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Wayne State College Wayne, Nebraska School of Education and Counseling Department of Counseling and Special Education Special Education Student Teaching Handbook The Council for Exceptional Children Accredited 2002-2007 5-2003 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Special Education Student Teaching Handbook Prologue - Overview of Wayne State College 5 Philosophy of the Program - Special Education 5 Special Education Program Objectives 5 Preface 6 Legal Basis for Student Teaching 6 Pertinent Telephone Numbers and Addresses 7 Council of Exceptional Children Code of Ethics for Educators of 8 Persons with Exceptionalities Cooperating (Supervising) Teacher‘s Responsibilities 8 Wayne State College Supervisor‘s Responsibilities 9 CEC Standard 1. Experiences are sequential in difficulty 9 General Requirements 9 Tasks to be Completed Each Session - Checklist for K-6 and 7-12 9 Elementary (K-6): Special Education Student Teaching (8 weeks) 10 Timeline Week One Week Two Weeks 3 - 8 Student-Teaching Portfolio 10 8-Week Requirements 10-11 a. Daily lesson plans b. Assuming responsibility c. Evaluate student progress d. Reflections e. Special Education Programming Procedures f. Assistive technology g. Maintaining appropriate records h. District responsibilities TRIMS 11 Learning Strategies 11 TOWER+EDITS 11 Touch-Point Math (or Other) 11 Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) 12 DeRuiter Information Processing (Video taping) 12 Secondary (7-12) Special Education Student Teaching (8 weeks) 12 Week One Week Two 3 Weeks 3 - 8 12 Student-Teaching Portfolio 12 8-week Requirements 12-13 a. Daily lesson plans b. Evaluate student progress c. Reflections d. Special Education Programming Procedures TRIMS 13 Learning Strategies 13 Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) 13 Vocational Education 14 Life Skills 14 Transition Instruction 14 DeRuiter Information Processing (Video taping) 14 CEC Standard 2: Each experience has clearly (a) stated objectives; (b) measurable objectives that relate to the overall goals and objectives of the program 14 Matrix Special Education Objectives and Special Education Courses 15 (Council for Exceptional Children) CEC Standard 3: Experiences involve model professionals who use practices congruent with the knowledge and skills expected of the student candidates CEC Standard 4: Cooperating professionals are provided guidelines that structure field experiences 16 CEC Standard 4: Cooperating professionals are provided guidelines that structure field experiences 16 CEC Standard 5: The student teaching experience is in the same type of settings as that for which the student candidate is seeking licensure/certification. 16 CEC Standard 6: The student teaching experiences are with the same type of individuals as those the candidate is prepared to work 16 CEC Standard 7: Candidates are placed only with cooperating professionals who are appropriately licensed/certified in the specialization in which candidates are seeking certification 16 CEC Standard 8: Each area of specialization provides supervision to candidates by university/college faculty qualified and experienced in teaching in the areas of specialization. 16 CEC Standard 9: During student teaching, the supervisor from the university/college observes the candidate at least five (5) times. 16 CEC Standard 10: Explicit performance criteria are established for student teaching and each field experience. 17 4 CEC Standard 11: Students have a minimum of 10 full-time weeks of supervised student teaching in the areas of specialization for which the candidate is being prepared. 17 CEC Standard 12: Knowledge and skills required for each practicum experience reflect ―recommended practices.‖ 17 CEC Standard: 13: Practicum experiences are supervised under a structured program of advisement. 17 CEC Standard 14: The special education faculty has responsibility for assigning candidates to approved placement. This responsibility includes the approval of cooperating teachers and supervisors. 17 CEC Standard 15: There are written criteria for the selection and retention of cooperating professionals and supervisors. 18 Revocation of Student Teacher Status 18 Student Teaching Profile Removal Form 19 Appendix A: Suggestions for Evaluation 19 Suggested Starters for Criticism Statements 20 WSC Daily Lesson Packet 21 WSC Daily Lesson Plan – Adapted Hunter Model Checking for Understanding and Guided Practice Lesson –Evaluation Guide Planning Packet How to question for mastery 29 WSC Daily Lesson Plan Format 30 Appendix B: DeRuiter Model of Information Processing/TSAOS Video Matrix 31-33 Appendix C NTASC Standards 35 Appendix D Special Education Student Teaching Evaluation Forms 36 Appendix F Manual for TRIMS 37 Appendix E Articles 54 5 Prologue - Overview of Wayne State College Wayne State College (WSC) is located in Wayne, Nebraska, a city of about 5, 500 in northeastern Nebraska. The original school was established at Wayne in 1909 when the State Legislature authorized the purchase of property, buildings, and equipment of the Nebraska Normal College, a private institution founded by Professor James M. Pile in 1891 and operated under his direction until his death in 1910. It opened as a State Normal School in September 1910 with Dr. U. S. Conn as president. In 1921, by act of the State Legislature, the school became a State Normal School and Teachers College with the legal authority to grant baccalaureate degrees in education. In 1949, the Legislature changed the name of the institution to Nebraska State Teachers College at Wayne and granted authority to confer the baccalaureate degree for study in liberal arts. The graduate program leading to a Master‘s degree was authorized in 1955, and in 1963 the Legislature changed the name of the college to Wayne State College. Wayne State College is a regional public college and is part of a three-school state college system geographically positioned to serve rural Nebraska. The College‘s basic mission is twofold: it strives to develop students of a wide range of academic abilities through quality teaching and support; and, it strives to assist with the development of its service region through the delivery of public service programs and activities. The College has built upon its rich tradition as a teacher‘s college by emphasizing strong teaching and helpful out- of-class support in a personalized setting. A comprehensive co-curricular program of student activities offered in a manageable residential setting provides students with opportunities to enhance personal characteristics and leadership abilities. In addition, the College has extended its tradition of helping by becoming a regional service center enhancing the quality of life and fostering development in a rural service region. The public service programs and activities provided are in large part a product of the applied research and community service activities of the College‘s faculty and staff. ***************************************** Philosophy of the Program - Special Education The philosophy of the Mildly/Moderately Handicapped program is for the undergraduate students to have a vast array of knowledge to be the best teachers possible. These teachers will not only have the knowledge to teach students with disabilities, but they will be the authority in special education in their respective schools. Special Education Program Objectives The graduate of the Special Education program from Wayne State College will: 1. Have an understanding of the historical development of the education of students with disabilities; 2. Learn the ability to describe the characteristics of each exceptionally and its effect on learning; 3. Demonstrate skill in selecting, administering, and interpreting formal and informal techniques and instruments for assessing a student's educational development; 4. Demonstrate the skills in developing, implementing, and evaluating a variety of sequentially ordered instructional and curricular approaches for exceptional children/youth, which accommodate their academic, vocational, social, cognitive, language, and physical needs; 5. Demonstrate the skills in planning, implementing, and evaluating individualized educational programs for students with disabilities; 6. Demonstrate knowledge of a variety of techniques based upon psychological theories for the management of individual and small group learning activities; 7. Demonstrate the ability communicate with parents, children, and other professionals relative to a student's academic, vocational, social, cognitive, language, and physical functioning; 6 8. Learn the skills in planning, developing and implementing a student's program in compliance with relevant statutes and rules; 9. Demonstrate the awareness of his/her own attitudes and values as they influence and are influenced by students with disabilities; 10. Demonstrate the knowledge of national, state, and local laws, and policies and procedures affecting the students with disabilities; 11. Demonstrate the skills in developing a system for organizing and maintaining student records; 12. Demonstrate competence in identifying, selecting, and using state and local resources for improving and strengthening the educational program for student with disabilities; 13. Demonstrate skills in teaching the basic skills of academic subjects: reading, language arts, and mathematics to students with disabilities; 14. Demonstrate knowledge in managing orthopedic conditions of students as they appear independently or in conjunction with other disabling conditions; 15. Demonstrate skill in selecting and modifying the curriculum for individual students with disabilities; 16. Demonstrate their knowledge of career and vocational education principles as they relate to students with disabilities; 17. Demonstrate the skills in utilizing specific behavioral management and counseling techniques with students with disabilities. Preface This handbook is intended to be a guide for student teachers, cooperating teachers, and college supervisors of Wayne State College (WSC). The content of this handbook was developed from many years of teaching experience, supervising student teachers, and discussing issues with teachers and administrators who have worked with student special