing, it is important to create a
systematic approach to collating, analysing and making use of it. We believe
that the mechanism for doing this is for the Forum to compile up regular
‘intelligence’ reports, drawing on all sources of information, and for these to be
considered as a standing item at Sheffield First for Learning and Work or one
of its sub-groups.


Training and Development




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                 6
The proposal is for Sheffield programme comprising1:
   1. a recognition framework
          a. that includes an achievement portfolio comprising a certificated
             course such as City and Guilds and a new OCN unit that takes
             account of learning through an induction course and on the job
             training and which is compatible with similar programmes for
             classroom assistants, learning mentors and basic skills support
             workers
          b. endorsed by Sheffield First so that it begins to achieve employer
             currency
   2. a City and Guilds Certificate, either 9295 or 7302, or a derivative such
      as the WEA OCN course devised for Community North Forum ,
      delivered at such times and places as to encourage enrolment by
      learning champions from more than one scheme
   3. an induction course delivered within each scheme comprising
          a. common elements: eg Transforming Adult and Community
             Learning Sheffield; role of learning champions;           learning
             providers, basic skills and IAG in Sheffield
          b. local element: the local area plan; our aims and objectives
   4. On the job element through individual work, regular supervision
      sessions, team discussions on practice, visits to other schemes:
          a. scheme objectives; building our understanding of effective
             working- a framework for continuously evaluating our work (links
             back to overall objectives/targets and LSC/ALI quality framework
          b. individual objectives based on above; individual learning and
             progression plan
          c. improving literacy, numeracy and IT through day to day tasks eg
             keeping records of referrals and following them up
          d. team working; working in the community – reflecting on effective
             practice

Funding.

1. Enrolment Fee

The Learning Champions Forum should seek the agreement of local providers
through Sheffield First for Learning and Work to establishing an enrolment fee
to help cover the cost of learning champions schemes.

2. Hypothecating NRF and NLDC

ACLAB and Sheffield First for Learning and Work should give serious
consideration to reserving some part of NRF and NLDC to fund learning
champion schemes, following the Sandwell model.



1
 The proposal has been overtaken by events: the Academy for Community Leadership is in
discussions with the Council’s ACLS and the WEA about developing an accredited training
programme for learning champions.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                        7
PART ONE: FINDINGS

1. Contexts

Social and Economic Context

Social and economic disparities are striking in Sheffield:

       83,000 adults have poor basic skills
       20% of the workforce have no qualification
       Unemployment in the Burngreave Ward is over three times the
        Sheffield average and five times the national rate.
       40-50% of children in Southey Green live in households with no
        earners compared with 5% in Hallam and Ecclesall
       BME employment and achievement levels lower than city average eg
        27.5% of BME pupils achieve 5 A-C GCSEs compared with the city
        average of 42%
       6 0f the 9 worst achieving secondary schools are in the north of the city

Sheffield Wards: Index of Multiple Deprivation




source: Social Inclusion Strategy, Sheffield First

The areas prioritised for Neighbourhood Renewal funding (NRF) contains
88,357 or 40% of Sheffield’s households, amounting to two-thirds of the
households on income support in the city, ranging from entire wards down to
small housing estates of 500 or so households. In these areas, the
percentage of households on income support vary from 19% to over 40%.



Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                8
The 2001 census, shows that 8.8% of Sheffield’s population is of minority
ethnic origin. There are approximately 3,800 asylum seekers in the city. Whilst
the city’s minority ethnic population is less concentrated than in many other
English conurbations, the minority ethnic population of the city is concentrated
in the more deprived areas of North and East Sheffield and has lower
attainment and less access to employment opportunities.

Local Structures

Sheffield is blessed, compared with other Core Cities, with coherent planning
and coordination structures, and funding arrangements to match.2 It has one
local strategic partnership, Sheffield First, which oversees a family of
partnerships including Sheffield First for Learning and Work, with a remit for
learning,skills and labour market issues, a unique set up amongst the Core
Cities. There is one FE college and one local authority, Sheffield, that together
constitute by far the biggest LSC contract holders in the area. And there is the
South Yorkshire Objective One Programme that through a co-financing
arrangement with LSC focuses ESF, ERDF and LSC funding on priority areas
and projects. In addition, Sheffield draws down Neighbourhood Renewal
Funding linked to achieving a range of floor targets and PSA (Public Service
Agreement) targets.




2
 Nottingham, for example, has two major partnerships: Greater Nottingham Partnership, the
sub-regional economic development partnership, and One City Partnership, the city’s LSP.
Birmingham and Manchester have a bewildering variety of learning providers.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                         9
Relevant and notable city networks include:
 Area panels and area forums
 JobNet and learning centres
 Umbrella groups for the voluntary and community sector in the city.

Sheffield’s Area Action initiative aims to develop devolved delivery of public
services through 12 area panels led by 87 ward councillors and underpinned
by area forums to engage local communities. The objective, part of the
Inclusion Strategy for the city, is to create attractive and successful
neighbourhoods so that by 2010

   Employment levels in line with the national average
   No ward to have unemployment rate more than double the city average
   Reduce life expectancy gap between lowest wards and City average by
    10%
   Reduce child mortality gap between manual groups and the population by
    10%.

JobNet is a city-wide scheme for linking people in disadvantaged areas to
employment and training opportunities. Advice and information is available
through local centres, some of which double as learning centres eg Norfolk
Park Training and Employment Centre. JobNet is linked to Job Match, an
agency in turn linked to Sheffield First for Investment, that provides
recruitment and training services for incoming and expanding employers.

OFFER – Open Forum for Economic Regneration - and VAS (Voluntary
Action Sheffield) provides coordination and representation for the voluntary
and community sector in Sheffield. VAS has a voice on Sheffield First and
OFFER in the NRF and Objective 1 planning forums. Black Community
Forum (BCF), represents the specific interests of Black and Ethnic Minority
organisations and also has a seat on Sheffield First.

Community based learning links with these devolved structures in a number of
ways, often through interlocking membership. The key link is through Sheffield
First for Learning and its sub-group, the Adult and Community Learning
Advisory Group (ACLAB) and its sub-group, the Learning Champions Forum,
the commissioning agent for this piece of work.

Policy Context

The policy context appears baffling at first sight with a large number of
strategies and targets to take into account:
 DfES education and skills targets
 Neighbourhood Renewal Floor Targets and Public Service Agreement
    (PSA) targets
 Regional Economic Strategy
 FRESA - the Framework for Regional Education and Skills
 LSC strategy for South Yorkshire
 South Yorkshire Action Plan for Objective 1

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                              10
     Sheffield First Strategy
     Local or Area Action Plans (LAPs)

In reality, Sheffield First, the Local Strategic Partnership for the city, attempts
to act as the filter and focus for most of the above through its family of
partnerships. It also sets the city framework for the Neighbourhood Renewal
Strategy, Closing the Gap, from which Local Action Plans are derived. 3 The
Social Inclusion Strategy feeds into Closing the Gap, with its dual focus on
disadvantaged areas and deprived groups.4

The NR Action Plan builds on and extends the targeting of the top 10 IMD
(Index of Multiple Disadvantage) wards which have all received funding for
     Objective 1 priority 4a
     SRB
     Sure Start
     EAZ

£9.6m of NRF is available in 2004 and 2005 with a view to narrowing the gap
between deprived areas and the city average by achieving the floor targets
and public service agreements drawn up with government. . In the previous
year, the 12 area panels allocated £1.76m. to 140 projects.

Sheffield First for Learning and Work, chaired by John Taylor, Chief Executive
of Sheffield College, is the learning and employment arm of the local strategic
partnership, Sheffield First. For education and training, the key documents are
 Transforming Adult and Community Learning in Sheffield (Sheffield First
    for Learning and Work)
 Closing the Gap
 LAPs

Together, these incorporate DfES, LSC and NR targets and PSAs whose
fulfilment is linked to mainstream and special funding streams.

Objectives and Targets: Education and Skills

Key targets for the Learning and Skills Council in South Yorkshire include:

1. Increasing participation in education, learning and training
2. Raising NVQ Level 2 and 3 attainment of young people in South Yorkshire
   to meet 2004 targets
3. Raising Basic Skills and participation in learning of adults in South
   Yorkshire
4. Raising Level 3 attainment of South Yorkshire adults
5. HE Progression
6. Engaging South Yorkshire employers to meet their skills needs

3
 Closing the Gap – A Framework for Neighbourhood Renewal in Sheffield at
http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/index.asp?pgid=24293.
4
    Social Inclusion Strategy at http://www.sheffieldfirst.net/downloads/inclus6.pdf

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                          11
Table 1.1 Education Performance Indicators


Performance                Latest performance *   2004 target   2007 target
Indicator


Numbers of adults          2,202                  10,020        19,800
achieving a Basic Skills
qualification      which
contributes     to   the
national target


Proportion of adults       43.2%                  54%           To be set
achieving a Level 3
qualification


Proportion of adults       25.9 %                 34 %          To be set
achieving a Level 4
qualification



Transforming Adult and Community Learning in Sheffield sets out the actions
required to create a sustainable learning culture and to achieve the targets set
by government:
1. a first class, integrated and cost effective learning infrastructure, including
   an e-learning network, and facilities for childcare, offering modernised and
   accessible facilities, which are of the highest quality and are welcoming to
   adult learners
2. accessible, kite-marked, comprehensive and community based
   independent information, advice and guidance in support of an individual’s
   choice of learning and/or employment
3. a promotion and outreach strategy for adult learning that connects with
   existing and potential learners and which has a particular focus on hard to
   reach individuals and their communities
4. a full range of flexible learning pathways, with signposted routes to formal
   qualifications, which recognise the varied and complex progression
   patterns of adult learners, differences in personal circumstances,
   motivation and barriers to learning
5. a diverse and sustainable provider network, including organisations in the
   community, voluntary and faith sector, as well as mainstream funded
   providers, which have the capacity to deliver high quality teaching to meet
   the needs of learners and the requirements of external inspection and
   audit
6. partnership working between strategic agencies, providers and
   communities to produce local neighbourhood learning plans which identify
   clear priorities for action and link the development of local learning


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                 12
      infrastructure, services and learning provision to clearly identified learning
      and regeneration needs

Specifically, the plan requires that

Infrastructure needs and priorities are identified in local adult learning
plans

The plan notes: Neighbourhood learning plans are produced in 6 areas of the
city by the Adult and Community Learning Unit and in 2 other areas by local
regeneration forums. Over the next year a common format will be agreed and
plans produced which cover all SCC Closing the Gap areas

Development of local learning forums or focus groups to articulate local
learning needs

The plan notes: Presently a number of fora exist facilitated through the LEA
and local regeneration partnerships but there are significant gaps across the
city which need filling.

Development of local learning champions/mentors who can promote
learning locally and support new learners into provision
The plan notes: A Learning Champions Network has been established in the
city which aims to connect practitioners and promote good practice and
training. Research is being commissioned to establish current levels of activity
and explore options for funding and development.

This study is designed to serve that purpose.

Establish a Data Sharing group to allow outcomes from mapping
activities, learning audits and other research to be shared across
providers and funding agencies in order to inform their resource
allocation and plans

The plan notes: Data sharing between ACL providers around curriculum
pathways, learner needs, attainment and progression would greatly improve
the offer to learners in the city. A successful SFFLW 14-19 data sharing group
exists; we can learn from and adapt this to develop our post 19 model.

