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TH - Ch.3 PPT Notes - Master

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									                                           TH- Ch. 3 - Spain Prepares for Exploration
Section 1 - Spain and the Reconquista
Since the A.D. 700s, Spanish Christians battled to regain control of Spain. During that time, Spain was controlled by the
Moors, an Islamic people. The Christians believed that God wanted them to drive out the Moors. The struggle ended in
1492 when Spanish Christians drove the Moors out of Granada.
The Impact of the Spanish Defeat of the Moors on Overseas Exploration
Columbus’s Voyage
•The king of Portugal turned down Columbus’s request for support.
•The successful end of the Reconquista in 1492 inspired Queen Isabella and Kind Ferdinand of Spain to back
•Columbus promised to find new trade routes to China and India.
•Columbus failed to find a direct route to Asia.
•He landed in the Caribbean instead.
•The gold and captive Indians he brought back convinced the king and queen of Spain that America would provide the
wealth they had hoped to find in Asia.
Section II - Early European Exploration in the Americas
The Conquistadors
Spanish soldiers who sailed to America were called conquistadors, or conquerors. These fierce, determined soldiers had
several goals:
Cortés and the Aztecs
Hernán Cortés had several advantages that helped him defeat the powerful Aztecs in Mexico:
The Aztec Empire
•The Aztec emperor Moctezuma II welcomed Cortés to the Aztec capital city, Tenochtitlán. Montezuma thought Cortés was
a god.
•The Spanish killed hundreds of unarmed Indians for performing a non-Christian ceremony. The Aztecs drove them from
Tenochtitlán.
•Cortés and his men responded by attacking and destroying Tenochtitlán. The Spanish built Mexico City on the ruins of that
once magnificent city.
After Cortés
•Within a few years, Spain controlled all the land of present-day Mexico. This land became the viceroyalty of New Spain.
•The Spanish then spread into Central and South America.
•Spanish explorers carried common childhood illnesses with them. The Indians had no resistance to these diseases, so
many died from them.
•The Spanish completed their conquest of Central and South America in a matter of a few years.
         Viceroyalty - land that is ruled by an official chosen by a monarch
         Viceroy - the official who rules that land
Section III - European Explorers Meet the Native Texans
Álvarez de Pineda’s Expedition
•Captain Alonso Álvarez de Pineda sailed along the Gulf of Mexico in search of a water route to the Pacific Ocean.
•This voyage gave the Spanish their first accurate information about the Texas coast, including a well-drawn map.
The Nárvaez Disaster
•In 1527, Panfilo de Nárvaez led an expedition to explore the Gulf Coast from Florida to northern Mexico. The expedition
was a disaster.
•Half his crew sailed off, abandoning the other half who had ventured inland. Many of those soldiers suffered sickness and
hunger.
•Desperate to return to Spain, they set off on homemade rafts. During a storm they were tossed up on San Luis Island, near
Galveston. They were the first known Europeans to set foot on Texas soil.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
•Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of the few Narváez survivors.
•He became a trader and traveled widely across coastal Texas.
•He later met up with three fellow Narváez survivors.
•They gained a reputation as powerful shamans.
•Shaman - a medicine man
•Bison - buffalo, an animal Spaniards had never seen before exploring Texas
•Relación - Cabeza de Vaca’s account of his time in Texas. It hinted at the existence of the Seven Cities of Cíbola in Texas
Section IV - Successes and Failures
Marcos de Niza and Estevanico’s Expedition
•Marcos de Niza was a priest who led a group to find the legendary Seven Cities of Cíbola. The Viceroy of New Spain
appointed Estevanico to be the group’s guide. Estevanico was an enslaved Moor who traveled through Texas with Cabeza
de Vaca.
•Estevanico sent back a report that he had found Cíbola. Soon afterward, he was killed by Indians.
•In fear, Marcos de Niza turned back. He reported that he had seen Cíbola from the top of a hill. His report convinced many
that rich lands lay waiting.
Coronado Heads North
          Spain sent explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to conquer Cíbola and take its treasure. Coronado found no
gold in Cíbola. He continued searching the area for something of value, with no luck. In 1542, he returned to Mexico. He
reported that the land to the north offered nothing of value to the Spanish.
•Coronado’s men were the first Europeans to see the Grand Canyon.
•Coronado’s treasure hunt brought him as far north as present-day Kansas.
De Soto and Moscoso
•For four years, Hernando de Soto explored the land that is now the southeastern United States, in search of riches.