educators. Legal Basis for Student Teaching L. B. #175, Session Laws 1971 Section 1: As used in this act, student teacher or intern shall mean a student enrolled in an institution of higher learning approved by the State Board of Education for teacher training and who is jointly assigned by such institution of higher learning and Board of Education to student teach or intern under the direction of a regularly employed certificated teacher, principal, or other administrator. Student teaching may include duties granted to a certificated teacher under the rules and regulations of such Board of Education and any other part of the school program for which either the cooperating teacher or the principal is responsible. Section 2: A student teacher or intern under the supervision of a certificated teacher, principal, or other administrator shall have the protection of the laws accorded the certificated teacher, principal, or other administrator and shall, while acting as such student teacher or intern comply with all rules and regulations of the local Board of Education and observe all duties assigned to certificated teachers. Section 3: It shall be the responsibility of a cooperating teacher in cooperation with the principal or other administrator and the representative of the teacher preparation institution, to assign to the student teacher or intern responsibilities and duties that will provide adequate preparation for teaching. Section 4: Whenever in this act Board of Education is referred to and the school that a student teacher or intern is referred to does not have a Board of Education, such term shall be the person or governing body that administers such school. 7 Pertinent Telephone Numbers and Addresses (Send a copy of this information sheet to the WSC supervisor during the first week of student teaching at each level assignment) Names Telephone #s e-mail Address ________________________ _________________________ ____________________ WSC Student ________________________ _________________________________________________ Student-teaching Site (K-6) __________________________________ _____________________________________ Cooperating Teacher School Telephone Number Principal or Special Education Director ________________________ _________________________ ____________________ WSC Student ________________________ _________________________________________________ Student-teaching Site (7-12) __________________________________ _____________________________________ Cooperating Teacher School Telephone Number Principal or Special Education Director Notes: _____________________ _________________ ________________ (Dr. Daryl Wilcox, Dr. Fay Jackson, (Other) WSC Supervisor WSC Supervisor 402-375-7391 Wayne State College Field Experience Office 8 Council of Exceptional Children Code of Ethics for Educators of Persons with Exceptionalities We declare the following principles to be the Code of Ethics for Educators of Persons with Exceptionalities: A. Special education professionals are committed to developing the highest educational and quality of life potential of individuals with exceptionalities. B. Special education professionals promote and maintain a high level of competence and integrity in practicing their profession. C. Special education professionals engage in professional activities that benefit individuals with exceptionalities, their families, other colleagues, students, or research subjects. D. Special education professionals exercise objective professional judgment in the practice of their profession. E. Special education professionals strive to advance their knowledge and skills regarding the education of individuals with exceptionalities. F. Special education professionals work within the standards and policies of their profession. G. Special education professionals seek to uphold and improve where necessary the laws, regulations, and policies governing the delivery of special education and related services and the practice of their profession. H. Special education professionals do not condone or participate in unethical or illegal acts, nor violate professional standards adopted by the delegate Assembly of CEC. Cooperating (Supervising) Teacher‟s Responsibilities The following are the responsibilities that the Department of Counseling and Special Education at Wayne State College requires of all cooperating teachers for the Special Education Student-Teaching Experience in the public schools. 1. Provide a special education classroom setting for the Student-Teaching Experience, for example: a resource classroom, a self-contained classroom, or an inclusionary setting. 2. Provide an opportunity to assume teaching responsibilities. Provide opportunity for the WSC student to perform as many duties as appropriate. This handbook is presented as a guide to assist the student and the cooperating teacher to meet this requirement. 3. Contact the WSC supervisor from the Department of Counseling and Special Education when any problem arises with the student teacher. 4. Evaluate the WSC student‘s performance as listed in this handbook. Forms are provided for this purpose. 5. Provide feedback to the student after teaching each lesson or other activity assigned. 6. Assist the student to obtain needed resources, such as a video camera to tape a lesson, provide an opportunity to teach the strategies listed in the handbook, and assist the student to learn the school‘s operational routines and manner of interactions. Include such items as fire drills, tornado, and other safety procedures. 9 Wayne State College Supervisor‟s Responsibilities Supervision: The faculty of the Department of Counseling and Special Education supervises the clinical experience, including student teaching. At least five observations will be made to each student. An evaluation of the student‘s teaching will be conducted at each observation. Feedback will be provided to the student and to the cooperating teacher. The WSC supervisor records the final grade for each session of student teaching. It is acknowledged that occasionally questions and problems arise that require the attention of the faculty of the Department of Counseling and Special Education. It is imperative that WSC students and cooperating teachers advise the WSC supervisor of such situations when they become apparent. Experience has shown that most little problems become big problems only when they are not addressed promptly. If you have questions or concerns, please call the supervisor in the Special Education Student Teaching Experience immediately. ************************************************ The faculty of the Department of Special Education at WSC conducted a national pilot study in 1998 of the student teaching handbooks used by the surveyed institutions of higher learning. The purpose of the study was to determine the institution‘s compliance with the standards required by The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), the accrediting agency for Special Education. This Wayne State College (WSC) handbook is prepared to reflect the CEC standards and the WSC program. A copy of an article citing the study is included in this handbook. CEC Standard 1. Experiences are sequential in difficulty. STUDENT TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES The primary responsibility of the special education student teacher is to learn how to be an effective emergent professional in a prolonged classroom setting. The secondary responsibility of the special education student teacher is to maintain the highest professional behavior at all times. Demonstrate by daily conduct an understanding of professional ethics based on the Council of Exceptional Children Code of Ethics The list below is given as reminders of such behavior: Checklist K-6 / 7-12 ___/___ Complete the emergency form and internet questionnaire, and if possible, e-mail the information to the Field Experience Office at Wayne State College within the first week of student teaching. If e-mail is not available, the forms must be mailed. ___/___ Regard yourself as a member of the cooperating teacher's team and perform such tasks as are necessary to contribute to the proper functioning of the classroom; therefore, accept decisions made by the cooperating educator, keeping in mind individual style and personality. Dress, act, talk, and conduct him/herself as a member of the teaching profession. Practice only acceptable relationships between the students and you. ___/___ Remember that the cooperating teacher is legally responsible for the students assigned to him/her. The student teacher can assume no authority which has not been specifically delegated by the cooperating teacher. ___/___ Participate in open, honest communication with the cooperating teacher and college supervisor at appropriate times. (Create a list of questions for discussion with these persons.) ___/___ Attend faculty meetings and other professional meetings. ___/___ Understand that involvement in extra school activities may be asked of you. ___/___ Consider yourself a member of the community in which you are student teaching and conduct yourself professionally outside of the school setting. 