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					                                   Complex Sound Discrimination Abilities in Rats and the Effects of Multiple Training Manipulations
                                                   A.C. Puckett, C.T. Novitski, N.D. Engineer, A.L. McMenamy, M.S. Perry, C.A. Perez, P. Kan, Y.H. Chen, V. Jakkamsetti, C.L. Heydrick, M.P. Kilgard, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX

                                                                        SEQUENCE DISCRIMINATION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SPEECH DISCRIMINATION
Introduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A) Place of Articulation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dad            Bad                  Gad


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Task                                              Target                                 Distracter                                                                                                                                           TARGET                                                                                                 DISTRACTER                                          Speech Stimulus Creation
                                                                                                      Simple Frequency Discrimination                                                                                            Frequency Discrimination Threshold                                                                                                 (CS+)                                    (CS-)                                                                                                                                                (CS+)                                                                                                       (CS-)
The current experiments have                                                     100
                                                                                                                                                    Example Time Course of Training
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         100           n.s.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              B) Voice Onset Time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           •Recording: Monosyllabic words spoken by female native
                                                                                                                                        100                                                                                90                                                                               A) Frequency
examined the ability of rats to perform                                           90
                                                                                                                                         90                                                                                                                                                                    discrimination
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dad            Tad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           English speaker in a sound-proof chamber.
                                                                                  80                                                     80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           80                                                                                                                                        L L     L          H H   H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   –The words ‘dad’ and ‘tad’ were recorded from 5 other
discriminations among complex sounds,                                                                                                    70                                          Silence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           70                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      native English speakers (3 male, 2 female) to assess
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   speaker generalization.




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Percent Hit
                                                                                  70                                                                                                 LLL                                                                                                                    B) Sequence element                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         C) VOT Compression




                                                                                                                          Percent Hit
                                                                                                                                         60
including tone-noise sequences and                                                                                                                                                   HHH                                   60                                                                                 discrimination                                         H L     N          H            L                                        N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            •Frequency shifting: The frequency of the fundamental and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Frequency (kHz)
                                                                                                                                         50




                                                                   Percent Hit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Dad 10%                        Dad 50%                 Dad             Tad             Tad 50%      Tad 10%
                                                                                  60                                                                                                                                       50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              all other formants were shifted into the rat’s hearing range by
speech stimuli. Understanding how                                                 50
                                                                                                                                         40

                                                                                                                                         30                                                                                40                                                                                                   -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C) Triplet distractor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          doubling their frequency.
normal animals are able to discriminate                                           40
                                                                                                                                         20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               High first                                            H L     N          H H   H      L L           L                          N N      N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           –Compressed versions of ‘dad’ and ‘tad’ were generated to
                                                                                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D) VOT Multiple Talker                                                                                                      assess temporal generalization.
complex sounds is necessary in order to                                           30                                                          0    10     20         30
                                                                                                                                                               Days of Training
                                                                                                                                                                                40   50        60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           20                                                                               E) Triplet distractor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Noise first
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     H L     N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dad Male 1                   Dad Female 2         Dad Female 1   Tad Female 1         Tad Female 2    Tad Male 1                                         •Noise reduction: Background noise was subtracted from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           10                                                                                                                                                           N N   N      L L           L                          H H      H
fully understand the auditory cortex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       each signal.
                                                                                  20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           •Filtering: Each signal was filtered to correct for the
and how injury, learning or plasticity




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                z)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            E)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            F) Reverse Order




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        26

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        37

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        43

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        53
                                                                                  10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       frequency-response curve of the booth speaker.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     E) Vowels




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     H L     N          N L   H




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       6k
can change perception and cortical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Dad           Dead                  Dud         Deed      Dood                                 •Intensity adjustment: The RMS-values of the signals were




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                        LLL (5 kHz)       HHH (12 kHz)                                                                                                CS- Frequency (octaves above CS+)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    adjusted so that the loudest 100 ms of each vowel was 60 dB




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 +(
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            F) Incremental Training




                                                                                                                                                                                                              CS
functioning.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N N   N      N L             N                    N N          H          N L     H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SPL.
                                                                                                               Tone Sequence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         H L     N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     225 ms                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           F) Glides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rad             Lad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Time (weeks)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Noise first
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            High first
Behavioral data was collected from                                                              HLN is Discriminable From its Component Segments
                                                                                                100
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Early Training on NNN Hinders Later Discrimination of HHH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HLN is Discriminable from Triplets of Each Segment                                                                                                                          Stop Consonants are Easily Discriminable                                      Voice Onset Time Differences are Discriminable                                          Good Generalization to the Majority of Compressed Variants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      100                                                                                                                                                                  100                                                                                100                                                                                                              100
    46 rats over 4661 total daily                                                                90                                                                                                                        90                                                HHH                                                       90                                                            NNN                                                                                                   90                                                                                 90                                                                                                                     90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           n.s.                              LLL                                                                                                                      LLL
    training sessions.                                                                           80                                                                                                                        80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             NNN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       80                                                             HHH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           80                                                                                 80                                                                                                                     80

