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					--- Bread ---------------------------------------------------------------
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IRISH SODA BREAD -- a brief history and introduction, and some
recipes

(Including recipes for white soda, brown soda, treacle bread,
golden soda, currant soda)

                        *     *     *

Two main factors have long affected the course of Irish
baking. The first is related to our climate. In this land
where the influence of the Gulf Stream prevents either great
extremes of heat in the summer or cold in the winter, the hard
wheats, which need such extremes to grow, don't prosper. And
it's such wheats which make flour with a high gluten content,
producing bread which rises high and responds well to being
leavened with yeast. Soft wheats, though, have always grown
well enough here.

The other factor, in the last millenium at least, has been
the relative plenty of fuel. The various medieval overlords
of Ireland were never able to exercise the tight control over
forest land which landowners could manage in more populous,
less wild areas, like England and mainland Europe: so firewood
could be pretty freely "poached", and where there was no
wood, there was almost always heather, and usually turf as
well. As a result, anyone with a hearthstone could afford to
bake on a small scale, and on demand. The incentive to band
together to conserve fuel (and invent the communal bake-oven,
a conservation tool common in more fuel-poor areas of Europe)
was missing in the Irish countryside. Short elapsed baking
times, and baking "at will", were easy.

These two factors caused the Irish householder to bypass
yeast for everyday baking, whenever possible. The primary
leavening agent became what is now known here as "bread soda":
just plain bicarbonate of soda, to US and North American
users. Hence the name "soda bread". But for a long time, most
of the bread in Ireland was soda bread -- at least, most of
it which was baked at the hearthside ("bakery bread" only
being available in the larger cities). Soda bread was made
either "in the pot", in yet another version of the "cloche"
baking which is now coming back into vogue, but which was long
popular all over medieval Europe: or else on a "bakestone",
an iron plate usually rested directly in/on the embers of a
fire. From these two methods are descended the two main kinds
of soda bread eaten in Ireland, both north and south, to the
present day.

In Ireland, "plain" soda bread is as likely to be eaten as an
accompaniment to a main meal (to soak up the gravy) as it's
likely to appear at breakfast. It comes in two main colors,
brown and white, and two main types: "cake" and "farl". The
latter are primarily regional differences. People in the
south of Ireland tend to make cake: people up North seem to
like farl better (though both kinds appear in both North and
South, sometimes under wildly differing names). "Cake" is
soda bread kneaded and shaped into a flattish round, then cut
with a cross on the top (to let the bread stretch and expand
as it rises in the oven) and baked on a baking sheet. Farl is
rolled out into a rough circle and cut through, crosswise,
into four pieces (the "farls": farl is a generic term for
any triangular piece of baking) and usually baked in a heavy
frying pan or on a griddle, on top of the range rather than
in the oven. You may hear either of these breads referred to
locally as "brown cake", "soda cake", "soda farl", "brown
farl", "wheaten bread", and any combination of numerous
other weird terms. (Yes, it gets confusing. You learn pretty
quickly at the baker's to point and say, "Please, just give
me one of those.") -- A quick note here, as well: while
traveling around my old haunts in the US, I've noticed that
almost every time someone makes soda bread over there, they
automatically put fruit in it. This is not the normal approach
in Ireland. People do put raisins, currants and so forth in
soda bread, but almost always as a "tea bread", not in the
"plain soda" which is the stuff of everyday consumption.

With all this said, the basic bread is extremely simple. The
urge to be resisted is to do more stuff to it than
necessary...this is usually what keeps it from coming out
right the first few times. Once you've mastered the basic
mixture, though, you can start adding things, coming up with
wonderful variations like treacle bread and so on.

                        *     *    *

Here's the basic recipe for white soda bread. All these
measures are approximate: flour's volume and liquid-absorptive
capabilities, in particular, will vary depending on the local
humidity.

    450 g / 1 lb / 3 1/2 cups flour (either cake flour
        or all-purpose: but cake flour works better)
    1 teaspoon sugar
    1 teaspoon salt
    1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda
    Between 200-300 ml / 8-10 fluid ounces sour milk,
        buttermilk, or plain ("sweet") milk, to mix

Buttermilk is usually the preferred mixing liquid: its acidity
helps activate the bicarb, releasing the CO2 which makes the
bread rise.

"Sour milk" isn't milk that's gone bad. It's milk which
has had a couple of teaspoons of buttermilk stirred into
it, has been put in a scalded container and wrapped in a
towel, and left in some peaceful corner at about 75 degrees
F for 24 hours. The original Irish name is bainne clabhair
(BAHN-yeh clavAIR), "clabbered milk", or "bonnyclabber" as the
Scots have anglicized it. The flavor isn't quite as tart as
buttermilk, but there's enough acid to make the bicarb react
correctly. If you don't have time to do sour milk, buttermilk
will do perfectly well. "Sweet" or plain milk doesn't work
quite as well, but you can still use it: just add 1/2 teaspoon
of baking powder to the recipe.

First, decide whether you're making farl or cake. If farl,
find your heaviest griddle or non-sloping-sided frying pan
(cast iron is best), and put it on to preheat at a low-medium
heat. (You're going to have to experiment with settings. Farl
should take about 20 minutes per side to get a slight toasty
brown.) If making cake, preheat the oven to 450 F and find a
baking sheet. Full preheating is vital for soda bread.

Sift the dry ingredients together several times to make
sure the bicarb is evenly distributed. Put the sifted dry
ingredients in a good big bowl (you want stirring room)
and make a well in the center. Pour about three-quarters
of the buttermilk or sour milk or whatever in, and start
stirring. You are trying to achieve a dough that is raggy and
very soft, but the lumps and rags of it should look dryish
and "floury", while still being extremely squishy if you poke
them. Add more liquid sparingly if you think you need it. (You
may need more or less according to conditions: local humidity
and temperature, the absorptiveness of the flour you're using,
etc.)

Blend quickly (but not too energetically!) until the whole
mass of dough has become this raggy consistency. Then turn the
contents of the bowl out immediately onto a lightly floured
board or work surface, and start to knead.

The chief concern here is speed: the chemical reaction of the
bicarb with the buttermilk started as soon as they met, and
you want to get the bread into the oven while the reaction
is still running on "high". DON'T OVERKNEAD. You do not want
the traditional "smooth, elastic" ball of dough you would
expect with a yeast bread; you simply want one that contains
almost everything that went into the bowl, in one mostly
cohesive lump. You should not spend more than half a minute
or so kneading...the less time, the better. You don't want
to develop the gluten in the flour at all. If you do, you'll
get a tough loaf. Don't be concerned if the dough is somewhat
sticky: flour your hands, and the dough, and keep going as
quickly as you can. There is a whole spectrum of "wetness" for
soda bread dough in which it's possible to produce prefectly
good results: I've found that farl in particular sometimes
rises better if the dough is initially wet enough to be
actively sticky. You're likely to have to experiment a few
times, as I said, to come to recognize the right texture of
dough.

Once you're done kneading, shape the bread. For cake,
flatten the lump of dough to a slightly domed circle or
flat hemisphere about 6-8 inches in diameter, and put it
on the baking sheet (which should be dusted lightly with
flour first). Then use a very sharp knife to cut a cross
right across the circle: the cuts should go about halfway
down through the sides of the circle of dough, so that the
loaf will "flower" properly. If you're making farl, use the
same very sharp knife to cut the circle of dough into four
wedges. Try not to crush or compress the dough where you cut
it (if the knife is sharp enough, you won't). A clean slicing
motion is what's called for.

Then bake. When putting cake in the oven, handle it lightly
and don't jar it: the CO2 bubbles are vulnerable at this
point of the process. Let the bread alone, and don't peek at
it. It should bake for 45 minutes at 400-450F. (One local
source suggests you give it the first 10 minutes at 450, then
decrease to 400. I would agree with this.)

If making farl, dust the hot griddle or frying pan with a very
little flour, and put the farls on/in gently. The cut edges
should be 1/2 inch or so apart to allow for expansion. Give
the farls 20 minutes on a side: they should be a sort of
mocha-toasty color before you turn them. Keep an eye on
the heat -- they scorch easily. The heat should be quite
"slow". When finished, take the farls off the heat and wrap
them in a light dishtowel, hot side down. (The residual steam
works its way up through the soda bread and softens the crust
formed by the process of baking on the griddle, making it more
amenable to being split and toasted later.)

If you're making   cake: At the end of 45 minutes, pick up
the loaf and tap   the bottom. A hollow-ish sound means it's
done. For a very   crunchy crust, put on a rack to cool. For a
softer crust, as   above, wrap the cake in a clean dishcloth as
soon as it comes   out of the oven.

Both ways, the soda bread is wonderful sliced or split and
served hot, with sweet butter and/or the jam or jelly of your
choice.