The plan lists the stakeholder organisations5




5
    Transforming Adult and Community Learning in Sheffield, February 2004, p.4


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                    13
   Learning and Skills Council -
    South Yorkshire
   Sheffield Education Directorate
   Sheffield Futures
   Sheffield Information Advice
    and Guidance Partnership
   VC Train
   Voluntary Action Sheffield
   Sheffield Voluntary Community
    and Faith Sector Education and
    Training Providers
   Sheffield Hallam University
   The    Workers’           Educational
    Association
   The Sheffield College
   Northern College
   Open College Network
   Sheffield Libraries, Archives
    and Information Services
   The University of Sheffield
   learndirect
   Open Forum          for    Economic
    Regeneration
   Local Learning Partnerships
    and Regeneration Forums




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain   14
This is a formidable recipe for joined up planning and delivery! The list poses
the question, which of these and to what extent will need to be integrally
involved in learning champion developments.




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                              15
2. Brokerage and Neighbourhood Renewal
The significance of learning champions can be best grasped in the wider
context of brokerage and neighbourhood renewal.

A third of adults still do not take part in any learning activity. 6 Learning
champions or workplace learning representatives help to overcome the
barriers to widening participation by signposting and connecting people in
deprived communities to learning opportunities. The need for such a service
has been recognised at least since the publication of the Policy Action Team
report on Skills for Neighbourhood Renewal which argued for ‘an active
approach to the engagement of local residents’. 7 Although it did not refer to
advocates or champions, it did single out the key role of sympathetic
information, advice and guidance delivered through local learning centres and
other outlets and noted the contribution of voluntary and community
organisations to engagement by virtue of their closeness to local residents.
(Para. 146). ). More recently, the government report, Adult Skills in the 21st
Century, suggests that ‘individuals who have not engaged in formal
development activities for some time are best reached through intermediaries
in their workplace or community’.8 Later, referring to Union Learning
Representatives, (ULRs) it states ‘the concept of peer advice that underpins
ULRs is one which could be usefully adopted in small and non unionised
settings’. It goes on:

The apparent success of ULRs in promoting learning in the workplace
suggests that something similar might be effective in developing demand for
learning in local communities.

This could be particularly effective when combined with other initiatives:

       to minimise the impact of redundancies;

       to support community renewal or regeneration; and

       to promote entrepreneurship and co-operative enterprise in communities
        isolated from the wider economy.

A Definition

The evaluation of the Adult and Community Learning Fund notes amongst the
success factors ‘the importance of direct person-to-person recruitment,



6
  See: Fixing or Changing the Pattern: Reflections on Widening Adult Participation in Learning
by Veronica McGivney (NIACE, 2001), Chapter 2
7
  Policy Action Team on Skills (1999). Final Report. London. DfEE. See:
http://www.lifelonglearning.co.uk/pat/index.htm para.46
8
  Performance and Innovation Unit, Cabinet Office, para. 248-352 at
http://www.strategy.gov.uk/su/wfd_1/report/6.html


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                            16
drawing on existing networks and contacts’. 9 Link Up, the basic skills
volunteer programme that has operated in Sheffield, refers to

‘people who are active in their local community or workplace and who are
often trusted and respected by others. These are the ideal people to guide
and support their friends, neighbours and colleagues towards appropriate
learning opportunities’.10

The definition used for this study is: Learning Champions are those who
engage directly with learners or potential learners, help them to decide how to
meet their learning needs and point them towards suitable learning
programmes.

Characteristics of Learning Champions agreed by the Sheffield Learning
Champion Forum are
   They have direct contact with local residents
   They may be paid or unpaid
   They have local credibility, usually by virtue of local
      contacts/networks/shared experience
   They may have higher qualifications including degrees.11

This definition does not rule out people with degrees – they may be adult
returners for example – but it does rule out managers and others who do not
do the day to day contact/signposting/support work.

Brokerage Chain

The ACLF evaluation also refers positively to the impact of intermediary
bodies, broadly community-based organisations, not all of them with a
narrowly defined educational purpose, in achieving success. The importance
of brokerage in widening participation cannot be under-estimated. A recent
study by Staffordshire University on behalf of the Learning and Skills
Research Centre identifies a range of brokerage functions and sets out a
process framework within which it is useful to locate learning champion
schemes.12 The report argues that

    The essence of brokerage is to mediate between learners and providers.
     This involves being able to both interpret the needs of potential learners
     and to understand and influence the bigger picture, in terms of what
     learning opportunities could and should be available to them.
    Learning brokerage is also context-specific, and operates differently in the
     4 key domains under study: community, work, educational institution and
     voluntary sector.
9
  See: http://www.lifelonglearning.co.uk/aclf/eval.htm
10
   See: http://www.linkup-volunteers.org.uk/cms/cms.asp?m=109
11
   Minutes of the Steering Group meeting for the research project, 28 May 2004.

12University of Staffordshire (2003) Learning Brokerage: Building bridges between learners and providers - Report
on Work Package One (unpublished manuscript)


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                                              17
   Working across the 4 domains is desirable and a key role of learning
    brokerage. However this requires robust partnerships that can be
    challenging to develop and sustain.

The Staffordshire University report sets out a six-stage process framework
based on a review of the literature (p.3):

1. ‘Understanding the current situation’: This stage involves undertaking
   essential groundwork to identify who is currently learning and what, and
   who is providing the learning opportunities and what are the gaps. Key
   activities within this stage include research, targeting, consultation and
   collaboration.
2. ‘Gaining entry and building trust’: At this point in the process access to
   potential learners is sought and relationships of trust developed. This
   stage involves ongoing consultation, negotiation with gatekeepers,
   exploring and establishing informal links, and establishing relationships
   with formal brokers.
3. ‘Making learning meaningful’: This stage involves working at a deep
   ‘identity’ level with potential learners, and key processes include: engaging
   with potential learners to develop informed understanding, linking learning
   opportunities to the context of their lives, developing awareness of
   structural barriers, using strategic approaches such as informal learning,
   and being tactical and starting from where people are at.
4. ‘Identifying the right learning opportunity’: Successful brokerage involves
   raising potential learners’ awareness of meaningful and appropriate
   learning opportunities and also helping providers to develop appropriate
   provision. Brokerage may help learners down formal pathways, or more
   informally, helping them to create the pathway themselves.
5. ‘Promoting learner success’: The brokerage process extends beyond entry
   into a learning situation and includes on-going work with learners and
   providers e.g. developing appropriate pedagogy and curricula, and
   building social networks of learners.
6. ‘Addressing organisational issues’: Brokerage implies and requires
   organisational development and change. Key issues identified are capacity
   building for all those involved in brokerage, partnerships and collaboration,
   using IT effectively in brokerage and monitoring and evaluating brokerage.

Learning Champions and similar schemes operate mainly at stages 3 and 4
where detailed understanding of the learner’s context and aspirations is
essential to progression to the later stages. The value of the framework is that
it demonstrates that learning champions ideally operate as part of a brokerage
system whose effectiveness depends on a number of smoothly interlocking
elements, an issue that will be considered later in the report.

Neighbourhood Renewal

A key context for learning brokerage is neighbourhood renewal not just
because the Neighbourhood Renewal Fund (NRF) provides supports so many
schemes but also because it provides a framework of skills and knowledge,


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                               18
the Learning Curve, which is relevant to brokerage and learning champions in
a number of ways.13

Although not all areas of Sheffield are eligible for NR or Objective 1 funding,
most to some extent share the problems of poor service delivery and poor
take up of educational and employment opportunities. The growing emphasis
across the city on local action plans, social inclusion strategy and
neighbourhood service delivery is bound to strengthen interest in the NR
approach.

The Learning Curve defines the skills and knowledge needed by all
participants in NR and sets out a plan for delivering them, beginning with local
strategic partnerships and their partner agencies including policy-makers in
government and elected members of local authorities. Sheffield First’s Skills
and Knowledge Plan embodies a recipe for understanding and taking part in
NR that should be reflected in training and development programmes for
learning champions. In particular, the Learning Curve’s focus on achieving
strategic change in mainstream service improvement should be an explicit
connecting strand between the Sheffield First Plan, the Adult and Community
Learning Plan and the training of learning champions. Strategic brokerage is
vital if the understandings of learning champions and others in the brokerage
process are to be turned into lasting service improvements.

A second connection between Neighbourhood Renewal and learning
champions is about employment. The Learning Curve notes that

There are no national occupational standards and associated vocational
qualifications in neighbourhood renewal, nor means of validating the
experience gained by residents. Not everyone will want a vocational
qualification, but there is no provision for those who do. (p36)

At stake is the need to improve residents’ employment prospects:

The learning framework will provide a means through which work done
voluntarily by residents can be valued and accredited in a way that helps give
access to the employment market.14

This may well mean tackling ‘the restrictions imposed by professional or
qualification standards agencies. Pathways need to be established to provide
opportunities to become ‘para professionals’, assisting professionals in their
jobs as a way in to entering employment in local services. The engagement of
teaching assistants in schools has been a good example of this approach. A
second example is the Chartered Institute of Housing’s proposals to enable
residents to validate experience in order to obtain professional status and
employment in Registered Social Landlords’.


13
   ODPM/NRU (2002) The Learning Curve, Developing Skills and Knowledge for
Neighbourhood Renewal
14
   The Learning Curve

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                19
There are other ways of creating employment in disadvantaged areas, but
developing new career paths is important in two respects: first, because public
sector employment is set to grow over the coming three years following the
Chancellor’s review of public sector spending, and second because enabling
local people to achieve leadership in service management is likely to be an
ingredient in service improvement. Generic pathways need to be established
to open up choice, linked to access to FE and HE. Learning champion
schemes should be constructed, therefore, to promote progress into
established career paths in a wide variety of fields, not just education.

At this point, the paths trodden by learning champions and workplace learning
representatives might be expected to meet but rarely do. Both are performing
essentially the same role, sometimes unwittingly working alongside people
from the same workplace and community, with a shared interest in promoting
learning as a way of improving prospects at work and at home. A first step in
exploring the links could be to bring together workplace learning reps and
learning champions in Sheffield to discuss who they work with and how.




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                              20
3. Case Studies and Impact
In this chapter we provide case studies of the two largest schemes – SPELL
and Burngreave Community Learning Campaign - illustrated with interviews
with managers and learning champions, showing how they operate and the
challenges they face. A number of common concerns are identified that are
looked at in more depth in the next chapter of the report, Issues. We then go
on to attempt to quantify the impact of learning champions schemes.

Currently, there are seven Learning Champions schemes in Sheffield. Two of
these, SPELL and Burngreave Community Learning Campaign (BCLC), are
amongst the largest in the country, employing between them 35 people as
learning champions full or part-time. These two schemes alone cost annually
£497011 to run, an indication that they and their funders believe in the
benefits of the approach.15 All are employment schemes except Link Up which
trains and supports volunteers. Two further schemes, are on the stocks, to be
based at NUCA (Netherthorpe and Upperthorpe Community Alliance) and
Voluntary Action Sheffield. In addition, there are a number of workplace
learning reps., organised mainly through UNISON, including 25 alone in the
City Council.

Between them, these schemes cover most of the priority wards plus wards or
parts of wards that have high concentrations of disadvantage such as
Netherthorpe, Birley and Mosborough. But
    Not all wards are covered eg Brightside and Darnall
    Some wards are very much better provided for than others, notably
      those served by SPELL and BCLC.

Table 3.1: Learning Champion Schemes in Sheffield

Scheme                  Number                  Type                    Area/Forum
SPELL/CNF               16                      9 Recruitment and       Southey       Green,
                                                Support Workers (3      Owlerton, and some
                                                managed on behalf       parts of Firth Park
                                                of Community North      and Nethershire.
                                                Forum- CNF);            (SOAR            and
                                                4 Learning Campaign     Community      North
                                                Workers       (Basic    Forum)
                                                Skills)
                                                3 Learning Mentors

                                                All paid: £14602 FTE
Burngreave              18                      18         Community    Burngreave
Community Learning                              Learning Assistants     (Burngreave    New
Campaign                                        paid £12,230 with on-   Deal            for
                                                costs                   Communities)
Base Green TRA and      5                       4 with Handsworth       Handsworth Forum
Handsworth Forum                                Forum, 1 with Base

15
   This is the cost of employing the learning champions; management and running costs are
in addition. SPELL: 16 FTEs at an annual total of £276,864 including oncosts.. BCLC: 18
assistants at an annual cost of £220147 with oncosts.


