college _ libraries by wuyunqing


									college, libraries



for centuries, a liberal arts education was all you needed to be
considered a highly educated, literate person.

1800s europe: status was derived more from which college you attended
than the occupation you trained for

in europe and england, many people fell into occupations due to wealth or
title, or learned their trade through apprenticeships.

1700s 1800s america didn't have a nobility or an apprenticeship system,
so getting a diploma became very important in america because it was your
ticket to being a professional

1800s academy: a generic term for the private school you attended after
common school: could be high school, prep school, college

1861 17 state universities in u.s.

1862 congress passed 'morrill act,' justin s. morrill granted public
lands to states for colleges and universities. these schools were called
'land grant colleges'

1868 institutions began to take advantage of morrill act

1870 america had more law schools, medical schools, and higher education
institutions awarding diplomas than in all of europe.

1870s universities as we know them really come into being. at first,
their goal is to train people in technical expertise to pursue
specialized careers that will contribute to society. a broad liberal arts
education was frowned upon

1890s 3 types of university education: training for a professional
career, research, liberal arts

1890s many universities were founded and campuses built, designs were
inspired by oxford and cambridge, gothic style

1890s new group of college-educated men

1890s brief anti-college sentiment arises, promoted by people interested
in property-oriented individualism who felt that too much eduction was a
bad thing.
1890 populist politician "pitchfork ben" tillman promised to abolish the
state university as part of his campaign for governor of south carolina

1900 977 colleges in u.s.

1900s college comes back into favor. a college education and the class of
'professionals' it produces are seen as a good thing, restoring democracy
after the corruption and excesses of the gilded age

1933-early 1960s: university-educated professions received support of the
public, maybe because of all the new technologies and scientific
discoveries happening at the time and because an education is seen as a
way out of the poverty caused by the depression

1930s begin to stress benefits of college for boys

1930s few girls were encouraged to go to college, most who did go didn't
do so to pursue a career outside the home. they went to learn homemaking,
to be a well-rounded individual, or to catch a husband

------g.i. bill-----
-1944-1956 'servicemen's readjustmand act', or "g.i. bill" in effect
-1944-1946 1 million veterans went to college on the g.i. bill
-1947 one half of all college students were veterans taking advantage of
g.i. bill

1960s 1970s: more anti-college sentiment, from the counter-culture who
frowns upon conformity and material wealth in favor of a more natural,
spiritual life

1960s students form political groups,   strikes (refusal to go to class)
for more ethnic studies classes, more   student control of classes, race
riots within integrated sports teams,   student revolts, less required
general education classes, remove 'in   loco parentis', want more diversity
in student population

1979   pay for college grads was 42 percent higher than for people who had
only   a high school education
1997   pay for college grads was 89 percent higher than for people who had
only   a high school education

1980s to now: for centuries, a liberal arts education was the backbone of
a university education. now, liberal arts is highly threatened, but may
be saved somewhat by the adoption by some schools of a "core curriculum"
(general education requirements)



-1701 'collegiate school of connecticut' chartered in new haven, CT
-later became yale university
-1851 'northwestern university' founded (evanston)

-----johns hopkins university-----
-1876 founded with fortune left by a baltimore merchant

-1885 founded as 'leland stanford jr. university'

-----university of chicago-----
-1891 founded by j.d. rockefeller

-----carnegie institute of technology-----
-1900 founded by andrew carnegie in pittsburgh

-----cornell college----
-1868 founded

-----tuskegee institute-----
-in alabama, first college in america for black teachers, founded by
booker t. washington



1969 community college offering summer classes: one "intro to data
processing" class, "computer programming I, II and III", key punch
operator training, typing 2 and 3, shorthand 2 and 3, office machines.
community college also worked with local public television station,
providing courses on TV

1974 trend for careers requiring 2 years of technical school rather than
4 years of college: programming, dental technician, traffic control,
forestry, chemistry, environmental control

1890s Boston's School of Housekeeping

1893 johns hopkins school of medicine opened, at johns hopkins
university, reformed medical education (see MEDICAL-DENTAL)

1890s educated men graduated from high school and then often attended 1-2
years of technical training at a technical school, trade school, "normal
school," or business college that was men only

business colleges


normal school: school dedicated exclusively to training teachers to teach
in common schools.

before normal schools, teacher training wasn't considered worthy of
colleges. colleges were for training clergy, lawyers, and doctors

1839 first normal school opened in lexington, mass.