10 ___/___ Follow the chain of communication at your site. Make an effort to communicate with your principal. Schedule a time during each session to have the administrator evaluate your teaching. This administrator may be the person you want to write a recommendation for you. ___/___ Meet the assignment of the professional day unless prevented by illness. In case of illness, notification must be made to the (1) Office of the Director of Field Experience, (2) school administrator, (3) cooperating teacher, and (4) college supervisor. For a preplanned absence, approval must first come from the Director of Field Experience and the WSC Special Education Supervisor, prior to scheduling the absence. Excessive absences from student teaching assignment will result in an extension of the experience or other consequences as determined to be appropriate. Elementary (K-6): Special Education Student Teaching: (8 WEEKS) Week One (1) through Week Three (3): One - Teach at least two periods a day (or 25% of the school day) Two - Teach at least four periods a day. (or 50% - 75% of the school day) Three- Full-time. (Note: You have previously completed eight weeks of full-time experience). Provide the Field Experience office and your college supervisor(s) with a copy of the timeline for weeks one through eight. Also, place this timeline in your portfolio. In planning a special education student teacher‘s timeline, a typical sequence might include the following: ___ Review of the students‘ IEPs ___ Select student/s with guidance from the cooperating teacher for the case study. ___ Observe the cooperating teacher instructing the individual student/s. ___ Plan your session for the student/s, and have the cooperating teacher approve the plans. ___ Deliver the lesson and gain feedback from the cooperating teacher ___ Repeat the process as you gain full-time status. ___ Assume gradual responsibility of the instruction and supervision of the students, but as soon as your cooperating teacher thinks you are ready to take on more responsibility discuss alternate methods you think appropriate to use with the students, gain approval from the cooperating teacher to use them. Maintain a student-teaching portfolio. Your timeline for assuming teaching responsibilities, weekly overview, daily lesson plans and self-evaluations, reflections on lesson plans, and weekly evaluations completed by your cooperating teacher(s) should be placed in your portfolio. Your portfolio should be well organized with dividers. It is to be available at all times for the college supervisor‘s visits. During the 8-week period complete the following: ___ Daily lesson plans should be presented to your cooperating teacher(s) 2-3 days prior to implementation. Obtain the cooperating teacher‘s initials to signify approval on each daily lesson plan per student. Make any changes indicated by your cooperating teacher(s) prior to implementation. All daily lesson plans are to be filed in your portfolio after you have critiqued the results of the lesson. You are to use the WSC lesson plan format in addition to the lesson plan format used by the school where you are student teaching, if a different form is required. The WSC daily lesson plans are to be e-mailed to the college supervisor in a timely fashion so that feedback can be provided to you prior to the delivery of the lessons. If e-mail is not available to you, the daily lesson plans may be mailed but they must arrive by Friday before they are to be taught. Provide daily lesson plans and materials for when you are absent (i.e. On-Campus Seminar Day). 11 ___ Assume full responsibility of the student teaching assignment as soon as the cooperating teacher agrees that you are ready. You should have as much experience with full responsibility as possible. (Because of the past 8-week clinical experience, you should take the responsibility for initial instruction by the third day of each placement) ___ Evaluate student progress daily through observations (right-hand column of the WSC lesson plan). Document how you used this information to restructure the next instructional session with each student. (Suggestion: mark positive responses in a color different than errors. This will make interpretation quicker and easier). ____ Journal/Reflections Write an evaluation/reflection of your delivery for each lesson taught. Use the bottom of the right-hand column of the WSC daily lesson plan format. ____ Special Education Programming Procedures Attend faculty meetings, SAT, MDT, and IEP meetings. Expect to assist the cooperating teacher in conducting assessments of students for annual reviews, writing reports, and conducting parent conferences. Assist the special educator to write an IEP. ___ Use assistive technology as appropriate for the individual student. ___ Maintain appropriate records. ___ Complete district responsibilities such as parent contacts, progress reports, and parent/teacher conferences. TRIMS 1. Conduct an evaluation of at least one content textbook used in the general education classroom for a student verified with a special need. Share your findings with the special educator and the general educator regarding the appropriateness of the text for this student. Make recommendations for changes based on the data from the TRIMS analysis. 2. Teach at least one student who is placed in a content classroom to use the TRIMS study strategy. Keep data on the progress the student achieves during the time you are teaching in this site. You can find the forms for both parts of TRIMS in the back of this handbook. ________________________ Date completed both assignments Learning Strategies: (grades 4, 5, and 6) The purpose of the learning strategies approach is to provide individualized instruction for the student in the general education classroom. Utilize a variety of learning strategies methods appropriate for each individual student. Show your textbooks to the teacher, your portfolio, etc. Make suggestions for one or more students using the learning strategies approach. The items below are required; however, any other strategy you select with you cooperating teacher is also appropriate. Record the results of the strategy and place in your portfolio. __________________________ Dates Completed TOWER+EDITS: (Grades 4, 5, or 6) Teach this writing strategy to one or more students. Include samples of the student/s work in your portfolio. __________________________ Date Completed Touch-Point Math (or other method): Determine if the district or resource room teacher will permit you to teach a student or students using the Touch- Point Math procedure. If the resource room is using another math method or kit, then become proficient in teaching that approach. Include notes regarding the results of the math instruction in your portfolio. _________________________ Date Completed 12 Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA): Show the cooperating teacher the case study example you completed in the Behavior Intervention class and or the clinical experience. With the cooperating teacher‘s assistance, select one student for your case study. Obtain all necessary permission from parents, administration, teachers, etc. Complete the case study using the six-step design, i.e., defining the target behavior; deciding an appropriate measurement procedure; recording the baseline data and develop an ABC analysis; implementing the intervention (or teaching) strategy; evaluating the effectiveness of the contingencies; and developing a generalization and/or discrimination procedure. The format for the report in the portfolio shall include four parts: Statement of the Problem; Background Information; Program of Behavioral Change; and Evaluation. Be certain that you can defend your choice of intervention with the data you collected during the baseline period. This should be completed in both the K-6 period and the 7-12 period. Each one should cover the eight weeks of student teaching at each site. DeRuiter Information Processing Video a minimum of two K-6 classroom instructional sessions and evaluate them according to the TSA in Appendix B. The tapes should contain several examples of your instructional process. Set goals for yourself based on the data from your evaluation of the videotape. Remember to update your goals each time you videotape. Each session may be recorded in a different color. __________________________ Date completed Secondary (7-12): Special Education Student Teaching (8 WEEKS) Week One through Week Three: One - Teach at least two periods a day (or 25% of the school day) Two - Teach at least four periods a day. (or 50% of the school day) Three- Full-time. (Note: You have completed eight weeks of full-time clinical experience). Provide the Field Experience office and your college supervisor(s) with a copy of the timeline for weeks one through eight. Place this timeline in your portfolio. In planning a special education student teacher‘s timeline, a typical sequence might include the following: ___ Review of the students‘ ITPs ___ Select student/s with guidance from the cooperating teacher for the case study. ___ Observe the cooperating teacher instructing the individual student/s. ___ Plan your session for the student/s, and have the cooperating teacher approve the plans. ___ Deliver the lesson and gain feedback from the cooperating teacher ___ Repeat the process as you gain full-time status. ___ Assume gradual responsibility of the instruction and supervision of the students, but as soon as your cooperating teacher thinks you are ready to take on more responsibility discuss alternate methods you think appropriate to use with the students, gain approval from the cooperating teacher to use them Maintain a student-teaching portfolio: Your timeline for assuming teaching responsibilities, weekly overview, daily lesson plans and self-evaluations, reflections on lesson plans, and weekly evaluations completed by your cooperating teacher(s) should be placed in your portfolio. Your portfolio should be well organized with dividers. It is to be available at all times for the college supervisor‘s visits). During the 8-week period complete the following: ___ Daily lesson plans should be presented to your cooperating teacher(s) 2-3 days prior to implementation. Obtain the cooperating teacher‘s initials to signify approval on each daily lesson plan per student. Make any changes indicated by your cooperating teacher(s) prior to implementation. All daily lesson plans are to be filed in your portfolio after you have critiqued the results of the lesson. You are to use the WSC lesson plan format in 13 addition to the lesson plan format used by the school where you are student teaching, if a different form is required. The WSC daily lesson plans are to be e-mailed to the college supervisor in a timely fashion so that feedback can be provided to you prior to the delivery of the lessons. If e-mail is not available to you, the daily lesson plans may be mailed but they must arrive by Friday before they are to be taught. Provide daily lesson plans and materials for when you are absent (i.e. On-Campus Seminar Day). ___ Evaluate student progress daily as you teach the lesson in the right-hand column of the WSC lesson plan. Document how you used this information to restructure the next instructional session with each student. ____ Journal/Reflections Write an evaluation/reflection of your delivery for each lesson taught. Use the bottom of the right-hand column of the WSC daily lesson plan format. ____ Special Education Programming Procedure Attend faculty meetings, SAT, MDT, and IEP/ITP meetings. Expect to assist the cooperating teacher in conducting assessments of students for annual reviews, writing reports, and conducting parental conferences. TRIMS 1. Conduct an evaluation of at least one 7-12 content textbook used in the general education classroom for a student verified with a special need. Share your findings with the special educator and the general educator regarding the appropriateness of the text for this student. Make recommendations for changes based on the data from the TRIMS analysis. 