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                          21
(managed    through                                    Green TRA
Sheffield Adult and
Community Learning
Service)
Link Up                    400                         Skills    for   Life        City wide but more
                                                       volunteers (support,        than 50% reside in
                                                       networking,                 priority wards
                                                       signposting)


Heart                 of   3                           Outreach         and        Park?
Arbourthorne                                           support       around
                                                       UKOnline Centre
                                                       Part-time   –    18.5
                                                       hours
Norfolk Park Training      2                           2 part-time                 Castle?
and      Employment                                                                Mainly Norfolk Park,
Project                                                                            Arbourthorne,     but
                                                                                   beginning to work
                                                                                   with Gleadless Valley
                                                                                   and Heeley.
Sheffield College          4                           3 in Mosborough             Mosborough
Frecheville                                            Townships;                  Birley?
                                                       1 in Low Edges
                                                       part-time



What do they do?

What exactly do learning champions do? The answer, judging by our
interviews and the questionnaires returned, is a core of functions straddling
several parts of the brokerage chain16:

    ‘Making learning meaningful’: This stage involves working at a deep ‘identity’ level with potential
     learners, and key processes include: engaging with potential learners to develop informed
     understanding, linking learning opportunities to the context of their lives, developing awareness of
     structural barriers, using strategic approaches such as informal learning, and being tactical and
     starting from where people are at.
    ‘Identifying the right learning opportunity’: Successful brokerage involves raising potential learners’
     awareness of meaningful and appropriate learning opportunities and also helping providers to
     develop appropriate provision. Brokerage may help learners down formal pathways, or more
     informally, helping them to create the pathway themselves.
    ‘Promoting learner success’: The brokerage process extends beyond entry into a learning situation
     and includes on-going work with learners and providers e.g. developing appropriate pedagogy and
     curricula, and building social networks of learners.

We can see this more clearly by examining the work of two of these initiatives.

SPELL

SPELL (Supporting People into Employment and Lifelong Learning) is a
voluntary organisation working in the North East of Sheffield, serving the

16
  University of Staffordshire (2003) Learning Brokerage: Building bridges between learners
and providers - Report on Work Package One (unpublished manuscript)

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                                         22
council wards of Southey Green, Owlerton, and some parts of Firth Park and
Nethershire. The area is a designated area of deprivation and as such has
attracted Single Regeneration Budget monies and Objective 1. SPELL runs
one of the two largest employed learning champions schemes in Sheffield,
and the longest established. Despite organisational and funding changes
since it was set up in 2000, SPELL continues to place a high premium on the
value of learning champions to its overall aim which is to support local people
into employment and lifelong learning, with 50% of its staff of 34 accounted for
by the Recruitment and Support, Learning Campaign and Mentoring teams.
Three of the RAS workers are managed by SPELL on behalf of Community
North Forum (CNF), a voluntary body that promotes community involvement
and improvement projects in the adjacent ward of Nethershire..

The champions operate through a rich net of local partnerships including

   Primary and secondary schools
   Sheffield College
   WEA
   Sheffield New Futures
   Sure Start
   GP surgeries and clinics
   Job Centre Plus
   Job Net
   Working Men’s Clubs
   Tenants and Residents Associations (TARAs)
   Churches

Main Ways of Making Contact

Door knocking is a big activity for the Recruitment and Support workers– they
aim to cover the entire area every six months. BW’s first week consisted of
door knocking with a colleague, 100-200 houses a day. Extending the area
covered is a constant aim: CNF now trying new areas such as Wincobank.
RAS workers distribute a brochure about learning opportunities every
fortnight on average through local networks such as TARAs and schools, and
house to house in streets they have recently knocked. Periodic events like
Adult Learners Week awards ceremonies are designed to involve the whole
family.

Word of mouth and knowing the people and the area is vital:
 residents refer you to neighbours
 one worker got talking to a man walking his dog and signed him up for a
  course
 another signed up woman in a florists shop to a floristry course.

DN, who has lived on the Flower Estate for 50 years, says that ‘You can press
information on them because you are not an outsider’. Another (JN): ‘People
come up to you in the supermarket: “I’m doing that course you suggested”’.


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                               23
Successes include a girl with learning difficulties, living alone, who is now
doing a basic skills course, or a woman who signed up for an ESOL course.

Experience over the last four years has demonstrated the need for three
distinctive but interrelated functions The Recruitment and Support Team
provides the bedrock for the whole operation, carrying out promotion
campaigns such as Adult Learners Week events and door knocking. Their
work corresponds to the first two parts of the brokerage chain set out above.

Basic Skills

Working alongside them, and focusing on those who need help with basic
skills is the Learning Campaign Team. Their role includes
:
      Personal skills assessments
      Guidance and enrolment onto a course either at Sheffield College or in the
       community
      One to one and/or classroom support
      Reading support with a reading ‘buddy’
      Summer school (2 days per week July/August)
      The ‘move on’ course to get a level 2 qualification (a 10 week brush up
       and revision course leading to a GCSE equivalent)
      Parent literacy and numeracy classes; helping children with homework.

A typical basic skills student can expect to receive 30 hours of support
through their period of engagement, in addition to course hours:

      Signposting – 1 hr.
      Recruitment – 1 hr.
      Initial assessment – 1 hr.
      Support for retention and achievement – 25 hrs.
      Progression – 2hrs.17

Basic skills has been offered through a variety of outlets including local
primary schools, sweet manufacturer Trebor Bassett (in the works canteen)
and in Parson Cross College during the summer.

The third team, the Learning Mentors, provide support for those who have
committed to a learning programme, typically at level 2 or 3 and above-
promoting learner success, in brokerage terms.

Brokerage and Funding

SPELL’s brokerage role has been changing, largely in response to financial
pressures.

The first shift has been a tighter focus on employability and the local labour
market, reflecting the clear requirements of the funding agencies. Managers
17
     See: Basic Skills Application to LSC,

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                24
talk about the opportunities opened up by Sheffield’s construction boom if they
are geared up to help people into training and apprenticeships. 18 Recent
developments include fast-track vocational courses in computing and the
Equal construction training programme run in partnership with the City
Council’s Employment Unit and Rebuild, a local social enterprise.

Originally set up to broker access for local people into education and training,
SPELL has increasingly come to accept the need to take part in direct delivery
itself. This is for educational and financial reasons:
     Meeting the demand for programmes that are not offered by other
         providers eg non-vocational courses, ESOL
     The need to cover its costs through direct delivery.

So, SPELL’s learning champions are now working to recruit for their host
organisation as well as other providers.

There is also a growing role for SPELL brokering relations between
community initiatives and funding agencies. It has taken on the responsibility
of managing the school-based Raising Achievement Project, the Monteney
Community Workshop and the CNF RAS workers. The Project Manager
chairs ACLAB, the Community-based Learning sub-group of Sheffield First.
Other managers are looked to to build and sustain local childcare planning
and the learning centres network. The organisation also hosts visits from other
local organisations seeking help and advice, and from the Cabinet Office and
DfES.

Quality

SPELL has made good progress on quality:
    It has achieved IiP and MATRIX standards
    it has gained a level 2 rating in its CIF audit.
    It is also working to develop a quality circle though the Common
      Inspection Framework as part of the Learning Centres Network.
    All teams are represented on its Continuous Improvement Group with
      its remit to assess and develop policies and procedures to ensure
      effective service provision.
    SPELL employs a monitoring worker to manage the database which is
      designed to the requirements of the Objective 1 programme, who will
      not only track the outputs but also the progress of the beneficiaries.
    All SPELL employees are required to maintain regular time sheets and
      provide a work report on a monthly basis.
    Annual assessments by external consultants have helped it to improve
      MIS so that it can comply with the reporting requirements of funding
      bodies.
This is a significant achievement and learning experience that other
organisations can and do benefit from.



18
     Interview with Lorraine Snape and Shirley Hallam, 13 May 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                               25
Needless to say, there is still scope for improvement, especially in relation to
data that could be held internally. SPELL’s management information system
has evolved to meet the needs of funding bodies for output and audit
information. But there is a growing interest in tracking student progression and
for the kind of impact data that will help to guide there is little hard data about
managers and staff when it comes to deciding how to target resources. Data
that can provide answers to questions like, are some workers more effective
than others, and is this a reflection of the areas they work or the way they
work?

Training and Development

In the past, SPELL’s learning champions completed the City and Guilds 9281
learning support course, and more recently some RAS workers and learning
mentors as well. In addition, the SPELL/CNF workers have attended periodic
courses such as dyslexia (1 day a week for six weeks) and in-house College
courses. But there is currently no core training programme. Much training is
carried out on the job (‘in at the deep end’) and through shadowing. There is
insufficient time for regular, frequent supervisory sessions, with only three
managers available to supervise 42 staff, but learning champions do work to a
weekly timetable agreed with their supervisor.19 Despite the lack of time for
career development planning, SPELL does provide a valuable springboard
with many staff gaining promotion by moving to other organisations.

If an established and relatively well resourced organisation such as SPELL
experiences such difficulties, it is hard to see how much smaller organisations
can fare any better. Sheffield requires a training and development framework
that can meet the needs of the city’s wide range of learning champion
schemes. We return to this later.

Burngreave Community Learning Campaign
The Burngreave Community Learning Campaign was started in February
2003 to address the problem of the low level of participation in education by
local residents. It was estimated that up to 2500 of the residents needed to
improve their basic skills and 1000 adults required NVQ3 or equivalent to gain
access to further learning or employment. Four ethnic groups predominate
locally: Pakistani, Somali, Yemeni and (mainly poor) White British. Funded
through New Deal for Communities, the core of the Campaign is a team of 18
community learning assistants recruited from local unemployed people who
act as learning brokers. Their job is to help to recruit hard to reach potential
learners and to support them through the initial stages of learning
programmes. This is the largest team of learning champions concentrated in
such a small area in the country as far as we know.20

Partnership is vital to this role, with four school-based community education
coordinators, with Sheffield Futures for IAG, with the City Council’s Adult and

19
     Interview with Lorraine Snape and Shirley Hallam, 13 May 2004.
20
     There are 18 learning champions covering the whole of Sandwell.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                  26
Community Learning Team, with Sheffield College, a course provider for the
assistants and for would-be learners in the area, and Burngreave New Deal
staff. Crucial to the Campaign is its developing relationship with local
community organisations, with which the assistants work closely. The
Campaign lists 41 local organisations with which it collaborates as well as city-
wide agencies.

The community learning assistants divide their time between campaign work
and training. The work involves door knocking, delivering newsletters about
learning opportunities and organising campaign events such as Adult
Learners Week and IT taster sessions. The training enables them to identify
and sign-post people with basic skills problems – this is an area where more
than 100 languages are spoken in addition to English with many recent
arrivals from abroad – and to qualify for higher education through Sheffield
College’ access programme.

The Campaign’s success reflects several factors:
    a multi-ethnic staff team, mirroring the diversity of the population,
     including many language skills
    the size of the team and the resources devoted to the project: £1.266m.
     over the 24 months of the first cohort of assistants – including an
     annual salary with on-costs of £12230.21
    a strong local tradition of community education, including a previous
     initiative – the Community Literacy Campaign – that in many ways laid
     the basis for the Community Learning Campaign and created a local
     hunger for learning
    effective, vigorous and systematic outreach work
    a broad and inclusive partnership to support engagement, outreach,
     advice and provision.

