Developing Literacy Lesson Plans

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Developing Literacy Lesson Plans Powered By Docstoc
					Developing and Adapting
Units of Instruction
Diane M. Browder, PhD
Presented by Ginevra Courtade-Little
Session Goals
Develop instructional units that have clear
  learning objectives, a series of learning
  activities, valid and reliable assessment
Teach unit and reflect on student learning and
 how to improve instruction
Four Types of Plans
   Systematic Instruction Plan (For IEP skill)
   Weekly calendar
   Daily lesson plan
   Unit of instruction
Systematic Instruction Plan
   How to teach the specific IEP skill
   Often developed for 1:1 instruction
   Specifies
       Activity/ materials/ setting
       Systematic prompting/fading/feedback
       Plans for generalization
Weekly Calendar
   For each time block on each day
       Brief description of lesson
       List of handouts/materials
       Outline of activities
       Evaluation to be used (may be weekly test)
       Assignments for next day
Unit of Instruction
   Long range plan for instruction
   Usually focuses on a theme (e.g., Black
    History month; poetry; Southern authors)
   May be…
       Teacher made OR
        Part of published curriculum
The Unit Approach
   Integrates subject matter with a topic, theme,
    or interest area
   Research shows that units are helpful for
    students with disabilities in literacy and
   Also recommended for integrating
    multicultural content
 Based on the premise that students learn and
  assimilate info by actively participating in a
  variety of activities
 Integration of information promotes real
  purposes and audiences for language
  (important for reading)
 Units are motivational because they can take
  advantages of students’ interests and
  incorporate student choice
Eight Essential Elements
of Inclusive Unit Design
Element 1: A Central Unit Issue or
 Choose a central issue that challenges students
  yet can be modified for varied levels of student
 A central issue/problem:
     Creates a distinct “backbone” and provides
      direction and coherence across lessons
     Narrows the topic
     Is more meaningful and motivating than loosely
      connected facts and ideas
Element 2: An Opening Grabber or
   Opening lessons are critical for grabbing
    students’ attention
   A grabber might involve:
       A short story, film clip, song lyrics, field trip
       Students asked to take a preliminary stand on the
        issue or predict a solution to the problem
   A grabber must be accessible to all students,
    otherwise the activity has failed
Element 3: Lessons that are Linked to
the Central Issue or Problem
   Lessons must be sequenced to in a way that advances
    student learning and answers the central problem
   Identify various positions or viewpoints that exist
    regarding the central problem-use the viewpoints to
    guide the daily lessons
   Identify key concepts, events, people-use those to
    organize and structure lessons
   Identify important subquestions that need to be
    considered to address the problem
   Use graphic organizers to link lessons
Element 4: Richly Detailed Source
   Triggers student interest and promotes subject
    matter expertise
   Lively readings, eyewitness accounts, other
    primary source materials
   Also, magazine articles, video clips, images
    and pictures, short stories, biographies
Element 5: Culminating Projects
   Provide students with the opportunity to
    synthesize what they have learned
   Encourage group interaction and creativity,
    appeal to multiple learning styles
   Speeches, skits or plays, debates, poster
    displays, small group presentations
   Tend to motivate students
Element 6: Varied Lesson Formats
 Students desire variety
 Structure the varied lessons
     Ex: Monday-movie or video day
     Tuesday-library research, individual class reading
     Wed-cooperative group days
     Thurs-student-student or student-teacher
     Fri-visitor days/in class catch up days
Element 7: Multiple Assessments
   Assess throughout to provide monitoring
   Monitor the extent to which students are
    developing understanding of the problem
   Class discussion, oral question and answer
    quizzes, quick reviews, take home
    assignments, in-class writing activities
Element 8: Varied Modes of Student
   Visual learning-draw or create an image of a
    metaphor that represents the concept learned;
    create a political cartoon
   Kinesthetic learning-classroom simulations
   Musicality, spatial aptitude
Check for Understanding
   With a partner, brainstorm a theme for a unit.
   Decide what your Opening Grabber activity
    will be.
   Write one objective for a student with severe
    disabilities who is nonverbal and one for a
    student who has moderate disabilities and can
    read 1st grade level material.
