Chapter 01 Hist by wuyunqing

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									                                  INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

PROLOGUE

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Prologue Content
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: B
Page: 4

Psychologists who are interested in _____ aspects of behavior would be interested in knowing how
respiration rates and hormone levels changed when the astronauts aboard the space shuttle Columbia
detected their mission would end in tragedy.
A.       social
B.       biological
C.       cognitive
D.       motivational


2. Prologue Content
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: D
Page: 4

A woman who witnessed the space shuttle Columbia disintegrate as it re-entered the earth’s atmosphere
was interviewed a few weeks after the tragedy. She told reporters, ―I was washing the car in the driveway
when I saw a fiery ball in the sky.‖ Such information would be interesting to a psychologist who studies
_____.
A.      biology
B.      consciousness
C.      human development
D.      learning and memory


3. Prologue Content
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 4

Undoubtedly, NASA officials and crew members were distressed by the Columbia tragedy. A _____
psychologist would be able to help NASA employees deal with their own sadness and worries about the
safety of future missions.
A.      clinical and counseling
B.      developmental
C.      social
D.      motivational
MODULE 1: PSYCHOLOGISTS AT WORK

Multiple Choice Questions

4. Definition of Psychology
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: A
Page: 5

In general, psychology is the scientific study of
A.      behavior and mental processes.
B.      the differences between humans and animals.
C.      unconscious motivations.
D.      cross-cultural differences.


5. Definition of Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 5

Which of the following phenomena would interest psychologists?
A.     sensation and perception
B.     biological function and process
C.     reasoning processes
D.     A, B, and C


6. Definition of Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: D
Page: 5

All of the following represent a primary goal of psychologists, except to
A.        describe phenomena.
B.        explain phenomena.
C.        predict phenomena.
D.        market tests of phenomena.


7. Definition of Psychology
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 5

Psychologists rely on _____ to answer their questions about human behavior and cognitive processes.
A.     intuition and experience
B.     common sense
C.     the scientific method
D.     anecdotal evidence
The Subfields of Psychology: Psychology’s Family Tree

What Are the Biological Foundations of Behavior?

8. Behavioral Neuroscience
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 6

A psychologist with interests in _____ might wonder how damage to the brain affects a person’s memory for
important events.
A.     behavioral neuroscience
B.     experimental psychology
C.     developmental psychology
D.     health psychology


9. Behavioral Neuroscience
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 6

Behavioral neuroscientists are interested in the ways that _____ affect behavior.
A.     rewards and punishments
B.     emotions
C.     the presence of others
D.     the brain and nervous system


How Do People Sense, Perceive, Learn, and Think About the World?

10. Experimental Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: B
Page: 8

Trish wants to understand the process that leads her to remove her hand from a hot pan when she senses
pain. Trish’s curiosity reflects the interests of some _____ psychologists.
A.       developmental
B.       experimental
C.       clinical
D.       health


11. Experimental Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 8
Dr. Goldberg studies the ways in which we interpret visual information about how rapidly objects approach
us. Her research reflects the _____ subfield of psychology.
A.      social
B.      clinical
C.      experimental
D.      health


What Are the Sources of Change and Stability in Behavior across the Lifespan?

12. Developmental Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: B
Page: 8

A ______ psychologist would be interested in the ways intelligence changes as a child ages.
A.     health
B.     developmental
C.     clinical
D.     personality


13. Developmental Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: D
Page: 8

Professor Sneller has spent many years documenting how senior citizens’ attitudes toward death change
from year to year. He is likely a(n) _________ psychologist.
A.      health
B.      personality
C.      clinical
D.      developmental


14. Personality Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 8

Dr. Bell studies the ways in which people’s behavior remains stable over time and across different situations.
She is likely a
A.       personality psychologist.
B.       clinical psychologist.
C.       behavioral neuroscientist.
D.       health psychologist.


