SECTION 15010 by 2CxzIx


									    SECTION 15060

                                     SECTION 15060

                            PIPES AND PIPE FITTINGS



      A.   Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and the
           Supplementary Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to
           this Section.

1.2        SUMMARY

      A.   This Section includes the piping materials and installation methods
           common to most piping systems.

      B.   Types of pipes and pipefitting specified in this section include the

           Steel Pipe and Fittings

      C.   Pipe and pipefitting used for the different piping systems are specified in
           the respective piping system Sections.

      D.   Labelling and identifying mechanical systems and equipment is specified in
           Division 15 Section "MECHANICAL IDENTIFICATION".


      A.   Qualify welding processes and operators for structural steel according to
           AWS D1.1 "Structural Welding Code--Steel".

      B.   Qualify welding processes and operators for piping according to ASME
           "Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code," Section IX, "Welding and Brazing

           1.    Comply with provisions of ASME B31 Series "Code for Pressure

           2.    Certify that each welder has passed AWS qualification tests for the
                 welding processes involved and that certification is current.

      C.   Submit welder certificates signed by Contractor certifying that welders
           comply with requirements specified above.

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      A.   Deliver pipes and tubes with factory-applied plastic end-caps. Maintain
           end-caps through shipping, storage, and handling to prevent pipe-end
           damage and prevent entrance of dirt, debris, and moisture.

      B.   Protect stored pipes and tubes from moisture and dirt. Elevate above grade.
           When stored inside, do not exceed structural capacity of the floor.

      C.   Protect flanges and fittings from moisture and dirt, by inside storage and
           enclosure, or by packaging with durable, waterproof wrapping.



      A.   Steel Pipe and Fittings

           1.    Steel pipes and fittings 150 mm diameter and under to be black,
                 seamless to BS l387, medium class, ISO 65 or DIN 2440.

           2.    Fittings for black steel pipes over 50 mm diameter to be steel,
                 seamless, butt-welding, with 37 degrees bevelled ends, of same
                 schedule, thickness and rating as pipe of corresponding size.

           3.    Fittings for black steel pipes where backwelding is required to be
                 screwed forged steel.

           4.    Elbows to be long radius type.

           5.    Pipe unions on threaded pipes 50-mm diameter and under to have
                 female threaded ends and ground metal to metal seats. Unions to be
                 of same manufacture, pressure class, and material as other pipe

           6.    Flanges are to be of same pressure rating, facing, drilling and
                 thickness as mating flanges on valves, accessories and equipment.

           7.    Flanges on black steel pipes to be black, forged steel, slip-on or weld
                 neck type.

           8.    Flanges on galvanized steel pipes to be galvanized steel threaded

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      A.   Refer to individual piping system specification Sections in Division 15 for
           special joining materials not listed below.

      B.   Pipe Flange Gasket Materials: Suitable for the chemical and thermal
           conditions of the piping system contents.

             1. AWWA C110, rubber, flat face, 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick,
                 except where other thickness is indicated; and full-face
                 or ring type, except where type is indicated.

      C.   Flange Bolts and Nuts: ASME B18.2.1, or BS 4190, carbon steel, except
           where other material is indicated, of length to allow nuts to utilize full
           length of bolt thread plus 6 mm (1/4").

      D.   Welding Filler Metals: Comply with AWS D10.12 for welding materials
           appropriate for wall thickness and chemical analysis of steel pipe being



      A.   General: Install piping as described below, except where system Sections
           specify otherwise. Individual piping system specification Sections in
           Division 15 specify piping installation requirements unique to the piping

      B.   General Locations and Arrangements: Drawings (plans, schematics, and
           diagrams) indicate general location and arrangement of piping systems.
           Indicated locations and arrangements were used to size pipe and calculate
           friction loss, expansion, pump sizing, and other design considerations.
           Install piping as indicated, except where deviations to layout are approved
           on shop and co-ordination drawings.

      C.   Install vertical piping plumb.

      D.   Install horizontal piping at indicated uniform slope.

      E.   Install components having pressure rating equal to or greater than system
           operating pressure.

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      F.   Install piping in concealed interior and exterior locations except in
           equipment rooms and service areas.