                                                                                                 70                                                                                                                        70                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              HLN                                                      70                                                             HLN                                                                                                  70                                                                                 70




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Percent Hit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (CS+)




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Percent Hit
                                                                                  Percent Hit




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (CS+)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Percent Hit




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Percent Hit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           60




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Percent Hit
                                                                                                 60                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           TRAINING DAYS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TRAINING DAYS                                    60                                                                                                                                                                  60                                                                                 60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                 50                                                                                                                        50

Methods                                                                                          40                                                                                                                        40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       50

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           50

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     40

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     30
All animals performed Go/ No-Go discrimination tasks in                                          30                                                                                                                        30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       30                                                                                                                                                                  30                                                                                 30                                                                                                                     20
        the same operant training booths. The stimuli used                                       20                                                                                                                        20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       20                                                                                                                                                                  20                                                                                 20                                                                                                                     10
        as CS+ and CS- varied among different training
                                                                                                 10                                                                                                                        10
        tasks, but the general timeline of training and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10                                                                                                                                                                  10                                                                                 10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ta 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -1 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      00
        procedures were the same for all tasks.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   d 1
                                                                                                         HLN          H                            L                  N                                                              HLN          HHH     LLL                NNN




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HLN          HHH          LLL          NNN                                                                                                           dad        bad        gad                                                                       dad                      tad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dad                     Tad




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            da
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   % of original stimulus length
                                 • Sounds are delivered from
     Apparatus                   a speaker placed outside the
                                 cage. Speaker is positioned
       H                         so that sounds are usually              HLN is Indistinguishable from the Reversed Sequence                                                                        Enrichment Does Not Improve Reversed Sequence Discrimination                                                    Incremental Training Enhances Reversed Sequence Discrimination                                                                                                                                Generalization Across Talker and Gender                                            Similar Vowels are Difficult to Discriminate                                                                    Rats Cannot Discriminate Spectrally Similar Glides
                                                                                 100                                                                                                                                     100                            n.s.                                                                          100                                                                                                         Incremental Time Course
                                 delivered to the animal’s left                                                       n.s.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               HLN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            100silence                                                                      100                                                                               100                                                                                                                    100                     n.s.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NNN
      P                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      90
                                 ear.                                            90                                                                                                                                      90                                                                                                            90                                                                                      NLN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             80NNH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             90                                                                                90                                                                                                                     90
               L
                                 • L – Rat responds to sound
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NLH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             70                                                                              80
                                                                                 80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80                                                                                                                     80
                                 stimuli by pressing on the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Percent Hit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             70




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Percent Hit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             50
                                 lever. Only presses within 3                    70                                                                                                                                      70                                                                                                            70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             40                                                                              60                                                                                70                                                                                                                     70
                   CS + sounds
                                 seconds of CS+ stimuli are
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Percent Hit




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Percent Hit
                                                                  Percent Hit




                   CS - sounds                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               30




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Percent Hit




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Percent Hit
                                                                                 60                                                                                                                                      60                                                                                                            60                                                                                                                                                                    50                                                                                60                                                                                                                     60
                                 rewarded.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         50                                                                                                            50                                                                                    10                                                                              40
                                 • P – Pellet dispenser (MED                     50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            50                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0      10       20   30    40      50   60   70   80                       30
                                 Associates) located outside                     40                                                                                                                                      40                                                                                                            40                                                                                                              Days of Training
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               40                                                                                                                     40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             20
                                 the sound-proof chamber
                                                                                 30                                                                                                                                      30                                                                                                            30
                                 delivers a 45 mg food reward                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10                                                                                30                                                                                                                     30

                                 (Bio-Serv) to the rat after                     20                                                                                                                                      20                                                                                                            20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20                                                                                                                     20




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 m e2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M le3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 m e2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M le3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 m e1



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M e1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             d M le 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                em le 3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M e1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M e2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     e3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 m 1
                                 correct responses.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Fe ale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         10                                                                                                            10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Fe a l
                                                                                 10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Fe al




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Fe al
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  al




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  al
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  al
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  al
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               10                                                                                                                     10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -F a
                                 • H – House light is




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                em
                                 extinguished after false




