Degrees - DOC by wanghonghx


									Associate Level
AD          Associate’s Degree
AA          Associate of Arts
AAT         Associate of Arts in Teaching
AB          Associate of Business
AFA         Associate of Fine Arts
AGS         Associate of General Studies
AS          Associate of Science
AAS         Associate of Applied Science
AAT         Associate of Science in Applied Technology
ASN         Associate of Science in Nursing                   Generally a 2 year degree.
AOT         Associate of Science in Occupational Technology

Bachelor Level
BA            Bachelor of Arts
BABA          Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration
BACom         Bachelor of Arts in Communication
BLA           Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts
BMEd          Bachelor of Arts in Music Education
BSW           Bachelor of Arts in Social Work
BFA           Bachelor of Fine Arts
BS or BSc     Bachelor of Science                             Generally a four-year degree
BAE or        Bachelor of Science in Aerospace
BSAE          Engineering
BArch         Bachelor of Science in Architecture
BSBA          Bachelor of Science in Business
BSChem        Bachelor of Science in Chemistry
BSCS          Bachelor of Science in Computer Science
BDentSci,     Bachelor of Science in Dental Science
BDS           Bachelor of Science in Dental Surgery
BSEd          Bachelor of Science in Education
BEE           Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering
BSE           Bachelor of Science in Engineering
BHS           Bachelor of Science in Health Science
BHyg          Bachelor of Science in Hygiene
BInDsn        Bachelor of Science in Industrial Design
BSME          Bachelor of Science in Mechanical
BMedBiol      Bachelor of Science in Medical Biology
BMedSci or    Bachelor of Science in Medical Science
BMT           Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology
MB, BM,     Bachelor of Science in Medicine                BM or BMed – Doctor designation in some
BSM,                                                       jurisdictions (e.g. Australia). Usually a 5-
BScM, or                                                   year degree. (see also BM BCH, CB, ChB,
BMed                                                       MB, MBBS, MBChB, BM ChB) (see also BM,
                                                           BMed, CB, ChB, MBChB, BM ChB)
BM BCH,     Bachelor of Science in Medicine and            BM BCH – The "Ch" is from the Latin for
MBBS, or    Bachelor of Science in Surgery                 surgeon, chirurgia, which is from the
MBChB                                                      Greek cheirourgia. (see also BM, BMed,
                                                           CB, ChB, MB, MBBS, MBChB, BM ChB).
                                                           MBChB – Doctor designation in some
                                                           jurisdictions (e.g. the UK). Usually a 5-year
                                                           degree the "Ch" is from the Latin for
                                                           surgeon, chirurgia, which is from the
                                                           Greek cheirourgia. (see also BM, BM ChB,
                                                           BMed, CB, ChB, MB, MBBS).
BMic or     Bachelor of Science in Microbiology
BScN or     Bachelor of Science in Nursing
BO          Bachelor of Science in Osteopathy
BP,         Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy
BScPh, or
BPH         Bachelor of Science in Public Health
BPHEng      Bachelor of Science in Public Health
BPHN        Bachelor of Science in Public Health Nursing
BSSW        Bachelor of Science in Social Work
CB or ChB   Bachelor of Science in Surgery                 The "C" and "Ch" are from the Latin for
                                                           surgeon, chirurgia, which is from the
                                                           Greek cheirourgia. (see also BM, BMed,
                                                           MB, MBBS, MBChB, BM ChB)
BVMS        Bachelor of Science in Veterinary Medicine
            and Science
BVSc        Bachelor of Science in Veterinary Science
BSN         Bachelor of Science Nursing
BS(Hons)    Honours Bachelor of Science                    In some jurisdictions (e.g. Ontario,
or                                                         Canada). This means a four-year degree –
BSc(Hons)                                                  it does not mean the same thing as
                                                           academic honors, such as "summa cum
                                                           laude". In these jurisdictions, a three-year
                                                           "Bachelor's degree" is referred to as an
                                                           Ordinary BS or BSc.
Master Level
MA           Master of Arts
MCD          Master of Communication Disorders
MLIS         Master of Library & Information Studies
MPS          Master of Political Science
MS or MSc    Master of Science
MAcct        Master of Science in Accounting
MAqua        Master of Science in Aquaculture
MSChem       Master of Science in Chemistry
M.Ch.        Master of Science in Chirurgical
MSCS         Master of Science in Computer Science
MSCJ         Master of Science in Criminal Justice
MScD or      Master of Science in Dental Science
MDS          Master of Science in Dental Surgery
MSFS         Master of Science in Forensic Science
MFstry       Master of Science in Forestry
MLArch       Master of Science in Landscape Architecture
MSMSci       Master of Science in Marine Science
MSMet        Master of Science in Metallurgical Engineering
MNA          Master of Science in Nurse Anesthesia
MN, MSN,     Master of Science in Nursing
or MScN
MAO          Master of Science in Obstetrics
MPh,         Master of Science in Pharmacy
MPH,         Master of Science in Public Health
MScPH, or
MRad         Master of Science in Radiology
MSwE         Master of Science in Software Engineering
MS, MC,      Master of Science in Surgery                     A post-medical degree specialty
ChM, or                                                       program. The "Ch" and "C" are from the
CM                                                            Latin for surgeon, chirurgia, which is
                                                              from the Greek cheirourgia.
MSW          Master of Social Work

