Icing Class 3 In Flight Icing Conditions & Safe Exit by 2CxzIx

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 50

									<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
 Icing                                     Federal Aviation
                                           Administration

   Class 3

In Flight Icing Conditions
& Safe Exit Strategies for
 non-equipped airplanes


 Presented to: The Saturday Morning Crew
 By: Ben McQuillan
 Date: November 27th, 2010
                        Anti Ice
                        & Deice
                        Systems
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   3
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Anti Ice & Deice

• Anti-ice
       – Designed to prevent ice adhesion during icing
         encounters
       – Required to be activated (turned on) in visible
         moisture @ OAT’s of +5˚C and below….Period
       – Don’t wait, a few minutes early is just fine
• Deice
       – Activated once ice accumulation is detected or
         observed


<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   4
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
                Airspeed
• Everybody’s got at least 1 kind of pilot
  controlled ice prevention…SPEED
• Maintaining adequate indicated airspeed is
  critical to controlling the volume and shape
  of ice accumulated
• If you have a FIKI airplane, know your
  minimum airspeed for icing conditions (POH
  limitations section) typically between 120kias &
  160kias
• If not, the faster the better
  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   5
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
            Anti Ice Examples
•    Pitot heat
•    Some TKS surfaces
•    Turbine engine inlets
•    Carb heat (yes, anti-ice)
•    Fuel vents
•    AOA & temp probes
•    Stall warning vane
•    Some windshields
•    Propeller heat (sorry twin pilots, say goodbye to
     your nose art)
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   6
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Deice Examples
• Pneumatic boots
• Electro-thermal mats
       – Some H-stabs
       – Some props
•    Some heated windshields
•    Glycol or alcohol props & windshields
•    TKS systems with deice settings
•    Heated brake systems (expensive applications only)


<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   7
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Pneumatic Deice Boots
• Inflated by ±18 psi air, sucked back down by
  vacuum
• Pre-flight carefully for tears
• Condition & exercise regularly
• Know your airplane’s deice boot selector
  switch
• Bridging is a proven myth
   – Use the boots whenever you choose

  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   8
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
                 Pneumatic Deice Boots




<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   9
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
TKS Fluid                             (Weeping Wing)


• Glycol based deice fluid comes out of
  tiny laser drilled leading edge holes
• Make sure you always have a topped
  off TKS fluid reservoir
• Know your POH for anti-ice & deice
  operations
• Know the time available in each mode


<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>          Federal Aviation   10
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>        Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   11
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
           Other Ice Related Systems
• Alternate static air
  – Let’s play “hide the important switch”
  – For use during inaccurate pitot-static indications
• Alternate induction air                           (Fuel Injected Engines)
  – Completely forgotten by most pilots
  – Used to bypass primary induction air filter, note small loss in
    power (automatic in some airplanes)
• Carburetor heat
  – Prevent/melt carburetor venturi icing
  – Separate induction air source
  – Warmed by exhaust manifold heat

  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>                      Federal Aviation   12
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>                    Administration
Before Takeoff Checks

• Rarely practiced, but crucial today
• Although typically omitted from quick
  reference checklists, find the full version in
  the Normal Procedures section of you POH
• If any of your Anti/Deice systems don’t work
  in the check, do not takeoff into known
  icing conditions



<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   13
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Recognizing
      Ice
  Accumulation
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   14
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Where you’ll see it

• Every inch of leading edge/forward facing
  surface
• Keep an eye on the windshield
• Other surfaces like spinners, struts, the
  wing or winglets, especially with dark &
  contrasting paint colors
• Night flights
       – Know exactly where your ice light switch is
       – Have both of your flashlights handy