15. Personality Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: B
Page: 8
Simon notices that his one friend, Peter, seems to be extremely extroverted, whereas his other friend,
Nathan, seems to shy and withdrawn. Simon has noted an individual difference, and such individual
differences are systematically studied by ___________ psychologists.
A.       health
B.       personality
C.       clinical
D.       developmental


How Do Psychological Factors Affect Physical and Mental Health?

16. Health Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: D
Page: 8

A man suffers from headaches that he believes result from his stressful job as an accountant. This would
interest a
A.       clinical psychologist.
B.       developmental psychologist.
C.       personality psychologist.
D.       health psychologist.


How Do Our Social Networks Affect Behavior?

17. Social Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 8

Danny changes his dinner plans because his friends encourage him to join them at the movies. Danny’s
change in behavior would interest a ______ psychologist.
A.     social
B.     clinical
C.     health
D.     cross-cultural


18. Social Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: C
Page: 8

Kim notices that the closer to the front of the classroom she sits, the more she likes the professor of that
class. This observation would interest a ____________ psychologist.
A.      clinical
B.      cross-cultural
C.      social
D.      health
19. Cross-Cultural Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: C
Page: 8

When Marta arrived in the United States, she realized that norms regarding eating and working differed from
those in her native home of Spain. Such differences are the focus of _________.
A.      personality psychology
B.      social psychology
C.      cross-cultural psychology
D.      comparative psychology


Expanding Psychology’s Frontiers

20. Clinical Neuropsychology
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 9

_____ is a new subfield of psychology that explains psychological disorders in terms of biological factors.
A.      Behavioral neuropsychology
B.      Clinical neuropsychology
C.      Evolutionary psychology
D.      Cross-cultural psychology


21. Evolutionary Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: C
Page: 9

A(n) _____ psychologist would be interested in whether or not men and women are genetically predisposed
to prefer different types of romantic relationships.
A.       developmental
B.       personality
C.       evolutionary
D.       clinical


Working at Psychology

22. Where Psychologists Work
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 9
Most psychologists with doctoral degrees work in
A.     large corporations.
B.     law enforcement agencies.
C.     government agencies.
D.     universities and colleges.


23. Where Psychologists Work
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 9–10

Which of the following is not a primary role served by psychologists?
A.     clinical practitioner
B.     forensic investigator
C.     scientist
D.     teacher


Psychologists: A Statistical Portrait

24. Profile of Psychologists
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: B
Page: 10

According to current data, which of the following is true of the ―typical‖ psychologist today?
A.      is likely to be African American
B.      is equally likely to be a man or a woman
C.      probably lives in Europe
D.      probably works in a human services organization


25. Profile of Psychologists
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: D
Page: 10

All of the following statements about psychologists from minority groups are true, except that
A.        without psychologists from varied ethnic/minority groups, the field lacks diverse perspectives and
          abilities.
B.        ethnic/minority psychologists lack successful role models.
C.        members of ethnic/minority groups may be reluctant to receive therapy if they cannot find a therapist
          from their own racial group.
D.        ethnic/minority psychologists can access financial resources from the government that
          psychologists from the majority group cannot.
The Education of a Psychologist

26. Education Background
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: A
Page: 10

The primary difference between psychologists and psychiatrists is that
A.      psychiatrists have a medical degree, whereas psychologists do not.
B.      psychologists are scientists, but psychiatrists are not.
C.      psychiatrists can treat mental disorders, but psychologists cannot.
D.      psychologists can teach in colleges, but psychiatrists cannot.


27. Education Background
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 10

Which of the following is the highest academic degree attained by most psychologists?
A.     a master of sciences
B.     a master of arts
C.     doctorate in philosophy
D.     doctorate in psychology


28. Education Background
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: A
Page: 11

According to the course text, current statistics indicate that there
A.      are now more students enrolled in psychology graduate programs than there were six years ago.
B.      are now fewer students enrolled in psychology graduate programs than there were six years ago.
C.      are now the same numbers of students enrolled in psychology graduate programs as there were six
        years ago.
D.      are now more students leaving psychology graduate programs to enter the workforce.