2. Teach at least one student who is placed in a content classroom to use the study strategy of TRIMS. Keep data on the progress the student achieves during the time you are teaching in this site. The forms for both parts of TRIMS in placed in the back of this handbook. ________________________ Dates completed both assignments Learning Strategies: The purpose of the learning strategies approach is to provide individualized instruction for the student to function adequately in the general education content classroom. Show your college textbooks to the cooperating teacher, your portfolio, etc. Make suggestions for one or more students using the learning strategies approach. Utilize a variety of learning strategies methods appropriate for each student The items below are required; however, any other strategy you select with your cooperating teacher is also appropriate. (Examples: TOWER+EDIT; TRIMS; Deshler/Graham audio taping; Deshler textbook. ___________________________ Date Completed Functional Behavioral Assessment Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA): Show the cooperating teacher the case study example you completed in the Behavior Intervention class and or the clinical experience. With the cooperating teacher‘s assistance, select one student for your case study. Obtain all necessary permission from parents, administration, teachers, etc. Complete the case study using the six-step design, i.e., defining the target behavior; deciding an appropriate measurement procedure; recording the baseline data and develop an ABC analysis; implementing the intervention (or teaching) strategy; evaluating the effectiveness of the contingencies; and developing a generalization and/or discrimination procedure. The format for the report in the portfolio shall include four parts: Statement of the Problem; Background Information; Program of Behavioral Change; and Evaluation. Be certain that you can defend 14 your choice of intervention with the data you collected during the baseline period. This should be completed in both the K-6 period and the 7-12 period. Each one should cover the eight weeks of student teaching at each site. Vocational Education: If your school has a vocational program for its students, ask your cooperating teacher‘s permission for you to assist with the student assessment procedures, the job placement process and evaluation of training sites. Show the cooperating teacher your portfolio from the secondary methods class regarding this procedure. ___________________________ Date Completed Life Skills: If your school has a life skills program for its students, ask your cooperating teacher for permission to assist with the planning and teaching of lessons regarding this area of education and life preparation. Show your portfolio on the Brolin Life-Centered Career Education curriculum to your cooperating teacher. ____________________________ Date Completed Transition Instruction: IDEA ‗97 requires that all students receiving special education services must have an Individual Transition Plan (ITP) written on their 14th birthday. Completing one or more of the following activities may fulfill the student- teaching requirement for transition experience: a. Review the ITP‘s of the students under your cooperating teacher‘s instruction; b. Assist the cooperating teacher to write an ITP for at least one student; c. Assist with the implementation of the ITP for at least one student. DeRuiter Information Processing Video a minimum of two 7-12 classroom presentations and evaluate them according to the TSA (in Appendix B). The tapes should contain several examples of your instructional process. Set goals for yourself based on the data from your evaluation of the video tape. Remember to update your goals each time you videotape. Each session may be recorded in a different color. __________________________ Date completed CEC Standard 2. Each experience has clearly (a) stated objectives; (b) measurable objectives that relate to the overall goals and objectives of the program. This handbook has been prepared to follow the standards of the Council for Exceptional Children, the accrediting agency, and the guidelines of the Nebraska Department of Education. The following information documents the WSC program objectives for each required standard. 15 Matrix Special Education Objectives and Special Education Courses (Council for Exceptional Children) The teacher candidate of the Special Education program will: Objective SPD151 SPD252 SPD253 SPD330 SPD331 SPD352 SPD361 SPD400 SPD431 1. have an understanding of the historical development of the education of x students with disabilities; 2. learn the ability to describe the characteristics of each exceptionally and its x x x x x effect on learning; 3. demonstrate skill in selecting, administering, and interpreting formal and informal techniques and instruments for assessing a student's educational x x x x x x development; 4. demonstrate the skills in developing, implementing, and evaluating a variety of sequentially ordered instructional and curricular approaches for exceptional x x x x x children/youth which accommodate their academic, vocational, social, cognitive, language, and physical needs; 5. demonstrate the skills in planning, implementing, and evaluating individualized x x x x x x educational programs for students with disabilities; 6. demonstrate knowledge of a variety of techniques based upon psychological x x x x theories for the management of individual and small group learning activities 7. demonstrate the ability communicate with parents, children, and other x professionals relative to a student's academic, vocational, social, cognitive, x x language, and physical functioning; 8. learn the skills in planning, developing and implementing a student's x x x x x x program in compliance with relevant statutes and rules; 9. demonstrate the awareness of his/her own attitudes and values as they x x x x influence and are influenced by students with disabilities; 10. demonstrate the knowledge of national, state, and local laws, and policies x x x x x and procedures affecting the students with disabilities; 11. demonstrate the skills in developing a system for organizing and x x x x x x x maintaining student records; 12. demonstrate competence in identifying, selecting, and using state and x x local resources for improving and strengthening the educational program for x x x x student with disabilities; 13. demonstrate skills in teaching the basic skills of academic subjects: x x x x reading, language arts, and mathematics to students with disabilities; 14. demonstrate knowledge in managing orthopedic conditions of students as x x x x x x they appear independently or in conjunction with other disabling conditions; 15. demonstrate skill in selecting and modifying the curriculum for individual x x x students with disabilities; 16. demonstrate their knowledge of career and vocational education principles x x x as they relate to students with disabilities; 17. demonstrate the skills in utilizing specific behavioral management and x x counseling techniques with students with disabilities. 16 Appendix A CEC Standard 3. Experiences involve model professionals who use practices congruent with the knowledge and skills expected of the student candidate. The faculty of the Department of Special Education recommend placements for the clinical and student teaching experiences. Sites are chosen according to known practices and philosophy of the cooperating special educator and school. The WSC students are placed only in the M/MH K-12 settings. Either the clinical or the student teaching experience must be completed in a diverse population site. CEC Standard 4. Cooperating professionals are provided guidelines that structure field experiences. This handbook is provided for the cooperating teacher. Assistance is readily available from the WSC supervisor. CEC Standard 5. The student teaching experience is in the same type of settings as that for which the student candidate is seeking licensure/certification. Student teachers in Nebraska are placed in Mild/Moderate Handicapped classrooms according to the regulations of Nebraska Rule 51. Student teachers wishing to complete certification in Iowa are placed in Multi-categorical classrooms at both the elementary and the secondary sessions. However, special education certification in Iowa is dependent upon the WSC student completing a methods course in Language Arts in addition to taking the science and math general education courses designated for educators. It is recommended that the WSC student contact the Iowa Department of Education if desiring a certification in Iowa. CEC Standard 6. The student teaching experiences are with the same type of individuals as those the candidate is prepared to work. Nebraska special education endorsement in Mildly/Moderately Handicapped (M/MH) permits the special educator to instruct students, or to serve in a delivery position, from the following categories: Autism Behavior Disorders Mental Handicap: Mild Mental Handicap: Moderate Multi-categorical Orthopedic Impairments Specific Learning Disabilities Traumatic Brain Injury Vocational Adjustment/Work Study Coordinator. Therefore, the student teacher is placed in the site that will include only these categories of disabilities. CEC Standard 7. Candidates are placed only with cooperating professionals who are appropriately licensed/certified in the specialization in which candidates are seeking certification. All cooperating teachers are licensed in special education, and have taught at least three (3) years in a public school setting. No cooperating teacher may accept a student teacher if that person is currently employed under a temporary certificate. CEC Standard 8. Each area of specialization provides supervision to candidates by university/college faculty qualified and experienced in teaching in the area of specialization. The student teaching is supervised by college faculty in the Department of Counseling and Special Education. CEC Standard 9. During student teaching, the supervisor from the university/college observes the candidate at least five (5) times. Nebraska code requires five (5) on-site observations during the student teaching experience. Communication by e-mail is supplemental to the on-site visits. 