The Burngreave experience highlights a number of issues that need to be
addressed to improve impact.

Brokerage

Although the brokerage chain is already well developed in Burngreave,
especially for ESOL, basic skills and first rung learning, there is still some way
to go in linking learning and employment, and particularly in embedding
employability programmes and links with Job Centre Plus.

Quality

It is also unclear how and to what extent early messages about adapting
provision to local needs are relayed to and acted on by Sheffield College and
other smaller providers. Current record keeping systems, a problem for all
these initiatives, do not facilitate the tracking of individual learners or the


21
  Learning assistant salaries account for just over 30% of projected costs; the rest is
accounted for by management team posts, management costs and running costs.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                             27
detection and analysis of patterns of success and failure. What works is
derived largely from anecdote.

This also applies to what works in terms of engagement and outreach given
that the lack of data about individual assistant’s impact. However, this is
recognised as perhaps the key challenge for the initiative and there are plans
to

‘a) Agree individual delivery targets with each assistant as their share of
overall targets. Members of core staff will also have targets
b) Track individual and team performance, using weekly-planning sheets,
service level agreements, annual plans and agreed targets
c) Construct a wider framework of outputs and planning packages for the
year’.22

Training and Development

As a second cohort is recruited, the initiative is re-designing the training
programme with Sheffield College. There are three lessons from the first
cohort:
    there need to be realistic expectations of the starting level of attainment
       of learning assistants with effective support for basic skills including the
       techniques of learning to learn. In particular, the level 2 English and
       Maths requirement has been a stumbling block for c. 90%23
    more attention needs to be given to essential work skills including
       outreach techniques, basic skills identification and record keeping
    the ratio between learning campaign work and training needs to be
       adjusted from 50:50 to 60:40.

Funding

The success of the Community Learning Campaign in engaging and recruiting
hundreds of local people has generated an increasing demand for learning
that goes beyond existing funding from New Deal and the LSC. But, uniquely,
funding for the Burngreave learning assistants themselves is now assured for
a further two years.

Quantifying the Impact
This section attempts to quantify the impact of Learning Champions initiatives
on
    the champions themselves
    learners
    providers/provision.


22
     Four Year Development Plan , p.8
23
     Phone interview with Jill Raistrick, 16 July 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                  28
Problems with tracking and data collection mean that it is relatively easy to
trace the impact on learning champions and very difficult to do so in relation to
learners and providers. This is an issue that needs to be addressed.

The framework for this section is a set of impact criteria agreed with the
steering group for this project:

    1. Champions – qualifications/employment gained
    2. referrals made to signposting agencies
    3. referrals leading to enrolment, achievement and retention
    4. courses or programmes set up
    5. other changes in provision as result of feedback from LCs. Eg new
       courses; new approaches
    6. long-lasting changes in learning culture – attitudes and behaviour – of
       providers and learners, as measured through baseline survey and
       periodic evaluations


The Learning Champions

SPELL/CNF

What has been the impact of their experience on the learning champions
themselves?

All are besotted with the job:

‘This isn’t work, it’s a passion – being paid is a bonus.’ (DH)

It’s done us all good, given us confidence. We feel part of what’s going on-
people come up to us in the street to discuss their options. (BW)

He adds, significantly, ‘When you get paid to do the job, people take notice.
As a volunteer, you’re only a number’.

Originally, the four RAS workers we interviewed had been an ex-BT engineer,
an admin. assistant at Help the Aged, a community link worker in a local
primary school, and a housewife.

JN sees herself doing the job indefinitely, but others see being a learning
champion as a stepping stone. DH now wants to do a teaching qualification in
basic skills. BW sees himself becoming a tutor or mentor.

Looking at the RAS workers as a group, qualifications include:

   DH - MOS 2OCN credits
   JN - Spanish 1 OCN; MOS 3 OCN
   DP - ECDL; New CLAIT; Delivery of Learning (C&G 7302)
   JP - Intro to the PC; Family Home Visitor
   CB - New CLAIT; NVQ3 Teacher training; ECDL

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                29
   JB - ECDL; OCN2 Spreadsheets; MOS,
   JC - Using the pc OCN 1; word processing OCN 1

One of the current learning mentors employed by SPELL, AC exemplifies the
pathways opened up by integrated local provision. Beginning with entry level
courses at a local school, she went on to complete an HE access course, took
a first class degree and then found employment with SPELL


Burngreave Community Learning Campaign

The experience of working with the Campaign has had a marked effect on
many of the Community Learning Assistants.

ZG describes herself as a ‘High School drop-out’ (of Somali heritage, she was
brought up in Toronto, Canada) who got a fresh start through BCLC.
Unemployed, like the other CLAs when the project started, she is now
completing an HE access course at the College and hopes to go on to do a
social work degree. Has learnt a lot about South Yorkshire, ts de-
industralisation and the social and economic consequences. Would like to see
a centre for Somali young people set up.


Despite teething troubles with the training and access programme for the
Community Learning Assistants, this was the position as of July:
   One person is starting employment this September 04 as a teacher in
      Lincolnshire,
   another CLA is starting a PGCE full time course from Sep 04.
   3 CLAs waiting their GCSE equivalent results
   3 CLAs waiting their counselling course moderation
   1 CLA awaiting Access Course Certificate; 3 CLAs gained 5 credits @
      level 2 & 3 and others gained 4 credits @ level 2 & 3 (Some CLAs still
      have to complete their course work and submit their folders for
      moderation)
   8 CLA are on level 4 access course scheduled to be completed at end
      of July. This course is a Level 1 Degree Equivalent.
   3 CLAs completed CLAIT course
   18 CLAs completed Linkup course @ level 1 & 8 CLAs completed
      Linkup course @ level 2

RS is another drop-out, from science A levels at the College. He ‘went home’
to the Yemen to get married, returned to Sheffield and was recruited as a
volunteer ESOL teacher at the Yemeni Community Centre. Also involved in
youth work with his community and runs an informal learning group at his
mosque. Community leaders encouraged him to apply for a post with the
Community Learning Campaign. Now considering a degree in law or social
science.



Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                            30
Link Up

Link Up, a national scheme that has now ended, was set up to identify and
train volunteers to help support and signpost basic skills students. Link Up
has trained 400 volunteers, more than 50% from deprived wards, since the
project began in November 2002, 83 of whom have gone on to gain the City
and Guilds 9295 Adult Learner Support level 1 qualification and 23 the level
2. Six have gained employment as a direct result of their work with the project,
12 have gone on to qualify as basic skills teachers whilst 10 have gone on to
degree and other courses.

Two particularly interesting cases that show the difficulty of predicting
progression paths are from a cohort of asylum seekers and refugees trained
through the Sheffield College Equal Project. One was a fine art student in her
country of origin and enrolled at Sheffield College on an art course. She says
that taking part in the Link Up training gave her the confidence to go to the
University and enrol on a degree course. Another man from the same group
said having taken part in Link Up had encouraged him to take on a
professional qualification to become a chartered civil engineer, which was his
profession in his country of origin.24


In addition, Link Up has equipped 77 frontline workers from agencies such as
Job Centre Plus and Burngreave Community Learning Campaign (learning
assistants) in basic skills referral techniques.

TR, a local Adult Learners Week award winner, exemplifies the transformatory
experience of being able to help others. In 2001, she enrolled for an
introductory IT course. At the time of the interview (May 2004) she was
employed in the Link Up training team. In between, she had got a reception
job in a local community organisation, helped a friend who was a heroin addict
to exchange drugs for learning (basic English and Maths) and fired up her son
who was now doing well in Y9 at school. Her ambition is to become a solicitor.
PM, convalescing after a major operation, had been persuaded to take up
learning in middle age and had achieved level 2 in English and Maths. He
then signed up as a Link Up volunteer, and was now a union learning rep.
who used the depot notice board to share his thirst for learning with his
workmates. PM had also inspired his son to return to College to do his A
levels.

Sheffield College

In some areas, working as a learning champion offers the opportunity to take
up employment for the first time or after a break. The College’s Community
Learning Assistants based at the Frecheville Centre used the job to make a
career shift eg from Disability Support Coordinator at a university or admin.
worker at the College. Having worked before in related fields or at a similar
level, this group of workers is clear about the improvements they would like to

24
     From a letter from Kathryn McElvanney, joint project manager, Link Up Sheffield, July 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                              31
see in their scheme. They asked for more time for training, more preparation
before starting the job, more team building, more structured and regular
supervision meetings and better working facilities, including own phones and
computers.25

Learners

SPELL/CNF

BW’s successes, that demonstrate the local networking function of
champions, include putting a smallholder in touch with a city farm, supporting
an 89 year old to complete ECDL and helping an elderly lady to get to a lunch
club. These activities build social capital as well as enrolments. It is almost
inconceivable that they could figure in the work programme or priorities of a
conventional IAG agency.

SPELL sampled its records for the two years 2002-2004 to determine the
impact of learning champions on enrolments. They looked at 532 records on a
database of 3398. The pie chart below shows that of this sample, 66% of all
contacts were converted into enrolments and 44% of the sample enrolled
through contact with a learning champion. In other words, learning champions
were responsible for two-thirds of enrolments. If the sample reflected the
entire database of contacts, this would imply that SPELL’s learning champions
were responsible for 1495 enrolments in the past two years.26


                  SPELL: Impact of Learning Champions on Enrolment




                                                         initial contact only 34%

                                                         enrolled through learning
                                                         champions 44%
                                                         enrolled through other means
                                                         22%




25
     Interview with CLAs, 26 May 2004.
26
     Email from Alan Chapman, 26 July.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                        32
Kath started to use SPELL’s Learning Mentor service when she did the Fresh Start
(NVQ2) course at Sheffield college. She went on to do the Humanities and Social
Science Access and has just completed her first year on a Social Work Degree
course. Kath started university in the same year as her youngest son. (different uni's,
different courses, different parts of the country). Her thank you message underlines
the importance of sustained support for mature students:

Well I did it, I reached two course deadlines in a week and I am exhausted. Just
when I thought four weeks ago there is no way that I could possibly work any harder
or put in any extra hours sat at my computer I had to find several more hours a day
from somewhere. I can honestly say that I have never worked as hard in my life or
felt the pressure I have encountered in the last three weeks. That the negative side
the positive is Wow! I feel such a sense of achievement. I am quite
overwhelmed. This year has brought me a new belief in myself and for the first
time in my life I have choices. I w ill always be grateful to you all for your help
and understanding throughout the last two years, as without your support on a
weekly basis I know that I would have dropped out.

Burngreave Community Learning Campaign

Despite a late start, the Campaign has exceeded its enrolment target. In its
first reported period of operation, from Sept 03 to March 04, it contacted 705
learners and enrolled 428, a ratio of 0.6, with an average 23.8 enrolments
per assistant. However, the graph of contacts/enrolments shows a rapid take
off at key enrolment periods (April-May; August-September) that indicates a
capacity for impact that has helped to win the Campaign a second cohort of
21 learning assistants starting September 2004.27 89% of enrolments, for
whom age data is available, are of working age. 76% are between 18-45.
Somali, Pakistani, Yemeni and White British constitute 73.7% of those
contacted whose ethnicity is known. The initative is successful in engaging
with targeted groups who need basic skills support, have few or no
qualifications, and could reasonably expect to qualify to NVQ level 2 or above
and find employment. The Campaign managers intend to move on to identify,
train and support a number of volunteer learning champions to work alongside
the assistants and, in some cases, to become assistants themselves in time.

