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kardiovaskulaere_anatomie by linxiaoqin

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 7

									                                                                    human anatomy & physiology
                                                                        sampler questions
Please note that there are questions within this set that test material that may not have been covered in your
lecture; unless otherwise specified, lecture examinations will only include material covered within lecture. You
should attempt to answer all the questions before resorting to the answer key.


                                         Cardiovascular anatomy
1.          The foramen ovale:
            a.     connects the two atria in the fetal heart.
            b.     is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close.
            c.     is a shallow depression in the interventricular septum.
            d.     is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus.
2.          Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the:
            a.     trabeculae carneae.
            b.     pectinate muscles.
            c.     papillary muscles.
            d.     venae cavae.
3.          Select the correct statement about the heart valves.
            a.      The mitral valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
            b.      The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle.
            c.      Semilunar valves control the flow of blood into the heart.
            d.      The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that they do not blow
                    back up into the atria during ventricular contraction.
4.          Which   vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole?
            a.      venae cavae
            b.      pulmonary artery
            c.      aorta
            d.      pulmonary veins
5.          Which   of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?
            a.      AV node
            b.      bundle of His
            c.      AV valve
            d.      SA node
6.          The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to:
            a.     accommodate a greater volume of blood.
            b.     expand the thoracic cage during diastole.
            c.     pump blood with greater pressure.
            d.     pump blood through a smaller valve.




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7.    Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle:
      a.    has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium.
      b.    lacks striations.
      c.    has more nuclei per cell.
      d.    cells are larger than skeletal muscle cells.
8.    Stenosis of the mitral valve may initially cause a pressure increase in the:
      a.     venae cavae.
      b.     left ventricle.
      c.     pulmonary circulation.
      d.     coronary circulation.
9.    Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they:
      a.     have gap junctions.
      b.     have end walls.
      c.     have I and A bands.
      d.     have intercalated disks.
10.   Blood   enters which of these vessels during ventricular systole?
      a.       aorta
      b.       pulmonary arteries
      c.       pulmonary vein
      d.       aorta and pulmonary arteries
11.   When holding a dissected heart in your hands, it is easy to orient the right and left
      side by:
      a.     tracing out where the vena cava enters the heart.
      b.     noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls.
      c.     locating the aorta.
      d.     finding the pulmonary semilunar valves.
12.   Cardiac muscle:
      a.     has fewer mitochondria than skeletal muscle.
      b.     relies mostly on glycolysis for energy.
      c.     has sarcomeres with A bands and I bands.
      d.     can operate for long periods without oxygen as long as lactic acid is present.
13.   Select the correct statement about the structure of the heart wall.
      a.      The fibrous skeleton forms the bulk of the heart.
      b.      Connective tissue in the heart wall aids in the conduction of the action
              potential.
      c.      The heart chambers are lined by the endomysium.
      d.      The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts.
14.   Blood   within the pulmonary veins returns to the:
      a.       right atrium.
      b.       left atrium.
      c.       right ventricle.
      d.       left ventricle.




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15.   The pericardial cavity:
      a.     is another name for the chambers of the heart.
      b.     is a space between the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium.
      c.     is the region of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart.
      d.     contains a lubricating fluid called serous fluid.
16.   Blood   is carried to capillaries in the myocardium by way of:
      a.       the coronary sinus.
      b.       the fossa ovalis.
      c.       coronary arteries.
      d.       coronary veins.
17.   The term ductus venosus refers to:
      a.     a fetal shunt that bypasses the lungs.
      b.     damage to the valves in the veins, leading to varicose veins.
      c.     a condition of the aged in which the arteries lose elasticity.
      d.     a special vessel that allows blood to bypass the liver.
18.   The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called:
      a.     muscular arteries.
      b.     elastic arteries.
      c.     arterioles.
      d.     venules.
19.   Which   of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?
      a.      superior vena cava, right atrium, and left ventricle
      b.      right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
      c.      left ventricle, aorta, and inferior vena cava
      d.      right atrium, aorta, and left ventricle
20.   The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the:
      a.     elastic arteries.
      b.     muscular arteries.
      c.     arterioles.
      d.     capillaries.
21.   The term blood islands refers to:
      a.     embryonic masses of mesodermal cells that give rise to the endothelial
             lining of blood vessels.
      b.     the regions of the liver where nutrients are extracted from visceral blood.
      c.     areas of the vascular system where blood does not circulate.
      d.     the areas of the pancreas where insulin is produced.
22.   Which   statement best describes arteries?
      a.       All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
      b.       All carry blood away from the heart.
      c.       All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
      d.       Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.