1840 3rd normal school opened in massachusetts, in bridgewater

normal schools were state funded

1839-1920s normal schools had 2-year program

many students at normal schools didn't complete the 2 year program. some
students took jobs before that, or they were already teachers looking to
improve some skills

normal schools had "training schools" for practice teaching

different cities and states had different criteria for teachers. some
only required an examination or brief apprenticeship

1880s laura ingalls only had to pass an examination and be 16 years old
to get her teacher's certificate

1890 at normal schools, only 20 percent of teacher trainees had h.s.

1895 kansas state normal school had a kindergarten department

1920s some normal schools became 4-year schools. were called 'state
teachers colleges', granted bachelors degrees

40s 50s remainder became 4-year schools (state teachers colleges)



1885 dudley sargent (harvard professor of physical training) introduced
physical education to college curriculum (as a teacher-training program,
rather than a class?)

1870s, 1880s: history was practically non-existant as a course of study
at college. only 15 professors were teaching it in the entire u.s. if
history was taught, it was usually classical european history

1890s people developed a new interest in history, especially american
history, as they watched well-established lifestyles disappear before
their eyes, namely the old south and the western frontier
1890s, 1900s universities begin to embrace research, in addition to their
career-training focus
1908: the researcher is the "knight of the Holy Spirit of truth."
--g. stanley hall 1908

1920s increase in college attendance and new theories and discoveries,
colleges expanded their course offerings, often more than doubling them:
old courses like history, literature, mathematics, and the classics were
joined by sociology, political science, engineering, marketing, art,
drama, physical education

1927 first college course on modern marriage, at the university of north

1937 200 colleges offered similar courses on modern marriage

1960s major in asian studies

1982 yale univ. offered a 14-week course on mastering the rubik's cube



-1900 238,000 students
-1920s college enrollment doubled
-1979 49 percent of high school grads went on to college
-1997 67 percent of high school grads went on to college

-1890 1.8 percent of the population graduated from some sort of higher
education. of those who did graduate, the majority were men
-1900: 1/400 had graduated from college
-1900 2.3 percent of population graduated from some sort of higher
education. of those who did graduate, the majority were men
-1981 21.3 percent graduated from college with bachelor degree
-1997 27.8 percent graduated from college with bachelor degree

age of college students:
1970 47.7 percent of students were 18-19 yr. olds
     21.5 percent of students were 20-24 yr. olds
1965 46.3
1955 35.4
1950 29.7
1945 78.4
1940 79.3



1890s harvard: the harvard yard in spring, with bright green grass and
burgeoning elms, rich young voices singing on the steps of holworthy

----in loco parentis------
-1865 began when first womens college (vassar) opened
-1930s-1950s: no slacks, chaperones, parental written permission to visit
men's college or neighboring city for weekend, no opposite sexes in
dorms, some off-campus establishments were off-limits, coeds who got
married had to leave school
-1930s girls had dorm mothers, dress codes, curfews, 'dean of women'
determined what hours girls could work at outside jobs and gave
permission, male visitors allowed on porch or lobby/family room
-1950s starting to relax just a little: some opposite sex visition on
sundays, pants allowed
-late 1960s policy challenged
-1970s policy gone: same sex dorms, same sex floors, visitors using rooms
as crash pads, no privacy, noise
-1980s some rules reinstated, but within reason and by choice: quiet
hours, RA's, study floors, varying levels of opposite-sex visitation