Soda farl is also one of the most important ingredients
of the Ulster Fry, the world's most dangerous breakfast
(nothing whatsoever to do with its area of origin: it's the
cholesterol....). Fried eggs, fried Irish bacon, fried soda
farl, fried potato farl (a 1/4-inch thick potato bread, also
cooked on a griddle), fried black pudding, fried sausages,
fried tomatoes, fried mushrooms...you get the picture. Not to
be eaten every morning, and not for those closely watching
their fat intake...but wonderful every now and then.
Some people have begun resurrecting the art of baking soda
bread "in the pot", on the hearth, as was done in this country
for many years before the average householder could afford
a luxury like an oven. The traditional vessel is a kind of
Dutch oven which has come to be known on this side of the
water as the "Bastable oven". This is an iron pot about 18-20"
in diameter, with a concave lid. The bread (treated as for
"cake") would be put in the preheated pot: the pot would be
covered and put down into the coals of the fire, and more
coals piled on top. This approach produces a soda bread which
rises wonderfully and bakes with great evenness. The smell of
the bread, suddenly released on opening the pot, is ravishing.

                        *       *     *


VARIATIONS:

"Spotted Dog":

    Add raisins, and maybe another teaspoon of sugar.

"Currant soda":

    1 1/2 lb flour, 4 oz currants, 4 oz raisins, 2 oz mixed
    candied peel, 3 oz butter, 1 tsp bicarb, 1 tsp cream of
    tartar, 1/2 tsp salt, 2 tablespoons sugar, buttermilk to
    mix (judge it by eye, as above). Sieve the dry ingredients
    together; rub in the butter; add the fruit. Add the
    buttermilk, roll out very lightly, cut into farls, and
    bake as for farl above.

"Golden soda":

    substitute about 1 cup of fine-ground cornmeal for a cup
    of the flour. One of my sources tells me this works better
    as cake than as farl.

A really heretical variation:

    Add chopped Jalapeno peppers to the dry ingredients. Mix
    and bake as above. (Diane adds: Mum will probably whack
    me one if she ever catches me doing this. But it does
    taste wonderful.)

                        *       *     *

For "Brown soda" / "wheaten bread":

    4 cups whole wheat flour
    1 cup white flour
    Scant 1/2 cup oatmeal
    1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda
      1 teaspoon salt
      2-3 cups sour milk or buttermilk

Mix and bake exactly as for "plain soda" above. If you have
trouble with this one rising, your local mixture of whole
wheat flour may be responsible: try decreasing the amount of
whole wheat and increasing the white flour.

                              *       *       *

"Treacle bread":

      2 tablespoons dark molasses
      7 fl oz milk (approximately)
      1 1/2 tablespoons sugar
      1 lb flour
      1/2 teaspoon salt
      1 teaspoon cream of tartar
      1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda
      Good pinch of ground ginger

Heat the molasses and milk together. Mix all dry ingredients
together: add liquid until a soft dough is achieved. With
floured hands, shape into a round cake about 1 1/2 inches
thick. Cut into farls, put on a floured baking sheet and bake
at 400F for 40 minutes.

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Gingerbread Loaf

>From FULL AND PLENTY, Maura Laverty.

      6 oz Flour
      3 oz Rice flour
      2 oz Treacle (by weight)
      2 oz Butter
      2 oz Ground almonds
      1/4 lb Raisins
      2 oz Candied peel
      1/2 ts Ground ginger
      1 Egg
      3 tb Sour milk or sour cream
      1/2 ts Bread soda

Sift flour with soda and ginger, mix with rice flour and
rub in the butter. Stir in ground almonds, halved raisins
and sliced peel. Mix treacle with milk or sour cream and
well-beaten egg, and mix with the dry ingredients. Turn into
a well-buttered pan and bake 1 1/4 hours in a moderate oven
(375F).

Makes 5 servings.
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Seed Luncheon Loaf

>From FULL AND PLENTY, Maura Laverty.

      1 lb Flour
      4 oz Margarine
      2 oz Butter
      6 oz Sugar
      2 ts Baking powder
      1 ts Caraway seeds
      3 oz Candied peel
      2    Eggs
      A little milk
      1/4 ts Salt

Sift together flour, baking powder and salt. Rub in margarine
and butter, add sugar, seeds and thinly sliced peel. Add
beaten eggs with enough milk to make a light dough. Place in
a well-greased loaf pan and bake 1-1/2 hours in a moderate
oven (375F).

Makes 6 servings.

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Basic Scones

>From FULL AND PLENTY, Maura Laverty.

      3/4 lb Flour
      1 ts Baking powder
      3/4 ts Salt
      3 tb Margarine or other fat
      2/3 c Milk (roughly)

Sift together flour, salt and baking powder. Cut in the
shortening. Mix in the milk to make a soft dough. When
kneaded, rolled and cut out, bake 10-12 minutes in a hot oven
(450F).

Makes 6 servings.

Variation:      Apple Scones

               Additional ingredients:
               2 oz Sugar
               1 c Minced apples
               1    Beaten egg

          Add the above to the basic scone mixture, mix well, put
          in a flat greased pan, and bake 25 minutes in a hot oven
          (450F). Cut into sections when done: split, butter and
          serve hot.    Dust the tops thickly with granulated sugar.

Variation:       Fruit Scones

                Additional ingredients:
                1/4 lb Raisins, sultanas or currants,
                  or a mixture of all three

          Bake 12 to 15 minutes at 450F.

Variation:       Jam Scones

          Follow the basic recipe. Roll 1/4 inch thick. Cut into
          three-inch rounds with floured cutter. Place a teaspoon
          of any jam in center, fold over, press edges together
          tightly, brush the tops with milk or beaten egg, and
          bake 10-12 minutes in hot oven (450F).

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Buttermilk Scones

>From FULL AND PLENTY, Maura Laverty.

      1 lb Flour
      1 ts Bicarbonate of soda
      1/2 ts Salt
      3 oz Shortening
      3/4 c Sour milk or buttermilk

Sift together flour, soda and salt. Add shortening. Beat egg
slightly, add milk, add to first mixture. Roll out about 1/2
inch thick, cut with fluted cutter. Place on greased cookie
sheet. Bake in hot oven (450-475F) about 15 minutes.

Makes 6 servings.

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--- Snacks & Appetizers -------------------------------------------------
---

Potted Chicken

      1    Large chicken (about 4 lb)*
      2 T Butter
      1    Shallot or small onion
      1 pinch Ground cloves
      1 pinch Ground allspice
      300 ml Chicken stock
      12   Slices bacon
      Salt and pepper
      8 oz Clarified butter
* Or two small ones. -- Boil the chicken(s) lightly. Remove the meat
from the chicken, then bone and skin it. Mince until fairly fine. Season
with salt, the pepper, and spices, and the finely chopped onion or
shallot, then stir in stock and run through blender or food processor.

Butter well a deep casserole or dish and stretch the bacon slices with
a knife, then line the dish with them, reserving some for the top. Pour
in the meat mixture and level off. Dot the top with butter. Lay the rest
of the bacon on top. Cover with foil and a lid. Stand the casserole
in a container of hot water reaching halfway up the side of the
casserole. Bake at 180C/350F for about 1 1/2 - 2 hours. When ready, run
a knife around the edges and leave to get cold. When cold, press down
with a spoon, pour the clarified butter over the top, and keep in a cold
place until needed. Serves 8-10.

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Blarney Cheese Stones

      1 cup shredded Swiss, Blarney or Cheddar cheese
      1/2 cup chopped ham
      1/4 cup chopped cooked spinach
      3 tablespoons mango chutney
      2 packages refrigerated biscuits (10 per package)
      1 egg
      1/4 cup milk
      1/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese
      Combine cheese, ham, spinach and chutney.

    Separate biscuits and flatten each into 3-inch
circle. Place about 1 heaping teaspoon cheese mixture into
center of each circle. Fold over enough dough to seal edges,
using a little cold water if necessary. Place seam-side down
on greased baking sheets.

    Beat together egg and milk, and using pastry brush coat
each biscuit. Sprinkle with Parmesan cheese. Bake at 350
degrees 12 minutes or until golden. Serve warm. Makes 20
cheese biscuits.

    Per biscuit: 144 calories; 7.5 g fat (2.5 g saturated
fat; 47 percent calories from fat); 18 mg cholesterol; 385 mg
sodium; 14.0 g carbohydrates.