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23.   Which   tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
      a.       tunica interna (intima)
      b.       tunica media
      c.       tunica externa
      d.       tunica adventitia
24.   The hepatic portal vein:
      a.    is actually an artery.
      b.    carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver.
      c.    carries oxygen-rich blood from the liver to the viscera.
      d.    carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava.
25.   Which   of the following is true about veins?
      a.      Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.
      b.      Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.
      c.      Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.
      d.      Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
26.   Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse
      connective tissue layer.
      a.     tunica intima (interna)
      b.     tunica media
      c.     tunica externa
      d.     tunica adventitia
27.   Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called:
      a.     sinuses.
      b.     sinusoids.
      c.     thoroughfare channels.
      d.     anastomoses.
28.   Which   of the following has an anastomosing vessel?
      a.      retina
      b.      kidney
      c.      heart
      d.      spleen
29.   Which   of the following is not a blood vessel forming the circle of Willis?
      a.      anterior cerebral artery
      b.      posterior cerebral artery
      c.      posterior communicating artery
      d.      anterior communicating artery
30.   Venous anastomoses:
      a.    often occlude, causing death if located in a vital area.
      b.    connect veins together along their entire length.
      c.    form more freely than arterial anastomoses.
      d.    occur only in the brain.




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31.   Fenestrated capillaries:
      a.     are not more permeable than continuous capillaries.
      b.     are not common in endocrine organs and in areas where capillary absorption
             is an important function.
      c.     do not occur in the glomerular capillaries of the kidneys.
      d.     are not found in the brain.
32.   Continuous capillaries:
      a.     have oval pores to facilitate the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues.
      b.     are abundant in the skin and skeletal muscles.
      c.     have a thin layer of muscle tissue to autoregulate blood flow.
      d.     contain a layer of connective tissue to prevent protein leakage.
33.   Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells
      is the primary function of:
      a.      arterioles.
      b.      arteries.
      c.      veins.
      d.      capillaries.
34.   The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called:
      a.     hepatic portal circulation.
      b.     pulmonary circulation.
      c.     coronary circulation.
      d.     cerebral circulation.
35.   Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and
      continuous blood circulation?
      a.     tunica interna (intima)
      b.     tunica media
      c.     tunica externa
      d.     tunica adventitia




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The following statements are true/false:
          Answer {a} if true, {b} if false.
101.      Trabeculae carneae are found in the ventricles and never the atria.
102.      The mitral valve has chordae but the tricuspid valve does not.
103.      The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary arteries.
104.      The circle of Willis is an arterial anastomosis.
105.      Arteries supplying the same territory are often parallel with one another, forming
          arterial anastomoses.
106.      An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the
          head and neck to the heart.
107.      The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima.
108.      The thick-walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries.
109.      A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood
          into the capillaries.




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           Answers
01.   a            29.    a
02.   c            30.    c
03.   d            31.    d
04.   b            32.    b
05.   c            33.    d
06.   c            34.    a
07.   a            35.    b
08.   c
09.   c            101.   a
10.   d            102.   b
11.   b            103.   a
12.   b            104.   a
13.   d            105.   b
14.   b            106.   a
15.   c            107.   b
16.   c            108.   b
17.   d            109.   a
18.   c
19.   b
20.   b
21.   a
22.   b
23.   a
24.   b
25.   d
26.   a
27.   b
28.   c




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