1900s college life: snowball fights, celebrating finals being over,
school banners on wall of dorm rooms, mens dorms, ladies dorms probably
with house matron

20s college slang:
wife: college roommate
joe college, joe yale, joe zilsh: male college student
drag: college dance

----late 60s college life-----
-about 5 to 10 percent of student body were anti-war or hippie. they felt
a certain amount of comeraderie because they were a passionate minority
group of free-thinkers.
-about 1 percent of the student body was hostile to the hippies, the rest
were just indifferent.
-hard rock music was called 'underground music.'
-students for a democratic society.
-most teachers were strictly business as usual, teaching their classes
and giving out grades. most did not get involved in campus life or anti-
war activity.
-most students went along with the rules because they wanted to remain
full-time students in order to be exempted from the draft. you had to
have a minimum of 12 credit hours per term to qualify.
1870s farmer's son in wisconsin attending state university was "a boy
right from the farm" who felt self-conscious and socially inferior to the
fraternity boys from upper middle class families



1790s to 1830s in south: womens academies: educate women, prepare them
for domestic life and motherhood, plus some academic things, to be well-
rounded partners for husbands

1830s-1860s womens academies in south:
"instruction in all the useful and ornamental branches of female
music, drawing, painting, arithmetic, grammar, history, philosophy,
penmanship, bookkeeping, rhetoric

1850s wisconsin girl attend 'select school', then 'milwaukee female
college,' then 'northwestern female college'

1865 vassar first women's college

1865 the strict rules of in loco parentis began when first womens college
(vassar) opened (see above)

1860s 1870s at the few colleges that were going co-ed, the rooming houses
were often also co-ed, because they hadn't built any women-only dorms yet

1870s-1890s: unlike many women of the time, the women who attended co-ed
colleges or worked in offices lived in a gender-integrated world

1890s co-ed colleges were building women-only dorms and enacting
regulations and restrictions

1890s educated young ladies who trained for a career graduated from high
school and then often attended 1-2 years of technical training at a
technical school, trade school, or business college that was women only

1890s the "new woman" of the 90s at college, participate in competitive
sports, campaign for suffrage

1890s oberlin college and university of michigan are co-ed (gasp!)

1890s vassar and smith are colleges for women only, were looked down upon
by traditionalists because they were "influencing young ladies to abandon
childrearing in favor of careers"

1900 70 percent of colleges were co-educational (men and women)

1930s girls took jobs to help pay way: babysit, housecleaning, doing work
around the house or dorm

1930s girls had dorm mothers, everyone ate dinner together
1930s women's college: teas, receptions, formals, bridge, dorms, plays

1953 ladies major in home economics

1960 3.8 percent of law students were women

1960 nearly 50 percent of college students were female

1969 women first admitted to yale univ.

1970 13 percent of all students getting a phd were women

1960-1980: the number of female medical students tripled

1980 33.8 percent of law students were women

1985 36 percent of all students getting a phd were women

urbana university in ohio was the second institution in ohio to admit



1890 yale football team dominated wesleyan and harvard, led by
quarterback frank barbour and coached by walter camp, the father
of modern football
very brutal game, no pads, no helmets, no breaks
wore turtleneck sweaters and knee pants

1905 18 college football players killed, 159 seriously injured,
pres. teddy roosevelt called for rule changes

1880's universities begin to have big-time athletics

early 1800s in south: women and girls urged to get regular exercise,
girls at school had gymnastics, dancing, riding

end of 1850s many mens colleges building gymnasiums for their students

1890s sports: college football in fall

1890s women's colleges required daily physical exercise


1832 yale university senior society 'skull and bones' founded

1840s frats and sororities first began coming to campuses. met weekly,
held social events

1890s frats and sororities first started renting houses for members to
live in together. began to refer to themselves as "houses," rather than

1920s college enrollment and greek membership rise

1953 men's fraternities, ladies sororities very popular



1638 first library in north america at harvard college

1730s private subscription libraries began
1760s college, theological schools libraries and rental libraries
1840s first public libraries supported by tax dollars