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--- Soups & Stews -------------------------------------------------------
---

Parsnip And Apple Soup

      1 T Butter
      1 lb Parsnips, thinly sliced
      1 lb Apples, peeled/cored/sliced
      1    Med. onion, chopped
      2 t Curry powder
      1 t Ground cumin
      1 t Ground coriander
      1/2 t Cardamom
      1    Large clove garlic, crushed
      1-1/4 l Beef or chicken stock
      150 ml Cream
      Salt and pepper
      Chopped chives or parsley

Heat the butter, and when foaming, add the parsnips, apples,
and onions. Soften them but do not let them color. Add the
curry powder, the spices and garlic; cook for about 2 minutes,
stirring well. Pour in the stock slowly, stirring until well
mixed. Cover and simmer gently for about half an hour, or
until the parsnips are quite soft. Taste for seasoning. Sive
or liquidize, and if it seems too thick, dilute with a little
stock or water. Add the cream and reheat, but do not let it
boil. Serve garnished with chopped chives or parsley.

Serves 6.

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Fresh Pea Soup

      350 g Peas, freshly shelled
      2 T Butter
      1    Medium-sized onion, chopped
      1    Head iceberg lettuce/chopped
      1    Sprig mint, chopped
      1    Sprig parsley, chopped
      3    Strips bacon, chopped
      1-1/2 l Ham stock
      Salt and pepper
      Sugar
      Chopped parsley

After shelling the peas, save the pods, wash them and put
them to boil in the ham stock while preparing the soup. Heat
the butter in a large saucepan and soften the onion in it,
then add the lettuce, mint and parsley. De-rind and chop
the bacon. Fry it for about 2 minutes, turning it from time
to time; add to the saucepan with the peas, salt, pepper and
a small amount of sugar. Strain the stock and add. Bring
to the boil, stirring, then simmer for about half an hour
until the peas are quite soft. Sive or liquidize, taste for
seasonings and add a little milk or cream if needed (but not
too much, for the fresh flavor must be preserved). Garnish
with chopped parsley or mint.

Makes 6 servings.
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Sorrel Soup

      1 lb Sorrel
      3 oz Butter
      Large onion, chopped
      2 T Flour (heaped)
      2-1/2 l Stock
      2 T Breadcrumbs
      Salt and pepper
      2    Egg yolks
      150 ml Cream

Wash the sorrel well and chop it up. Heat the butter in a
saucepan and just soften the sorrel and onion in it. Shake
the flour over the vegetables and mix well. Let it cook for
about 1 minute. Meanwhile bring the stock to the boil, then
add to the pan. Add the breadcrumbs, season to taste, and
bring to the boil, then simmer for about 1 hour covered. (It
can be liquidized at this point, but needn't be.) Beat the
egg yolks with the cream and add a little of the hot soup to
the mixture, stirring well; then add gradually to the soup
pot, stirring well, over the heat, but being careful not to
let it boil.

Serves 8.

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Irish Stew

      3 pounds lamb
      Butter, optional
      4 large baking potatoes, divided
      4 medium onions, divided
      2-1/2 cups water
      Salt
      Ground black pepper
      2 large carrots, scraped and sliced
      1 tablespoon minced parsley

    Because the word "stew" means to cook a long time and
because stewing will tenderize the toughest pieces, we
recommend shoulder. Cut off as much fat as you can, and remove
any bones. Cut the meat into bite-sized pieces.

    Throw some of the fat into a Dutch oven or large pot, or
use a couple of tablespoons of butter. Over medium heat, melt
enough fat to make a couple of tablespoonfuls. Remove the rest
of the fat and throw it away.

    Brown the meat in the rendered fat. Peel and slice 2
potatoes. Add the slices to the pot. Peel and chop 1 onion and
add it to the pot. Pour in the water. Season with a little
salt and pepper, to taste. Bring the liquid to a boil. Skim
off any scum and discard. Reduce heat to very low. Cover and
simmer for 1 hour.

    Peel the remaining 2 potatoes. Cut them in half lengthwise
and slice into 1/4-inch pieces. Add to the pot. Peel the other
3 onions, cut them into eighths, and add them to the pot. Add
the carrot slices.

    Return the liquid to a boil. Cover the pot and simmer for
another hour. Serve in soup bowls, each bowl garnished with a
little of the parsley.

      The recipe will serve six. Serve with Irish soda bread.

    Per serving: 580 calories; 20.9 g fat (8.2 g saturated
fat; 32 percent calories from fat); 45.3 g carbohydrates, 166
mg cholesterol; 229 mg sodium.

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Potato, Bacon and Mussel Soup With Oatmeal-Herb 'Crust'

    Along with the potato, food from the sea has sustained the
Irish for centuries. As an alternative to the meat recipes
above, here's a hearty soup that combines the distinctive
flavor of mussels with the simplicity of Irish bacon and
potatoes. The recipe was developed by Chef James Bowe of the
Dublin College of Catering.

      1/2 cup water
      1/4 cup white wine
      1 pound mussels, washed and debearded

      2   tablespoons oil
      4   slices thick bacon, diced
      3   leeks, washed end diced
      2   medium onions, finely chopped
      2   large potatoes, peeled and diced
      1   quart chicken stock or canned broth

      1/2 teaspoon dried thyme
      2 tablespoons butter
      1/4 cup Irish steel-cut oatmeal (such as McCann's)
      Salt, pepper
      1 tablespoon mixed herbs (parsley, dill, chives)

    Bring water and wine to boil in large saucepan. Add
mussels and steam, covered, 5 minutes or until mussels
open. Discard any mussels that do not open. Remove mussels
from shells and reserve cooking liquid.

      Heat oil in large soup pot. Add bacon, leeks and onions
and saute 2 to 3 minutes. Add potatoes and cook 2 minutes
longer. Add stock and thyme and bring to boil. Reduce heat
and simmer 15 minutes. Stir in reserved mussels and cooking
liquid and cook 4 to 5 minutes longer.

    Melt butter in small pan and saute oatmeal until lightly
browned. Add salt, pepper and herbs and stir together. To
serve, ladle soup into bowls and sprinkle with oatmeal mixture
on top. Makes 4 servings.

    Per serving: 579 calories; 22.6 g fat (6.9 g saturated
fat; 35 percent calories from fat); 78 mg cholesterol; 715 mg
sodium; 58.2 g carbohydrates.

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--- Main Dish -----------------------------------------------------------
---

Boiled Bacon And Cabbage
Categories: Irish, Meats

      2 1/2 lb Collar of bacon
               Medium-sized cabbage

NOTE: in Ireland, "bacon" can mean *any* cut of pork except
ham. When people here want what North Americans call bacon,
they ask for "rashers" or "streaky rashers". As far as I
can tell, "collar of bacon" is a cut from the hock, picnic
shoulder, or shoulder butt (I am here using terms from the
diagram in THE JOY OF COOKING). You want any thick cut of
pork, with or without bones, about four inches by four inches
by four or five inches. It does not have to have been salted
first, but if you want to approximate the taste of the real
Irish thing, put it down in brine for a day or two, then
(when ready to cook it) bring to a boil first, boil about
10 minutes, change the water, and start the recipe from the
following point.

Place the joint in a pot, cover with cold water and bring to
the boil, Remove the scum that floats to the surface. Cover
and simmer for 1 1/2 hours (or 30 minutes per pound). Cut
cabbage into quarters and add to pot. Cook gently for about
1/2 hour, or until cabbage is cooked to your liking. (Test
constantly: don't overdo it!) Drain, and serve with potatoes
boiled in their jackets, and a sharp sauce -- mustard or (if
you can get it) HP sauce.

Makes 4 servings.

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Trimlestown Roast Sirloin
      3 lb Sirloin roast
      2 fl Whiskey
      10 fl Red wine
      1 oz Butter
      2 oz Flour
      Salt and pepper

Preheat oven to 180C/350F. Wipe meat, season and place in a
roasting pan. Place pan in oven and cook for one hour. Add
the whiskey and wine to the pan. Cook for a further hour,
basting once more. Remove the roast from the pan, place on a
serving dish and keep warm. Pour off excess fat from the meat
juices, adding water to bring to about 15 oz. Beat the butter
into the flour to form a smooth paste. Add a little of the
juices to this and mix well, then pour onto juices, mixing
again, and bring to the boil. Simmer gently for 2-3 minutes
to cook flour. Correct the seasoning. If the sauce is too
thick, add a little more water. Serve separately in a gravy
boat. Jacket or mashed potatoes, and a cooked green vegetable
(possibly broccoli) go well with this, since the sauce is so
rich.

Makes 4 servings.

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Durgin Park Corned Beef and Cabbage

      1   pound kosher salt
      1   gallon water
      1   fresh brisket of beef (7 to 8 pounds)
      6   whole bay leaves
      8   to 10 black peppercorns
      1   large head cabbage, cored and quartered
      1   bunch carrots, peeled and thickly sliced
      1   large turnip, peeled and cut into 2-inch cubes
      8   large potatoes, peeled and halved

    Mix together salt and water in large nonreactive pot. Add
brisket and allow to cure at least 48 hours. (Beef must be
completely covered, so double the brine recipe if necessary.)