17 Appendix A CEC Standard 10. Explicit performance criteria are established for student teaching and each field experience. The weekly and final grading forms (8 weeks) are provided for the cooperating teacher and the college supervisor. The student receives a copy of each evaluation. The items on these forms were established through the expert advice given by special education administrators, cooperating teachers in the student-teaching sites, and student who have graduated from WSC. The forms were revised according to the feedback received from them. (See Appendix E) There is a separate form for each of the two levels. Mark the front of the form indicating the week number of the evaluation, the mid-term evaluation, or the final evaluation. The weekly form should be placed in the student‘s portfolio. The mid-term is mailed to the Field Experience Office (four weeks). The final for each level is mailed to the Field Experience Office (8 weeks). A weekly evaluation form is mail immediately if the student is not progress satisfactorily. All forms are to be cosigned by the student, even the final evaluation form. CEC Standard 11. Students have a minimum of 10 full-time weeks of supervised student teaching in the areas of specialization for which the candidate is being prepared. The student teaching semester is divided equally between placement at the K-6 level and the 7-12 grade level. The student teacher completes 8-weeks at each of the levels. Two grades are earned, one for each level. It is recommended that the WSC student earn no less than a ―B‖ for each level. CEC Standard 12. Knowledge and skills required for each practicum experience reflect “recommended practices.” This handbook follows the recommended practices of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC). The CEC literature is the base for course instruction, research, and practice. CEC Standard 13. Practicum experiences are supervised under a structured program of advisement. This standard is included in Standard #14. CEC Standard 14. The special education faculty has responsibility for assigning candidates to approved placement. This responsibility includes the approval of cooperating teachers and supervisors. The faculty of the Department of Counseling and Special Education meet with the prospective student-teacher at least one full semester prior to application for the student-teaching semester. The student‘s choice of placement site is discussed. The faculty rejects choices based on the following items: (1) The site choice is not compatible with the philosophy of the Wayne State College Special Education program; (2) The student has graduated from the site of choice; (3) The student has relatives employed at the site of choice; (4) The student has worked or is working at the site of choice. or (5) The site of choice is beyond the geographical limitation of WSC supervision. If a student‘s choice is rejected, arrangements are made for another institution of higher learning to supervise the experience using the WSC special education student-teaching requirements; The selection of sites is given to the Director of Field Experiences. The letters of request for placement are sent to the school of first choice. If a school denies a placement, the student is contacted again for a second choice that meets the criteria for placement. (See Appendix F) 18 Appendix A CEC Standard 15. There are written criteria for the selection and retention of cooperating professionals and supervisors. A copy of the request letter and the contract are included in Appendix F. The Director of Field Experience sends the letter of request to the recommended sites. Upon acceptance by the individual site, the contract is then completed. Special education student teachers are then notified of their placement decision. ====================================================================================== Revocation of Student Teacher Status 1. When there is an apparent problem with the professional performance of a student teacher, the student teacher is notified by the cooperating teacher and the college supervisor of the unsatisfactory performance. A conference is held with the college supervisor, the cooperating teacher, and the student teacher, where suggestions for improvement are made in writing and signed by the three parties. 2. During the period specified for demonstrated improvement by the student teacher, the college supervisor will evaluate the performance of the student teacher at least one full period each week. If improvement has not been demonstrated during the specified time, an agreement will be made between the cooperating teacher and the college supervisor for the removal of the student teacher using the following procedure: A. A meeting for the purpose of removing the student teacher will be held at the cooperating school site with the cooperating teacher, college supervisor(s), and the Director of Field Experiences in attendance. B. The Director of Field Experience will verbally notify the student teacher of the decision. C. The Director of Field Experience will give the student teacher specific reasons in writing for the removal. D. The removal form shall be signed by the individual participants. 3. At that time, the student will be notified of the written appeal procedure: A. The student teacher may appeal within five (5) days to the Professional Progress Committee. The Professional. Progress Committee will make a recommendation within five (5) days to the Dean of Education. The Dean of Education in consultation with the Director of Field Experience will make the final decision regarding the student teacher. B. If the student teacher is a member of the Student Education Association-Nebraska, the student teacher may wish to contact the Nebraska State Education Association for assistance. 19 Appendix A Student Teaching Profile Removal Form Cooperating School ____________________________________________________________ Term __________________________________ Date ________________________________ Student Name and SSN _________________________________________________________ Endorsement Area(s) ___________________________________________________________ Comments – Cooperating Teacher(s): Signed_______________________________ Comments – College Supervisor(s): Signed ______________________________ Comments – Director of Field Experiences: Signed by the Student______________________________ Date _________________________ 20 Appendix A Suggestions for Conferencing and Evaluation An advisory committee reviewed and provided feedback to design the evaluation forms included in this packet. The items listed in each category on these forms are only examples to consider when conferring with the student teacher. We recommend daily oral feedback on the student‘s performance in addition to the written form. Below are some suggestions to consider when conferring with the student teacher. The following concepts are provided for guidelines only: Planning Instruction * Writes specific objectives for the individual student according the IEP/ITP; * Develops daily lesson plans effectively following the guidelines of the IEP/ITP; presented by due dates; * Exhibits organization, flexibility, and creativity skills. * Monitors evidence of student learning by the daily lesson plans (column 4); * Provides evaluation results for students according to the IEP team schedule; * Keeps accurate records of student progress according to IDEA‘97 and Rule 51. *Familiar with Nebraska Standards and can write benchmarks on the students IEP/ITPs. Delivering Instruction * Uses a variety of appropriate learning strategies and resources according the IEP/ITP; * Provides feedback to the student and to the cooperating teacher; * Uses closure. Managing Classroom (Resource Room ) Activities *Arranges room effectively; *Keeps room and materials neatly; *Follows classroom rules; * Monitors student‘s behavior according to the behavior plan from the IEP/ITP; * Encourages and maintain desirable student behavior according to the IEP/ITP; * Records data regarding identified target behavior/s. * Encourages the students; * Uses positive phrases and reinforcements according to the IEP/ITP; * Shows respect for all students; * Maintains a sense of humor; * Uses specific praise according to the IEP/ITP; Professional Communication * Uses professional verbal communication; * Uses correct grammar both verbal and written; * Plans and conducts conferences with parents and educators according to the IEP/ITP; * Practices the Council for Exceptional Children code of ethics; * Attends/participates in faculty meetings; * Participates in SATs, MDTs, and IEP/ITP meetings and preparation. Personal Qualities * Arrives at school and meetings on time; * Manages time effectively; * Conducts self as a good role model; * Displays a poised demeanor; * Develops positive rapport with students and professionals; * Demonstrate genuine care for all students. 