                                                T ot a l e nr ol me nt s a nd c ont a c t e d l e a r ne r s f or B C LC ,
                                                                         f r om M a r c h 2 0 0 3
                                                                           t o M ar ch 2004

     800
                                                                                                                                                           Enrolled Learners
     700

                                                                                                                                                           Cont act ed Pot ent ial Learners
     600


     500


     400


     300


     200


     100


       0

           M ar -03   A pr -03   M ay -03   J un-03   J ul -03   A ug-03     Sep-03     Oc t -03   Nov -03    Dec -03        J an-04   Feb-04   M ar -04




27
  Graph and data from Four Year Development Plan, Burngreave Community Learning
Campaign, 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                                                                                                                          33
Sheffield College

The Community Learning Assistants scheme (CLA) is the only scheme of its
kind run by the College. Started in September 2002 with Objective 1 funding
(SYFEC), it covers some of the neglected areas of South East Sheffield
including Scowerdons estate, renowned for its level of deprivation, as well as
the more prosperous owner-occupied areas such as Thornbridge. Four CLAs
have engaged 250 learners on taster courses, 150 of them on courses lasting
for 12 hours or more, a considerable achievement in an area with so many
people employed part-time. Learners are typically women and typically aged
50 or over. 20-25% of those enrolled have progressed beyond level 1, an
impressive ratio.

Childcare, a key consideration in community-based learning, is well
understood by the CLAs, all of them whom have children themselves. This is
a job that enables them to work around school hours and child-care
arrangements, theirs and local residents’.

Providers

Learning champions’ experience in Sheffield can provide useful information
for providers about how to tailor provision to meet the needs of people in
deprived communities. To take two examples, with a growing number of
people, especially women, gaining part-time employment, space for 12-15
hour a week courses is being squeezed out, particularly if there is no childcare
laid on. On the other hand, there is anecdotal evidence of an improvement in
attendance and retention of basic skills learners where an adult learner
supporter is helping in the classroom.28 Sometimes, the distance between
learning champions and providers can impede the flow of useful intelligence of
this sort, although occasionally managers of learning champions schemes
themselves may not be able to pay sufficient attention to de-briefing their
workers, immersed as they are in the daily round of trying to fit in too many
activities, ‘managing the College’s ACL provision, running the Centre,
designing large numbers of taster and progression courses and keeping up
with the Community Learning Assistants’, to take one example.29

The main problem, though, is that despite the considerable investment in
learning champions schemes, there has sometimes seemed little appetite on
the part of funders and providers to use them to inform the direction of their
provision. But that is beginning to change. As the College appears to retreat
from community-based provision, with the closure of local centres and the end
of a central adult and community education unit, the Council’s ACL Service
and Employment Unit move forward to plug the gaps in some areas of the
city, working alongside the emerging network of community organisations,
community forums and networks such as Job Net, using NLDC and NRF and
other special funding streams. A key priority for the City Council is helping the

28
     Link Up, op.cit.
29
     Anne Atkins 26 May 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                34
development of a framework for area planning for learning, with close links to
employment and the labour market, that serves the need of the city as a
whole, and not merely the well-funded areas.30 In short, the issue is how to
transfer the relevant experience of SPELL and BCLC to other areas that
cannot count on large scale funding from NRF or Obj1.

This is an ambitious project that encompasses, to name some of the gross
challenges,
    Linking planning for learning with planning for area economic and
       social regeneration through local forums and area committee
    Engaging local residents meaningfully in the planning process
    Establishing effective basic skills assessment, signposting and
       provision
    Achieving quality consistency
    Creating multi-agency teams able to draw in all the necessary services.

This is, increasingly, the context in which learning champions schemes must
learn to flourish.

Cost Comparisons

Discrete projects provide some clues to the costs of outreach work by
SPELL’s learning champions. For example, £25,000 from the Neighbourhood
Learning in Deprived Communities (NLDC) Fund was spent on targeting 200
new learners for non-vocational or first rung courses. This works out at £125
per enrolment. A new contract for basic skills enrolments involves the
employment of four fte campaign workers with a target of 350 new enrolments
at a salary cost of £69,000. In Burngreave, the comparison is with 428
enrolments at an average cost of £150.31 This could be compared with North
Warwickshire and Hinckley College, where champions contacted 537 potential
learners, of whom 120 went on to enrol for a course during the period
February '02-July '03. The total cost was almost £10,000 or just under £80 per
enrolment. In Sandwell, the Council’s learning champions recruited 201 new
learners at an average cost of £106.32 Without detailed comparisons, it is
difficult to know what these figures demonstrate although it may be significant
that the cheapest scheme employed its champions for a mere 3 hours. On the
other hand, the SPELL and BCLC are effectively employment access
schemes with much higher salary costs, and the financing of the SPELL basic
skills programme reflects the harder job of recruiting and keeping such
students.

The average costs in the table below are based exclusively on salary costs
per enrolment.


30
   Interview with Tony Tweedy and Jayne Hawley, 7 July.
31
   The calculation is 428 divided into 50% salary costs - to account for 50% of week
dedicated to access course - over 7 months of £64209.
32
    Learning Champions in the West Midlands (2004), Pearson, Selby and Yarnit, NIACE,
p.21. The arithmetic is 5 champions employed 15 hours a week for 50 weeks at £5.71 an
hour.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                           35
Average Cost per Enrolment

Scheme                  Hours worked            Enrolment   Average cost
North W+H College       3 hours per week        120         £80
Sandwell                15 hours per week       201         £106
SPELL (1st rung)        ?                       200         £125
BCLC                    50%                     428         £150
SPELL        (basic     Full time               350         £197
skills)




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                              36
4. Issues

In this section we identify and explore four sets of issues raised in this part of
the report. They are
 The Brokerage Chain
 Quality
 Training and development
 Funding

In Part Two, we return to these issues with a set of recommendations for
change.

The Brokerage Chain

The Staffordshire brokerage study draws our attention to the need to see the
process as a whole, involving a range of stakeholders and actors, and to see
the importance of strategic brokerage as a means of achieving lasting change
in the learning system.33 If we consider Sheffield, we see
 a well developed set of stakeholders in the post-16 education and skills
    sector
 improving policy and delivery links between sub-regional, city and local
    agencies
 the growing relevance of local learning fora as planning and feedback
    mechanisms
 targeted funding to deliver agreed policy priorities
 two large and well resourced learning champion schemes but some
    smaller ones34

We should also pinpoint a number of weaknesses in the brokerage chain.

If strategic change is the goal, the processes by which it is achieved are
obscure and the contribution of the learning champions to it limited. A peculiar
set of institutional relationships, centring on the LSC, the College and LEA,
inhibits learner-focused change although it has the potential to lead and
accelerate reform. The experience of learning champions only indirectly
informs the policy and planning machinery.

The ultimate goal should be to establish brokerage as part of mainstream
provision providing assured routes into learning for all those who need help.
But this requires an explicit recognition on the part of providers of the value of
feedback from people close to the customers. Despite all the recent talk about
the voice of the learner, learning champions, who offer a useful and direct
source of vital intelligence, largely go unheard in Sheffield. Feedback should
be elicited, collated and analysed regularly by the Learning Champions Forum
and reported just as regularly to Sheffield First for Learning and Employment.

33
   Learning brokerage: Building bridges between learners and providers (2004), Learning and
Skills Research Centre, LSDA, p.63
34
   Not to mention Link Up, a large and effective scheme whose funding has terminated.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                          37
Locally, the picture is very patchy. Although, generally, areas that have
benefited from SRB, Obj1, NRF and even New Deal for Communities have
well developed brokerage arrangements led by local usually voluntary or
community sector agencies, there are still some gaps, wards such as
Brightside and estates such as Scowerdons. There should be a better
correspondence between the NRF list of ten priority wards, seven priority
areas and six priority estates and the distribution of learning champions
schemes.(See the attached listing).

In some areas, where a large number of agencies are locally active, there
may be scope for strengthening the brokerage chain by creating multi-agency
teams, to improve collaboration. Just as transition teams have been set up to
improve collaboration between primary and secondary schools and the
College, multi-agency teams involving learning providers (and learning
champions themselves), Job Centre Plus, health centres and Children’s
Services could bring a family support dimension to the delivery of learning
and other services.

Finally, two tests of the brokerage chain are the availability of IAG and the
effectiveness of progression routes. Currently, there is something of a crisis of
IAG in Sheffield following the semi-collapse of Sheffield Futures and the
award of a new contract to an out of town agency. But, in the view of several
interviewees, there has never been enough quality IAG in the city at large or
in the College. This is a crucial weakness that Sheffield First needs to attend
to.

Progression routes are not easy given the complexity of the English system,
with a multiplicity of providers and qualification systems, each with different
credibility weights. A city-wide framework could be seen by some as the goal
but a more realisable aim would be ‘a city-wide understanding of pathways’.35
One approach would be to map the pathways for specific employment
sectors, such as auxiliary roles in education such as classroom assistants and
learning mentors.

Quality

Despite the fragmentary nature of the data, there is almost enough
quantitative evidence, when taken with the anecdotal material, to make the
case for learning champions in Sheffield. But only barely so.The main gap is
progression data: at best, we know how many enrolments are achieved, but
we rarely know what happens next.

Not surprisingly, therefore, the use of data for service improvement is weakly
established. Not that there is a shortage of paper and forms. SPELL uses four
different forms to satisfy different funding stream requirement. Pensioners
enrolling for a leisure class may be required to complete three forms.



35
     Interview with Gill Blakey, 1 July 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                38
What is required is a cultural change amongst all the stakeholders, towards
gathering quantitative and qualitative data in order to promote service
improvement and only secondarily to satisfy audit requirements. This is in the
spirit of the Government’s compact with the voluntary and community sector,
including the LSC’s Working Together statement, as well as the LSC’s
assault on red tape. The Learning Champions Forum should re-classify itself
mentally as a quality circle and devote itself to the study of service
improvement and the Common Inspection Framework (CIF)

Alongside the cultural change needs to go an overhauling of data systems
and forms.

Training and Development

There are two problems with existing training and development arrangements.

Matching training to local conditions is a strength but the lack of a
standardised training package probably means that project managers have to
spend time unnecessarily on a task that could in part be carried out regionally
or nationally. Union Learning Reps (ULR), after all, are able to draw on
national training programmes that have been tried and tested. Link Up
developed a national training programme.

A lot can be learned from the experience of the ULRs including the
importance of developing a basic skills training programme36, how to conduct
learning needs surveys37 and the value of a national system of accreditation.

The second problem relates to career development. Learning champions
rarely stay long in the same place. Many seize the opportunity to move on,
making best use of the skills, experience, networks and qualifications gained
on the job. But there no defined pathways for them as there are for classroom
assistants, for example, and little clarity about the best way of ensuring that
they can get a foot on the ladder leading to senior posts in education,
regeneration or whatever suits their fancy. This represents a waste of
potential that we can ill afford. There are never enough local residents in a
position to compete for the jobs that pay £20-25,000 a year and above. We
need a systematic approach to this as to all the issues defined here.

Funding

As we reported in a study in the West Midlands:

Unlike the Union Learning Fund, which has now been extended, there is no
dedicated funding stream for community based learning champions. The
main funding issues faced by project managers are uncertainty and
insufficiency. For mainstream providers, there is the option of drawing down
IAG referral fees and LSC enrolment funding to meet the costs of schemes,

36   Union Rep. Survey (2003) York Consulting, for TUC Learning Services), p.25.
37   York Consulting 2003, p.15.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                      39
whereas for voluntary and community organisations, there is a constant need
for inventive juggling of funding streams, a process that devours time at the
expense of more useful activities such as support for champions. Even for
large providers, it is clear from the responses to this survey that setting up and
managing schemes is very time consuming and inadequately covered by the
return from enrolments.38

Despite the uncertainty, and the set-backs, such as the demise of Link Up,
new schemes are in the pipeline, at NUCA and VAS, because the approach
works. We discuss the way forward on funding in Part Two but it is worth
pointing out here the nucleus of a solution which is the conversion of
intermediaries like SPELL into delivery agents. This points to a new division of
labour between first rung providers and the others, and towards a sort of
mainstream funding arrangement for learning champions. But this will always
need to be aided by funding from other sources such as NRF and NLDC.