    Drain meat and add fresh water to cover along with bay
leaves and peppercorns. Cook, covered, over medium-high heat 3
to 3 1/2 hours or until fork-tender.

    During last 45 minutes of cooking time, add cabbage,
carrots and turnip.

    If size of pot allows, add potatoes as well. (Alternately
carrots, turnip and potatoes can be boiled separately.) Allow
beef to cool down 15 to 20 minutes before carving. Makes 14 to
16 servings.
      Note: The analysis is based on 14 servings.

    Per serving: 618 calories; 35.0 g fat (11.6 g saturated
fat; 51 percent calories from fat); 178 mg cholesterol; 2,102
mg sodium; 38.3 g carbohydrates.

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Irish Pot-roasted Chicken

      Chicken, about 4.5 lb
      4 oz Oatmeal
      Medium onion, chopped
      2 T Butter
      3 T Stock
      Salt and pepper
      6 oz Bacon
      3 Med. onions, sliced
      2 lb Potatoes
      Seasoned flour
      3 T Dripping or oil
      4 Med. carrots, sliced

If there are giblets with the bird, take them out, wash all
but the liver (reserve that for another use), and cover with
water, add salt and pepper, bring to the boil and simmer
for half an hour. Wipe the bird inside and out and remove
any lumps of fat from the inside; sprinkle with salt. Mix
together the oatmeal, chopped onion, butter or suet, stock,
and seasoning, stuff the bird with this mixture and secure
well. Heat the dripping or oil and lightly fry the bacon,
then chop and put into a casserole. Quickly brown the bird in
the same fat and put on top of the bacon. Soften the onion
and briefly saute the carrots, then add to the casserole.

Strain the giblet stock and make it up to about 1/2 liter.
Heat and pour over the chicken. Cover and cook in a moderate
oven (350C) for about an hour.

Meanwhile, cut the potatoes into thick slices and blanch them
in boiling water, or steam them for about 5 minutes. Toss
them in seasoned flour and add them to the casserole, adding
a little more of the giblet stock if needed. Cover with
buttered wax paper and continue cooking for another 1/2 hour,
taking off the paper for the last few minutes for browning.

Serves 4.

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Chicken And Leek Pie

      6 oz Shortcrust pastry
      4 lb. chicken (approx.), jointed, chopped, and boned
      4 Slices ham steak
      4 Large leeks, cleaned/chopped
      Med. onion
      Salt and pepper
      1 pinch Ground mace or nutmeg
      300 ml Chicken stock
      125 ml Double cream

Make the pastry and leave it in a cold place to rest.
Meanwhile prepare the pie. IN a deep 1 - 1 1/2 quart dish,
place layers of the chicken, the ham, leeks and onion or
shallot, adding the mace, nutmeg and seasoning, then repeating
the layers until the dish is full. Add the stock, then dampen
the edges of the dish before rolling out the pastry to the
required size. Place the pastry over the pie and press the
edges down well. Crimp them with a fork. Make a small hole
in the center. Roll out the scraps of pastry and form a leaf
or rosette for the top. Place this very lightly over the
small hole. Brush the pastry with milk, and bake at moderate
heat, 350F, for 25-30 minutes. Cover the pastry with damp
greaseproof paper when partially cooked if the top seems to
be getting too brown. Gently heat the cream. When pie is
cooked, remove from oven. Carefully lift off the rosette and
pour the cream in through the hole. Put back the rosette and
serve. (This pie forms a delicious soft jelly when cold.)

Serves 4.

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Steak And Guinness Pie

      1 kg Round steak
      1 T Flour
      1 t Brown sugar
      1 T Raisins (optional)
      5 Onions
      300 ml Guinness
      8    Slices bacon
      3 oz Lard
      Chopped parsley
      Recipe of short pastry (for double-crust pie
          in deep pie dish)

Cut the steak into bite sized cubes, roll in easoned flour,
and brown in the lard with the bacon, chopped small. Place
the meat in a casserole, peel and chop the onions, and fry
until golden before adding them to the meat. Add the raisins
(if wanted) and brown sugar, pour in the Guinness, cover
tightly and simmer over a low heat or in a very moderate oven
(325-350F) for 2 1/2 hours. Stir occasionally, and add a
little more Guinness or water if the rich brown gravy gets
too thick. Meanwhile, line a deep pie dish with half the pie
crust: bake it blind: then add the Guinness/beef mixture from
the casserole, cover with the top layer of pie crust, and bake
until finished, probably about 10 more minutes. Variation:
for the brown sugar, substitute 3 T honey.

Serves 4.

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Loin of Lamb with Apple and Ginger Stuffing

      3 lb Loin of lamb, boned
      2    Cloves garlic
      Sea salt and pepper
      2 c Cider (preferably hard)
      2    Cooking apples
      Juice of 1 lemon
      1 t Sugar
      1 t Ground ginger

First make the stuffing. Peel and core the apples, slice
thinly and put into a saucepan with the lemon juice, sugar and
ginger. Cook over a gentle heat until the apples are just
soft, then set aside to cool.

Preheat the oven for 400 F. Trim the lamb, remove the skin
and score the fat. Lay the joint out on a board, fat side
down. Spoon the apple mixture along the center. Roll up and
tie with twine. Peel the garlic and cut it into slivers, then
pierce the joint all over with the point of a sharp knife and
slip the slivers of garlic into the pockets formed. Season
with the salt and pepper, put the joint in a roasting pan
and cook in the hot oven for 30 minutes, then heat the cider
in a small pan and pour it over the lamb. Reduce the heat
to moderate (350F) and cook for another 40 minutes, basting
frequently. When the lamb is cooked, put it onto a heated
serving dish and keep warm. Remove any excess fat from the
pan juices, boil up over a high heat until reduced slightly,
and serve with the sliced lamb.

Serves 4.

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Crusty Roast Lamb (Uaineoil faoi chrusta)

      1 Shoulder of lamb (approx. 4 lb.)
      1 c Fresh breadcrumbs
      Pinch mixed herbs
      2 T Butter, soft
      1-1/2 lb Potatoes, peeled, sliced
      1 Lg onion, diced
      1 Lg cooking apple, peeled, cored, and sliced
      10 oz Chicken stock
Wipe the lamb over, and cut criss-cross slits around the top.
Mix together the breadcrumbs, herbs, butter, salt and pepper.
Rub the mixture onto the top of the meat, pressing down well
so that it sticks. Fill the bottom of the roasting pan with
the vegetables and apple, mixing them and the seasoning well.
Put the joint on top, then pour the stock into the pan, but
not over the meat.

Cover loosely with a piece of foil and bake at 400 F for half
an hour. Then lower the heat to 350F, and cook for a further
20-25 minutes to the pound. Take off the foil for the final
half hour, and check that the vegetables are nearly cooked.
Finish the cooking without the foil, to let the top get brown
and crusty.

Serves 6.

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Lamb Shoulder in Pastry (Guilainn chaoireola i dTaosran)

      12 oz Shortcrust or flaky pastry
      3 lb Boned shoulder of lamb
      6 T Butter
      1 T Mixed chopped herbs
      Salt and black pepper
      Milk or egg to glaze

Make the pastry and chill for at least 1 hour before using.
See that the lamb is fairly free of fat, and securely
tied: put in a roasting pan and rub with about a third
of the butter. Put into a very hot oven, 450F for 20-30
minutes. Take out and allow to cool slightly.

Mix the remaining butter with the herbs, salt and pepper.
Roll out the pastry to a piece large enough to wrap around the
joint. Carefully remove the string from the lamb, trying to
retain the shape. Put it in the center of the pastry, dampen
the edges, and draw the pastry up over the top: secure well by
squeezing the pastry ends and edges together. Turn over so
that the fold is underneath, and put on a baking sheet. Prick
all over the top lightly with a fork, then brush with either
the milk or beaten egg. Put into 400F oven and cook for about
1/2 hour, or until the pastry is nicely browned. Turn the
sheet once during baking to make sure the browning is even.
Serve, cut into fairly thick slices.

Serves 6.

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Beef and Stout Casserole

      1-1/2 lb Beef
      6 oz Lean bacon, cubed
      1 lb Shallots or small onions
      3    Cloves garlic
      1    Bouquet garni
      1 T Sugar
      Salt and pepper
      Basil and parsley
      1 T Butter
      2 T Flour
      1 T Wine or cider vinegar
      1 bottle of stout

Saute the beef and bacon in a little oil. Drain off the
excess liquid. Remove the meat anmd set aside. Add the
butter to the pan, and melt. Stir in the flour to make a
roux. Gradually stir in the stout. Place the meat and the
small onions (peeled) in a deep casserole dish, and season
with the salt, pepper and herbs. Crush the garlic and add to
the ingredients. Sprinkle the sugar on top, and pour in the
sauce. Cover and place in the oven. Cook very gently for up
to 3 hours at 300F. Check occasionally. If the casserole
seems to be drying a little, you can add more stout. Remove
from the oven and mix in the vinegar. Serve with lots of
boiled potatoes to sop up the sauce.

