RESISTANCE / STRENGTH TRAINING by y1YGa88

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									RESISTANCE / STRENGTH
      TRAINING

CAST SPORT SCIENCE GROUP
                                                                            (Balyi, 1997)


 FUNdamental           Training to Train         Training to          Training to Win
                                                  Compete

FUN / Participation,   Emphasis on            Specific physical       Maintenance of
strgth & endurance     general physical       conditioning            physical capacities
via FUN & games        conditioning
General overall        Basic skills (and      Specific skills under   Skill development &
devpt, ABCs, proper    more specific skills   competitive             maintenance
running, jumping,      towards end of         conditions              Modeling all
throwing techniques    phase)                                         aspects of
                                                                      performance
Quickness,             Complementary          Introduce               Frequent
medicine ball,         sports                 ‘prophylatic breaks’    prophylatic breaks
bodyweight
Introduce ‘ancillary   Individualization &    Full                    All aspects
capacities’            basics of ‘ancillary   individualization &     individualized & fine
                       capacities’            specific ‘ancillary     tune ‘ancillary
                                              capacities’             aspects’
Introduction to        Mental training        Mental preparation      Mental preparation
mental training
          Generic Content Distribution, contd


 FUNdamental          Training to Train    Training to    Training to Win
                                            Compete
Participate in many
sports                     SINGLE            SINGLE          DOUBLE

NO PERIODIZATION       PERIODIZATION      PERIODIZATION    PERIODIZATION

                                            DOUBLE           MULTIPLE




                                                               Balyi, 1997
         Training Progression

Technique         Technique     Technique
                  + Endurance + Power
                  + Circuit Tr. + Str. Tr.
AGE                             + End. Tr.
  8                 13                    16/18
 Incorporate technical & fitness parameters with sport
performance for evaluation, up to at least 16 / 17 yrs old.
INFLUENCE OF MATURATION ON STRENGTH
   Contributions to muscle                          Stabilizes in
   strength during maturation
                                                    adulthood
  100% Adult potential

                                                       Lean body mass

                                                       Testosterone

                                                       Neural myelination
                                                       development




  Birth             Puberty              Adult
    Strength primarily   Consolidation    Optimal strength
    via motor patterns    of strength         Potential
         NEURAL             Factors
                          HORMONAL
                                                                 (Kraemer, 1989)
        Methods of Strength
             Training
•   Three ways to achieve maximal muscular
    tension:
    1. Maximal effort method - Lifting a maximal load

    2. Submaximal & repeated effort methods -Lifting
       a nonmaximal load to failure … during final reps,
       muscles develop maximum force (increased muscle
       recruitment) as earlier recruited muscle fibers fatigue


    3. Dynamic effort method - Lifting (throwing) a
       nonmaximal load with the highest attainable speed

                                                   Zatsiorsky, 1995
• Training intensity can be estimated by:
   • Magnitude of the resistance
     % of best – 80% of 1RM load

  • Number of reps per set (10reps)

  • Number of reps or % with maximal
    resistance (10RM or max reps at 80% 1RM)
HOWEVER……..
• Exercising at varying levels of resistance
  causes differences in metabolic reactions,
  intramuscular coordination, biomechanical
  variables and intermuscular coordination
                                      Zatsiorsky, 1995
• Note: Total amount of degraded protein is a function of both
  the mechanical work performed (i.e., total weight lifted) & the
  rate of protein catabolism.

• Simply put – the more weight lifted over time the greater the
  protein breakdown (catabolism) and the greater potential for
  muscle rebuilding.

• However, is this important in young athletes?
   – Remember that neural component is very large – learning to recruit
     the muscles

   – Post puberty we see the influx of hormones which allows us to
     maximize mass (hypertrophy) - particularly when training is
      between 5 – 6 & 10 – 12 RM.



                                                       Zatsiorsky, 1995
• Maximal effort method:

   • Maximum # of MUs (motor units) activated with optimal
     discharge frequency

   • MU – includes the path from the brain to the muscle fibers
     recruited via the path

   • Train Considered superior for improving both intra (within
     the muscle) & intermuscular (between muscles)
     coordination

   • movement = 1 – 3 reps

   • OK for superior athletes … BUT several limitations, such as
     high risk of injury.



                                                   Zatsiorsky, 1995
• Submaximal & Repeated effort methods:
   • These two types of lifts are similar in ability to induce
     muscle hypertrophy … BUT differ in respect to muscular
     strength and neuromuscular coordination

   • Submaximal
     enhancement of strength or specific intramuscular
     coordination (greatest method for safe lifting)

   • Repeated
     lifts are really useful for inducing hypertrophy particularly
     where max # of MUs are recruited! Fatiguing sets or failure.




                                                    Zatsiorsky, 1995
Long-Term Development

Guidelines for training the young
             athlete
   Laws of Strength Training
                       Bompa 2002


• Law One: Develop Joint Flexibility
  achieving full range of motion at a joint allows for
  force production throughout the full range and
  reduces chance of injury and poor lifting techniques
• Law Two: Develop Tendon Strength Before
  Muscle Strength
  muscle strength improves faster than tendon’s ability
  to withstand force – spend time in the anatomical
  (progressive) adaptation phase
       ……..laws continued.
• Law Three: Develop Core Strength Before
  the Limbs
  Exercises should start from the core and work
  towards the extremities. The limbs are only as strong
  as the core. A strong core works as a platform in
  which the extremities work from.
            Long Term Development

AGE: 12                14               16                18              20+


Foundational        Teach lifting   Develop lifting Mastery of lifting   Advanced
athletic skills     technique       technique       technique            strength
                                                                         training
(Core strength,     Emphasize       Emphasize        Basic strength      methods
balance, agility,   foundational strength            training
coordination,       athletic skills exercises with   methods
flexibility,                        dbells
general             Introduce                        Use all types of
strength)           strength        Introduce        strength
                    exercises       barbell          exercise
                    with dbells     exercises
                                                     Introduce
                                                     ballistic
                                                     exercises
          Long Term Development

AGE: 12                14                 16                18                20+


    Circuit training Barbell lifting           Barbell lifting     Execution of
                     technique with            technique with      advanced lifting
    High repetitions
                     broom stick and           light to moderate   technique (Olympic
    Timed sets       light barbell             loads               Lifts)
                       Keep repetitions        Keep repetitions Advanced lifting
                       above 10 RM             above 6RM        strategies
                                               Bodyweight in-     Weighted explosive
                                               place explosive training
                                               training exercises
 Train to Train
   Guidelines for strength training
                         Train to Train

• Design programs that focus on injury prevention. Focus on the
  hips, abs, low back, legs and shoulders.

• Use circuit type training that involves 6-9 stations to develop
  basic strength – perform only 1-2sets.

• Training session should be no longer than 15-20min with an
  increase up to 30min.

• Design circuit so there is an alternation between body parts –
  i.e. legs, arms, back, abs

• Focus should be on technique – de-emphasize competitive
  behavoir and reward individual improvement.
Example Training Session
      Time        Activity      Description


 0-15min     Dynamic Warm-   General to
             Up              Specific
                             Movements
 15-25min    A,B,C’s         Ladder drills,
                             coordination etc.

 25-55min    Resistance      Circuit training
             training

 55-75min    Aerobic         Soccer, ultimate,
                             etc
 75-90min    Cool-down       Cool-down
                             followed by
                             stretching.

								
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