UNIT 10.7.: TOTALITARIANISM
1. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the most backward European country at
that time, czarist Russia, experienced three revolutions until it would eventually turn
into a socialist country. These three revolutions took place in
a. 1905, 1914, and February 1917.
b. 1914, February 1917, and October 1917.
c. 1905, 1914, and October 1917.
d. 1905, February 1917, and October 1917.
2. The main reason for the success of the Russian Revolution in 1917 was the
a. inability of the Russian government to modernize the country.
b. military failure of the Russian government in World War I.
c. lack of charisma of the Russian czar, Nicholas II.
d. unwillingness of the Russian middle class to back up the czarist government.
3. After the resignation of the czar in February 1917, a moderate Provisional
Government under the leadership of Alexander Kerensky took control of Russia.
This Provisional Government made several mistakes that would lead to its
overthrow in the Russian Revolution of October 1917. What was, in retrospect, the
biggest mistake that the Provisional Government committed?
a. To negotiate with the German Imperial Government.
b. To leave the Allies and discontinue fighting the Germans.
c. To declare its willingness to participate in a peace conference.
d. To make it very clear that it wanted to continue to fight the enemies on Russian
4. The real name of the leader of the Russian Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917
was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, his political name was
5. Another name for the Bolsheviks was the
6. The Bolshevik revolutionaries were convinced that the Russian Revolution would
spread, first and foremost into all the advanced industrialized countries. They
believed that the next revolution would take place in the most advanced capitalist
nation at that time, the country of
b. the United States.
c. Great Britain.
7. In order to end the bleeding of Russian troops, Lenin and the Bolshevik government
wanted to end Russian participation in World War I immediately. In their peace
treaty with the German Imperial Government, the Bolsheviks were even willing to
sacrifice huge portions of Russian territory and give it to the Germans in exchange
for peace. This 1917 peace treaty is called
a. the Treaty of Rapallo.
b. the Treaty of Tauroggen.
c. the Treaty of Tilsit.
d. the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
8. Immediately following the October Revolution in 1917, the Bolsheviks tried to
overcome food shortages, in order to gain support primarily of which segment of the
a. The middle class.
b. Government administrators.
c. The peasants.
d. The workers.
9. Almost all leading European countries, the United States, and Japan intervened in
Russia in order to prevent the permanent success of the Russian Revolution and a
Bolshevik Government. This intervention would reach its peak between 1919 and
1921 during the
a. rule of the Provisional Government.
b. Russian Civil War.
c. Russo-Japanese War.
d. Great Purge.
10. The major reason why all of the Western powers and Japan intervened in the
Russian Civil War was that they wanted to
a. establish spheres of influence in the Soviet Union.
b. segment the Soviet Union into colonies of the imperialistic countries.
c. support the enemies of the Bolshevik government.
d. partition the Soviet Union and take away border territories.
11. The main cause for the hostility between the Soviet Union and all the other major
industrialized nations was that the Bolsheviks had
a. overthrown the Provisional Government in Russia.
b. assassinated the entire family of the last Russian czar.
c. established a socialist society that was completely different from the other
d. attempted to isolate the Soviet Union from the very beginning.
12. The main difference between the Soviet Union as a socialist country and the other
capitalist nations was the issue of
a. freedom of religion.
b. freedom of the press.
c. freedom to petition the government.
d. ownership of the factories by the government, not private individuals.
13. Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the Russian Revolution?
a. The Soviet Union joins the League of Nations.
b. At first, farmland is distributed among farmers, factories are given to workers.
c. Banks are nationalized.
d. The Russian economy is in shambles and industrial production drops to levels
prior to World War I.
14. Lenin’s attempt to secure the survival of socialism at the end of the Russian Civil
War in 1921 included trade with the capitalist nation of Great Britain and allow
private ownership of businesses and farmland to boost trade and food production.
Lenin’s policy of “going one step back in order to go two steps forward” was called
c. New Economic Policy.
d. Great Leap Forward.
15. The Russian communists gained and maintained control with the help of the Secret
Police throughout the history of the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1991. What was the
name of that Secret Police?
a. The Cheka.
b. The NKVD.
c. The KGB.
d. All of the above
16. In order to seize and maintain control, the Russian communists resorted to
totalitarian means and sent potential and real dissenters into camps where millions
would disappear forever. What was the name of the network of forced-labor camps
a. Concentration camp.
17. Who was the Bolshevik leader who was responsible for initially setting up such a
network of forced-labor camps all over Siberia and Central Asia?
a. Vladimir Lenin
b. Leon Trotsky
c. Joseph Stalin
d. Felix Dzerzhinsky
18. The Soviet leader who was born as Joseph Dzhugashvili in Georgia in the Caucasus
Mountains and would later become one of the greatest butchers in the history of
mankind adopted the political name
19. After the death of Lenin in 1924, the main rival for Stalin’s rise to power was the
founder of the Russian Red Army,
a. Leon Trotsky.
b. Mikhail Tukhachevsky.
c. Lavrenty Beria.
d. Georgy Zhukov.