Serves 4.

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Baked Tripe

      1-1/2 lb Tripe, cut in thin strips
      2 T Vinegar
      2 T Oil
      1    Handful mushrooms, sliced
      1    Large onion
      4 T Butter
      2 T Flour
      Tomato puree
      Salt and pepper
      1 c Breadcrumbs
      Parsley
      2 T Water

Marinate the tripe in the oil and vinegar for half an hour.
Clean and prepare the onions and mushrooms, and saute in the
butter for two or three minutes. Remove from the frying pan
and set aside. Stir in the flour and mix in the tomato puree
(about 2 T) plus the water. Season with salt and pepper.
Grease a fireproof casserole and put in half the tripe. Cover
with a layer of the onions and mushrooms and sprinkle on half
the breadcrumbs. Repeat this, and finally pour on the tomato
sauce. Top with the breadcrumbs. Bake in the oven for 30
minutes at 350F. Remove and garnish with chopped parsley
before serving.

Serves 4.

--- Side Dish -----------------------------------------------------------
---

Colcannon

>From GOOD FOOD FROM IRELAND, Georgina Campbell.

      1 lb Curly kale or cabbage, cooked
      1 lb Potatoes, cooked
      1    Onion, chopped
      1 oz Dripping per lb. vegetables
           Salt and pepper
           Milk if necessary
      1    Ring, wrapped in greaseproof paper

Mash the potatoes or pass them through a food mill. Chop the
cabbage or kale and add it to the potatoes. Mix well. Peel
and chop the onion. Melt a little of the dripping in a large,
heavy frying pan and cook the onion in it. Remove and mix
with the potato and cabbage. Season to taste, and stir in a
little milk if the mixture is too stiff. Add the rest of the
dripping to the hot pan and, when very hot, turn the potato
and cabbage mixture into the pan and spread it out. Fry until
brown, then cut it roughly and continue frying until there
are lots of crisp brown pieces. Just before serving, slip in
the wrapped ring -- the trick, as you can see from the rhyme,
is to make sure the ring doesn't turn up too soon -- then the
children will eat it all willingly!

Makes 4 servings.

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Colcannon

>From IRISH TRADITIONAL FOOD, Theodora Fitzgibbon.

      450 g  Kale or cabbage
      450 g  Potatoes
        2    Small leeks or green onion
             -tops
      150 ml Milk or cream
             Pinch of mace
             Salt and pepper
      100 g Butter

If using the kale, strip from the stalks or likewise remove
the stump of cabbage before cooking in boiling salted water
until tender but not overcooked. Drain very well and chop
finely. Meanwhile, cook the potatoes, and while they are
cooking chop the leeks or onion tops and simmer them in milk
or cream for about 7 minutes. Drain the potatoes, season and
mash them well, then stir in the cooked leeks and milk, adding
a little more milk if needed.

Finally blend in the finely chopped kale or               cabbage (modern
cooks will find a blender or food processor               ideal for this).
Add the mace and taste for seasoning. Heat                the entire mixture
gently, then pile in a warmed dish. Make a                small well in the
center and pour in the melted butter.

Make 4 servings.

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Colcannon

>From THE POOLBEG BOOK OF TRADITIONAL IRISH COOKING,
Biddy White Lennon.

      2 1/2 lb Potatoes (cooked, mashed)
      1 c Cooked kale (finely chopped)
      1 c Hot milk
      4    Chopped scallions (optional)
           Butter

Strip the heads of kale away from the stems and shred them
finely. Kale is a tough vegetable which needs to cook for
10-20 minutes depending on its age. Cook as you would for any
green vegetable in furiously boiling salted water until it
is just tender. (Some people add 1/2 tsp baking soda to the
water to help keep the kale at its brightest green.) Strain
it and refresh it with cold water. Drain it thoroughly and
squeeze out any excess water. Nowadays I put the kale into a
food processor with the hot milk and blend them into a green
soup which I then mix through the mashed potatoes. I then
reheat it in the oven until it is very hot. This produces a
dish fit for St. Patrick's Day in greenness. It is perfectly
acceptable just to mix the kale and milk into the potatoes
without recourse to the food processor, but the resulting dish
is just speckled green. Do not use the processor if you are
making colcannon with cabbage instead of kale. Don't forget
the coin and the ring to amuse the children.

Makes 4 servings.

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Colcannon

>From the Heath Mountain Lodge in Waynesville, N.C.

      3 pounds potatoes, peeled and sliced
      1-1/2 cups cabbage, shredded (see note)
      1/4 cup onion, grated
      2 cloves garlic, finely chopped
      3/4 cup sour cream
      1/2 cup butter, melted
      1 cup Monterey Jack cheese, shredded
      Salt and pepper to taste

Cook cabbage in boiling water for 5 minutes. Drain and
reserve. Cook potatoes until tender. Drain and place in
a large mixing bowl. Beat with an electric mixer until
smooth. Add onion, garlic, sour cream and butter. Beat again
until blended. Gently stir in cabbage, salt and pepper to
taste. Put in a greased gratin dish or 2 quart casserole, top
with cheese. Bake in 350-degree oven for 35-45 minutes. Serves
6.

Note: Kale, sauerkraut, spinach or collard greens may be
substituted for the cabbage.

Per serving: 389 calories; 26.7 g fat (16.9 g saturated fat;
62 percent calories from fat); 76 mg cholesterol; 369 mg
sodium; 28.0 g carbohydrates.

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Champ (or Poundies)

        4   lb   Potatoes
      1/2   lb   Chopped scallions
       10   fl   Milk
        4   oz   Butter
                 Pepper

Champ is served piled high on the dish, with a well of melted
butter in the center. It is eaten with a spoon from the
outside, each spoonful being dipped in the well of melted
butter.

Peel potatoes and cook in boiling water. Simmer milk and
scallions together for five minutes. Strain potatoes and mash
thoroughly. Add hot milk, and the scallions, salt and pepper,
and half the butter.

The traditional implement used for pounding potatoes was a
wooden masher, pestle-shaped, called a "beetle." The poem
says:

   There was an old woman
   that lived in a lamp;
   she had no room
   to beetle her champ.

   She's up'd with her beetle
   and broke the lamp,
   and now she has room
   to beetle her champ.

Make 8 servings.

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Baked Parsnips Irish Style

      2-1/2 lb Parsnips
      2 oz Butter or bacon fat
      3 T Stock
      Salt and pepper
      Pinch nutmeg

Peel parsnips, quarter, and remove any woody core. Parboil
for 15 minutes. Place in an ovenproof dish. Add stock and
sprinkle with salt, pepper and nutmeg. Dot with butter
and bake for 30 minutes on a low shelf in a moderate oven.
(Generally parsnips are baked in the same oven as the main
meat dish, whose cooking temperature governs that of the
parsnips.)

Serves 8.

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Braised Celery

      1    Head celery
      1    Medium onion
      1 t Chopped parsley
      2    Slices bacon
      10 fl Stock
      Salt/pepper to taste
      1 oz Butter

Clean celery, cut into one-inch pieces and place in a
casserole dish. Finely chop bacon and onion and sprinkle over
celery along with chopped parsley. Pour on stock. Dot with
knobs of butter. Cover dish and bake in a moderate oven for
30-45 minutes.

Serves 4.

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Oatcakes

      6 oz Oatmeal (preferably fine)
      2 oz Flour
      1 t Salt
      10 fl Warm water
Mix flour and salt together. Slowly add warm water. Roll out
on a floured board to 1/4 inch thick. Cut into triangles.
Cook on a pan or griddle until golden on both sides. Dry out
in a cool oven (150 C / 300 F) until crisp. -- These cakes are
eaten buttered, with a glass of milk, for supper, but are also
good with oily fish such as herring or mackerel. (They are
also terrific with wine and cheese.)

Serves 8.

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Dressed Cabbage

      Cabbage
      4 T Butter
      3 T Bacon stock or water
      1 pinch Nutmeg or mace
      1/2 t Flour
      Pepper

Shred the cabbage. Melt half the butter in a heavy pot; then
add the cabbage and toss until covered with the butter. Add
bacon stock or water, cover and cook gently for about 20
minutes. By this time the liquid should be nearly absorbed,
and the cabbage cooked. Add the nutmeg or mace, the flour,
and stir well; then add the rest of the butter and toss until
melted into the cabbage. Add pepper if needed.

Serves 4.