21 Appendix A Suggested Starters for Feedback Statements The special education student-teaching experience is shorter in than other majors; therefore, positive suggestions for improvement need to be given to the student teacher at the first notice of need. Specific instances of performance or behavior of the student teacher should be recorded and then discussed with the student teacher that same day. Openers might be: ―You need to develop ____________________________‖ ―Improvement is needed in the area/s of ____________________________‖ then give examples of the method/behavior you recommend. ―You show improvement in __________________________‖ ********************************************************************************************************************************* WSC Lesson Plan (Adapted from the Hunter Model) Department of Counseling and Special Education The WSC lesson plan format has been designed to decrease the special education paper-work by combining required tasks for: (1) lesson planning; (2) record keeping of each student‘s progress; (3) direct implementation of the IEP or ITP; and (4) providing individualization while teaching a concept or skill to a small group of students. A compilation of the lesson plans provides an on-going account of a student‘s progress, daily production rate, and the number of minutes completed in special services. These files can be very helpful when preparing the periodic reports, debriefing during an IEP meeting, or reporting to parents during a conference concerning their child. The top of the WSC lesson plan provides space for recording the individual student, the date, period of the school day, and the subject content. It provides a place to mark either the source of curriculum as the IEP or the ITP. The lesson addresses a specific annual goal on the Individual Plan and a selected objective for that annual goal. The Teacher‘s Instructional Statement is a simple statement for the teacher to accomplish. EX: I am going to introduce measuring dry ingredients by using cup of sizes 1, 1/2, and 1/4. Four-Column Format A typical special education lesson is teacher-directed. In this approach, a teacher works directly with one student or a small group of students. We use specially designed methods and materials for the matched to the individual student‘s needs. Consequently, we view the classroom textbook as only ONE of the tools to use while teaching a lesson. We use real-life situation whenever possible, manipulative, discussion, pictures, diagrams, and other experiences until the student has an accurate concept or skill. However, specific strategies or directed- teaching programs are delivered exactly as prescribed. Successful teachers know that well-developed plans are the foundation for effective lessons and activities. Even though you may be instructing only one student, a well-structured lesson plan is necessary. The structure for a plan presented below is based on the Madline Hunter and Douglas Russell model, of the Laboratory School at the University of California at Los Angeles, and is easily adapted to the special education setting. An effective lesson plan includes the components presented below as you execute the WSC format. 22 Appendix A Statement of Objective (Left-hand column) This is placed in the WSC lesson plan format in the column labeled Learning Objectives The learning objective is an implementation of the objective directly from the annual goal (both stated at the top of the page) of the student‘s individual plan. Usually only one learning objective is needed for one day‘s lesson session. Each student/s name and evaluation (outcome) level is to be stated in this column relative to the learning objective and Learning Strategies. Different outcome levels may be stated per student if you are working with a group of students. To start the lesson with the student/s, just say the objective of the lesson. Some teachers write the objective on the board. ―Today we are going to ........ .‖ Setting the Stage (Anticipatory Set) This is placed on WSC lesson plan in the column labeled Learning Strategies (Methods). Develop the student‘s mental readiness for the lesson that is to come. You will shift the student‘s attention from all previous activities to the lesson to come so they can focus on the concept to be learned. During this stage you may: tell a story; show a display of objects relative to the concept to be learned; ask opened ended questions; show a picture/s, review the previous lesson, etc. Write your questions; describe the pictures or objects you will use, draw a diagram of the placement of the objects if needed. You are to get the students excited about the learning activities to come. Instructional Input (Decide whether to instruct or model) This is placed in the WSC lesson plan format in the column labeled Learning Objectives You provide direct instruction. You might use: a set of learning experiences, an actual learning strategy, a series of questions; conduct the reading needed to develop the concept; etc. Write the actual questions you will use and the expected responses in this column. Write or outline what you will say. How you will demonstrate, etc. Always stress how the learning in the SPD class or session is to be used by the student in the general classroom setting. List all needed materials per activity in the column labeled Resources/Materials, List the articles needed to execute the activities of the lesson. These include things, places, and people. Modifications: In the Learning Strategies column, state the exact modification of the instructional activity per student. Include the needed resources directly across from this statement in the Resources/Materials column. Modeling This is placed on WSC lesson plan in the column labeled Learning Strategies (Methods). Modeling is a demonstration of how an operation or other process is completed. You perform the strategy, the sequence, the activity, explaining each step as you perform it. 23 Appendix A Checking for Understanding and Guided Practice (Right-hand column) This is placed on WSC lesson plan in the column labeled Evaluation-Student Ask each student to demonstrate the concept. Check each student‘s work for accuracy before another example is begun. If the student cannot demonstrate accuracy, reteach another way. Whether you reteach the same day or the next day will depend on the situation; however, the sooner the reteaching occurs for students with learning problems, the better. Record the student‘s response level (a replica of that listed in the Learning Objectives column) Independent Practice This is placed on WSC lesson plan in the column labeled Learning Strategies (Methods). Not all lessons will be followed by independent practice. Never assign independent work if a student has not reached mastery level on guided practice. Carefully analyze and plan any independent practice to prevent errors in learning. Use the core of the TRIMS to determine how the prepared (commercial) materials present the concepts before assigning them to the student. If you are using teacher-made materials, analyze them by the TRIMS also. Remember: * The kind and amount of practice are not likely to be the same for all students at all times. * A variety of well-selected, direct application materials and procedures should be used. * Practice sessions (both guided and independent) should be brief and occur regularly. * Once the skill is mastered, review practice sessions should be given periodically. * Always give feedback to the student regarding the independent practice activity. Adapt the feedback to the needs of the individual student. If the student understands the skills, positive feedback may be all that is needed. However, if the student is experiencing difficulty, corrective feedback is necessary and you may need to reteach. Resources/Materials for Independent Practice This is placed on WSC lesson plan in the column labeled Resources/Materials directly across from the prescribed activity. Paper-and-pencil ditto sheets materials are NOT good practice medium. Direct application to real life situations is the best. Review and Closure This is placed on WSC lesson plan in the column labeled Learning Strategies (Methods). A characteristic of effective teaching is the process of summarizing previous work and bringing the lesson to closure. Review can be used at any point in the lesson (1) at the outset of the lesson; (2) interim places in the lesson; and (3) the overall lesson is summarized and structured for and by the student. Ask the student to paraphrase the concept you attempted to teach. Ask the student for application of the concept, strategy, etc. 24 Appendix A Evaluation (Right-hand column) This is written in the Evaluation column on the WSC lesson plan format. This column has three (3) parts. Evaluation of Student/s: The top section is for recording the individual student‘s response to each learning objective and its activities. Use this part to respond to the IEP requirements. Also, use this part to plan the next lesson for the individual student. Evaluation of the Teacher: The middle section is for you, the teacher, to evaluate your lesson delivery. What was successful? Why? Reflections? What was not successful? Why? How will you change your lesson delivery for the next lesson period? Change of methods? Change of materials? Change of setting? Reteach Plans: The bottom part is for your notes regarding the changes needed for the next teaching session. Wayne State College Department of Counseling and Special Education Lesson-Evaluation Guide Record the comments in your right-hand column on the individual lesson sheet. Use each statement as appropriate for the individual lesson plan evaluation situation. Almost Perfect Neutral Almost None Guide Statement Comments 1. I am satisfied with the interactions that I have had with students, colleagues, administrators, parents, support people. 2. My planning time was sufficient in allowing me to successfully meet my goals in teaching this lesson. 3. My lesson plans were successfully implemented and I was able to reach the student/s. 4. I had sufficient knowledge of my content to successfully explain material in different strategies so that I could reach the student/s more efficiently. 5. I used instructional procedures and activities that successfully helped the student/s to organize, understand, remembers, and act on the content. 