Careers for Psychology Majors

29. Psychological Skills
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: D
Page: 12

In general, an undergraduate psychology major is prepared to
A.      analyze problems.
B.      think critically.
C.      synthesize and evaluate information.
D.      A, B, and C
Fill in the Blank Questions

30. Definition of Psychology
Psychologists try to _______, _________, and ________ the way human beings behave and think.
Answers: describe; predict; explain


31. Behavioral Neuroscience
___________ focuses on how behavior is shaped by the brain and nervous system.
Answer: Behavioral neuroscience

32. Cognitive Psychology
A(n) __________ psychologist would research what details people remember about major catastrophic
events, such as the space shuttle Columbia tragedy.
Answer: cognitive


33. Personality Psychology
Personality psychologists study the _________ of behavior over time.
Answer: consistency


34. A Portrait of Psychologists
About ____ of the psychologists in the United States are women.
Answer: half


35. Education Background
Psychologists who want to focus on treating psychological disorders often pursue a ________ degree.
Answer: doctor of psychology



MODULE 2: A SCIENCE EVOLVES: THE PAST, THE PRESENT, AND THE FUTURE

Multiple Choice Questions

36. Trephining
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 15

_____ was an ancient ―cure‖ for mental illness that involved chipping away pieces of a skull to allow evil
spirits to escape.
A.        Blood-letting
B.        Exorcism
C.        Trephining
D.        Phrenology
37. Phrenology
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 15

The study of bumps on the cranial surface is known as
A.     craniometry.
B.     phrenology.
C.     trephining.
D.     structuralism.

The Roots of Psychology

38. First Psychology Lab
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 15

The year 1879 is considered the beginning of psychology as a science. This is when
A.     Sigmund Freud opened his private practice.
B.     William James wrote the first book on psychology.
C.     Wilhelm Wundt created the first psychology lab.
D.     Franz Gall began practicing phrenology.


39. First Psychology Lab
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 15

The first psychology lab was founded by
A.       Sigmund Freud.
B.       Carl Rogers.
C.       B. F. Skinner.
D.       Wilhelm Wundt.


40. First Psychology Lab
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 15

Wilhelm Wundt was primarily interested in
A.     the structure of the mind.
B.     the function of the mind.
C.     the nervous system.
D.     emotional responses.


41. Introspection
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 15

Introspection is most closely associated with what psychological perspective?
A.      Gestalt psychology
B.      evolutionary psychology
C.      structuralism
D.      functionalism


42. Introspection
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 15–16

As Jeri gazes at the stars, she describes the intensity of the stars’ light, their shape, their distance from her,
and the sensations she feels as she looks at them. Jeri is engaging in a form of
A.       introspection.
B.       epiphany.
C.       optical illusion.
D.       projective recounting.


43. Introspection
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 16

Which of the following is a criticism of introspection as a ―window‖ into the mind’s structure?
A.     Introspection is too scientific to be useful in everyday situations.
B.     People’s descriptions of their internal experiences cannot be easily verified by others.
C.     Introspection is too scientific to be useful in everyday situations, and some inner experiences are
       difficult to describe.
D.     People’s descriptions of their internal experiences cannot be easily verified by others, and some
       inner experiences are difficult to describe.