1859 nyc had 27 libraries
1877 Lenox Library nyc open

1870s boston public library had first card catalog, arranged strictly by
author and subject. every library had their own system

1876 melville dewey devised decimal classification for subjects,
subdivided with decimal points

1890 200 new libraries used dewey dec. system

1880s, 1890s andrew carnegie gave money to any town that built a library,
lots of new libraries were built

1890s andrew carnegie provided funds to start 1700 libraries

1890's cities really began to cherish and expand their libraries

1895 ny public library opened
ny real estate merchant james lenox collected rare books and manuscripts,
stacked in rooms of huge house on fifth ave. collection was one of the
foundations of ny public library

1970s before computerization, the older, bigger libraries still had their
old cards, millions of them, some 100 years old

1981 north-pulaski branch of chicago public library was first to replace
its card catalog with on-line computer catalog

1981 library of congress computerized
1985 ny public library catalog went on computer

end of 1980s 30 percent of libraries on computer

New york City's first major library bequeathed by John Jacob Astor upon
his death in 1848, located on Lafayette street

James lenox built private library to house his collection at fifth avenue
and 70th street

1886 Former new york governor Samuel J. Tilden died, left 5 million
dollars to nyc for establishment of free library and reading room.
library group purchased Astor and lenoX libraries, City donated land
occupied by the now-obsolete Croton Reservoir, reservoir demolished, new
bldg dedicated 1911

Andrew Carnegie donated 5.2 million dollars for construction of branch


1700s-1830s many southern planters sent sons to northern colleges,
especially yale. also sent sons to west point and u.s. military academy

1865 first professional course in architecture, at massachusetts
institute of technology. helped establish architecture as a true

1869 rutgers and princeton, first college football game and first college
football game tailgating

1800s colleges in u.s. modeled after britain's oxford and cambridge

late 1800s: styles of collegiate gothic and collegiate tudor

1638 while manhattan was still a dutch colony, 'dutch reformed collegiate
church and collegiate school' formed
1890s still there

1894 penmanship class being taught at hotel, $2 for 12 lessons, by
graduate of business college

1870s colleges were beginning to add practical studies and research to
curriculum. curriculums were once full of greek and latin. this concerned
religious fundamentalists

2000s 1/3 of college students engage in binge drinking on regular basis

1916 ellis business college in elgin
1917 'free night school' in high school building. provide 2 classes:
1) adults finish education where they left off
2) foreign-born adults who want to improve english
tuesday, thursay 7:30 to 9:30

1886 5 local students at northwestern university, 4 at ann arbor, 1 at
notre dame. 5 were female

1916 metropolitan business college. 12 branches, 1 in elgin. shorthand,
touch typewriting, penmanship, the 'shortwriter' (that new machine
shorthand). positions for graduates

1917 metropolitan business college. 12 branches, around for 44 years.
shorthand, touch typewriting, penmanship, office training, 'shortwriter'-
new machine shorthand

1876 melville dewey developed dewey decimal system for libraries

1893 frederick jackson turner studied results of 1890 census and
proclaimed frontier closed. our expansion-dominated energy would have to
be applied to imperialist ventures overseas. conquering the frontier was
what shaped the american attitude and experience. now what will shape our
chaged the way historians viewed the west. before this, it was ignored by

1915 weekly children's hour at library

1892 young lady receive teacher's certificate from lake county school

1925 niu was northern illinois state teachers college, had their 26th
commencement that year

1900 4 percent of adults had education beyond high school

2000 52 percent of adults had education beyond high school

1823 concord, vermont: first teacher's seminary

1900s? william rainey harper pioneered the 2 year college. he was
president of university of chicago?

1860s first college team chants during football games

1898 princeton: first time a college chant was led by someone down on the

1899 princeton: first college cheerleading squad, 5 guys

1920s cheerleader outfits: sweater, ankle-length pleated skirt

1990s 2000s college changing deragatory indian mascots and team names

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