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -F
                                                                                                            HLN                                   NLH                                                                                         HLN                       NLH                                                                                                      HLN                     NLH                                                                                                                                                                                                  dad       dead       dud        deed          dood                                                                    rad               lad
                                 alarms or late responses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           HLN NLH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rad               Lad




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         da




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ta
Stages of Training                                                                                                                                Conclusions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Conclusions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Summary: Ranked D-Prime Performance on all Sequence Tasks                                                                                                                                                                        Summary: Ranked D-Prime Performance on all Speech Tasks
                                                                                      • Frequency discriminations are easy, but other sequence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           • Large spectral differences are easy for rats to discriminate, even if differences are not in
Shaping                                                                               discriminations are difficult.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the onset of the speech sound.
           Goal: Animals learn to press lever to receive food                         • Onsets are the most salient elements of sequences.                                                                                                                              3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3                                                                                                             • Onsets/consonants: /dad/ vs. /bad/ & /gad/
           rewards
           Time Course: ~ 6 sessions (3 days). Continued                                    • Sequences beginning with the same element are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Middle of stimulus/vowels: /dad/ vs. /deed/ & /dood/
           until 3 sessions in which animals retrieved 50                                   difficult to discriminate.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Subtle spectral differences are difficult for rats to discriminate (and are difficult for




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dprime
           pellets independently.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Dprime




                                                                                      • Reversed sequence discrimination was impossible,                                                                                                                                2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2                                                                                                       humans as well).
                                                                                      despite different initial elements.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Onsets/consonants: /rad/ vs. /lad/
Detection Training                                                                          •Sequences may be normally processed as a ‘unit’                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Middle of stimulus/vowels: /dad/ vs. /dead/ & /dud/
        Goal: Animals learn to press to receive rewards                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1
        only after they hear a sound. Animals must learn to                                 rather than discrete elements.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               • Rats can generalize among several variants of a speech stimulus.
        avoid hitting during silent periods.                                          • Discrimination strategies may be changed by training.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rats could generalize across several compressed exemplars, indicating that VOT
        Time course: ~30 sessions (3 weeks). Continued
        until 10 sessions in which animals respond
                                                                                            • If rats learn a poor strategy early in training, they                                                                                                                     0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0                                                                                                             wasn’t the only cue.
        significantly more to CS+ trials than to catch trials                               will not learn to discriminate effectively.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rats could generalize across several different speakers. Rats were able to generalize




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   d




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           - f tad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ad




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 d


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 od
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         t




        (ie, d’ >= 1.5 for 10 sessions)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LH




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LH




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 al
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              t




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  t




                                                                                            • Intermediate exemplars allowed animals to adopt




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 al
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ta . la




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                du




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ga


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               across many different fundamental frequencies, temporal patterns of enunciation, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      le
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            rs




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                rs




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ta 10


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Speech sounds seem to be more easily discriminated than tone-noise sequences.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              c




Discrimination Training
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      En




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           In




        Goal: Animals learn to press to receive rewards
        only after they hear a CS+. Animals must avoid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            dad vs.
        hitting after CS- stimuli or during silent periods.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                HLN vs.
        Time course: Variable (20 – 300 sessions).
            Sequence Discrimination: Animals trained for                         Future Directions – www.utd.edu/~kilgard                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In Loving Memory of Matt Perry (March 1981 - September 2005)
        up to 300 sessions or until behavioral criteria were
                                                                                 •        Assessment of changes in perceptual abilities after NB-stimulation pairing                                                                                                                                                               Amanda Puckett                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In honor of the neuroscientist who delved into the mysteries and whims of life with wholehearted delight.
        met.
            Speech Discrimination: Animals progressed                            •        Measurement of changes in auditory cortex after long-term sequence training                                                                                                                                                              Dr. Navzer Engineer                                                                                                                                                                                                             Thank you to one who touched the minds he sought to understand. As a true inquirer into philosophy,
        through a variety of CS- conditions after 2 weeks of                     •        Measurement of responses of auditory cortex after long-term speech training                                                                                                                                                              Crystal Novitski                                                                                                                                                                                                                pharmacology and literature, Mat enriched rats as well as people.
        training on each task, regardless of behavioral                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It is an honor to have shared a common path with you.
        performance.                                                             •        Assessment of cortical processing of speech sounds after environmental enrichment                                                                                                                                                        Vikram Jakkamsetti
                                                                                 •        Assessment of loss of perceptual abilities after cortical injury                                                                                                                                                                         Dr. Owen Floody                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Acknowledgements
                                                                                 •        Information theory analysis of cortical responses to speech sounds                                                                                                                                                                       Helen Chen                                                                                                                                                                                                         We wish to thank all the members of the Kilgard Lab behavioral team. Research supported by NIH R21#1R15DC00662401