44. Early Perspectives
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: D
Page: 15–16

The relationship between William James and Wilhelm Wundt is the same as the relationship between
A.      Gestalt psychology and functionalism.
B.      phrenology and structuralism.
C.      Gestalt psychology and phrenology.
D.      functionalism and structuralism.
45. Functionalism
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 16

A psychologist studies how people adapt to stressful working conditions. She probably takes the ___
approach to understanding human behavior.
A.     functionalist
B.     structuralist
C.     Gestalt
D.     holistic


46. Gestalt Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: C
Page: 17

A(n) _______ psychologist would be interested in how the brain organizes numerous pieces of sensory
information into a single, holistic perception.
A.      structural
B.      evolutionary
C.      gestalt
D.      functional


47. Gestalt Psychology
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: D
Page: 17

Who would be most likely to make the following statement? ―We must consider the whole of human
behavior, and not just the components that make up that behavior.‖
A.     Roy, a structural psychologist
B.     Lisa, a functional psychologist
C.     Tim, a behavioral psychologist
D.     Karen, a Gestalt psychologist


Women in Psychology: Founding Mothers

48. Margaret Floy Washburn
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 18

The first woman to receive a doctorate in psychology was
A.       Mary Calkins.
B.       Margaret Floy Washburn.
C.       Karen Horney.
D.       Anna Freud.
49. Leta Stetter Hollingworth
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 18

_____ conducted some of the earliest psychological research that focused on the relationship between
performance and menstruation.
A.     June Etta Downey
B.     Karen Horney
C.     Mary Calkins
D.     Leta Stetter Hollingworth


50. Mary Calkins
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 18

The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was
A.       June Etta Downey.
B.       Mary Calkins.
C.       Anna Freud.
D.       Mamie Phipps Clark.


51. Mamie Phipps Clark
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: A
Page: 18

_____ made important contributions to our understanding of how children recognize differences among
racial groups.
A.       Mamie Phipps Clark
B.       Leta Stetter Hollingworth
C.       Karen Horney
D.       Mary Calkins


52. Karen Horney
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 18

_____ enhanced our understanding of the ways in which culture influences the personalities that we have.
A.     Anna Freud
B.     June Etta Downey
C.     Karen Horney
D.     Margaret Floy Washburn
53. Anna Freud
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 18

Our understanding and treatment of abnormal behaviors was improved by the contributions of
A.     Mary Calkins.
B.     Anna Freud.
C.     Mamie Phipps Clark.
D.     June Etta Downey.


Today’s Perspectives

The Neuroscience Perspective: Blood, Sweat, and Fears


54. Neuroscience Perspective
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 19

From the neuroscientific perspective, a psychologist studying Alzheimer’s disease would be interested in
_____.
A.     unconscious desires
B.     biological causes
C.     self-esteem issues
D.     conditioned behaviors


The Psychodynamic Perspective: Understanding the Inner Person

55. Psychodynamic Perspective
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: A
Page: 19

Dr. Rashid believes that mental illness results from inner conflicts that are beyond a person’s control. Dr.
Rashid probably takes the _______ perspective.
A.     psychodynamic
B.     behavioral
C.     neuroscience
D.     humanistic


56. Psychodynamic Perspective
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: A
Page: 19
The name Sigmund Freud corresponds to the psychodynamic perspective. Using this type of analogy, which
of the following is correct?
A.       John Watson corresponds to the behavioral perspective.
B.       B. F. Skinner corresponds to the humanistic perspective.
C.       Carl Rogers corresponds to the cognitive perspective.
D.       Abraham Maslow corresponds to the neuroscience perspective.


The Behavioral Perspective: Observing the Outer Person

57. Behavioral Perspective
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: D
Page: 19

The _____ perspective scientifically challenged psychologists like Sigmund Freud, who focused on inner,
unobservable phenomena.
A.     neuroscience
B.     cognitive
C.     humanistic
D.     behavioral


58. Behavioral Perspective
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: B
Page: 19

Psychologists from the _____ perspective believed that they could shape behavior as long as they had
complete control over a person’s environment.
A.     psychodynamic
B.     behavioral
C.     cognitive
D.     humanistic


59. Behavioral Perspective
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: B
Page: 19–20, 24

The relationship between behaviorism and humanism is similar to the relationship between
A.      free will and determinism
B.      determinism and free will
C.      intrapsychic conflict and information processing
D.      information processing and intrapsychic conflict
The Humanistic Perspective: The Unique Qualities of Homo Sapiens