6. Student participation and involvement in the lesson today was: ---- 25 Appendix A Reflections Describe these situations and potential solutions 7. My typical stress level is ―4,‖ but for this lesson I felt that my stress level was: ---- 8. I think I was unable to reach some students because: a. The student/s was/were unmotivated; b. I did not have appropriate techniques or knowledge. c. The student/s lacked sufficient knowledge and skills for what I had planned; d. Conditions of the classroom or environment were inadequate 8. I made modifications: I modified the lesson by: YES (Record in the report on the lesson sheet) NO (Record in the report on the lesson sheet) (Note: modifications are different than I knew I had to make the modifications because: accommodations) 9. I could not complete the lesson as planned therefore, I intend because: to:)___________________________ ____________________________________________ Now that I have taught this lesson, the one area that I would appreciate knowing more about that would help me in the future is: 10. What are the top 5 teaching strategies that you use to promote student learning? a. Oral presentation of information; b. Cooperative learning in groups; c. Teacher-led discussion d. Independent seatwork; e. Direct individualized instruction; f. Other (state) [Estimate the average number of minutes that you use each activity during the class period and how many times per week you normally use the activity] The most difficult aspect of teaching this lesson was: __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 26 Appendix A I get excited about teaching this student/class when: __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ How often? ________________________________________________________________________________ ********************************************** The following information is given to remind the student teacher of the planning process that is expected for lesson preparation. Lesson Format - Teaching Strategies -- Planning Packet PRESENTATION Pre-skills of a strategy are taught before the actual strategy. Easy skills are taught before more difficult ones. Strategies and information that are likely to be confused are not introduced consecutively. Demonstration of Learning Strategies: A major design flaw of many instructional programs for special needs learners is that students are expected to work alone most of the time and have few instruction-related interactions with teachers. Therefore, the special educator demonstrates the strategy first with the student, second, the student performs the strategy with the special educator, and last, the special educator coaches the student as he/she practices the strategy. GUIDED PRACTICE The amount of time devoted to guided practice varies according to age and ability levels of students, and difficulty level of the material. *Ask a large number of questions. *Guide students in practicing the new material, use prompts to lead Ss to correct response, later reduce number of prompts. *Check for student understanding. *Provide feedback. *Correct errors. *Reteach when necessary. *Provide for a large number of successful responses. Questioning Strategies: Essential sub-processes of questioning which require consideration on the part of teacher are: 1. frequency and difficulty level of questions 2. wait-time between questions and expected responses (at least 10 seconds) 3. opportunities for individual students to respond 4. percentage of correct responses and feedback interaction Approximately 3/4 of the questions should elicit immediate correct answers. During basic-skill instruction, questions should be fast-paced and answered rapidly and correctly. NOTE: Research (Korinek,1987) found that during 256 reading instruction sessions, elementary level special education teachers "almost never" asked students questions requiring them to elaborate or evaluate. Response and Feedback: Call-outs --- use only for individual instruction; teach delay of responding for impulsive students. Severely withdrawn or fearful Students --- use questions/response strategy Higher-achievement-students ---do not use this strategy Low-achievement-students -- questions-response strategy is related to positive gain in academics. 27 Appendix A Give Immediate feedback. Students need to know the quality of their responses. It is an essential component of the learning process; check for accuracy. Response Type Strategy for Providing Feedback Student Teacher 1. Correct, quick, firm Provide short statement of acknowledgment (e.g., ―right‖) and simply ask a new question, maintain momentum 2. Correct, but hesitant Provide short, positive statements (e.g., ―correct‖), along with process feedback to re-explain the steps used to arrive at the correct answer 3. Incorrect, but careless Simply correct Ss and move on 4. Incorrect, due to lack of Provide the students with prompts or hints knowledge of the facts to lead them to the correct answer or the process OR Reteach the material to the students who do not understand PRACTICE (Independent, Teacher-led, Peer-interaction) Teacher-Led Practice Provide for over-learning Over-learning is evident when students are able to automatically provide quick and firm correct answers without prompts from the teacher Seat Work: Students work alone. Selection of material based on procedure such as TRIMS: (Potential for 7 different directions and several concepts on one ditto page) Materials will have a higher engagement levels if --- 1. Preparation to do the seat work has occurred; 2. Little management of the seat work activity is needed; 3. Materials are directly related to all instruction in the early part of the session; 4. Materials are interesting and exciting--not busywork; 5. Materials are fully explained prior to start of work use questions, even redundant ones; 6. Students start quickly – none are waiting for help; 7. Teacher can continue monitoring but limit the individual contact to no more than 30 seconds; 8. The room is arranged so teacher is facing all Students; and 9. The teacher has established a routine for work and activity after completion of seatwork. Peer-Facilitated Practice: Academic and social benefits Cooperative teams, mutual concern for members Mixed-ability groups Reward on basis of group performance or learning Examples: TAI-Team Assisted Individualization; CWPT –Classwide Peer Tutoring. 28 Appendix A STUDENT-ACTIVATED LEARNING Rationales for using learning strategies: 1. More proficient in the use of strategies 2. Will be able to learn new skills and adapt to future demands 3. Requires students to take the responsibility for their own learning and progress 4. Students take an active role in their learning 5. Confusion dominates the life of the student with BD; therefore, strategies give structure 5. Transition from elementary education to secondary education that contains more content knowledge 6. Demands for successful academic performance increase 7. Nonacademic anxieties--social interactions, vocational competence, future plans increase, and 8. Designed to teach students how to learn and how to demonstrate their knowledge GENERALIZATION TRAINING Metacognitive Strategies provide for acquisition and generalization: 8-Steps-- 1. Pretest and obtain commitment to learn 2. Describe 3. Model 4. Verbal rehearsal 5. Controlled practice and feedback 6. Grade appropriate practice and feedback 7. Obtain commitment to generalize 8. Generalization Levels of generalization: Is a continuum of instruction beginning with teacher as primary control agent and evolving into a student- controlled behavior--contains 4 levels of generalization 1. Antecedent 2. Concurrent 3. Subsequent 4. Independent Antecedent Generalization Occurs prior to direct instruction Motivate Ss to learn the strategy skill and use it (Remember: BD students often have very negative feeling about their academic ability) Make students aware of the range of possible applications of the skills, methods and techniques of metacognitive strategies Test the student‘s readiness to learn and use a strategy: 1. Student identifies the relationship between the pretest and the needed skills 2. Student provides rationales for learning the skill 3. Student explains why the skill might be difficult to use or remember 4. Student identifies where the skill can be used immediately and in the future 5. Student identifies where the skill can be applied ultimately (e.g., job, community) Concurrent Generalization Occurs during the acquisition phase of the instruction Student acquires the skill well enough for it to become a generalized procedure Student should be provided many examples, daily reminders about using the strategy, application to class assignments: 1. Provide feedback on correctness of attempts to use the new strategy 2. Emphasize principles of the strategy so that the skill is meaningful to the student 3. Encourage the student to problem solve and believe the skill is achievable 4. Determine whether the prerequisite subskills are present in order for the strategy to be learned 5. Choose tasks that insure a sequential gradation of transfer difficulty 29 Appendix A 6. Actively involve the learner during skill acquisition 7. Gradually fade instructor prompts to insure student involvement 8. Teach the strategy in multiple settings and involve different agents. Tell the student to generalize the skill to specific settings 9. Reinforce strategy used and encourage self-satisfaction Subsequent Generalization: If students are not automatically applying the strategies in other settings, subsequent generalization training is applied: 3 phases: 1. Orientation--student is required to make decisions about how he/she will use the skills they have acquired 2. Activation--student has opportunities to practice the skill in a variety of settings and receive feedback about their use 3. Implementation--student begins assuming responsibility for maintaining the new skill Teacher implementation: 1. Student makes a plan to remember the new skill 2. Student gives feedback to self about use of the skill 3. student decides what is an acceptable level of performance for applying the skill in different classes and contexts 4. Student set goals and makes a long-term plan for using the strategy.Teach goal-setting skills if needed. Independent Generalization Represents a shift of responsibility from the teacher to the student Students are coached in the use of self-control procedures at this level Goal: Students are self-regulated learners, actively engaged in their own learning processes. Students perceive themselves as "competent", self-efficacious and autonomous. ********************************************************************************************************************************* How to Question/Check for Mastery *Ask open-ended questions about concepts or skills taught in the previous lesson. *Have students meet in small groups (2-4) to review homework. *Have students prepare questions about previous lessons or homework and ask them of each other, or have the teacher ask them of the class. *Have students prepare a written summary of the previous lesson. *Have students ask the teacher about problems on homework. Then the teacher reviews, reteaches, or provides additional practice. 