UNCC E-Portfolio Requirement
   A unit is a required e-portfolio entry for all
    seeking licensure in UNCC College of
   Must keep and post both your unit and the
    evaluation you receive for your e-portfolio
Components of Unit that Must Be
Present for UNCC e-portfolio
   Learning objectives/goals for the unit stated
    as learning outcomes
       Multiple levels of learning per Bloom’s
        taxonomy (factual recall, comprehension,
        application, synthesis, evaluation)
       Age and grade appropriate
       Explicit alignment with North Carolina Standard
        Course of Study
To Receive Full Points for this class…
   Give at least three objectives
       Factual recall
       Comprehension
       Application, synthesis, evaluation
State grade level objective from NCSCOS for
   each (can focus on one grade level)
 Appropriate to students’ chronological age
   and adapted to functioning level
Activities Rating for E-Portfolio
   Give several days activities that link to these
       All activities align with objectives
       Logically organized unit structure moving
        towards end goal
       Variety of instructional practices; research-based
       Use technology
To receive full points for this class…
   Have a kickoff activity; two weeks of lesson
    outlines; and a culminating activity
       All lesson outlines should relate to objectives
       Include both whole class activity, small group or
        individual practice, and show how will
        incorporate 1:1 drill or NCAAP skills where can
       Give example for two day’s lessons of how will
        use systematic prompting and technology to
        promote participation
E Portfolio Rating for Assessment and
   Reliable and valid assessment for each
    learning objective
       Assessment occurs throughout the instruction
        cycle (not just at end)
For full points for this class…
     Outline how you will assess each student in your
      class on each objective. For example, for a unit of
      North Carolina
     Objective: Students will identify their state
         KS will select between NC and other state outline
          (generalization for NCAAP task on symbol use)
         JK will find symbol for NC on aug com board (an IEP
         All others will write “North Carolina” on worksheet
          with state outline drawn
E Portfolio on Reflection
   Write a reflection about students learning
    during the unit
       Use evidence (assessment data) to describe how
        students responded to unit; give multiple
        hypotheses why some students did not learn
       Describe which activities were successful or not
       Provide ideas for redesigning unit for future; why
        these changes would improve student learning
For this class…
   Try out at least two day’s lessons
   Describe what worked and what did not work
   Assess how each student does on the lessons
   Summarize their performance and
    hypothesize about why some could or could
    not do the activity.
   Implications for future teaching
Options for Units
   Make up your own thematic unit
   Adapt a unit a general education teacher is doing in
    your school
       Implement in your classroom OR try coteaching one day
        together with your students participating
   Adapt a unit from a published curriculum (e.g., Open
    Court Reading series uses unit approach)
   Units can relate to any academic content-reading,
    science, social studies, math or cross curricular areas
Adapting General Education Units for
Students with Significant Dis.
   Individualize performance expectations
       Specific objective for this student’s learning
        during this unit
               To learn about five poetry styles and famous poets;
           Adapted Objective
                Sherry will identify preferred poems and to participate in
                reading poems by using Step Talker
Adapting Units
   Modify materials or provide technology
       Enlarger for words; augmentative communication
        device to give answers; concrete objects to
        supplement book (e.g., small toy frog for story on
        frogs); use of digital pictures
Adapting Units
   Personalize instruction
       Choices about materials and peer partners
       Person support to do seatwork activities (peer;
        special education teacher; para)
       Individual practice on target objectives (e.g.,
        practice using Step Talker)
       Alternative response (as peers read aloud; student
        points to picture)
           Adapted from Onosko & Jorkensen (1998)
Examples of Adapting General
Education Units
   Superman and Odysseus: Heroes in Action
       Use of Superman movie to introduce Homer’s The
       Some activities: compare Superman and Odyssesus,
        define hero traits, make up your own hero story, compare
        comic book heroes
       Student with autism: use picture symbol for hero (use
        picture to ask for comic books); choose comic book for
        peer to read; given questions about hero, selects between
        two answers to show comprehension of hero’s traits
Examples of Adapting General
Education Units
   Unit called “Whodonit?” used by team of middle
    school teachers to introduce logic, persuasive
    writing, legal rights
   Attention grabber: murder mystery
   Activities: ongoing game to solve mystery; guest
    detective; attorney on rights; mock trial; each day
    students prepare “briefs”
   Student with severe disabilities: Use symbols to say
    “Agree” or “disagree”; use digital pictures to select
    suspects (learning to use Intellikeys); choose jury
    (from pictures of classmates); learn symbol for
    “police” and why dial “911”

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