60. Humanistic Perspective
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Moderate
Answer: C
Page: 20

Suzy believes that all people are capable of self-fulfillment. Her belief is consistent with the _____
perspective.
A.     cognitive
B.     behavioral
C.     humanistic
D.     psychodynamic

                                  st
Applying Psychology in the 21 Century: Psychology and the Reduction of Violence

61. Video Games and Violence
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: A
Page: 21

The course text describes research by Bushman and Anderson (2001, 2002). These researchers have
investigated the effects that violent video games have on children, and some of their findings include:
A.      Children who play such games often perceive the world as a violent place.
B.      Children who play such games tend to have poor academic performance.
C.      Children who play such games are just as aggressive as those who do not play them.
D.      Children who play such games respond aggressively only when they experience intense
        provocation.


62. Interventions to Reduce Aggression
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: C
Page: 21

Although programs like Fast Track have reduced aggressive behavior in children, they have been criticized
for
A.     reducing only aggression against same-sex peers.
B.     not improving children’s academic performance.
C.     being too costly and time-consuming.
D.     not having long-lasting effects.


Fill in the Blank Questions

63. Trephining
The practice of trephining involved cutting holes into a person’s ______ to allow evil spirits to escape the
body.
Answer: skull
64. Phrenology
__________ is the study of the number and shape of bumps on people’s heads, supposedly to reveal
something about their personality.
Answer: Phrenology


65. The Beginning of Psychology
The first psychological laboratory was founded by Wilhelm Wundt in the year _______.
Answer: 1879


66. Defining Gestalt Psychology
__________ focused on the organization of perception, especially the whole in relation to its parts.
Answer: Gestalt psychology


67. Psychodynamic Perspective
The ________ suggests that the causes of human behavior are conflicts among unconscious forces in our
mind.
Answer: psychodynamic perspective


68. Cognitive Perspective
If you want to understand how people think, understand, and know about the world, then you should read
research from the ___________.
Answer: cognitive perspective



MODULE 3: PSYCHOLOGY’S KEY ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES

Multiple Choice Questions

69. Nature Versus Nurture
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: B
Page: 23–24

Two politicians are debating each other on the issue of alcoholism. One claims that alcoholism is caused by
genetic factors, and the other argues that people with alcoholism choose their lifestyle. These politicians are
debating
A.       observable behavior versus internal mental process.
B.       nature versus nurture.
C.       uniqueness versus universality.
D.       conscious versus unconscious causes of behavior.


70. Nature Versus Nurture
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 23
On the issue of whether behavior is genetic or something that we learn, most psychologists believe that
A.      human behavior is generally determined by genetics (nature).
B.      human behavior is generally determined by the environment (nurture).
C.      human behavior is influenced by both genetics and the environment.
D.      we will never have the technology to resolve this issue.


71. Conscious Versus Unconscious
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: D
Page: 24

Dr. Nguyen believes that Lee’s negative attitudes toward homosexuals stem from Lee’s own homosexuality,
which he has not yet become aware of. This conclusion would interest psychologists who study the
A.     nature versus nurture debate.
B.     observable behavior versus internal mental process debate.
C.     the free will versus determinism debate.
D.     the conscious versus unconscious causes of behavior debate.



72. Free Will Versus Determinism
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: C
Page: 24

Sara has a problem with overeating. She snacks all the time, and she feels that she has no control over her
eating. Sarah’s problem would interest psychologists who study the
A.       nature versus nurture debate.
B.       observable behavior versus internal mental process debate.
C.       free will versus determinism debate.
D.       conscious versus unconscious causes of behavior debate.