Doctoral Level
AuD         Doctor of Audiology
DC          Doctor of Chiropractic
DCM        Doctor of Comparative Medicine
DMD        Doctor of Dental Medicine
DDSc       Doctor of Dental Science
DDS        Doctor of Dental Surgery
EdD        Doctor of Education
DHg,       Doctor of Hygiene
DHyg, or
JD         Doctor of Jurisprudence (or Doctor of Laws)   The reason it's reversed, JD rather than
                                                         DJ, is due to the title's Latin roots. In
                                                         Latin, it's Juris Doctor – thus, JD.
DMD        Doctor of Medical Dentistry
DMT        Doctor of Medical Technology
MD or      Doctor of Medicine                            In some jurisdictions, the degree of
DrMed                                                    Doctor of Medicine is a higher doctorate
                                                         than "MD," reserved for those who have
                                                         contributed significantly to the study of
DMA        Doctor of Musical Arts
ND         Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine
ND         Doctor of Naturopathy
DN or      Doctor of Nursing
DNE        Doctor of Nursing Education
DNP        Doctor of Nursing Practice
DNS or     Doctor of Nursing Science
DOS or     Doctor of Ocular Science
DChO       Doctor of Ophthalmic Surgery                  The "Ch" is from the Latin for surgeon,
                                                         chirurgia, which is from the Greek
DOS or     Doctor of Optical Science
DO or      Doctor of Optometry
DO         Doctor of Osteopathy                          Osteopathy is "a system of therapy …
                                                         based on the theory that the body can
                                                         make its own remedies against disease
                                                         and other toxic conditions when it is in
                                                         normal structural relationship and has
                                                         favorable environmental conditions and
                                                         adequate nutrition. It uses generally
                                                         accepted physical, medicinal, and
                                                         surgical methods of diagnosis and
                                                         therapy, while placing chief emphasis on
                                                      maintenance of normal body mechanics
                                                      and on manipulative methods of
                                                      detecting and correcting faulty
                                                      structure." (Dorland's Illustrated Medical
DPhC      Doctor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
DP, PD,   Doctor of Pharmacy                          The reason it's reversed, PD rather than
or                                                    DP, is due to the title's Latin roots. In
PharmD                                                Latin, it's Pharmaciae Doctor – thus, PD.
                                                      The reason it's reversed, PharmD rather
                                                      than DPharm, is due to the title's Latin
                                                      roots. In Latin, it's Pharmaciae Doctor –
                                                      thus, PharmD.
PhD       Doctor of Philosophy                        The reason it's reversed, PhD rather than
                                                      DPh, is due to the title's Latin roots. In
                                                      Latin, it's Philosophiae Doctor – thus,
DPM       Doctor of Physical Medicine
DPT       Doctor of Physical Therapy
DPM       Doctor of Podiatric Medicine
DP        Doctor of Podiatry
DPM       Doctor of Preventive Medicine
DPM       Doctor of Psychiatric Medicine
DPA       Doctor of Public Administration
DPH or    Doctor of Public Health
DPHN      Doctor of Public Health Nursing
DPH or    Doctor of Public Hygiene
DSE       Doctor of Sanitary Engineering
DSc       Doctor of Science
DSIM or   Doctor of Science in Industrial Medicine
D.S.N.    Doctor of Science in Nursing
D.Sc.PT   Doctor of Science in Physical Therapy
ChD or    Doctor of Surgery                           A post-medical degree specialty
DCh                                                   program. The "Ch" is from the Latin for
                                                      surgeon, chirurgia, which is from the
                                                      Greek cheirourgia.
DVM or    Doctor of Veterinary Medicine               (see also DMV, DVMS, DVS, DVSc, MVD)
DVMS      Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery   (see also DMV, DVM, DVS, DVSc, MVD)
DVR       Doctor of Veterinary Radiology
DVS or    Doctor of Veterinary Science                (see also DMV, DVM, DVMS, MVD)
DMV       Doctorat en Médecine Vétérinaire            (see also DVM, DVMS, DVS, DVSc)
Without paying for a service to provide us with a list of MD equivalents, below is what was found on
the Internet. (Educational Credential Evaluators (ECE) services pricing: General $85 and Health
Professions Licensure $250)
         In North America the American Osteopathic Medical Degree has similar MD training
         In Italy, the title of "Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia" (Doctor in Medicine and Surgery)
            awarded on graduation. Physicians then use "Dr" or "Dott" before their name.