<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   15
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
                Types of Ice Accumulation
• Clear
   – Common in cumulus clouds
   – Temp Range: 0˚C to -10˚C
   – Supercooled water droplets contacting aircraft skin, then freezing
   – Heaviest type of ice accumulation
• Rime
   – Common in stratus clouds
   – Temp Range: -10˚C to -20˚C
   – Milky appearance due to aerated accretion
• Mixed
   – Combination of Rime & Clear
• Supercooled Large-Droplets (SLD)
   – Intense & rapid accumulation of Clear ice
   – High potential for Run-back Re-freeze ice accumulation
   – Common in freezing rain & areas of high moisture content
   <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>        Federal Aviation   16
   <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>      Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   17
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
      Levels of Ice Accumulation
Trace
  Just enough to see…a frosting or glazing on the airframe.
Light
  It’s there. A thin but distinguishable layer of ice building
  slowly.
Moderate
  Builds at a progressive pace, despite anti/deice. Time to find
  a new altitude.
Severe
  Building faster than you can shed it. This is an emergency
  situation.
        Non-FIKI? Everything is severe!
   <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   18
   <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Reporting Known Ice

• If you encounter airframe ice, tell someone
• Make a pilot report to ATC, or Flight Service
  if you have time
• Don’t worry about self incrimination
   – If the ice is truly unexpected, you have not
     violated any regulations so long as you are
       pursuing your pre-planned alternative
     course of action & you could be saving lives
  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   19
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
                   Exit
                Strategies
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   20
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Knowing Your Options

• Your Exit Strategy depends on the situation
  you’re in. Develop today’s Plan B based on
  your knowledge of the current weather
  conditions
       –   Knowing the cloud tops (Area Forecasts)
       –   Knowing the freeze/thaw level (AIRMET Zulu)
       –   Get the PIREPS
       –   Knowing your airplane’s climb performance
       –   Nearby suitable airports
       –   Your comfort level in icing conditions
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   21
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Climb

• Initiating a climb may allow you to get on
  top of the cloud layer, but exercise extreme
  caution
       – 2/3 of the ice is in the top 1/3 of the average cloud
       – Do not stall in the climb due to increasing ice
         accumulation
       – It does leave you the option to descend if the climb
         is not exiting icing conditions




<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   22
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Descent

• If the freeze/thaw level is below you & a safe
  altitude above terrain, a descent may work
  for you, but exercise extreme caution
   – If you’re wrong and continue to accumulate
     ice, you likely cannot climb back up
   – If the ice does not melt & you cannot climb or
     hold altitude, you may be forced to land off
     airport

  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   23
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Turn Around

• Whether you fall through the ice or are now
  collecting ice, an about face is the only sure
  thing
       – Advise ATC (don’t request) that you are beginning a
         180˚ turn to exit icing conditions. Declare an
         emergency if you feel it is necessary
       – Proceed with your alternative course of action by
         returning to the better weather




<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   24
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Diversion

• Keep track of nearby airports as you fly
  along
• Take note of any instrument approaches
  you could fly considering the weather
  conditions
• When you’ve had enough, tell ATC you’re
  diverting due to icing conditions
• Don’t hesitate. Continuing along in the ice
  rarely makes the situation easier.

<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   25
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
           Hazards to
           your Health
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   26
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
     The Autopilot
• While the autopilot is among the most effective
  pieces of equipment in increasing safety, flight in
  icing conditions is one place that autopilot use
  can actually compromise safety.
• Autopilots are good at what they do, but stupid in
  how they do it. In maintaining a selected flight
  profile, an autopilot will mask most of the
  following cues of an impending loss of aircraft
  control.
• Many manufacturers prohibit autopilot use in icing
  conditions

  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   27
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
               Wing Stall
• A wing stall due to ice accumulation is essentially
  identical to a wing stall at any other time, with one
  critical difference
• The pilot will receive far less, or possibly no
  warning of the approaching stall
   – Increased weight = increased stall speed
   – Change in airfoil shape/ AOA/ critical AOA
   – Reduced laminar air flow due to rough surface
   – Increased drag means faster deceleration toward
     stall
  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   28
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Warning Signs of a Wing Stall

• Insidious & progressive requirement
  for more back pressure in order to
  hold attitude
• Possible buffet in the controls
• Possible stall warning indications




<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   29
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Wing Stall Recovery

• Same as always
• Apply full power
• Simultaneously reduce pitch/ AOA (push the
 yoke forward)
• Attempt to refrain from shouting “Oh #@*& !”