73. Individual Differences Versus Universal Principles
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: B
Page: 24

Cross-cultural psychologists will likely search for evidence of ___________ in human behavior, whereas
humanists will likely search for evidence of ___________ in human behavior.
A.     free will; determinism
B.     universality; uniqueness
C.     conscious forces; unconscious forces
D.     externality; cognition


74. Individual Differences Versus Universal Principles
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: A
Page: 25
By the year 2050, the number of people of Hispanic descent is expected to ______ in the United States,
posing interesting challenges to psychologists.
A.      increase 100%
B.      increase 150%
C.      increase 200%
D.      increase 300%


Exploring Diversity: Understanding How Culture, Ethnicity, and Race Influence Behavior

75. Culture and Attributions
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: C
Page: 25

Whereas citizens of Europe and North America tend to attribute success to _________ causes, citizens of
Asia tend to attribute success to ________ causes.
A.      external; internal
B.      unstable; internal
C.      stable; unstable
D.      external; stable


76. Studying Culture
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: A
Page: 26

According to the course text, which of the following statements about psychological research is true?
A.      Most psychological research continues to focus on white middle-class students.
B.      The majority of participants in psychological research now represent diverse cultural groups.
C.      Psychologists have now formalized the criteria for distinguishing among cultures and subcultures.
D.      Psychologists accomplished an important milestone by formalizing the distinction between such
        labels as race and ethnicity.


77. Race and Ethnicity
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 26

The term race refers to _______ factors, whereas the term ethnicity refers to _______ factors.
A.      personality; humanistic
B.      universal; individual difference
C.      psychological; physical
D.      biological; cultural
78. Ethnicity
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 26

According to the author of the course text, a person’s ethnicity includes all of the following features except
A.      language.
B.      physical characteristics.
C.      religion.
D.      nationality.


79. Race
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: B
Page: 26

According to the author of the course text, a person’s race includes which of the following?
A.      language
B.      physical characteristics
C.      religion
D.      nationality


Psychology’s Future

80. Psychology’s Future
Question Type: Conceptual
Difficulty: Challenging
Answer: A
Page: 26

According to the author of the text, what trends can we expect in psychology’s future?
A.      less emphasis on treating psychological disorders, and more emphasis on preventing them
B.      less emphasis on issues of public interest, and more emphasis on conducting research for the sake
        of research
C.      more emphasis on issues that interest white Americans, because they will remain the majority
D.      more emphasis on resolving the free will versus determinism debate


Becoming an Informed Consumer of Psychology: Thinking Critically about Psychology:
Distinguishing Legitimate Psychology from Pseudo-Psychology

81. Critical Thinking Definition
Question Type: Factual
Difficulty: Basic
Answer: D
Page: 27

The ability to think critically involves all of the following except
A.      scrutinizing assumptions.
B.      evaluating assertions.
C.      thinking with precision.
D.      analyzing strengths.
Fill in the Blank Questions

82. Nurture Perspective
If you believe that human behavior is largely the result of environmental influences, then you adopt the
_____ perspective.
Answer: nurture


83. Consciousness Perspective
Scientists who believe that human behavior is the result of forces of which people are aware would support
the ________ perspective.
Answer: conscious causes of behavior


84. Determinism Perspective
People who feel that human behavior is the result of genetic and environmental forces outside of their
control would likely endorse _________ explanations of human behavior.
Answer: deterministic


85. Race and Ethnicity
_____ is a biological concept that refers to the physical characteristics of a species, whereas _____ is a
social concept that refers to species’ cultural backgrounds.
Answer: Race; ethnicity


Matching questions
Match each term with its definition or description below.