•Upon De Soto’s death, Luis de Moscoso Alvarado took over the expedition. His group made it their goal to reach Mexico by
land.
•The Caddoes they met on their travels greeted them by saying “Tay-yas,” meaning friends. This is how Texas got its name.
•Finding no gold, Moscoso’s men went back to the Mississippi River and returned to Mexico by sea.
•On that voyage, they stumbled upon petroleum, the substance that provides oil, gasoline, and other fuels. The Spanish did
not immediately recognize the value of this “black gold.”
Section V - French Explorers
French Explorers
•French explorers trapped and traded furs throughout much of North America.
•Along the way, they claimed land for France.
•French explorer La Salle searched for the Northwest Passage, a water route that would provide a shortcut to Asia.
•At this time, France and Spain were at war.
•La Salle claimed for France all the land that drained into the Mississippi River, including part of Texas.
•He named the land Louisiana, after the French king, Louis XIV.
•La Salle planned to build a fort at the mouth of the Mississippi River. He wanted to expand his trade empire and have a
base for an attack on Mexico.
La Salle’s Expedition
In 1684, La Salle set sail from France. His plan was to build Fort St. Louis near the mouth of the Mississippi River. His
expedition faced many problems:
Fort St. Louis
•Harsh living conditions made many explorers sick.
•The French had hostile relations with the local tribe, the Karankawas.
•During La Salle’s search for a safer location for the fort, his men staged a mutiny, a revolt of soldiers or sailors against their
leaders. They murdered La Salle in 1687.
Fort St. Louis Destroyed
•La Salle had taken most of his able-bodied men with him on his search for the Mississippi. After his death, they ran away or
were killed by Indians.
•The Karankawas attacked the vulnerable fort and took the five remaining settlers captive.
Spain Reacts
•Soon, the Spanish learned about La Salle’s arrival in their territory. They set out to find the French intruders.
•Since they did not know the territory they claimed was theirs, it took them a year to find La Salle’s fort.
•The fort was deserted. However, the Spanish realized that they would need to pay more attention to Texas if they wanted
to control it.
                                         TH- Ch. 3 - Spain Prepares for Exploration
Section 1 - Spain and the Reconquista
Since the A.D. 700s, Spanish (_________________) battled to regain control of Spain. During that time, Spain was
controlled by the (_________________), an Islamic people. The Christians believed that God wanted them to drive out the
Moors. The struggle ended in 1492 when Spanish Christians drove the Moors out of (_________________).
The Impact of the Spanish (_________________) of the Moors on Overseas Exploration
Columbus’s Voyage
•The king of (_________________) turned down Columbus’s request for support.
•The successful end of the Reconquista in 1492 inspired Queen (_________________) and Kind Ferdinand of Spain to
back
•Columbus promised to find new trade routes to China and (_________________).
•Columbus failed to find a direct route to (_________________).
•He landed in the (_________________) instead.
•The (_________________) and captive Indians he brought back convinced the king and queen of Spain that America
would provide the wealth they had hoped to find in Asia.
Section II - Early European Exploration in the Americas
The Conquistadors
(_________________) soldiers who sailed to America were called conquistadors, or conquerors. These fierce, determined
soldiers had several goals:
Cortés and the Aztecs
(_________________) Cortés had several advantages that helped him defeat the powerful Aztecs in Mexico:
The Aztec Empire
•The Aztec emperor (_________________) II welcomed Cortés to the Aztec capital city, Tenochtitlán. Montezuma thought
Cortés was a god.
•The Spanish killed hundreds of unarmed Indians for performing a non-Christian ceremony. The Aztecs drove them from
(_________________)
•Cortés and his men responded by attacking and destroying Tenochtitlán. The Spanish built (_________________)on the
ruins of that once magnificent city.
After Cortés
•Within a few years, (_________________) controlled all the land of present-day Mexico. This land became the viceroyalty
of New Spain.
•The Spanish then spread into (_________________) and South America.
•Spanish explorers carried common childhood illnesses with them. The Indians had no resistance to these diseases, so
many died from them.
•The Spanish completed their conquest of Central and South America in a matter of a few years.
         (_________________) - land that is ruled by an official chosen by a monarch
         (_________________) - the official who rules that land
Section III - European Explorers Meet the Native Texans
Álvarez de Pineda’s Expedition
•Captain (_________________) Álvarez de Pineda sailed along the Gulf of Mexico in search of a water route to the Pacific
Ocean.
