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									  Myers PSYCHOLOGY

        Module 23

Classical Conditioning
     James A. McCubbin, PhD
       Clemson University

        Worth Publishers
   Learning
     relatively permanent
      change in an organism’s
      behavior due to experience
 We learn by association
   Our minds naturally connect events that occur
    in sequence
   Aristotle 2000 years ago
   John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago
 Associative Learning
   learning that two events occur together
     two stimuli (classical conditioning)
     a response and its consequences (operant
      Event 1                     Event 2

                                                      Learning to
                                                       two events
   Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock

Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
Classical or Pavlovian

                      We learn
                       two stimuli
Operant Conditioning

                 We learn to
                  associate a
                  response and
Classical Conditioning

 Ivan Pavlov
   1849-1936
   Russian physician/
   Nobel Prize in 1904 for his work on
    digestive processes. Accidentally
    discovered classical conditioning
    and continued to study it.
 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
                          Before Conditioning

UCS (food
in mouth)
                          UCR                   stimulus      No
                          (salivation)          (tone)        salivation

       During Conditioning                        After Conditioning
              UCS (food
              in mouth)

   Neutral                                      CS
   stimulus           UCR                       (tone)
   (tone)             (salivation)                         CR (salivation)
Classical Conditioning

               Pavlov’s device
                for recording
Classical Conditioning

 Classical Conditioning
• Classical conditioning: basic learning process
  that involves repeatedly paring a neutral
  stimulus with a response-producing stimulus
  until the neutral stimulus elicits the same
  response as the response-producing stimulus
  – Learning to associate one thing (a stimulus) with
  – Because responses occur automatically, this type of
    learning is involuntary.
Classical Conditioning
 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--
     triggers a response
    Does not have to be learned (conditioned) in order to produce a
 Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned
    A response that occurs automatically the first time a stimulus is
     presented. A person does not have to learn (be conditioned) to
     have this response.
        Ex: salivation when food is in the mouth; increased heart-rate and
         blood pressure when given a shock.
Ivan Pavlov noticed that dogs began
  salivating at the mere sight of the
person who regularly brought food to
 them. For the dogs, the sight of this
           person was a(n):

A.   primary reinforcer.
B.   unconditional stimulus.
C.   immediate reinforcer.
D.   conditioned stimulus.
     Conditioning seldom occurs when
      a(n) ________ comes after a(n)
A.   CS; US
B.   UR; CS
C.   secondary reinforcer; operant behavior
D.   negative reinforcer; operant behavior
 Researchers condition a flatworm to
  contract when exposed to light by
   repeatedly pairing the light with
 electric shock. The electric shock is
A.   negative reinforcer.
B.   conditioned stimulus.
C.   conditioned reinforcer.
D.   unconditioned stimulus.
Classical Conditioning

 Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
   originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association
    with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a
    conditioned response
   A stimulus that produces no response until a person
    (or animal) has learned (been conditioned) to
    associate it with something that does produce a
 Conditioned Response (CR)
   learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Classical Conditioning
 Acquisition
   the initial stage in classical conditioning
   The process by which a previously neutral stimulus
    acquires the ability to produce a response.
   Happens most quickly when the UCS immediately
    follows the neutral stimulus.
   Seldom happens when the UCS comes before the
      Suggests that classical conditioning is biologically adaptive
       and helps people and animals prepare for good or bad
The CS needs to come half a second before the US
for acquisition to occur.

       Biological Predispositions

                                                       Courtesy of John Garcia
Garcia showed that the duration
between the CS and the US may be
long (hours), but yet result in
conditioning. A biologically adaptive   John Garcia
CS (taste) led to conditioning but
other stimuli (sight or sound) did
 If you get violently ill a couple of hours after
 eating contaminated food, you will probably
 develop an aversion to the taste of that food
  but not to the sight of the restaurant where
    you ate or to the sound of the music you
      heard there. This best illustrates that
     associative learning is constrained by:
A. intrinsic motivation.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. biological predispositions.
D. conditioned reinforcers.
 After getting ill from eating her friend’s
  Thanksgiving turkey, Natalia couldn’t
  stand the the sight or smell of turkey.
However, when her friend baked a whole
chicken, Natalia thought it sounded good.
             This illustrates:
A.   generalization.
B.   discrimination.
C.   extinction.
D.   acquisition.
Classical Conditioning
   Extinction
     diminishing of a CR
     in classical conditioning, when a
      UCS does not follow a CS
     in operant conditioning, when a
      response is no longer reinforced
Classical Conditioning

  Spontaneous Recovery
    reappearance, after a rest
     period, of an extinguished CR
    Suggests that extinction
     suppresses, rather than
     eliminates, a CR.
  Generalization
    tendency for stimuli similar to CS
     to elicit similar responses
Strength    (CS+UCS)
of CR
                          Extinction    recovery of
                          (CS alone)    CR

                                          (CS alone)

Drops of saliva   60
in 30 seconds




                       Hind          Pelvis   Shoulder   Front
                  0    paw                               paw
                             Thigh        Trunk    Foreleg

                              Part of body stimulated
Classical Conditioning

  Discrimination
    in classical conditioning, the learned
     ability to distinguish between a CS
     and other stimuli that do not signal a
Nausea Conditioning in
   Cancer Patients

room)      UCS
room)      CR
Classical Conditioning
Martin likes to shower in the men’s locker room after
   working out. During a shower he hears a toilet
flushing nearby. Suddenly boiling hot water comes
   out of the showerhead, causing Martin serious
    discomfort. Later on in the shower, he hears
  another toilet flush and he immediately jumps out
from under the showerhead. In this scenario, what
       is the unconditioned response (UCR)?
A.   jumping out of the shower
B.   sound of the toilet flushing
C.   pain avoidance
D.   boiling hot water
   Brian ate a tuna salad sandwich that had
   become tainted from being in the sun too
  long. Not long after eating, Brian became
  extremely nauseated and felt awful. After
    that, even the sight of a tuna sandwich
   caused Brian to feel nauseated. In this
 scenario, what is the conditioned response
A. tuna              (CR)?
B. nausea
C. mayonnaise
D. sight of any sandwich

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