38
     Learning Champions in the West Midlands (2004), NIACE, p.26.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                 40
Table: The Sheffield Divide

ID                Ward                               Total Hhlds       Hhlds       % of Hhlds
                                                                     Receiving     on Income
                                                                      Income        Support
                                                                      Support

Sheffield District Totals                              221401         38302          17.3%


Wards in IMD Top 10%
       1          Manor                                 5414           1853          34.2%
       2          Southey Green                         5752           1798          31.3%
       3          Park                                  5649           1754          31.0%
       4          Burngreave                            6582           2030          30.8%
       5          Castle                                6457           1897          29.4%
       6          Firth Park                            6964           2027          29.1%
       7          Nether Shire                          6756           1828          27.1%
       8          Darnall                               7852           1803          23.0%
       9          Brightside                            7130           1552          21.8%
       10         Owlerton                              6687           1277          19.1%

                                                       65243          17819          27.3%
                  % of District                        29.5%          46.5%

Areas of Deprivation outside the IMD Top 10% Wards

       11         Broomhall/Sharrow                     2024           823           40.7%
       12         Netherthorpe/Upperthorpe              1967           712           36.2%
       13         Woodhouse                             1387           495           35.7%
       14         High Green                            1671           508           30.4%
       15         Low Edges/Batemoor/Jordanthorpe       4998           1515          30.3%
       16         Gleadless Valley                      4569           1321          28.9%
       17         Woodthorpe                            2022           575           28.4%

                                                       18638           5949          31.9%
                  % of District                        8.4%           15.5%

Additional Smaller Housing Estates with High Levels of Deprivation


       18         Langsett/Burgoyne                     746            297           39.8%
       19         Scowerdons                            522            202           38.7%
       20         Liberty Hill                          693            212           30.6%
       21         Westfield/Halfway                     1280           388           30.3%


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                 41
       22         Newstead/Weakland              747     222         29.7%
       23         Waterthorpe                    488     135         27.7%

                                                4476    1456         30.6%
                                                2.0%    3.8%

                  % of District - Totals        39.9%   65.9%




                                                88357   25224        28.5%




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                   42
PART 2: DEVELOPMENT PLAN

5. Strengthening the Chain

In the Issues section we drew attention to
     a weakness in the strategic brokerage process
     the patchy coverage of learning champions schemes across the city.

Strategic brokerage is vital if the understandings of learning champions and
others in the brokerage process are to be turned into lasting service
improvements. But it can only operate if the key agencies in the city are
signed up to the concept in practice.

If learning champions schemes are worthwhile, they should provide a city-
wide service or at least, a service across all priority areas. The aim should be
to embed and mainstream the service and ensure service equity.

Recommendations

Learning Fora and Strategic Brokerage

One way of making the connection between system change and bottom up
feedback would be to create local bridge teams along the lines of transition
teams linking primary, secondary and further education. The teams would
bring together voluntary and community sector learning providers and
intermediary agencies such as NUCA and SPELL with statutory providers,
IAG and basic skills specialists who would work towards a systematic offer of
entitlement for adult learners, on the model of antenatal care. The teams
would be attached to local learning fora and would together report to ACLAB
on a regular basis. They would require minimal funding, mainly for training.

Learning Champions: Improving Coverage

ACLAB should establish a priority order for setting up learning champions
schemes in all areas of Sheffield and should bid with area panels for funding
from NRF and NLDC to supplement mainstream funds.




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                43
6. Quality, Review and Tracking

The starting point for a discussion about quality is fitness for purpose, and
knowing when it is being achieved. Funding regimes enforce an interest in
quality but it is sometimes mechanical and narrowly focused. The best
approach to quality is learning what is good for the learner and tracking their
progress to ensure that learning programmes are indeed fit for purpose.

All this requires an approach, leadership, skills and resources that are often in
short supply in even the largest organisations, let alone in the small, hard-
pressed voluntary sector projects that provide a base for many learning
champions.

This section reviews the quality issues that directly relate to learning
champions. These are
    The Common Inspection Framework (CIF)
    Record keeping
    Review
    Tracking.

The Common Inspection Framework provides a way of scrutinising the entire
learning cycle within an organisation and therefore of understanding how
learning champions contribute to fitness of purpose in the early stages of the
brokerage process. It also helps to pinpoint what counts as a good learning
experience, a key factor for the learning champion in signposting and
supporting would-be learners. So, it follows, if learning providers want to
understand how to improve the service they offer to learners, learning
champions could be well placed to help given their close and often continuing
contact with learners.

They know what works, why Wadsley Bridge WMC is full every night with 100
people a week enrolled for ICT courses, yet ‘College is a word that frightens
people to death’. How groups recruited through the community stay together,
aiding retention. The importance of not letting people down: the lasting
damage caused when a tutor didn’t turn up for a basic skills course in
Scowerdons, one of Sheffield’s most deprived estates. How to approach
different kinds of people: tasters are not always the answer; sometimes the
right starting point is a local, strongly felt issue.39 This ‘craft’ knowledge is
invaluable, it points the way to a different way of doing things, of transforming
our learning systems, and making them fit for people who were turned off
education at school.

Sadly, we have yet to hear of a provider grasping this opportunity and
descending on learning champions for feedback, let alone enabling them to
play a direct role in devising new courses, as one of the College’s CLAs
suggested.40 A limiting factor, to be honest, is the sometimes poor record

39
     Interview with Anne Atkins, 26 May 2004.
40
     Interview with CLAs, 26 May 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                44
keeping in learning champion schemes. Electronic systems offer vastly
improved opportunities for reviewing and tracking learners’ experiences but
they all depend on the discipline of record keeping and on fit for purpose
recording systems. A feature of the ad hoc nature of post-16 provision is the
lack of common data collection systems alongside an over-dependence on
funding-related audit trails.

To explore these issues in more depth, we decided to look in detail at
SPELL’s experience because it can be expected to be more advanced in its
approach than other smaller voluntary sector agencies by virtue of
    Its longevity
    Its size
    The scrutiny to which it has been subjected.

 SPELL’s system has grown organically, responding to new demands often
from funding bodies. It has not been constructed around current
preoccupations with progression. Tracking individual progress is possible but
only manually so the result is to discourage review.

Externally held and shared data is more problematical for tracking. Sheffield
College’s role in this is clearly crucial since it is the dominant provider of
higher level courses in the city but the College and the local provider or
referral agency systems are far from compatible. There are two main
problems:
     The College uses the LSC individual learner record (ILR) numbering
       system whereas organisations like SPELL, that receive little or non
       formula driven LSC funding have developed their own numbering
       system
     Referring agencies like SPELL, in any case, need to allocate a number
       to referrals before they become enrolments. The result is that SPELL,
       which does use the ILR system for a minority of students, now runs
       two unrelated numbering systems.

Looking more broadly at the entire system, the tracking problem is
compounded by the fact that students entering the FE system at 14+ come
with an individual school number which is also unrelated to the ILR. No
wonder the DfES has set up a working party to devise a national all-age
system that is currently considering the feasibility of using NI numbers as its
base.

A temporary solution would be based on accurate recording of name, date of
birth and postcode but even this depends on the willingness of MIS managers
to carry out time consuming electronic operations to track the progress of
students. The result is that Sheffield knows next to nothing about
     The numbers or provenance of adult students enrolled through local
       agencies and learning champions
     Their performance in comparison with self-referrals.




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                              45
Finally, it is worth asking, what does quality cost? If learning champions are to
become an established part of the learning scene in this country, it would be
useful to set a range of unit costs for referrals and enrolments. But intelligent
information of this kind demands an effective review and tracking system.

Recommendations

Data isn’t everything and the first step is to bring about an improvement in
quality systems across the voluntary and community learning sector, the
intention behind the proposal from an ACLAB sub-group to create two new
posts funded by NLDC. However, improved MIS systems cannot be long
delayed since these are essential to understanding the impact of learning
programmes. Radical reforms are costly and run the risk of being overturned
by changes required by funding bodies to counting systems. That is why data
sharing is not a realistic option at present. But there are three cheaper options
worth considering.

Our recommendation is to set up

3. learner centred system re-design

This involves analysing the information needs of agencies like SPELL that
combine the functions of outreach/referral through learning champions and
direct delivery, and designing a system that can
     report on internal learner progress
     provide reports for funding bodies
     be used to cross-reference the College system through name,
       postcode and date of birth
at the same time attempting to negotiate a simplification of paper trail
requirements so that there is one form for all enrolment purposes with optional
additional sections where these are required for European funding. The costs
are
     consultancy to design and implement the system
     training staff to operate it
     paying staff to re-input data.

4. A sample review and tracking procedure

A lot of useful intelligence can be gleaned by tracking individual students
through the system, looking for explanations for success and failure. Learning
champions could reasonably be expected to follow through a sample of the
students they had referred on through their own organisation and through
other providers as part of their normal working practices. The advantages of
this approach, apart from comparative simplicity, are that
 champions get to find out for themselves how their contacts have fared
 they are stimulated to consider the effectiveness of the brokerage process
 by learning at first hand the workings of other agencies, they are able to
    provide informed feedback.

3. Exchange of effective practice
Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                46
One of the most effective quality improvement systems is benchmarking, by
comparing one’s practice with others and asking searching questions about
approaches and processes. Quality circles using this technique have made
their mark in industry across the world. We recommend that the Learning
Champions Forum reconstitutes itself as a Quality Circle, with members acting
as each other’s ALI inspectors, carrying out audits, identifying good and bad
practice and understanding how to spread the first and eradicate the second.
Learning champions as well as managers, naturally, would form the
membership.

4. Building in Feedback

If learning champions have valuable information – qualitative and quantitative
– about what works and what needs changing, it is important to create a
systematic approach to collating, analysing and making use of it. We believe
that the mechanism for doing this is for the Forum to compile up regular
‘intelligence’ reports, drawing on all sources of information, and for these to be
considered as a standing item at Sheffield First for Learning and Work or one
of its sub-groups.

Sandwell: Another Approach

Each local learning co-ordinator will be responsible for providing information to the
learning panel on provision on each town, gaps, and identifying new ways of
attracting more people into learning. Some of this information will come from the
learning champions, who will be recruited from the local community they serve, so
that they have an empathy with them, and will be able to get then engaged,
particularly hard to reach groups. This local intelligence will help the panels decide
what is needed for their local community, and they will devise activity to address
these needs as well as making recommendations to the LP, who in turn will inform
the local LSC of the findings, thus giving the LSC a true picture of what is happening
at a very local level. This in turn will help inform and shape the local LSC's strategic
planning process.




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                      47
7. Training and Development

This section sets out
 Some criteria for designing a training and career development programme
   for learning champions in Sheffield
 Proposals for such a programme
 Funding and delivery arrangements
 Next steps

Criteria

A multiplicity of training programmes are in use in learning champion
initiatives, judging by work carried out in Sheffield and the West Midlands.41
Although these programmes have often been designed to reflect local need
and conditions, it is not always clear that

    The content takes proper account of the context in which learning
     champions operate
    They mesh effectively with on-the-training
    They promote progression and career development
    Consideration has been given to using or adapting existing and related
     programmes

On the other hand, where courses have proved their worth they should
continue to be used or adapted.