•This voyage gave the Spanish their first accurate information about the Texas coast, including a well-drawn
(_________________).
The Nárvaez Disaster
•In 1527, (_________________) de Nárvaez led an expedition to explore the Gulf Coast from Florida to northern Mexico.
The expedition was a disaster.
•Half his crew sailed off, abandoning the other half who had ventured inland. Many of those soldiers suffered
(_________________) and hunger.
•Desperate to return to Spain, they set off on homemade rafts. During a storm they were tossed up on San Luis Island, near
(_________________). They were the first known Europeans to set foot on Texas soil.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
•Álvar Núñez (_________________) de Vaca was one of the few Narváez survivors.
•He became a trader and traveled widely across coastal (_________________).
•He later met up with three fellow (_________________) survivors.
•They gained a reputation as powerful (_________________)
•Shaman - a (_________________) man
•Bison - (_________________), an animal Spaniards had never seen before exploring Texas
•Relación - (_________________) de Vaca’s account of his time in Texas. It hinted at the existence of the Seven Cities of
Cíbola in Texas
Section IV - Successes and Failures
Marcos de Niza and Estevanico’s Expedition
•Marcos de Niza was a priest who led a group to find the legendary (_________________) Cities of Cíbola. The Viceroy of
New Spain appointed Estevanico to be the group’s guide. Estevanico was an enslaved Moor who traveled through Texas
with (_________________) de Vaca.
•Estevanico sent back a report that he had found (_________________). Soon afterward, he was killed by Indians.
•In fear, (_________________) de Niza turned back. He reported that he had seen Cíbola from the top of a hill. His report
convinced many that rich lands lay waiting.
Coronado Heads North
          Spain sent explorer Francisco Vásquez de (_________________) to conquer Cíbola and take its treasure.
Coronado found no gold in Cíbola. He continued searching the area for something of value, with no luck. In
(_____________), he returned to Mexico. He reported that the land to the north offered nothing of value to the Spanish.
•Coronado’s men were the first Europeans to see the (_________________).
•Coronado’s treasure hunt brought him as far north as present-day (_________________).
De Soto and Moscoso
•For four years, Hernando (___________) explored the land that is now the southeastern United States, in search of riches.
•Upon De Soto’s death, Luis de Moscoso (_________________) took over the expedition. His group made it their goal to
reach Mexico by land.
•The (_________________) they met on their travels greeted them by saying “Tay-yas,” meaning friends. This is how Texas
got its name.
•Finding no gold, Moscoso’s men went back to the (_________________) River and returned to Mexico by sea.
•On that voyage, they stumbled upon petroleum, the substance that provides oil, gasoline, and other fuels. The Spanish did
not immediately recognize the value of this “(_________________).”
Section V - French Explorers
French Explorers
•French explorers trapped and traded (_________________) throughout much of North America.
•Along the way, they claimed land for (_________________).
•French explorer La Salle searched for the (_________________) Passage, a water route that would provide a shortcut to
Asia.
•At this time, France and Spain were at (_________________).
•(_________________) claimed for France all the land that drained into the Mississippi River, including part of Texas.
•He named the land Louisiana, after the French king, Louis (_________________).
•La Salle planned to build a fort at the mouth of the Mississippi River. He wanted to expand his trade empire and have a
base for an attack on (_________________).
La Salle’s Expedition
In 1684, (_________________) set sail from France. His plan was to build Fort St. Louis near the mouth of the Mississippi
River. His expedition faced many problems:
Fort St. Louis
•Harsh living conditions made many explorers (_________________).
•The French had hostile relations with the local tribe, the (_________________).
•During (_________________) search for a safer location for the fort, his men staged a mutiny, a revolt of soldiers or sailors
against their leaders. They murdered La Salle in (_________________).
Fort St. Louis Destroyed
•La Salle had taken most of his able-bodied men with him on his search for the Mississippi. After his death, they ran away or
were killed by (_________________).
•The (_________________) attacked the vulnerable fort and took the five remaining settlers captive.
Spain Reacts
•Soon, the (_______________) learned about La Salle’s arrival in their territory. They set out to find the French intruders.
•Since they did not know the territory they claimed was theirs, it took them a year to find La Salle’s fort.
•The fort was deserted. However, the Spanish realized that they would need to pay more attention to Texas if they wanted
to (_________________) it.

								
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