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Cabbage And Bacon

      Lg or 2 small Savoy cabbages
      8 Strips bacon
      Salt and pepper
      4 Whole allspice berries
      300 ml Bacon or chicken stock

Cut the cabbage in half and boil for 15 minutes in salted
water. Drain, and soak in cold water for 1 minute, then drain
well and slice. Line the bottom of a casserole with half
the bacon strips, then put the cabbage on top and add the
seasonings. Add enough stock to barely cover, then put the
remaining strips of bacon on top. Cover and simmer for an
hour, until most of the liquid is absorbed.

Serves 4.

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Kale With Cream
      1-3/4 lb Kale
      2 T Butter
      2 T Double cream
      pinch nutmeg, salt, pepper
      2 T Stock

Wash the kale and strip the leaves from the stalks, then
plunge into briskly boiling salted water and cook until
tender, 20-30 minutes. Drain well and chop finely. In a
saucepan combine the butter, cream and pinches of nutmeg, salt
and pepper; then add the kale and the stock. Mix well and
cook until well heated and the sauce is slightly reduced.

Serves 4.

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Parsnip Cakes

      1 lb Parsnips
      2 T Flour
      1 pinch Mace
      2 T Melted butter
      Salt and pepper
      Large egg
      8 T Breadcrumbs (heaping)
      Oil for frying

Peel and slice the parsnips, then boil in salted water until
tender. Drain and mash them well. Add flour, mace, melted
butter, salt and pepper, then form into small flat, round
cakes. Dip into the beaten egg, then into the breadcrumbs,
and fry in hot oil until brown on both sides.

Serves 4.

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--- Dessert -------------------------------------------------------------
---

Apple Fritters

        5   oz Flour
        5   fl Water
      1/4   t Salt
        2      Eggs (separated)
        1   T Melted butter
        2      Large cooking apples
        4   oz Sugar
               Lemon juice
               Oil for deep frying
Make batter at least an hour before required, using following
method. Sift together flour and salt. Make a well in the
center. Add the cooled melted butter and some of the water
and egg yolks. Work in the flour and beat until smooth. Add
remaining water. Leave to stand. Just before using, beat the
egg whites until stiff but not dry. Fold into batter mix.

Peel, core and slice apples (slices about 1/4-1/2 inch thick).
Dip into batter and deep fry in very hot oil (175-180C) until
golden. Drain and serve dredged with sugar and sprinkled with
lemon juice.

Serves 4.

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Rutabaga Pudding

      1 lb Rutabagas
      3 T Fine breadcrumbs
      3 T Milk
      2 t Melted butter
      1 t Salt
      1 t Sugar
      Lg. egg, well beaten

Clean, peel and cube the rutabaga, and cook in boiling water
until tender, then drain. Mash thoroughly; then add all the
other ingredients. Put into a 2-qt casserole and bake at 350F
for 1 hour. A pinch of cinnamon or ginger might be added.

Serves 4.

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Potato Pie Dessert

      1/2 lb Boiled potatoes
      1/4 lb Butter, melted
      3/4 lb Sugar
      3 Almonds, pounded
      1 T Orange extract
      6 Eggs*
      4 fl Whiskey

Mash the potatoes until lump-free. Separate the yolks and
whites of the eggs and beat separately; the yolks until
lemon-colored, the whites until stiff. Add the almonds, orange
extract, sugar and egg yolks to the potatoes; mix well, then
add the glass of whiskey, and when combined, fold in the
egg whites. Have ready a greased and floured cake pan with
a greased piece of butcher paper/baking parchment in the
bottom. (Or alternately, prepare 2 pie crusts and fill them
with the mixture.) Bake at 375F for 40-45 minutes.
Serves 4.

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Potato And Apple Pudding

          2 T Butter
          8 oz Self-raising flour
          6 oz Freshly mashed potatoes
          4 T Milk
          5 Med. cooking apples
          Brown or white sugar
          2 Whole cloves
          Juice of 1/2 lemon
          3 T Cider

Mix the butter into the hot mashed potatoes, add a good pinch
of salt, and the flour, and mix well, then add enough milk
to make a soft, slack dough. Roll out and line a 1-qt bowl
with some of it, reserving enough for the lid. Fill with the
apples, peeled and cored and finely sliced, and sweeten to
taste with sugar. Add 2 whole cloves, the lemon juice and the
cider (or water), taking care not to make it too wet. Dampen
the pastry edges, lay the lid on and press down. Cover with
foil and secure well. Steam, or cook set in boiling water up
to the rim, for 2 - 2 1/2 hours. Serve cut in wedges with
cream or home-made custard.

Serves 4.

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Honey And Lemon Carrageen Pudding

      1/2 c Dried carrageen
      2 T Honey
      Lemon juice and grated rind
      Egg white, beaten stiff
      150 ml Heavy cream, whipped

Soak the carrageen in hot water to cover for about 15 minutes
(or reconstitute according to package instructions), then
drain discarding the soaking liquid. Put into 600 ml fresh
water with the honey, lemon juice and rind. Bring to a
boil and simmer for 25-30 minutes. Strain and discard the
carrageen, and let the liquid cool slightly. Meanwhile,
combine the beaten egg white and the whipped cream, then
gently fold the mixture into the carrageen liquid. Pour into
a greased mold and chill.

(Carrageen [or "carrageenan"] can usually be found in health
food stores.)
Serves 4.

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Apple And Barley Pudding

      4 T Pearl barley
      1-1/2 lb Eating apples, peeled, cored, and sliced
      2 oz Sugar
      3/4 T Double cream
      1 l Water

Put the barley in the water and bring to the boil. Add the
sliced apples and continue cooking gently until the barley
and apples are soft. Press through a sieve, or put through
the blender, and put back in the saucepan. Add the sugar and
lemon juice and bring to the boil again. Remove from the
heat, allow to cool, and then chill. Serve cool with the
cream stirred in.

Serves 4.

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Burnt Oranges

      4 Large oranges
      150 ml Sweet white wine
      1 T Butter
      8 T Sugar
      300 ml Fresh-squeezed orange juice
      2 T Whiskey (warmed)

Carefully peel the oranges thinly. Then with a sharp knife
remove as much of the pith and white skin as possible, keeping
the oranges intact. Cut the thin peel into fine strips and
cover with the wine. Put the oranges into an ovenproof
dish. Put a little butter on top of each one, pressing
it down gently, then sprinkle each one with a teaspoon of
sugar. Put into a 400F oven for 10 minutes or until the sugar
caramelizes.

Meanwhile mix the orange juice with the sugar in a saucepan
and bring to the boil. Lower the heat and let it get syrupy,
without stirring. Add the orange peel and wine mixture and
bring to the boil again, then cook rapidly to reduce and
thicken slightly. -- Take the oranges from the oven and if not
fully browned, put under a moderate broiler for a few minutes.
Pour the warmed whisky over them and set it alight, over heat.
As the flames die down, add the orange syrup and let it simmer
for about 2 minutes. Serve at once; or it can be served cold.

Serves 4.
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Bailey's Irish Cream Mousse Pie

        3       Eggs, separated
      3/4   c   Bailey's Irish Cream
        1   c   Walnut meats, chopped
      1/8   t   Salt
        2   c   Kool-Whip
        2   T   Shaved chocolate (semi-sweet)

Beat egg yolks until lemon-colored. Add salt and Bailey's.
Cook in top of double boiler until yolk mixture thickens.
cool. Beat egg whites until stiff. Combine egg/Bailey's
mixture, egg whites, and 2/3 of the Kool Whip, using a folding
motion. Fold in 3/4 cup of the nut meats. Scrape into a baked
pie shell. Cover with remaining whipped topping. Sprinkle
with remaining nut meats and chocolate shavings. Freeze for 4
hours (no more than 8, though).

Serves 4.

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Bailey's Chocolate Mousse Pie #2

      6 oz Ready Crust (graham/choc)
      1 pk Unflavored gelatine (env)
      1 t Vanilla
      3/4 c Milk
      3/4 c Bailey's Irish Cream
      6 oz Semisweet choc chips
      2 c Frozen whipped topping
      Choc-dipped strawberries (as garnish, if desired)

In saucepan, sprinkle unflavored gelatine over milk. Let
stand about 1 minute. Stir over low heat until gelatine
is dissolved, about 5 minutes. Add chocolate and continue
cooking, stirring constantly until chocolate is melted: stir
in vanilla. Remove from heat and stir occasionally, adding
Bailey's about five minutes after removal from heat. When
mixture forms mounds when dropped from spoon, fold in whipped
topping. Turn into crust. Garnish with more whipped topping
(or real whipped cream, later, by preference) and strawberries
(if desired). Chill at least 4 hours before serving.

Serves 4.