These points provide the basis for a set of criteria that could provide the
framework for designing a training and career development programmer in
Sheffield.

Context

There are several key features of the context in which learning champions
operate that need to be reflected in training and career development
programmes:

Sustainable learning culture

It is vital to set the overall context: learning champions are primarily about
helping to create a sustainable learning culture, and only secondarily to help
learning providers to achieve government targets. Jane Thompson neatly
summarises what matters:

Lifelong learning will be most purposeful when it is related to the ordinary
concerns of everyday life, and it is not seen as something that other people

41
  See the listing carried out by Trish Sharp (Sheffield Futures) and the appendix to Learning
Champions in the West Midlands, NIACE, March 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                             48
do, or which is irrelevant. It will be most engaging when it captures the
imagination, encourages emotional involvement and provides for the
satisfaction of unfulfilled desires. It will be most sustained when it gets results
in the form of palpable personal, social and political changes.42

The issue was summed up in an interview with a learning champion in
Sheffield:

She: It’s very difficult when you go into a house where there’s 10 people living
in three rooms. They’re not really interested in enrolling for a course. Their
main concern is doing something about their housing or getting a better job so
that they can get somewhere better.

Me: Were you able to suggest a course that would help them to do that or get
them involved in a community housing campaign?

From this it follows that an important feature of a programme must be a focus
on community engagement for learning.

Another important feature of sustainability is skills: learning champions need
to be equipped to help others to acquire or develop learning skills including
how to learn effectively alone and with others as well as skills for life (literacy,
numeracy and IT).

Brokerage Chain

As we noted earlier, learning champions operate most effectively as a link in a
brokerage chain, rather than in isolation. They need to understand how that
chain works best but also how it operates locally and how to deal with its weak
links. They need to understand the complementary roles that are carried out
up and down the chain by learning mentors and guidance workers, for
example.

Partnership Structures

The everyday reality of the learning champion is their encounter with a wide
range of local organisations: funding bodies, schools, IAG networks, specialist
support agencies, learning providers. Learning how to collaborate and to work
through partnerships is a core skill.

Diversity, Flexibility and Integration

Sheffield is an increasingly diverse place. Training and development
programmes need to reflect the diversity of learners and of learning
champions themselves who come to the work from a wide variety of
backgrounds and with very different skills and qualifications. Command of
English is an important issue for many learners and champions, as is basic

42
  Quoted in Learning Brokerage: Building Bridges between Learners and Providers, Learning
and Skills Research Centre, 2004, p.34.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                        49
skills generally. English and Maths has been a stumbling block for many of the
Burngreave Community Learning Assistants as well as for Link Up volunteers.
To qualify for the level 2 City and Guilds 9295 in Adult Learner Support, many
Link Up volunteers have first qualified through the Move on programme. On
the other hand, it is important to remember, there is a growing number of
champions and learners qualified to degree and post-graduate level.

The inescapable conclusion is that programmes increasingly must be
individualised or personalised around common or core elements.

In addition, given the diversity of learning champion initiatives themselves, a
Sheffield approach to training and career development must be a flexible an
integrated package that makes the most of the opportunities for
 collaboration, social cohesion and shared learning across the city
 sharing resources and costs
whilst ensuring that the needs of individual initiatives are properly addressed.

On the Job Training

Sometimes despite the best intentions of scheme managers, much of the
training on existing initiatives is informal and on the job, sometimes with no
clear linkage with formal accredited programmes. It is clear that a major
training resource is other learning champions and the day to day work. Recent
research suggests that this type of activity can be more useful in improving
employees’ performance than attending training courses.43 On the job
training needs to be defined as part of an integrated programme and properly
designed, assessed and accredited. A major element of such a programme is
an evidence-based approach to self- and group assessment in order to
improve effectiveness. A further element is an individual learning plan rooted
in the day to day on the job experiences of the learning champions.

Progression and Career Development

A critical issue for learning champions is recognition. Most do the job for
relatively short periods, sometimes because project funding runs out,
sometimes because they desire to move on to a new, perhaps better paid job.
They need to be able to convert a valuable experience into a career asset by
being able to achieve a qualification, and they need support in thinking
through a career path. An OCN certificate enables them to build up a portfolio
of experiences and knowledge although it may carry less weight with some
employers than a conventional qualification issued by a known awarding body
such as City and Guilds.

But more than a certificate, what is required is a recognition framework, as a
report for the Neighbourhood Renewal Unit argues, so that

 experience in neighbourhood renewal can be recognised
43
 See for example Expanding Learning in the Workplace, NIACE and the Centre for Labour
Market Studies, University of Leicester, 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                      50
 occupational standards and vocational qualifications in neighbourhood
  renewal can be set out and agreed
 learning providers offering programmes in neighbourhood renewal
  accredited.44

Such a framework is developing for classroom assistants but for learning
champions progress is slower partly because there is as yet no government
recognition of the importance of the role.

Existing Programmes

As well as programmes that have been developed specifically for learning
champions, there are a number of other programmes that are relevant. Both
should be considered before work begins on designing a new programme.
The criteria set out here provide a framework for deciding what is worth
adapting and re-using.

Specific Programmes

Specific existing programmes fall into several main categories:
   Community teaching and learning
   Specific skills
   Community development and engagement.

The tables below provide some examples of these courses.

Community Teaching and Learning

C+G9295 Adult Learner Support                   Dudley College of Technology
                                                Sheffield College for Burngreave
                                                Community Learning Assistants
                                                Link Up volunteers
Community Learning Champion Work                Sandwell Council
NVQ 2/3
Adult Learner Support level 2 Link Up Sheffield/
certificate                          Stoke on Trent
Certificate in Teaching Basic Skills Link Up (level 3)
                                     SHU (level 4)
Introduction to Teacher Training     SPELL delivered by the WEA
C+G 7302
Volunteer Tutor Training             SAVTE (Refugee Education                      and
Level 2,3                            Training Programme)




44
  Realising the Potential: Recognising Residents Achievement in Neighbourhood Renewal
(2003), NIACE, p.5 or at: http://www.neighbourhood.gov.uk/sandk.asp?pageid=36. The
reference to neighbourhood renewal is overly prescriptive in the context of learning
champions but the general point stands,


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                      51
We should also note the tailor-made programme developed by the WEA for
the Community North Forum Learning Champions for which there is also a
draft evaluation framework. (See below)

Specific Skills

Community Work OCN                              Greets Green New        Deal   for
                                                Communities, Sandwell
Advice and Guidance                             Sheffield Futures
Levels 2,3,4
Mentoring                                       learndirect
Not accredited
Peer Mentoring and Tutoring                     RCAT
OCN level 1

Community Development and Engagement

Access to Community Work                        Sheffield College
Community Work Skills                           SPRAC
Levels 1,2,3

No doubt, these contain in whole or in part, a useful basis for a learning
champion programme for Sheffield but a systematic review and mapping
exercise is required to determine which exactly.

Sandwell: Another Approach

A key component of the Sandwell approach to training has been mentoring
so that learning champions can become aware of their strengths. External
input included the CEDC Introductory Course that places their work in national
context. In addition, the champions decided to follow the accredited course
offered by CEDC at level 3. This involves gathering evidence for a portfolio
that can be used towards a further qualification. A focus of this course is the
development of local learning plans. Finally, there was a tailor-made course,
Dealing with Difficult Situations, designed for the scheme by Quatford
Management Consultancy.

Related training programmes

There are a several related programmes that need to be considered either to
ensure complementarity or because they provide a framework or elements
that should be adopted.

The issue of complementarity arises where learning champions may be
working alongside others carrying out related roles in the brokerage chain or
where there are parallel career paths. Examples of these include learning
mentors (adult and school based), classroom assistants and union learning
reps. Given that training programmes and career paths for an increasing
number of ancilliary or paraprofessional roles in schools and the NHS are

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                  52
becoming well defined, learning champions should be able if they wish to
move in these directions. Otherwise, local residents risk being excluded from
the estimated 12,000 regeneration jobs that Objective 1 is expected to
produce, as the Council’s Community and Adult Learning Team has argued. 45
Therefore, the proposed training programme should provide the basis for
either moving
 onto the next stage of employment and learning in adult and community
    learning eg to teaching in FE
 into other career paths eg teaching in schools or health promotion
 onto further or higher education, as the Burn greave Community Learning
    Assistants’ programme is designed to do.

It should open up new and broader horizons and – let’s not mince words -
ensure that participants are well placed to compete for well paid jobs in
regeneration and other fields.

Complementarity is important in another sense: whatever is developed for
Sheffield should be capable of replication elsewhere, especially in South
Yorkshire given that funding for this programme is likely to come in part from
Objective 1 and the LSC. Conversely, where there are relevant programmes
that work well they should be considered seriously as the basis for this new
programme.

Examples of useful frameworks include the Northern College animateur
programme, Sheffield LEA training programme for classroom assistants and
the skills and knowledge programmes for neighbourhood renewal based on
the Learning Curve.

To summarise

The criteria set out here suggest a programme that
 is strongly rooted in the local context and the brokerage process
 takes account of diversity and balances integration and flexibility
 integrates on the job and formal learning, supported by individual learning
   programmes
 promotes progression and career development through a portable
   qualification
 is complementary to and draws where relevant on existing and related
   programmes
 is replicable.

Proposals

The proposal, that takes account of the criteria set out above, is for an
integrated accredited programme comprising
 a core programme that can be delivered in a number of locations across
    the city with certain optional or specialist elements

45
     Objective One: Getting Local People into Regeneration Jobs, internal paper, late 2000.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                                 53
   induction and on the job learning backed up by an individual learning plan
    with career guidance delivered in the workplace.

Integrated means that the content of the two elements is linked, and that both
contribute towards a qualification.

What is now required is a logical framework setting out the
 Overall outcome
 Project purpose
 Outputs
 Activities
 Project activity resource requirement.

It should set out a path for making decisions about the key issues to be
determined:

Off the peg or newly designed or a combination of both: a balance needs to
be struck here taking into account factors such as suitability of content and
process, the value of an existing qualification, the costs of developing a new
qualification. Two options here are to use the existing City and Guilds
certificates - C+G 7302 Introduction to Teacher Training and C+G 9295
Volunteer Teacher Certificate. 7302 has proved its worth for the SPELL
learning champions whilst the 9295, with its emphasis on basic skills, seems
well suited to the Burngreave community learning campaign.

Content: what should be the balance in the core and on the job training
elements between teaching and learning, community engagement, brokerage
and partnership working? How closely should the on the job element be linked
to the core? How in particular should local induction training be articulated
with the rest of the programme? Should there be a shared residential
element? A major consideration here is the amount of time that can safely be
dedicated to training in what is often a short working week. Differences in
employment practices inevitably mean that training programmes must be
tailored to the needs of individual projects.

The City and Guilds qualifications referred to above need to be mapped
against a clear definition of what is required for on the job training and
induction training.

What should constitute the core? There are a number of models. It is useful to
compare the Community North Forum programme developed by the WEA
with that offered by the TUC for workplace learning reps.

Community North Forum                           TUC
Basic skills                                    Basic skills
Learning providers in Sheffield
IAG                                             IAG
Learning champion’s role                        Introduction to the Role of Trade Unions
                                                in Workforce Development
Learning styles, learning to learn              Learning Needs Analysis

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                       54
Effective communication; dealing with
conflict
Group project (self-selected)
                                                NVQs and Assessment
                                                E-learning and Learndirect


How should delivery be organised? Should there be several programmes at
intervals throughout the year? Should there be a number of delivery points or
just one?

