Medical Threat Briefing: FORT HOOD, TEXAS Environmental by 5o0xy93t

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									Medical Threat Briefing:
 FORT HOOD, TEXAS

  Environmental Health Service
Department of Preventive Medicine
ARTHROPODS, ANIMALS,
AND PLANTS OF MEDICAL
     IMPORTANCE

         2LT Rogers
  Entomologist, USA MEDDAC
                 OUTLINE
• Purpose
• Mission
• Medical Threat
  – Arthropods
  – Animals
  – Plants
• Preventive Measures
              PURPOSE
• Present information regarding:

  – Local arthropods, plants, and animals of
   medical significance in the Ft. Hood area
  – Individual preventive countermeasures to
   promote personal safety and health
    THE MEDICAL THREAT
• Arthropods
  – Insects
  – Ticks, Mites, Spiders, Scorpions
• Animals
• Plants
    THE MEDICAL THREAT
• Physical
• Psychological
• Economic
    ARTHROPODS- INSECTS
•   Mosquitoes
•   Fire Ants
•   Bees, Hornets, and Wasps
•   Centipedes
•   Lice (Crab/ Head)
•   Cockroaches
MOSQUITOES
             MOSQUITOES
•   Medically, most significant insect
•   Malaria, Dengue, and Encephalitis
•   Female is blood-feeding
•   Day/ night biters
•   Stagnant/ standing water
•   Repellent
•   Eliminate breeding locations
ANTS
                  ANTS
•   Social
•   Fire ants versus Harvester ants
•   Mounds versus nests
•   Bites/ Stings
•   Avoid mounds/ nests
•   Seek medical treatment as necessary
BEES, HORNETS, AND
      WASPS
       BEES, HORNETS, AND
             WASPS
• Social insects
• Swarming not problematic; protective of
    hives
•   Difference in hive construction/ location,
    colony size, and body size/ shape
•   Allergies
•   Avoid hives
CENTIPEDES
             CENTIPEDES
• Many body segments with 1 pair of legs
    per segment
•   Found under stones, rubbish, leaves,
    and logs
•   Venomous
•   Avoidance
LICE
                   LICE
•   Blood feeders
•   Nits/ Adults
•   Claws for clasping
•   Close contact
•   Over the counter medication, medicated
    shampoo, laundering of clothing/
    bedding
COCKROACHES
         COCKROACHES
• Mechanical transmission
• Associated with poor hygiene
• Allergies
           ARTHROPODS-
            ARACHNIDS
•   Ticks (Hard/ Soft)
•   Brown Recluse spiders
•   Black Widow spiders
•   Chigger mites
•   Scorpions
TICKS
                     TICKS
•   Deer and Lone Star ticks-- carry Lyme disease
    and Rock Mountain Spotted Fever
•   Are found at border of tall grass and clearings
•   Questing
•   Blood feeders
•   If bitten, keep/ turn-in (if possible)
•   Pull straight out with tweezers
•   Proper wear of clothing, repellent, and buddy
    checks
BROWN RECLUSE
   SPIDERS
    BROWN RECLUSE SPIDER
• Golden brown with fiddle shaped pattern
    on head region
•   Basements and garages
•   Severe bite; flu-like symptoms within 36
    hours, followed by tissue death
•   If bitten, seek medical attention
BLACK WIDOW SPIDERS
     BLACK WIDOW SPIDERS
• Shiny black with red hourglass on
    abdomen
•   Found under eaves, in boxes, wood
    piles, outdoor toilets
•   Bite when touched or pressed
•   Proper precautions when working in
    habitat
•   If bitten, seek medical attention
CHIGGER MITES
            CHIGGER MITES
•   Found in fields, forest underbrush, and grassy
    or weeded areas
•   Spring to late fall
•   Crawl to highest point on body until reach
    barrier
•   Cause an intensely, itchy red welt
•   Prevent with repellent
•   If exposed, treat area with rubbing alcohol and
    wash
SCORPIONS
               SCORPIONS
• 18 Texan species
• Found hiding under rocks, wood piles,
    stacked debris
•   Sting via poison gland at end of tail
•   Rarely lethal
•   Check clothing and footwear
             PREVENTION
• Use the DoD Insect Repellent System
• Minimize exposure by avoiding known
    habitats
•   Practice good sanitation
•   Avoid touching unfamiliar arthropods
          REPELLENT SYSTEM




YOU NEED TO KNOW… Dry cleaning removes permethrin from the uniform
             PREVENTION
• Carry a bee sting kit if known allergy
    exists
•   Avoid wearing cologne, perfume, and
    cosmetics with fragrances
•   Do not leave containers with standing
    water
•   Shake out boots, clothing, and bedding
    before use
               ANIMALS
•   Snakes
•   Rodents
•   Skunks
•   Raccoons
•   Bats
•   Birds
SNAKES
                SNAKES
• 15 Venomous snakes in Texas
• Coral snakes
  – rarely bite
  – non-aggressive
• Copperhead
  – least dangerous
  – most bites occur during accidental contact
                 SNAKES
• Cottonmouths
  – Water moccasin
  – found in marshes, swamps, ponds, lakes,
    ditches, and canals
  – aggressive
• Rattlesnakes
  – Arid regions and rocky hillsides
  – aggressive
               ANIMALS
• Can directly and indirectly transmit
 diseases
              PREVENTION
•   Avoidance
•   No pet mascots
•   Good sanitation
•   Seek medical attention if bitten or after
    handling
•   Notify Preventive Medicine Assets
                PLANTS
• Poison Ivy
• Stinging Nettle
• Bull Nettle
POISON IVY
            POISON IVY
• Shiny, three-lobed leaves
• Grows as a vine, often in dense clusters
• Causes irritation upon contact with
 leaves, branches, and other plant parts
STINGING NETTLE
          STINGING NETTLE
• Grows like a vine and entwines itself
    around other plants
•   Tiny hairs on leaves inject an acid
    causing intense burning sensation
BULL NETTLE
             BULL NETTLE
• Found in open areas (e.g., pastures,
    roadsides, etc.)
•   Grows 1-2 feet tall
•   Stinging effect, causing slight to severe
    irritation
           PREVENTION
• Avoid contact
• Wear uniform properly
• Wash skin and clothing if exposed (cold,
 soapy water to neutralize urishol oil)
                 SUMMARY
• Purpose
• Mission
• Medical Threat
  – Arthropods
  – Animals
  – Plants
• Preventive Measures
         CONCLUSION
Protecting personnel from environmental
health hazards is critical to maintaining
operational readiness and individual
health both in field and garrison
environments.
QUESTIONS?
              REFERENCES
• GTA 8-5-47 Poisonous Snakebite Treatment
• GTA 8-5-48 Venomous Arthropods
• GTA 8-5-55 Injurious Plants
• GTA 8-5-56 Tick-Borne Diseases
• USAEHA TG. No. 174
• USAEHA TG. No. 196
• http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/lab/entomology_homed.htm
• http://www.afpmb.org/pubs/misc/ppms%5Finfopaper.p
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