      G.   Install piping free of sags and bends.

      H.   Install exposed interior and exterior piping at right angles or parallel to
           building walls. Diagonal runs are prohibited, except where indicated.

      I.   Install piping to allow application of insulation plus 1-inch (25mm)
           clearance around insulation.

      J.   Locate groups of pipes parallel to each other, spaced to permit valve

      K.   Leave adequate clearance between pipes and adjacent pipes, walls, ceilings
           and columns for making joints properly, easy installation and removal of
           valves and accessories and proper installation of insulation and individual
           pipe hangers and supports.

      L.   Use eccentric reducers where appropriate to avoid air pockets, with flat of
           reducer on top on water piping to permit proper venting of system.

      M    Do not paint, cover or enclose piping until it is tested, inspected and

      N.   Provide pipe unions or flanges at adequate intervals in piping to permit
           easy disassembly, and at connections to equipment, near valves, controls,
           strainers and other accessories requiring removal.

      O.   Make changes in direction and size, branching and jointing of pipes with
           regular pipefitting. Do not bend pipe.

      P.   Do not use fields fabricated fittings, bushings, close nipples and street

      Q.   Join pipes and fittings of the different materials specified as described
           below. Remove scale, slag, dirt, and debris from inside and outside of pipe
           and fittings before assembly.


      A.   Make connections to moving equipment through flexible connections.
           Provide shut-off valves on both sides of equipment. Make any reductions in
           pipe size at equipment connections with all pipe accessories and piping
           specialities remaining same size as pipe runs.

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      B.   Arrange piping connections to equipment such as to permit easy removal of
           equipment without disturbing piping and without interference with the

      C.   Except as otherwise indicated, make piping connections as specified below.

           1.   Install unions in piping 50 mm (2") and smaller adjacent to each
                valve and at final connection to each piece of equipment having a
                50 mm (2") or smaller threaded pipe connection.

           2.   Install flanges in piping 65 mm (2-1/2") and larger adjacent to
                flanged valves and at final connection to each piece of equipment
                having flanged pipe connection.


      A.   Joints in black steel pipes 50 mm (2") diameter and under to be threaded
           and in pipes over 50 mm (2") diameter to be welded. Use flanged joints
           where required.

      B.   Welded Joints: Construct joints according to AWS D10.12 "Recommended
           Practices and Procedures for Welding Low Carbon Steel Pipe" using
           qualified processes and welding operators according to the "Quality
           Assurance" Article. Following are requirements for welded joints that must
           be adhered to:

           1.   Welded joints to be electric arc welded. Pipes not exceeding 100-mm
                diameter may be welded by oxy-acetylene torch.

           2.   Pipes for welded joints to be cleaned free from rust, scale and oxide
                and bevelled for V-butt weld.

           3.   Welds to be of sound metal and free from laps gas pockets, slab
                inclusions, interior protrusions, and other imperfections.

           4.   Hammer welds clean, and flush out piping to remove scale, welding
                slag and other debris.

           5.   Welders to be of first class ability with long experience in the trade.
                Submit names and full qualifications for approval. Welders will be
                required to demonstrate their ability by welding pipe joint samples
                before being accepted for the work.

           6.   Weldolets and threadolets of forged steel may be used on black steel
                pipe branch connections where branch does not exceed half diameter
                of main pipe.

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      C.   Flanged Joints: Execute flanged joints as follows:

           1.    Align flange surfaces parallel and perfectly square with pipe.

           2.    Select appropriate gasket material, size, type, and thickness for
                 service application.

           3.    Install gasket concentrically positioned.

           4.    Assemble joints by sequencing bolt tightening to make initial contact
                 of flanges and gaskets as flat and parallel as possible.

           5.    Use suitable lubricants on bolt threads.

           6.    Tighten bolts gradually and uniformly using torque wrench.

3.4        CLEANING

      A.   Clean equipment, materials and piping on inside and outside from loose
           mill scale, blisters, sand, plaster, paint droppings, dirt, oil, grease labels and
           all foreign matter.

      B.   Wire brushes piping on outside before painting or covering.

      C.   Clean water systems after completing each section by flushing pipes,
           fittings, valves and accessories internally with clean water.

      D.   Clean air or gas systems after completing each section by blowing pipes,
           fittings, valves and accessories internally with compressed air.


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