Wld. Hist. 9 Chap 20-1 Columbus - 1492, traveled west to find route to Asia. Ships – Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria - Landed in Caribbean - Thought it was the East Indies, so called the people who greeted him “los indios.” - Claimed this, and every island he came upon, for Spain. - returned to Spain with riches - approved for 3 more trips with 17 ships and 1,000 soldiers. Known as an “empire builder.” Cabral -1500 claims Brazil for Portugal Amerigo Vespucci – upon reaching South America, realizes it is not Asia, but a “new world.” - German mapmaker names new world for him - America = Amerigo Balboa – Spanish, 1st European to see Pacific Ocean Ferdinand Magellan – Portuguese, 1519, 5 ships, 250 men - Sailed around south end of South America and into the Pacific Ocean. - Saw no land, ran out of food - Finally reached Guam and Phillipines, killed - Crew continued home - 18 men and 1 ship reached home after 3 years Magellan’s crew was first to sail around the world. Hernando Cortes – Spanish, - landed on Mexico and Caribbean islands - Claimed all for Spain - Looking for gold and silver “conquistadors” - Claimed much of South American and Mexico for Spain Spanish – First settlers of America Cortes – reached Tenochtillan with 600 men. - Montezuma II, Aztec emperor, thought Cortes was a god - Gave Cortes much gold - 1520, Cortes and men killed Aztecs during religious celebration. - Spanish were outnumbered, but won because: 1. Superior weapons 2. Help from other natives 3. Smallpox and measles killed millions of natives Pizarro – conquered Incas in South America (Peru) - kidnapped ruler, Atahualpa, offered Spanish room filled with gold and 2 times with silver. - Spanish took treasure and killed him Methods of Oppression - Reconquista – Spanish lived with Muslims in Spain and forced their culture on Muslims. - Used same method on natives in Americas - Mestizo – mixed race Spanish men and native women. - Encomienda –natives forced to farm and mine for Spanish landholders. -often worked to death Spain - became richest and most powerful country in Europe. - Ships filled with gold continually sailed into harbors. - Grew strong navy - Began to push into future southwestern United States - Ponce de Leon had already landed in Florida Coronado – explored Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas Priests - Little gold, so Spain assigned priests to the area. - Converted natives by burning their sacred objects and prohibiting rituals. - Many missions spread throughout the area.
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