86. psychology
87. experimental psychology
88. cognitive psychology
89. Wilhelm Wundt
90. John Watson
91. determinism
92. humanism
93. structuralism
94. Gestalt psychology
95. nature

    a. Founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879 in Germany
    b. The branch of psychology that studies sensing, perceiving, and learning
    c. The perspective that focuses on the components of the mind and its processes
    d. The argument that human behavior is shaped by factors beyond our control
    e. The perspective that suggests we must consider the whole of human experience and not just its
       parts
    f. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
    g. The perspective that suggests people control their own destinies and can be self-fulfilled
    h. Believed that behavior could be understood by modifying the environment
    i. The argument that human behavior is largely the result of genetic or hereditary factors
    j. The branch of psychology that studies thinking, memory, problem solving, and language

Answers: 1-f; 2-b; 3-j; 4-a; 5-h; 6-d; 7-g; 8-c; 9-e; 10-i
Short Answer Questions

Module 1: Psychologists at Work

96. Briefly describe the three goals of psychologists, and provide an example of them.

Answer:         Psychologists try to describe the behavior that they observe, and then they try to explain
                why that behavior occurs or what factors influence it. Finally, they try to predict under what
                conditions that behavior will occur again. As an example, a psychologist might try to
                describe the aggressive behavior she sees as children play together in a park. She could
                describe such behaviors as the type of aggression (e.g., hitting, kicking, biting). Then she
                would try to explain the aggression that she observed. Perhaps she would rely on gender
                as an explanation—that boys are socialized to hit, whereas girls are socialized to bite.
                Finally, she would offer predictions about when aggression is likely to occur. So she might
                predict certain types of aggression between two boys, and a different type of aggression
                between two girls.


97. Briefly contrast developmental psychology and personality psychology.

Answer:         In general, developmental psychologists focus on the ways in which our behaviors,
                thoughts, and feelings change as we grow older. Personality psychologists focus on the
                ways in which our behaviors, thoughts and feelings remain the same (stable) over time and
                across different situations.


98. Why is the lack of psychologists from minority groups a problem?

Answer:         The world is becoming more diverse, and psychologists need to reflect that diversity as well.
                Also, minority psychologists bring unique perspectives and abilities that can help the
                discipline advance our understanding of behavior and mental processes. Minority
                psychologists could also serve as role models for other people from minority groups, and
                they may be better able to treat clients who share their minority status.


Module 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

99. What are the basic differences between structuralism and Gestalt psychology?

Answer:         Structuralists focus on the components or ―building blocks‖ of the mind and its processes.
                They reduce the mind and conscious experience into their most basic elements. Gestalt
                psychologists, in contrast, argue against reducing conscious experience into component
                parts. Instead, they advocate evaluating behavior as a whole. Only by looking at the big
                picture, argue the Gestalt psychologists, can we really understand human behavior and
                mental processes.


100. What contributions did Leta Stetter Hollingworth and Karen Horney make to psychology?

Answer:         Leta Stetter Hollingworth was instrumental in refuting traditional beliefs that a woman’s
                menstrual cycle hinders her from performing well. Hollingworth found that performance on
                various tasks did not decline during menstruation. Karen Horney was among the first
                psychologists to pay attention to cultural factors and how they influence human behavior
                and even personality traits.
Module 3: Psychology’s Key Issues and Controversies

101. Briefly describe the nature versus nurture controversy.

Answer:         This controversy addresses whether behavior is determined largely by genetic factors, by
                environmental factors, or by both. Some psychologists believe that behavior is primarily
                shaped by the information we inherit from our parents. Other psychologists believe that
                behavior is primarily shaped by the environments in which we live and work. More modern
                views reflect the belief that both nature and nurture shape human behavior.


102. What is the difference between race and ethnicity?

Answer:         Race refers to a biological or genetic heritage. It is a label that describes the physical
                characteristics of organisms and species. Ethnicity encompasses psychological factors
                related to the culture in which we live. Culture includes our nationality, the religions we
                endorse, and the language(s) we speak.

103. What are the key features of critical thinking?

Answer:         (1) Scrutinizing assumptions to determine their validity, strengths, and weaknesses; (2)
                evaluating the validity of assertions; and (3) thinking about information with greater
                precision.

								
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