         German Physicians receive the degree "Dr Med, Doktor der Medezin".
         Mexico as well as most Latin countries, schools of medicine award the title "Titulo de
            Medico Cirujano y Partero" upon completing 6-7 years of study. The curriculum includes a
            rotating internship and includes serving one year to under-serviced communities.
         Danish and Norwegian countries use “Candidatus Medicinae” or “Candidata Medicinae”.
         Poland awards the title "Lekarz or Lek". A higher doctoral degree resembling a PhD is
            named "dr" or "doktor nauk medycznych".
         The Czech and Slovak title is doktor medicíny, or MUDr. (Medicinae Universae doctor).
         In Greece, after a six-year study, a medical student acquires his medical degree and the right
            to use "Δρ.", (Dr.) before his name. This is considered equivalent to the M.D. title.
         In Colombia, the medicine faculties of the universities awards the title of "Medico Cirujano"
            after taking 10 and a half semesters at least of studies on sciences, genetics, clinical studies,
            general surgery and an internship in hospitals, plus a thesis and another internship on the
            countryside hospitals. Some specialities are taken by physicians after receiving their degrees
            to award a specialist title, i.e. "Medico Cirujano Especialista en Anestesiologia".
         In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Medic Title (Título de Médico) is equivalent to
            the North American M. D. Degree with 6 year of intensive studies followed by usually three
            or four years of the residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, compounded
            of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title the
            postgraduate student might apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine
            program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation.
         Romanian medical school lasts for 6 years including clinical practice and concludes with a
            final licensing examination (licenta). The degree awarded is Doctor-medic (Medical Doctor)
            abbreviated as MD.
         In the Netherlands, the title 'Arts' (Dutch, meaning 'physician') is awarded after six years of
            study, and most patients address the physician as 'Dokter'. Most Dutch universities have
            divided the medical study in four years theory and two years practical experience.
            Exceptions are the universities of Maastricht and Utrecht. At Utrecht the program consists
            of two and a half year of theory, two and a half year specialty-dedicated theory blocks, a
            clinical rotation in that specialty, and one year continuous practical experience.
         In Indonesia, the title of "dokter" (dr.) is awarded after a Medical student received their
            Bachelor in Medicine (Sarjana Kedokteran; S.Ked) after 4 years of study (at least) and 1,5 -
            2 years of clinical course / internship in university hospitals. After a medical student has
            finished those 6 years of study and taken the Hippocrates Oath, the title of Dokter (Dr.) is
            entitled before their name and they can practice general medicine as general practitioner.
            Those who wished to further their study into specialties can take graduate course of
            medicine of their preference and will be entitled with "Specialist of ..." after their name
            (e.g.: Sp.A for spesialis Anak = Pediatrician). Graduate course of medicine is equal with
            residency program which is required the candidates to study for 2 years and hospital
               internship. (Note: dr. (dokter) is used for medical graduates, while Dr. (Doktor) is used for
               PhD holders.)
              Iran awards a MD upon completion of 7 years of study started with 5 1/2 years university
               education. This includes 2 1/2 years basic services, 2 years clinical courses, 1 year
               physiologic followed by 1 1/2 years in an internship. Must be done in an accredited hospital,
               plus a thesis must be submitted.
              The MBBS degree (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae
               Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in various ways, viz. "BMBS", MB BChir,
               BM BCh, MB BCh, MB ChB, MB BS, BM, BMed, MBBS etc.), are the two first professional
               degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by
               universities in various countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.) is currently
               awarded in various forms in institutions in Australia, Bangladesh, Barbados, China, Egypt,
               Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya,
               Kuwait, Libya, Malawi, Philippines, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, New
               Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone,
               Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the
               United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Bachelor of Medicine is
               awarded to Nationals. MD is a higher academic research degree.
              In Egypt, Britain, Ireland, and many Commonwealth nations, the qualifying medical degree is
               instead the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, BMBS, BM BCh, BM, MB BCh
               BAO, or MBChB) and is considered equivalent to the MD and DO degrees in the U.S. system.
              The Wisconsin Medical Society defends the use of the M.D. title by physicians who
               graduated with an M.B.B.S. and are licensed to practice medicine in Wisconsin.