20. The major political difference between Stalin and Trotsky was that whereas Stalin
wanted to “build socialism in one country”, surrounded by a multitude of enemy
nations, Trotsky, on the other hand, wanted to
a. create an Eastern bloc.
b. spread the socialist revolution to the most advanced country, Germany.
c. spread the socialist revolution to underdeveloped countries, such as Mexico.
d. unequivocally supported the World Revolution until capitalism and imperialism
would be defeated worldwide.
21. The conflict between Stalin and Trotsky was important because of their opposing
goals. Different from Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin’s goal was to
a. spread the Russian Revolution to other countries.
b. make peace with the international community and join the League of Nations.
c. create a socialist society with a human face and democratic procedures.
d. build socialism in one country and one country alone.
22. The conflict between Stalin and Trotsky was eventually resolved when
a. Stalin had his rival assassinated in the nation of Mexico.
b. Trotsky admitted that he had erred and recanted his theories.
c. the two rivals discussed, debated, and finally compromised.
d. Trotsky withdrew from an active political life and retired.
23. The Great Famine in Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 killed in between 5 and 10 million
Soviet citizens, many starving to death, many resorting to cannibalism, many being
executed, and many taken to a Gulag. This famine was a direct result of Stalin’s
c. command economy.
d. farm collectivization.
24. The primary goal of Joseph Stalin in the first two Five-Year Plans after seizing
power in 1928 was to
a. provide the Russian population with an adequate food supply.
b. accelerate the process of industrialization in an economically backward country.
c. collectivize farms in order to prevent future starvation.
d. sweep the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of dissenters in order to be able
to focus on the major tasks of building a socialist country.
25. Joseph Stalin’s Great Purge from 1934 to 1939 brought about
a. more support of the original enemies of the Russian Revolution.
b. the death of millions of people, primarily in forced-labor camps in Siberia.
c. the industrialization of the Soviet Union.
d. a cultural rejuvenation of the Soviet Union.
26. The connection between the early military successes of the German Nazis after the
invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 and the Great Purges of Joseph Stalin during
the 1930’s was that during the purges Stalin had wiped out the
a. Volga Germans.
b. Ukrainian kulaks.
c. war-experienced leadership of the Red Army, such as the Red Napoleon,
Marshall Tukhachevsky and other generals.
d. the original leadership of the Bolshevik Party that had organized the October
Revolution in 1917.
27. The major accomplishment of Joseph Stalin during his reign from 1928 to 1953 was
that he had
a. swept the Soviet Union of all perceived traitors and dissenters during the Great
b. made the Soviet Union an industrialized country that could later produce enough
weapons to resist the Nazi invasion.
c. introduced Five-Year Plans.
d. organized the Gulag, a network of forced-labor camps, in which millions of
people would disappear.
28. The main reason why Stalin would remain popular with many supporters of
communism in Russia even after the end of the Soviet Union in 1991 was that he
a. eliminated many enemies of socialism during the Great Purge.
b. defeated the German Nazis who had invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.
c. made the Soviet Union an industrialized country.
d. contributed to the theories of Marxism-Leninism as a writer.
29. An ideology, such as the Nazi ideology, is a set of beliefs that
a. is nothing but a collection of strange and weird ideas.
b. is too abstract because it is just philosophical.
c. way over my head.
d. can become immensely practical and, if not refuted and rebuked, will ultimately
lead to world war, mass murder, and Holocaust.
30. One part of fascist ideology appealing to ordinary citizens in Italy, Germany, and
Spain during the 1920’s and 1930’s was to
a. reconcile with the communists.
b. take pride in their nation.
c. believe in a multicultural society.
d. work on social reforms.
31. Adolf Hitler’s ideology, laid down in his book My Struggle (= Mein Kampf),
insisted that there was an ongoing struggle among nations and races. This
dangerous ideology of a world divided among master and servant races is called
b. Social Darwinism.
32. Hitler and the Nazis believed that there was a conspiracy of groups that wanted to
take away the freedom of the German people and eventually control the entire
world. The two groups allegedly involved in this world conspiracy according to
Nazi ideology were
a. the Jews and the Bolsheviks.
b. the Jews and the trade unions.
c. the pacifists and the Jews.
d. the Social Democrats and the Bolsheviks.
33. According to Hitler’s My Struggle, the Germans were
a. the servant race.
b. a race that had to be exterminated.
c. the master race.
d. a weak race that would ultimately disappear.
34. In a fascist state, all the best qualities of the entire people are personified in
a. the virtues of ordinary citizens fulfilling their obligations.
b. one person only, the fascist leader.
c. the members of the fascist party.
d. the work ethic of the working class in a fascist state.
35. According to the ideology of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, the definition of human
nature is to
a. serve your state loyally and without any questions.
b. be a contributing member of society.
c. pursue your dreams and seize boundless opportunities.
d. use your good judgment and make decisions based on reason.
36. According to Hitler and the Nazis, the Jews had to be exterminated because they
a. had a different religion and were no Christians.
b. were the leaders of the international workers’ movement.
c. were merchants, traders, and bankers who had become rich by taking advantage
of other people.
d. did not have a state of their own and would therefore undermine other nations.