  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   30
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Ice Contaminated Tail Plane Stall

• Abrupt & violent loss of pitch control
  due to ice accumulation on the leading
  edge of the horizontal elevator
• Typically occurs above the wing’s stall
  speed and during flap extension




<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   31
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   32
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   33
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   34
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
               The Cause of ICTS
• Ice accumulates on the empennage 3-6
  times thicker than that on the wing; 2-3
  times thicker than that on the windshield,
  causing severe disruptions in laminar air
  flow.
• When configuration changes, so does the
  center of pressure, requiring more tail down
  force. The tail can’t aerodynamically keep
  up and stalls. ICTS typically occurs when
  flaps are extended.
  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   35
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   36
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   37
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
    Signs of an Approaching Tail
    Plane Stall
•   Elevator control pulsing or vibrating
•   Abnormal requirement for nose down trim
•   Pitch oscillations
•   Reduction or loss of elevator effectiveness
•   Uncommanded nose down pitch
•   Uncommanded yoke movement full forward


    <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   38
    <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Consequences of ICTS
• This Tail Plane Stall separation causes 2
  primary problems
  – Stalling of the horizontal stabilizer, causing a
    rapid pitching down motion of the aircraft
      (typically around 70˚ nose down)
  – A concentrated aerodynamic low pressure
    area underneath the elevator, causing the
    yoke to move briskly to the full forward stop
    with great force
  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   39
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   40
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   41
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Recovery from a Tail Plane Stall
• Unfortunately counter intuitive
• Aggressive & immediate back pressure on
  the yoke
• Retract the flaps the their previous setting
• Apply power, but conservatively. Excess
  power can possibly aggravate the loss of
  pitch control
• Pull that spare pair of pants out of your
  luggage, you’ll need them at this time
  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   42
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   43
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Landing Safely
   with Ice
Contamination
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   44
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
Runway Length

• Find a sizeable runway, around 4,000’
  or more in length for the average light
  single. Consider 5,000’ or more for a
  heavy single or piston twin…you’ll
  need roughly double what you
  typically use.



<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   45
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
  Approach
• Plan a zero flap landing. For your final
  approach speed find the flaps up stall speed
  & multiply it by 1.4. This is a typical flaps
  up approach speed, increased by 10% to
  account for the approximate 10% increase in
  stall speed due to the ice accumulation.
• Forward visibility will be a challenge. Use
  the side window, a small & cautious slip on
  final can help.
  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   46
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
                                                  Vso: 61KIAS
                                                     Full Flap
                                                  Final: 79 KIAS

                                                   Vs1: 66KIAS
                                                       Zero Flap
                                                       Final: 86
                                                         KIAS

                                                            + 10%

<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>
                                                     Icing Final:
                                                  Federal Aviation
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>
                                                       95 KIAS
                                                  Administration
  Round-out & Touch Down

• Fly a normal glide path to the runway. Pay
  close attention to airspeed control. It will
  look & sound different due to the abnormal
  configuration & speed.
• Begin your round-out at the normal height,
  be careful not to balloon due to the extra
  speed. Gently fly the airplane onto the
  runway, don’t try to flare for too long.

  <Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   48
  <Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
       Helpful Resources
Advisory circular 91-74a
• www.nasa.gov
  Search “icing training”
•Far part 91
• Aim chapter 7
• www.faasafety.gov
  Online video center
      NASA ice research video
• Download all of our presentations free
  on our website
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation   49
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration
                 Next Week…
       How to get anything you
           want from ATC

     Presented by Special Guest:
           Mark Schreier,
Minneapolis Departure Control, Retired
<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide>     Federal Aviation
<Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>   Administration

								
To top