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					                                        Eastern Europe

I.   Poland
     A. 1st sign of revolution
        1. demands for change began w/ workers’ protests (1980)
           a. leader: Lech Walesa
              1. est. national trade union group called Solidarity
     B. Polish communist regime agreed to free parliamentary elections (1988)
        1. 1st free elections in E. Europe in 40 yrs
     C. New Polish Government (1990)
        1. Walesa chosen as President
        2. Communism replaced by Democracy
     D. New challenges
         1. Rapid free market reforms led to
            a. severe unemployment
            b. popular discontent
     E. Current President (as of 2010)
         1. Lech Kaczynski (died in plane crash Spring/2010)

II. Czechoslovakia
    A. 1st signs of revolution
       1. Czechoslovakian reform movement (“Prague Summer") in 1968
          a. Crushed by Soviet Red Army
       2. Writers & other intellectuals continued protest w/ little success
       3. mass demonstrations began throughout country (1988 & 1989)
    B. New Czech Government (1989)
       1. Vaclav Havel chosen as President
       2. Communism replaced by Democracy
    C. New Challenges
       1. Ethnic conflicts (Czechs & Slovaks)
          a. result: agreement to split Czechoslovakia into two separate countries
             1. Czech Republic
             2. Slovakia
       2. High unemployment (Slovakia)
    D. Czech Republic
       1. one of the most stable & prosperous economies in Eastern Europe
    E. Current President (as of 2010)
       1. Vaclav Klaus (Czech Republic)
       2. Ivan Gasparovic (Slovakia)

III. Romania
     A. Old Communist Ruler: Nicolae Ceausescu
        1. Used secret police to crush all dissent
        2. Economic policies led to
           a. sharp decrease in the standard of living
          b. food shortages/rationing
          c. bulldozed entire villages to make way for urban sprawl
      3. Result of rule: anger among Romanian people
   B. 1st signs of Revolution
      1. Secret police murdered thousands of peaceful demonstrators (12/1989)
      2. Event caused army to refuse to support further repression of citizens
      3. Result: Ceausescu captured & executed
   C. New Romanian Government (1989)
      1. Remained communists until 1996, then became Democratic
   D. New President (as of 2010)
      1. Traian Basescu
   E. The New Romania
      1. Economic growth
      2. Rise of a middle class

IV.German Reunification
   A. 1st signs of Revolution
      1. Mass demonstrations against East German government (1989)
      2. Result of demonstrations
         a. E. German government opened border w/ West Germany
         b. Berlin Wall torn down (10/1989)
   B. Reunification (1990)
      1. East and West Germany united to form 1 country (1st time since 1945)

				
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posted:12/3/2011
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