An Option

Given the differences in the structure and working arrangements between
schemes, it will be difficult to achieve much more than an agreement to share
resources and training programmes where possible. Nevertheless, it could be
helpful to map out a broad approach. One way forward would consist of:

    5. a recognition framework
           a. that includes an achievement portfolio comprising a certificated
              course such as City and Guilds and a new OCN unit that takes
              account of learning through an induction course and on the job
              training and which is compatible with similar programmes for
              classroom assistants, learning mentors and basic skills support
              workers
           b. endorsed by Sheffield First so that it begins to achieve employer
              currency
    6. a City and Guilds Certificate, either 9295 or 7302, or a derivative such
       as the WEA OCN course devised for Community North Forum ,
       delivered at such times and places as to encourage enrolment by
       learning champions from more than one scheme
    7. an induction course delivered within each scheme comprising
           a. common elements: eg Transforming Adult and Community
              Learning Sheffield; role of learning champions;           learning
              providers, basic skills and IAG in Sheffield
           b. local element: the local area plan; our aims and objectives
    8. On the job element through individual work, regular supervision
       sessions, team discussions on practice, visits to other schemes:
           a. scheme objectives; building our understanding of effective
              working- a framework for continuously evaluating our work (links
              back to overall objectives/targets and LSC/ALI quality framework
           b. individual objectives based on above; individual learning and
              progression plan
           c. improving literacy, numeracy and IT through day to day tasks eg
              keeping records of referrals and following them up
           d. team working; working in the community – reflecting on effective
              practice




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                55
8. Funding

Learning champion schemes are notoriously prone to cash crises because of
their dependence on short-term, special funding. The result is
    Too much manager time spent on writing and negotiating funding bids
    Improvised and inadequate infrastructure eg poor monitoring systems
    Insufficient money often to attract people to work as champions who
       need a full time salary and to pay childcare fees

In practice, there are two sustainable ways of funding learning champion
schemes:
1. through a learning provider that is able to draw down a combination of LSC
   formula funding, IAG referral fees and special funding such as NRF.
   Sheffield College’s Frecheville-based scheme uses LSC, IAG referrals and
   SYFEC (Objective 1) funding for training
2. through an intermediary agency becoming a provider itself in partnership
   with an LSC contract-holder, drawing down a share of provider formula
   funding as well as special funding such as NLDC and Objective 1. This in
   part is SPELL’s arrangement with VCTrain.

There is no indication that the DfES or LSC is considering allocating national
funds to support learning champions schemes although that might change
were the case to be made more effectively and the political profile raised. The
national Workforce Development (WfD) action plan proposed the extension of
ULRs to non-unionised workplaces and hinted at a community dimension that
we quote in full46:

The DfES has been running 20 pilot projects targeting guidance services on
priority client groups, including: the low skilled; ethnic minorities; and people in
areas of multiple deprivation. Services include outreach and one-to-one
guidance provision, basic skills support, mentoring and work through
community groups. As part of their local strategic plans, LLSCs will review the
guidance services available in the locality and identify priority client groups
requiring more in-depth support.

Guidance for Labour Market entrants

Moving into work represents an opportunity for individuals to develop their
skills and improve their long-term prospects. IAG about learning can help
make the most of this opportunity by allowing people to make informed
decisions about their personal development. The LSC, in collaboration with
Jobcentre Plus, is currently considering producing materials to provide
information on sources of advice about learning for people moving into work.
These products could be used by Jobcentre Plus and workplace Learning


46                                      st
  See In Deamnd: Adult Skills for the 21 Century at http://www.number-
10.gov.uk/su/wfd_2/report/annex01.htm


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                   56
Champions. Development and feasibility work will be undertaken in early
2003, with any roll-out taking place in 2003/04.

Sadly, the Skills White Paper, which incorporated much of the thinking in the
WfD action plan, did not take the matter any further and it has been left to
individual LSCs to decide whether or not to prioritise the funding of learning
champions.      South Yorkshire LSC, recognising the value of learning
champions schemes to widening participation, has funded the SPELL basic
skills scheme but is reluctant to prioritise learning champion schemes across
the board.

Elsewhere in the UK, LSC in the Black Country and Hampshire and the Isle of
Wight have decided to fund local schemes. The Black Country LSC provided
£56,000 from NLDC to fund seven learning champions in Sandwell and Tipton
and has now agreed to extend the programme across the whole of Sandwell,
supporting one learning coordinator and 3 learning champions in each of the
six towns that go to make up the Borough.



Sandwell: Another Approach

Sandwell historically has a record of low participation in learning and low educational
achievement. The local LEA, in collaboration with the partners on the Learning
Partnership developed a strategy for increasing participation in learning by
reconfiguring its Adult Education Service so that it was able to incorporate other
providers who could offer a wider range of provision that would be more attractive
and accessible to the local community. This was the foundation for the Community
and Family Learning Network.

How it works

The borough is made up of six towns, which in a lot of respects are independent of
each other, particularly around the make up of their respective local community, and
their needs. So the strategy created six local learning panels, made up of
representatives from both providers and the community.

Each panel has the support of a local learning co-ordinator, who in turn has three
local learning champions supporting them. These posts were part funded by the local
LSC through their Neighbourhood Learning in Deprived Communities Fund, which
had been delegated to the LP for distribution, with additional resources from the
NRF. Each panel has a local learning network of providers including FE colleges,
Adult Education centres, 'extended schools', private providers, and voluntary
organisations who deliver learning. 47




47
     See http://www.lea.sandwell.gov.uk/cfl/good-cfn.htm


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                     57
So far as we are aware, there are no models elsewhere to add to the two with
which this chapter begins, although there is at least one local LSC in the West
Midlands and one local provider in Sheffield who are considering how a
fraction of formula funding could be transferred to recompense intermediary
agencies for their outreach efforts. This is unlikely to add up to a viable
business model but it could provide a handy income in combination with an
LSC contract for direct provision or via a consortium arrangement. We would
recommend exploring the potential of this approach. SPELL estimates that it
referred 856 students to Sheffield College over the past two years. If the
College were to pay a recruitment fee of, say £75, reflecting around 50% of
the average cost of enrolments via learning champions, that would have
raised £64,200, a useful contribution to the costs of the learning champion
programme, and a relatively small proportion of the income drawn down by
the College.



LSC Hampshire and Isle of Wight

LSC Hampshire and Isle of Wight (LSC HIoW) are investing £250,000, ring-fenced
from their ESFallocation, in four voluntary sector capacity building projects in
Basingstoke, New Forest, Southampton and Portsmouth. Planned activities include
raising awareness of LSC opportunities and requirements; tailored support packages;
website; quality improvement toolkit and self-help network.

LSC HioW are pursuing a number of related initiatives set out in their Strategic Plan,
such aslearning champions (a project to develop 250 individuals to encourage
reluctant learners to take up ‘first rung’ opportunities) .48



If this type of discussion gets underway, it will be important to be able to
specify the costs and benefits of learning champions in terms of widening
participation and improving skill and qualification levels. This report goes
some way towards providing that information but a more detailed costs-
benefits analysis is required using more systematically collected performance
data.

Perhaps the best opportunity is offered by the emergence of area planning
and community forums and the City Council’s desire to develop a model for
community-based learning provision closely attuned to labour market trends.
The Learning Champions Forum needs to address this policy steer with
urgency and vigour and consider how best to relate to it. Certainly, this is what
its individual members are doing: NUCA’s planning is a model of its kind.

Nevertheless, and given the difficulties in reaching funding sharing
agreements with major providers, it may be that the best hope for the spread
of learning champions schemes in Sheffield is by voluntary and community
sector agencies themselves becoming providers of first rung learning, sub-
48
     See http://www.educe.co.uk/pages/Finding_Mutual_Advantage.pdf


Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                      58
contracting with larger agencies to do so, so that they can draw down
mainstream funding. One disadvantage of that approach, as one of the
College’s Community Learning Assistants points out, is that you are
constrained to recruiting for your employer.49

This is a matter that goes beyond the remit of this report, but it may be that
the way forward is for the College to relinquish all first rung provision in the
city and for this to be delivered through one or more contracts with other
agencies such as the City Council’s ACL Service, the WEA or VCTrain with a
suitable share going to intermediary bodies that provide learning champion
schemes. This is not an argument for dispensing with the College’s services.
Sheffield College is a major and effective provider especially of vocational
education, at levels 2 and above.. It is, rather, an argument, for providers
doing what they do best.

Recommendation

The Learning Champions Forum should seek the agreement of local providers
through Sheffield First for Learning and Work to establishing an enrolment fee
to help cover the cost of learning champions schemes.

ACLAB and Sheffield First for Learning and Work should give serious
consideration to reserving some part of NRF and NLDC to fund learning
champion schemes, following the Sandwell model.




49
     Interview with CLAs, 26 May 2004.

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                               59
Appendices

Methodology

This study was carried out using a combination of
    Desk research
    Face to face and phone interviews
    Questionnaires to collect information about each project
during the period May-July 2004. There were three meetings with the project
steering group to report progress and refine the focus.

Interviewees

Who                             When            Why
Shirley Hallam/Lorraine         13 May          Questionnaire: key issues for managers
Snape and LCs:                                  and learning champions; individual
Jayne Needham                                   histories; evidence of impact
Diane Herbert
Doreen Newbould
Barry Wood

SPELL/CFN
Ann Atkins and LCs              26 May          Questionnaire: key issues for managers
Naomi Hinch                                     and learning champions; individual
Fiona Hammond                                   histories; evidence of impact
Pat Bestall
Kathryn Taylor

Sheffield College
Kate Roberts and                26 May          Questionnaire: key issues for managers
volunteers:                                     and learning champions; individual
Teresa Roche                                    histories; evidence of impact
Peter Molloy
Doreen Payne
Philip Allen

Link-Up
Abi Goodman                     10 June         To discuss key issues in setting up
NUCA                                            proposed scheme
Jenny Patient                   10 June         To discuss ACL role in city-wide
ACL                                             developments
Mary Blacka                     24 June         To review survey data, training for
SACLS                                           employment (Getting Local People into
                                                Regeneration Jobs) and related issues

Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                       60
Tony Belmega                    1 July          To consider mainstreaming and funding
LSCSY                                           models
Gill Blakey                     1 July          To discuss tracking and training
Sheffield College               (by phone)
Ghassan Dalai and CL            6 July          Questionnaire: key issues for managers
Assts.:                                         and learning champions; individual
Zahra Gamal                                     histories; evidence of impact
Rafiq Saleh

Burngreave CL Campaign
Andy Cocker                     7 July          To discuss tracking and MIS issues
SPELL (MIS)
Tony Tweedy and Jayne           7 July          To clarify learning champions’ position in
Hawley                                          the City Council agenda and to discuss
SCC                                             mainstreaming and funding models
Mary Blacka and Jenny           8 July          To discuss a training programme
Patient
Pam Ryder                       16 July         ULRs in Sheffield
                                (by phone)
Jill Raistrick                  16 July         Training programmes for learning
                                (by phone)      champions in Burngreave and SPELL
John Taylor                     2               To clarify learning champions position in
Sheffield College               September       the College and Sheffield First agendas
                                                and to discuss mainstreaming and
                                                funding models

In addition, the following completed questionnaires:

Anne             Atkins        Sheffield College
Ghassan          Dhalai        BCLC
John             Farmer        VAS
Abi              Goodman       NUCA
Shirley          Hallam        SPELL
Sue              Law           Norfolk Park Employment Training
Kathryn          McElvanney,   Link Up Sheffield
Jol              Miskin        WEA
Jenny            Patient       Academy of Community Leadership
Kate             Roberts       Link Up Sheffield
Tony             Slatcher      Heart of Arbourthorne
Lorraine         Snape         SPELL
Glynn            Stones         Base Green TRA and
                                Handsworth
                                Forum




Learning Champions: A Vital Link in the Chain                                         61
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