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Irish Whiskey Cake

      Cake:
      8 oz Raisins
      Grated rind of 1 lemon
      150 ml Whiskey
      6 oz Softened butter
      3 Eggs
      6 oz Soft brown sugar
      6 oz Plain flour
      1 pinch Salt
      1 pinch Ground cloves
      1 t Baking powder

      Icing:
      Juice of 1 lemon
      8 oz Confectioners' sugar
      Warm water as needed
      Crystallized lemon slices (as garnish, if desired)

Put the raisins and grated lemon rind into a bowl with the
whiskey, and leave overnight to soak. Grease a 7-inch cake
pan, and line the bottom with parchment; preheat oven to 350F.
Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Separate
the eggs and sift the flour, salt, cloves and baking powder
into a bowl. Beat the yolks into the butter and sugar one
by one, including a spoonful of flour and beating well after
each addition. Gradually add the whiskey and raisin mixture,
alternating with the remaining flour. Do not overbeat at
this stage. Finally, whisk the egg whites until stiff and
fold them into the mixture with a metal spoon. Turn into the
prepared pan and bake in the preheated oven for about 1 1/2
hours, or until well risen and springy to the touch ~- or test
with a skewer: when it comes out clean, the cake's ready.
Turn out and cool on a wire rack.

 Meanwhile, make the icing by mixing the lemon juice with the
sieved confectioners' sugar and just enough water to make
a pouring consistency. Put a dinner plate under the cake
rack to catch the drips, and pour the icing over the cake a
tablespoonful at a time, letting it dribble naturally down
the sides. Don't worry if a lot of it ends up on the plate
underneath -- just scoop it up and put it on top again. When
the icing has set, it can be decorated with crystallized lemon
slices if you like.

Serves 8.

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Chocolate-orange Guinness Cake

      Cake:
      8 oz Butter, room temperature
      8 oz Soft dark brown sugar
      10 oz Self-raising flour
      1 t Baking powder
      1 pinch Salt
      2 T Cocoa (rounded T's)
      Grated rind of 1 orange
      4    Eggs
      1/2 c Guinness

      Icing:
      4 oz Butter
      8 oz Confectioners' sugar
      Orange(juice, grated rind)

Preheat oven to 375F. Grease 2 8-9-inch cake pans. Cream
the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Sift the flour,
baking powder, salt and cocoa into a bowl. Add the orange
rind to the creamed butter and beat in the eggs, one at a
time, including a spoonful of the measured flour mixture with
each one, and beating well between additions. Gently mix in
the Guinness, a tablespoonful at a time, including another
spoonful of flour with each addition. If there's any flour
left over, fold it in gently to mix; blend thoroughly without
over-beating. Divide the mixture between the tins, smooth
down, and put the cakes into the center of the preheated oven.
Reduce the heat to moderate (350F) and bake for 35-40 minutes,
or until the cakes are springy to the touch and shrinking
slightly in the pans. Turn out and cool on a wire rack.

Meanwhile, make the icing. Cream the softened butter and
icing sugar together thoroughly, then blend in the grated
orange rind and enough juice to make an icing that is soft
enough to spread. When the cakes are cold, use half the icing
to sandwich them together, and spread the rest on top.

Serves 4.

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"Irish Coffee" Cake

      Cake:
      4 oz Butter, at room temperature
      4 oz Granulated sugar
      2    Eggs
      4 oz Self-raising flour
      2 T Coffee essence**

      Irish Coffee Syrup:
      150 ml Strong black coffee
      4 oz Sugar (for coffee syrup)
      4 T Irish whiskey

      Icing:
      150 ml Heavy whipping cream
      Confectioners'sugar to taste
      1 T Whiskey, or to taste
      Chopped nuts (or grated chocolate)
Grease and flour an 8-inch cake pan (preferably a springform
cheesecake pan). Preheat oven to 350F. Cream the butter and
sugar until light and fluffy, then beat in the eggs, adding a
little flour and beating well after each addition. Stir in the
coffee essence, and mix thoroughly. Turn the mixture into the
prepared pan, and bake for 35-40 minutes until springy to the
touch. Turn out and cool on a wire rack. . To make the Irish
coffee syrup, put the coffee and sugar into a small pan and
bring up to the boil, stirring to dissolve the sugar. Then
boil for 1 minute. Remove from heat and add the whiskey.
. Wash and dry the pan the cake was baked in, and return
the cooled cake to it: then pour the hot coffee syrup all
over it. Leave in a cool place for several hours, then turn
out. Whip the cream until it's thick, sweeten slightly with
confectioners' sugar, and add whiskey to taste. Spread the
cake with the whipped cream and chill for an hour before
sprinkling with chopped nuts or grated chocolate.

          ** This is a concentrated, liquid coffee easily found
             in Ireland, but probably not in the States. I would
             dissolve 2 T of a good instant coffee (Taster's
             Choice or something similar) in an equivalent
             amount of water, and use that.

Serves 4.

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Donegal Oatmeal Cream

      15 fl Milk
      1/2 c Medium oatmeal*
      1    Large egg (beaten)
      Grated rind,juice 1 orange
      2 t Sugar (to taste)
      1/2 oz Gelatine
      2 T Water
      8 oz Heavy cream**
      Fruit sauce of choice***

Soak the oatmeal in the milk for 30 minutes, turn all into a
pan and stir until it boils. Then simmer 3-4 minutes. Pour
mixture into a bowl and add the beaten egg, grated lemon rind,
and sugar to taste. Dissolve gelatine in the orange juice and
water, add to the mixture when it's cooled, and then fold in
the cream. Pour the whole mixture into a glass bowl and leave
to set. Serve with 3-4 T of chosen fruit sauce on top.

      *   "Pinhead" if you can get it. This is the cracked oat
          groat, not rolled.
      ** Whipped.
      *** Thin your favorite jam slightly with warm water.
Serves 4.

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"Irish Coffee" Pudding

      6    Eggs
      8 oz Sugar
      1 c Very strong coffee
      1-1/2 oz Powdered gelatine
      1/3 c Irish whiskey*
      10 fl Whipping cream
      3 oz Crushed walnuts

Separate the yolks from the whites of eggs. In a bowl, cream
with yolks with the sugar. Heat the coffee until hot but not
boiling: add the gelatine and dissolve it in the coffee. Add
this mixture to the yolks and sugar. Beat well and put the
bowl over a pot of boiling water. Continue beating until
mixture begins to thicken. remove from heat, and when the bowl
has cooled a little, place it over cracked ice and continue
stirring. When the mixture is on the point of setting, whip
the cream and fold it in. Add the whiskey or Irish Mist.
Lastly, fold in the well-beaten egg whites. Pour into a
souffle dish that has a double thickness of parchment paper
tied around it: the paper should come up 3 inches above the
top of the souffle dish. Oil a jam-jar or bottle and press it
down into the center of the pudding. Leave to set. Remove
the paper collar by easing around the circumference with a
knife dipped in hot water. Remove the jar or bottle, and fill
the center with: 1 cup heavy cream, whipped, sweetened with 1
T granulated sugar. You can also decorate the exposed sides
of the pudding with crushed walnuts, pressed on with the palm
of your hand.

      * You can also use Irish Mist.

Serves 4.

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Apple Amber

      1 lb Cooking apples, tart*
      4 oz Sugar (or to taste)
      Juice of 1 lemon
      2 Large eggs, separated

Cook the apple slices in about 2 T of water, stirring
occasionally until they form a puree. Add about 3/4 of the
sugar, the lemon juice, and the egg yolks: mix well. Put into
an ovenproof dish and bake at 350F for 20 minutes. Meanwhile,
whisk the egg whites until stiff, folding in the remaining
sugar. Pile the meringue evenly on top of the apple mixture,
return the dish to the oven, and bake for about 10 minutes.
Serve hot or cold.

      * peeled, cored and thinly sliced.

Serves 4.

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Porter Cake

>From FULL AND PLENTY, Maura Laverty.

      1 lb Flour
      1/2 lb Shortening
      1/2 lb Sugar
      1 lb Sultanas
      2 Eggs
      1 Cup porter or stout
      1 ts Baking powder
      2 oz Chopped peel
      1/2 ts Nutmeg
      1/2 ts Mixed spice

Sieve the flour salt and baking powder together; add sugar,
nutmeg and spice. Rub in butter finely. Add fruit. Add
porter mixed with beaten eggs. Bake in a well-greased pan 2
1/2 hours in a moderate oven (350-375F).

Makes 6 servings.

