RESISTANCE / STRENGTH TRAINING CAST SPORT SCIENCE GROUP (Balyi, 1997) FUNdamental Training to Train Training to Training to Win Compete FUN / Participation, Emphasis on Specific physical Maintenance of strgth & endurance general physical conditioning physical capacities via FUN & games conditioning General overall Basic skills (and Specific skills under Skill development & devpt, ABCs, proper more specific skills competitive maintenance running, jumping, towards end of conditions Modeling all throwing techniques phase) aspects of performance Quickness, Complementary Introduce Frequent medicine ball, sports ‘prophylatic breaks’ prophylatic breaks bodyweight Introduce ‘ancillary Individualization & Full All aspects capacities’ basics of ‘ancillary individualization & individualized & fine capacities’ specific ‘ancillary tune ‘ancillary capacities’ aspects’ Introduction to Mental training Mental preparation Mental preparation mental training Generic Content Distribution, contd FUNdamental Training to Train Training to Training to Win Compete Participate in many sports SINGLE SINGLE DOUBLE NO PERIODIZATION PERIODIZATION PERIODIZATION PERIODIZATION DOUBLE MULTIPLE Balyi, 1997 Training Progression Technique Technique Technique + Endurance + Power + Circuit Tr. + Str. Tr. AGE + End. Tr. 8 13 16/18 Incorporate technical & fitness parameters with sport performance for evaluation, up to at least 16 / 17 yrs old. INFLUENCE OF MATURATION ON STRENGTH Contributions to muscle Stabilizes in strength during maturation adulthood 100% Adult potential Lean body mass Testosterone Neural myelination development Birth Puberty Adult Strength primarily Consolidation Optimal strength via motor patterns of strength Potential NEURAL Factors HORMONAL (Kraemer, 1989) Methods of Strength Training • Three ways to achieve maximal muscular tension: 1. Maximal effort method - Lifting a maximal load 2. Submaximal & repeated effort methods -Lifting a nonmaximal load to failure … during final reps, muscles develop maximum force (increased muscle recruitment) as earlier recruited muscle fibers fatigue 3. Dynamic effort method - Lifting (throwing) a nonmaximal load with the highest attainable speed Zatsiorsky, 1995 • Training intensity can be estimated by: • Magnitude of the resistance % of best – 80% of 1RM load • Number of reps per set (10reps) • Number of reps or % with maximal resistance (10RM or max reps at 80% 1RM) HOWEVER…….. • Exercising at varying levels of resistance causes differences in metabolic reactions, intramuscular coordination, biomechanical variables and intermuscular coordination Zatsiorsky, 1995 • Note: Total amount of degraded protein is a function of both the mechanical work performed (i.e., total weight lifted) & the rate of protein catabolism. • Simply put – the more weight lifted over time the greater the protein breakdown (catabolism) and the greater potential for muscle rebuilding. • However, is this important in young athletes? – Remember that neural component is very large – learning to recruit the muscles – Post puberty we see the influx of hormones which allows us to maximize mass (hypertrophy) - particularly when training is between 5 – 6 & 10 – 12 RM. Zatsiorsky, 1995 • Maximal effort method: • Maximum # of MUs (motor units) activated with optimal discharge frequency • MU – includes the path from the brain to the muscle fibers recruited via the path • Train Considered superior for improving both intra (within the muscle) & intermuscular (between muscles) coordination • movement = 1 – 3 reps • OK for superior athletes … BUT several limitations, such as high risk of injury. Zatsiorsky, 1995 • Submaximal & Repeated effort methods: • These two types of lifts are similar in ability to induce muscle hypertrophy … BUT differ in respect to muscular strength and neuromuscular coordination • Submaximal enhancement of strength or specific intramuscular coordination (greatest method for safe lifting) • Repeated lifts are really useful for inducing hypertrophy particularly where max # of MUs are recruited! Fatiguing sets or failure. Zatsiorsky, 1995 Long-Term Development Guidelines for training the young athlete Laws of Strength Training Bompa 2002 • Law One: Develop Joint Flexibility achieving full range of motion at a joint allows for force production throughout the full range and reduces chance of injury and poor lifting techniques • Law Two: Develop Tendon Strength Before Muscle Strength muscle strength improves faster than tendon’s ability to withstand force – spend time in the anatomical (progressive) adaptation phase ……..laws continued. • Law Three: Develop Core Strength Before the Limbs Exercises should start from the core and work towards the extremities. The limbs are only as strong as the core. A strong core works as a platform in which the extremities work from. Long Term Development AGE: 12 14 16 18 20+ Foundational Teach lifting Develop lifting Mastery of lifting Advanced athletic skills technique technique technique strength training (Core strength, Emphasize Emphasize Basic strength methods balance, agility, foundational strength training coordination, athletic skills exercises with methods flexibility, dbells general Introduce Use all types of strength) strength Introduce strength exercises barbell exercise with dbells exercises Introduce ballistic exercises Long Term Development AGE: 12 14 16 18 20+ Circuit training Barbell lifting Barbell lifting Execution of technique with technique with advanced lifting High repetitions broom stick and light to moderate technique (Olympic Timed sets light barbell loads Lifts) Keep repetitions Keep repetitions Advanced lifting above 10 RM above 6RM strategies Bodyweight in- Weighted explosive place explosive training training exercises Train to Train Guidelines for strength training Train to Train • Design programs that focus on injury prevention. Focus on the hips, abs, low back, legs and shoulders. • Use circuit type training that involves 6-9 stations to develop basic strength – perform only 1-2sets. • Training session should be no longer than 15-20min with an increase up to 30min. • Design circuit so there is an alternation between body parts – i.e. legs, arms, back, abs • Focus should be on technique – de-emphasize competitive behavoir and reward individual improvement. Example Training Session Time Activity Description 0-15min Dynamic Warm- General to Up Specific Movements 15-25min A,B,C’s Ladder drills, coordination etc. 25-55min Resistance Circuit training training 55-75min Aerobic Soccer, ultimate, etc 75-90min Cool-down Cool-down followed by stretching.
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