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					Walking and Working Surfaces

               INSY 3020
               March 8th, 2005
               Adam Piper
What kinds of
Walking/Working Surfaces?

   Floors and Aisles
   Openings, Holes, Vats and Pits
   Runways (Catwalks)
   Stairs
   Ladders
   Scaffolding
An Unfortunate Accident

   A Florida maintenance
    worker at a warehouse
    was asked to repair a
    leaking roof
    –   The worker was allowed to
        hire a temp assistant
    –   He asked his 15 yr old
        neighbor to help
    –   They climbed onto this roof
        using this fixed ladder
An Unfortunate Accident (cont’d)

   Spent 6 hours repairing
    the roof
   Worked around these
    skylights
   The roof is nearly 24
    feet from the
    warehouse floor
An Unfortunate Accident (cont’d)

   The 15 yr old neighbor
    fell through this skylight
   He died from his
    injuries
   This skylight was not
    guarded or protected by
    railings of any kind
An Unfortunate Accident (cont’d)
What can we do to prevent this
  kind of terrible tragedy?



 What role should an Engineer
             play?
Injury Potential

   Falls from height:
    –   Walking surface failure - planking, scaffolding,
        etc.
    –   Accidental stepping where no walking surface
        exists.
            Descending stairs and thinking your are at floor level
             when you still have one step left.
Injury Potential (Cont’d)

   Stepping into openings, people holes, etc.
   Stepping off loading docks and other
    elevated surfaces - balconies, landings, etc.,
    w/o guards.
   Deliberate stepping or jumping where no
    walking surface exists, i.e. suicide.
   Failures of guardrails and other restraining
    devices, such as safety harnesses.
Injury Potential (Cont’d)

   Falls from ladders:
    –   Improper use of ladders for purposes for which
        they were not designed, i.e. braces, platforms,
        hoist supports, etc.
    –   Improper foot wear - cowboy boots, loafers,
        sandals, etc.
    –   Improper mounting or dismounting the ladder,
        including jumping off ladder and too rapid ascent,
        and descent. Keep hips between rails.
Injury Potential (Cont’d)

  –   Placing ladder on an unstable base - soft, muddy,
      greasy, uneven, etc.
  –   Hands-full climbing.
  –   Failure to use safety belts.
Housekeeping

   Did you know this was the LAW?
    –   “All places of employment, passageways,
        storerooms, and service rooms shall be kept
        clean and orderly and in a sanitary condition.”
   Why does OSHA care if your workplace is
    cluttered, dusty or non-orderly?
Aisles

   Permanent aisles and walkways should be
    clearly marked
   Must be kept clear of obstacles
   Must be designed with adequate space for
    the tasks they are used for
    –   Forklift operation
    –   People traffic
    –   Emergency Egress (Life Safety Code)
Floor Loading

   The rated load limits for a floor, mezzanine,
    platform, roof, etc. must be…
    –   Determined by a structural professional
    –   indicated on a permanent plate affixed in an
        obvious place for that working surface
   You must not allow loads above capacity,
    under any circumstances.
Floor & Wall Openings

   Hatchways, ladderways, stairways, skylights,
    pits, manholes, chutes
   Must prevent people and materials from
    falling through
    –   Even if people can’t fit through the opening,
        tools/materials still might
            Can have no more than 1 inch of open space without
             some kind of cover/railing/etc.
            In lieu of a railing/cover, a permanent attendant to
             ensure no one or nothing falls through is required
Stairs

   Fixed stairs are required…
    –   If regular travel from one level to another is
        required
    –   If daily travel is required to other levels that
        contain harmful substances
    –   If the daily carrying of equipment, materials or
        tools is required
   Ladders can be used instead if the
    destination is not another level but a tank,
    crane, platform, etc.
Stairs (cont’d)

   Stairs must be designed according to strict
    guidelines
    –   Rise / Tread Run (must have angle 30 - 50°)
    –   Width
    –   Treads on stairs/steps
    –   Platforms / landings
    –   Railings
    –   Vertical Clearance
    –   Shape (spiral, winding, etc.)
Ladders

   Types of Ladders
    –   Portable
            Stepladders
            Extension Ladders
            Straight Ladders
            Wood, fiberglass, or
             metal – different rules
    –   Fixed
Ladders (cont’d)

   Requirements
    –   Rungs (12” apart and 16” wide)
    –   Ladder must reach 3 ft above the surface
    –   Extension ladder sections must overlap 3 ft (more if more
        than 36 ft long)
    –   No stepladders can exceed 20 ft. high
    –   If ladder tips over, it must be inspected
    –   Must ascend and descend facing the ladder
    –   If fixed ladders exceed 20 ft, must have a landing or
        platform every 20 ft. (every 30 ft if a cage is present)
Ladders (cont’d)
  –   Pitch of a ladder:
           75-90 degrees for portable and
            fixed ladders.
           Portable - 4:1 ratio, one foot
            out at the base for every four
            feet up.
  –   Fixed Ladders:
           75-90 degrees.
           Clearance between the ladder
            and the wall - seven inches.
           Rear clearance - 30 inches.
  –   Broken Ladders:
           Never used
           Immediately taken out of
            service until repaired or
            replaced.
Scaffolding
   Definition
     –   “Any temporary elevated platform
         and its supporting structure used for
         supporting workmen or materials or
         both. “
   Very detailed regulations (33
    pages)
   Designed for 4x the intended load
     –   May not exceed 1x that load
   May not work during storms or high
    winds
   Must remove from use and
    inspect/repair if there is any reason
    to suspect damage
   Must be kept clean and free of
    clutter
Railings

   Standard Railing
    –   Top rail + mid rail + posts
    –   42” high (mid rail = 21” high)
    –   Must withstand 200 lb of horizontal force
    –   Used to guard openings or other places where people may fall
    –   Posts can be no more than 8 ft apart (depending on situation, may
        need to be 6 ft apart)
   Standard Toeboard
    –   ¼” from floor
    –   4” high
    –   Keeps material from falling on people below and people from
        sliding under mid rail and falling
    Railings (cont’d)
   Standard Stair Railing
     –   Used when there is no wall next to the stairs
     –   Similar to standard railing except in height
             Only 30-34” high
   Standard Handrail
     –   Used when there is a wall next to the stairs
     –   3” from a wall, bracketed to wall every 8 ft
             30-34” high
   When to use a standard rail or handrail…
     –   If there are 4 or more risers
     –   At least one handrail on right side of enclosed stairs
     –   A rail on each side of a stairway that is open
     –   If stair width greater than 44 in., need a handrail on each enclosed side and a rail
         on each open side
     –   If stair width greater than 88 in., need an intermediate rail in the middle
Can you identify what is wrong in the
        following pictures?
Questions & Comments

				
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posted:12/3/2011
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