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-== Seafood
===============================================================-

Cod Cobbler

      1-1/2 lb Skinless filets of cod
      2 oz Butter
      2 oz Flour
      1/2 l Milk
      3-1/2 oz Grated cheese
      2 oz Grated cheese (for scones)
      2 oz Butter (for scones)
      1 t Baking powder (for scones)
      1 pinch Salt (for scones)
      Egg (for scones)

Place cod filets in the bottom of a round oven dish. Make a
cheese sauce with 2 oz each of butter and flour, 1/2 l milk
and 3 1/2 oz grated cheese: pour over fish. Then make scone
dough -- rub 2 oz butter into 8 of flour with 1 t baking
powder, and pinch of salt. Add 2 oz grated cheese, preferably
mature Cheddar or a mixture of that and Parmesan. Drop 1 egg
yolk into the mixture and add enough milk to make a workable
dough. Roll out to a thickness of 1/2 inch and cut into small
rounds with a scone cutter. -- Dispose these rounds on top of
the sauce, so that they just about cover the surface; glaze
them with a little milk, sprinkle some more grated cheese over
them and bake in a hot oven (450 F) for 25-30 minutes, until
the scones are golden brown.

Serves 4.

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Mackerel With Rhubarb

      2 lb Mackerel filets
      2 oz Margarine
      1    Lg. onion, chopped
      1/2 lb Rhubarb, chopped
      Pepper and salt
      Toasted breadcrumbs

      Sauce:
      1 lb Rhubarb
      2 T Sugar
      Grated lemon rind
      2 T Water

Melt the margarine (or butter) and cook the onion in it until
transparent. Add the chopped rhubarb, season with pepper and
salt and continue to cook gently for 5 minutes. Then add
breadcrumbs and stir the mixture.

Now lay the mackerel filets out flat, skin side down, and
spread the stuffing on them. Roll each up, put them in a
greased oven dish and cook them in a moderate oven (400F) for
15-20 minutes.

While the fish are being cooked, make the rhubarb sauce by
placing all the ingredients listed in a saucepan and stewing
tehm until the rhubarb is cooked and quite soft. This will
take 10 minutes or a little longer. Then put the cooked
rhubarb through a fine sieve or the blender, to make a puree
of it. This can be served either hot or cold with the cooked
mackerel.

Serves 4.

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Baked Stuffed Herring

      4 T   Breadcrumbs (heaping)
      1 t   Parsley, chopped
      Small egg, beaten
      Juice and rind of lemon
      1 pinch Nutmeg
      Salt and pepper
      8 Herrings, cleaned
      300 ml Hard cider
      Bayleaf, well crumbled
      Fresh ground pepper

First make the stuffing by mixing the breadcrumbs, parsley,
beaten egg, lemon juice and peel, and salt and pepper. Stuff
the fish with the mixture. Lay in an ovenproof dish, close
together; add the cider, crumbled bayleaf and salt and pepper.
Cover with foil and bake at 350F for about 35 minutes. Serves
4.

Serves 4.

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Mini Smoked Salmon Tarts

      1 cup whipping cream
      2 ounces finely diced smoked salmon
      2 eggs
      1/4 cup chopped parsley
      1/4 cup chopped chives
      Salt, pepper
      Ground nutmeg
      2 packages frozen mini filo dough shells
          (15 per package)

    Combine cream, salmon, eggs, parsley, chives, salt, pepper
and nutmeg to taste and mix well.

    Arrange filo shells on greased baking sheets. Spoon
filling into shells. Bake at 350 degrees 5 to 6 minutes until
filling has browned slightly and is firm.

      Makes 30 tarts.

    Per tart: 58 calories; 4.4 g fat (2.0 g saturated fat; 68
percent calories from fat); 26 mg cholesterol; 41 mg sodium;
2.8 g carbohydrates.

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Dublin Lawyer

      2-1/2 lb. fresh lobster (approx.)
      3 T Butter
      4 T Irish whiskey
      150 ml Cream
      Salt and pepper
The lobster should be cut in two down the center. Remove all
the meat from the lobster, including the claws: retain the
shell for serving. Cut the meat into chunks. Heat the butter
until foaming and quickly saute the lobster chunks in it,
until just cooked but not colored. Warm the whiskey slightly,
then pour it over the lobster and set fire to it. Add the
cream, mix with the pan juices, and taste for seasoning. Put
back into the half shells and serve hot.

Serves 2.

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Thackeray's Lobster

      1    Very large lobster
      1/2 lb Butter
      1 T Mustard
      1 T Catsup
      1 c Vinegar (white wine if poss)
      Cayenne pepper to taste

(Amounts are approximate: the above measurement should be
increased or decreased depending on the size of the lobster.
You want about a cup of sauce per two people.) Thackeray's
original follows:

   "You take a lobster, about three feet long if possible,
   remove the shell, cut or break the flesh of the fish in
   pieces not too small. Someone else meanwhile makes a
   mixture of mustard, vinegar, catsup and lots of cayenne
   pepper. You produce a machine called a "despatcher" which
   has a spirit lamp underneath it that is usually illuminated
   with whiskey." (He appears to be talking about a chafing
   dish with a pretty aggressive flame.) "The lobster, the
   sauce, and near half-a-pound of butter are placed in the
   despatcher, which is immediately closed. When boiling,
   the mixture is stirred up, the lobster being sure to heave
   about the pan in a convulsive manner, while it emits a
   remarkable rich and agreeable odour through the apartment.
   A glass and a half of sherry is now thrown into the pan,
   and the contents served out hot, and eaten by the company.
   Porter (i.e. stout) is commonly drunk, and whisky-punch
   afterwards, and the dish is fit for an emperor."

Unfortunately the day of inexpensive three-foot-long lobsters
has passed, even in Ireland (lobsters of this size are still
taken off the west coast, however). In modern terms: Clean
and shell the lobster as indicated above. Mix the mustard,
vinegar, catsup and cayenne to taste (some people might
prefer to cut the sourness of the vinegar by substituting
a half-and-half mixture of vinegar and dry white wine).
Melt the butter in a large saucepan, saute the lobster
briefly in it, not allowing it to color at all; then add the
mustard/vinegar/cayenne mixture, mix well, cover, and allow to
stew over medium heat for 15-20 minutes. Boiled new potatoes
would go very well with this, or baked potatoes, or plain
buttered rice. Thackeray and his friends seem to have not
eaten anything else with the dish, but they seem to have drunk
a great deal; he remarks in the next paragraph of the excerpt
on ways to deal with the hangover....

Serves 4.

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Scallop Pie

      8 Large scallops*
      300 ml Milk
      Salt and pepper
      2 T Butter
      1 T Flour
      1/2 lb Mushrooms, sliced
      4 T Med.sweet white wine
      1 lb Fresh mashed potatoes

* Or 4 scallops and an equal amount of any white fish.                     Or
more scallops, if you like.

Clean the scallops and cut in half, then simmer in the milk
for 15 minutes. Strain, reserving the liquid. Heat 1
tablespoon of the butter and stir in the flour, cook for about
a minute, stirring, then add the milk gradually, stirring all
the time to avoid lumps. Season with salt and pepper, add the
sliced mushrooms and simmer for about 10 minutes longer; then
add the sherry or wine and finally the scallops. When hot,
transfer to an ovenproof dish and cover with mashed potatoes,
making sure they cover the fish right to the edges. Dot with
the remaining butter and bake in a moderate oven, 350F, for
20-30 minutes, or until the top is turning brown.

Serves 4.

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Trout Baked In Wine

      Rainbow trout (about 2.5 lb)
      2 c White wine
      Pinch each of herbs (whichever ones you like -- parsley,
          thyme, herbes de provence ... & garlic)

Scale and gut the trout if not cleaned already.                   You can filet
it, or not: it hardly matters. Cut the trout in                   half the long
way and lay in a baking dish. Barely cover with                   white wine.
Add herbs, if you like them, or garlic. Bake at                   350 F for
half an hour.

Serves 4.

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Monkfish With Garlic And Herb Butter

      700 g Filleted monkfish tails
      85 g Butter
      2 Cloves garlic -- crushed
      Egg (beaten)
      Juice of one lemon
      1 t Finely chopped herbs
      Seasoned flour

Soften butter and add herbs and garlic.               Chill.

Make a slit in each monkfish fillet and pack with the chilled
herb butter. Fold up to enclose butter. Toss each piece in
seasoned flour, dip in beaten egg and roll in breadcrumbs.
Press the crumbs firmly onto the fish.

Place the fish in a buttered dish. Dribble a little melted
butter or oil, and lemon juice, on top. Cook for 30-35 minutes
at 375F/190C. Serve at once.

Serves 4.

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Trout In Herb And Cream Sauce

      4 Rainbow trout, gutted
      300 ml Cream
      85 g Butter
      Mixture of herbs (finely chopped parsley, chives, basil,
          watercress, etc.)

Poach the fish in court-bouillon for 10-12 minutes. Lift out
carefully: remove skin and eyes. Keep warm. Boil the cream
until it reduces by half. Whisk in knobs of butter gradually.
Finally, add in finely chopped herbs. Pour the sauce into
a serving dish and arrange the fish on top. Serve at once,
garnished with lemon slices.

Serves 4.

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-
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=-

				
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