           Notes: MD equivalent degrees are mainly the D.O. and MBBS/MBChB degree. Doctor of
           Medicine (MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine") is a doctoral
           degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools.
           Notes: In other countries, such as the Egypt, United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Sri Lanka and
           India, the MD is an advanced academic research degree similar to a PhD or a higher doctorate.

      Degree                            Full Name                       Nation(s) in which it is awarded

                        Bachelor of Applied Science (Clinical
B.App.Sc. (clin). &
                        Science) & Bachelor of Chiropractic             Japan

                        Bachelor of Science (Chiropractic) &
B.Sc. (chiro) & B.C.                                                    Australia,    Japan
                        Bachelor of Chiropractic

                    Bachelor of Applied Science
B.App.Sc. (Compl) &
                    (Complementary Medicine) & Master of                Australia
                    Clinical Chiropractic

B.Chiro.                Bachelor of Chiropractic                        New Zealand
                      Bachelor of Chiropractic & Master of
B.Chiro. & M.Chiro                                                  Australia

B.Sc. (Hons) Chiro    Bachelor of Science (Hons) Chiropractic       Malaysia

B.Tech. (chiro) and   Bacelor in Technology (Chiropractic) &
                                                                    South Africa
M.Tech. (chiro)       Master in Technology (Chiropractic)

                                                                    Brazil,    Canada,    France,
D.C.                  Doctor of Chiropractic                    Japan,      Mexico,    South Korea,
                                                                Spain,      Sweden

                      Master of Chiropractic or Master in           Australia,     Switzerland,   United
M.C. or M.Chiro.
                      Chiropractic                              Kingdom

M.C.B.                Master in Clinical Biomechanics               Denmark

M.Tech. (chiro)       Master in Technology, Chiropractic            South Africa

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