37. The Nazi paramilitary organization that was involved in street fighting at the end of
Germany’s democracy and won the streets of the capital, Berlin, for the Nazi party
a. Protection Squad (SS = Schutzstaffel).
b. Red Front Fighters’ Association.
c. Imperial Banner Black-Red-Gold.
d. Storm troopers (SA = Sturmabteilung).
38. The reason why Adolf Hitler had the leadership of the SA (Sturmabteilung =
storm troopers, the brown shirts) , Ernst Roehm and others, assassinated in the
“Night of the Long Knives” shortly after he had seized power was that he
a. resented the brutal methods with which the storm troopers had seized control
of the streets of German cities.
b. basically believed that the storm troopers were uneducated, uncivilized, and
unemployed people who should not be given any authority and power.
c. needed to eliminate the storm troopers as an organization because he wanted to
be assured of the loyalty of the regular army, Reichswehr, and did not want the
army to perceive the storm troopers as a potential rival, a state within the state.
d. perceived Ernst Roehm as a potential rival for his unchallenged position as
leader of the German people.
39. Both Italian fascists and the German Nazis gained power partly because
a. they believed in the free exchange of ideas.
b. they used terror tactics against political opponents.
c. they encouraged free discussion and debate.
d. they believed in free elections and majority vote.
40. Hermann Goering, the second leading Nazi, became a minister in the government as
soon as the Nazis were given power on January 30th, 1933. As Secretary of the
Interior for the state of Prussia, he was head of the regular police force, but also
founded the infamous Nazi secret police, the Gestapo (= Geheime Staatspolizei),
and was instrumental in setting up the first concentration camps. This is an example
a. separation of powers.
b. checks and balances.
41. As early as 1933, the German Nazis made it publicly very clear how they wanted to
deal with what they perceived as dissenting views. A few months after the Nazis
were given power, they
a. invited to public discussion and debate.
b. initiated town hall meetings.
c. publicly burnt “un-German” books of Jewish, communist, and pacifist authors.
d. blasted dissenting views in the Nazi propaganda newspapers.
42. When the Nazis spoke of “Gleichschaltung”, they wanted to have certain institutions
“forced into line”. The institutions they wanted to have aligned were
a. the newspapers, radio stations, and film industry.
b. the remaining political parties.
c. organizations representing special interests.
d. all of the above.
43. In totalitarian societies, the complimentary side to the use of terror tactics is the use
a. free speech.
b. open discussion.
c. the art of compromise.
44. The role of women in Nazi Germany was to
a. be productive workers in the German armament factories.
b. give birth to as many babies as possible to breed future soldiers.
c. have a comprehensive education and learn a trade.
d. be equal partners of their German husbands.
45. The persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany did not begin with the Holocaust. As a
matter of fact, what ended in killing 6 million Jews during the Holocaust began
simply as harassment of Jewish citizens. The discrimination of Jews in Nazi
Germany in the 1930’s began with
a. Kristallnacht – the “Night of Broken Glass”.
b. deporting Jews into ghettos.
c. excluding Jewish athletes from the Olympic Games in Berlin.
d. the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of German citizenship.
46. Different from totalitarian governments, democracies thrive on discussion and
debate. Democracies give their citizens freedom of speech because free speech can
be very productive. Different from a democratic society, internal opposition is
a. in a fascist type of government.
b. in a communist type of government.
c. both in a fascist and a communist type of government.
d. neither in a fascist nor a communist type of government.
47. “We do not believe in free elections because you never know the outcome.”
To which totalitarian leader can this quotation be attributed?
a. Adolf Hitler
b. Benito Mussolini
c. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
d. Joseph Stalin
48. What conditions surrounded the rise of totalitarianism in Italy, Germany, and the
a. Each totalitarian regime arose after a revolution.
b. All the regimes re-energized weak capitalist regimes.
c. The regimes followed devastation and chaos of World War I.
d. Each regime built upon former totalitarian regimes.
49. Which totalitarian leader came to power as a result of free elections?
a. Benito Mussolini in Italy.
b. Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union.
c. Adolf Hitler in Germany.
d. Francisco Franco in Spain.
50. Which traits were shared by all three regimes – Nazi Germany, fascist Italy, and the
communist Soviet Union – during the 1930’s?
a. Single party rule.
b. Widespread use of murder.
c. Partial control of the media.
d. Partial control of the economy.
51. What was the major difference between the Soviet Union on the one hand and the
two fascist countries, Nazi Germany and fascist Italy, on the other hand?
a. In the Soviet Union, political opponents were persecuted and eventually killed.
b. The Soviet Union was a totalitarian type of government.
c. The Soviet Union wanted to expand its borders and regain territory lost at the
end of World War I.
d. The economy of the Soviet Union was governed by socialist principles, private
ownership of the factories had been abolished.
52. The principles of the economy applied in Nazi Germany were the principles of
b. the free market economy.
c. unregulated capitalism.
d. state-regulated capitalism.