Spain-Builds-an-American-Empire-Notes by stariya


									Wld. Hist. 9

Chap 20-1

Columbus - 1492, traveled west to find route to
           Ships – Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
       - Landed in Caribbean
       - Thought it was the East Indies, so called
         the people who greeted him “los indios.”
       - Claimed this, and every island he came
         upon, for Spain.
       - returned to Spain with riches
       - approved for 3 more trips with 17 ships
       and 1,000
       soldiers. Known as an “empire builder.”

Cabral -1500 claims Brazil for Portugal

Amerigo Vespucci – upon reaching South America,
      realizes it is not Asia, but a “new world.”
       - German mapmaker names new world for
       - America = Amerigo

Balboa – Spanish, 1st European to see Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan – Portuguese, 1519, 5 ships,
          250 men
        - Sailed around south end of South
          America and into the Pacific Ocean.
        - Saw no land, ran out of food
        - Finally reached Guam and Phillipines,
        - Crew continued home
        - 18 men and 1 ship reached home after 3
Magellan’s crew was first to sail around the world.

Hernando   Cortes – Spanish,
       -    landed on Mexico and Caribbean islands
       -   Claimed all for Spain
       -   Looking for gold and silver “conquistadors”
       -   Claimed much of South American and
           Mexico for Spain

Spanish – First settlers of America

Cortes – reached Tenochtillan with 600 men.
        - Montezuma II, Aztec emperor, thought
          Cortes was a god
         - Gave Cortes much gold
         - 1520, Cortes and men killed Aztecs
           during religious celebration.
         - Spanish were outnumbered, but won
             1. Superior weapons
             2. Help from other natives
             3. Smallpox and measles killed millions
                 of natives
Pizarro – conquered Incas in South America (Peru)
         - kidnapped ruler, Atahualpa, offered
         Spanish room filled with gold and 2 times
         with silver.
         - Spanish took treasure and killed him

Methods of Oppression
       - Reconquista – Spanish lived with Muslims
         in Spain and forced their culture on
       - Used same method on natives in Americas
       - Mestizo – mixed race Spanish men and
         native women.
        - Encomienda –natives forced to farm and
          mine for Spanish landholders.
               -often worked to death

Spain - became richest and most powerful country
    in Europe.
        - Ships filled with gold continually sailed
          into harbors.
        - Grew strong navy
        - Began to push into future southwestern
          United States
        - Ponce de Leon had already landed in

Coronado – explored Arizona, New Mexico, Texas,
          and Kansas

Priests - Little gold, so Spain assigned priests to
           the area.
         - Converted natives by burning their sacred
           objects and prohibiting rituals.
         - Many missions spread throughout the

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