30 Appendix A Wayne State College UNIT/LESSON PLAN MODEL (Lesson plans must be produced via computer) Student/s ____________________ Date ___________ IEP/ITP Annual Goal _________________________________________ ____________________________ Period _________ __________________________________________________________ ____________________________ Subject ________ Objective __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Benchmark ________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Teacher's Instructional Statement: I am going to _____________________________________________________________________________ Learning Learning Strategies Resources/Materials Evaluation Objective/s (Methods) Student & Teacher 1. 1. 1. Evaluation of Students: 1. Modifications: Resources/Materials for Evaluation of Teacher: Modifications: Independent Practice: Resources/Materials for Reteach Plans: Independent Practice: 31 Appendix B DeRuiter‟s Model of Information Processing Level of Response with Learning Process Principles of Teaching 5. Encoding: The process by which internal meanings are recalled and organized for the purpose of communicating and responses are monitored. It involves: c. monitoring responses to determine whether they are correct b. organizing the internal stimuli (ideas, words, movements) in a sequence that will 19. Help the student unlearn old habits by moving back to the earlier levels of response. communicate the intended meaning Prompt student to self-correct a. recalling the internal stimuli (ideas, words, movements) that will communicate the 18. Change the situation and the sensory feedback system intended meaning 17. Inform the student of the nature of the learning problem and the proposed solution 4. Cognition: The process by which previously learned meanings are recognized as present, identified, and associated and new meanings are inferred. It involves: d. inferring new meanings that go beyond those identified in or associated with relevant stimuli 16. Develop a logical structure within which information can be organized c. associating the meanings that are identified with other relevant meanings 15. Develop the logical steps in the thinking process b. identifying the meanings that are present in relevant stimuli 14. Present the complex before the simple a. recognizing that meanings are present in relevant stimuli 13. Reduce or increase the thinking time 3. Memory: The process by which perceived stimuli are temporarily stored and 12. Reduce emphasis on logical analysis and comprehension rehearsed. It involves: 11. Reduce chances for error b. rehearsing by repeating stimuli internally (rehearsal) 10. Provide direct modeling, rehearsal and drill a. temporarily storing an impression of stimuli 9. Teach more than test 2. Perception: The process by which the stimuli attended to are discriminated, coordinated and their sequence is recognized. It involves: c. recognizing sequence in spatial and temporal stimuli 8. Provide direct practice in discriminating, coordinating and sequencing b. coordinating related stimuli from 2 or more information sources (eyes or ears) 7. Call direct attention to distinctive cues and essential features in stimuli a. discriminating distinctive differences between stimuli within any one sensory system 6. Start with large differences and gradually decrease 1. Attention: The process by which stimuli in the environment are scanned, focused upon, and sustained in focus or shifted from focus. It involves: d. shifting focus to new relevant stimuli 5. Enable the student to respond repeatedly and rapidly c. sustaining focus for as long as stimuli are relevant 4. Use successive approximation techniques b. focusing on the distinctive cues of relevant stimuli 3. Use attention getting and high motivation materials a. scanning the available stimuli in the teaching environment 2. Increase the size or intensity of stimuli Start 1. Reduce stimuli to essentials Modified by D. J. Wilcox, 1/97 32 Appendix B The Teacher Self-Appraisal Observation System (shorten to TSA) is a tool that a teacher can use to observe and evaluate his/her performance in the classroom. The TSA involves five (5) phases: 1. The teacher must define what s/he wants to learn and s/he intends to accomplish that end. This means that the teacher must determine the objectives and select appropriate teaching methods. 2. The teacher makes a video tape of the lesson. Video equipment is set up in the classroom to record the teacher‘s performance. 3. The teacher plays back the tape, observing the teaching and marking on a TSA form at regular intervals. The intervals may be at 10 seconds to 10 minute intervals. The teacher write comments the following categories: a. The cognitive objectives desired; b. The teacher‘s verbal expression; c. The teacher‘s nonverbal expression; and d. The affective outcome. 4. Using the DeRuiter Model Record Sheet, the teacher analyzes the video type to determine the effectiveness and appropriateness of the method selected for the specific student‘s learning needs or response level. (see DeRuiter‘s information process model) 5. The teacher compares his/her planned performance with the actual performance. The objectives, methods (strategies), and expressions are recorded on the TSA form. The teacher is evaluating his/her planning and analyzing the overall performance of self and the student. Example: There are 19 potential principles a teacher may use to teach a lesson based on the DeRuiter Model. Similarly, there are five (5) levels of response processes produced by the student. The teacher‘s lesson objectives and activities address the particular response level at which the student is functioning. The lesson objectives are stated in terms of the intended student learning behavior. For instance, the teacher may be attempting to have the student recall information from a previous lesson. This teaching activity places the student at the ―memory‖ response level and directs the sequence of teaching principles. This is a ―match‖ if the student can function adequately the memory response level. (See chart of the DeRuiter Model). Using the response levels and the teaching principles on the chart, the teacher checks at each interval of the tape the student‘s level and the teaching principle seen on the tape at that moment. Does the student‘s level of response match the teaching principle? What teaching activity should be selected to use during the next instructional session? It is through this process that the TSA observation system can help the teacher become aware of his/her behavior in the instructional sessions with students who have disabilities and to improve the selection of learning activities. Appendix D6 TSAOS Record Sheet SP. Student‘s name ____________________ Date ___________________ WSC Student‘s name ____________________ # Interval number 4 Use successive approximation 14 Present the complex before simple A Attention 5 Enable to S to respond repeatedly & rapidly 15 Develop logical steps in thinking process P Perception 6 Start with large difference in stimuli 16 Develop structure for organization M Memory 7 Call attention to distinctive cues 17 Inform S of the nature of the learn problem C Cognition feedback system 8 Provide direct practice & proposed solution E Encoding 9 Teach more than test 18 Change the situation/sensory fdbk 10 Provide direct modeling, rehearsal and drill 19 Help S unlearn old habits/teach self- 1 Reduce stimuli 11 Reduce chances for error monitoring 2 Increase size or intensity of stimuli 12 Reduce emphasis on logical 3 Use attention getting/high motivational 13 Reduce or increase thing time materials /Processing Level\ /........................................................................Teaching Principle ..........................................................................\ / Match \ # A P M C E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Yes No Modified by Daryl J. Wilcox 1-97 - Appendix C 35 INTASC STANDARDS (Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium) Model standards for beginning teacher licensing and development: A resource for state dialogue - Principle 1: The teacher understands the central concept, tools, of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teachers and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful to students; Principle 2: The teacher understands how children learn and develop, and can provide learning opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development; Principle 3: The teacher understands how students differ in their approach to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners; Principle 4: The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students‘ development of critical thinking, problem- solving, and performance skills; Principle 5: The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation; Principle 6: The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, non-verbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom. Principle 7: The teacher plans instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, the community, and the curriculum goals; Principle 8: The teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of the learner; Principle 9: The teacher is a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects her or his choices and actions on others (students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community) and who actively seeks out opportunities to grow professionally; and Principle 10: The teacher fosters relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community to support students‘ learning and well-being. Appendix D6 Wayne State College SPD 405 Special Education Student Teaching K-6 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Student Teacher_______________________________________________________________________ SS No. Cooperating Teacher___________________________________________________________________ School ______________________________________________________________________________ Week ________________ Date ________________ ____ Weekly ____Mid-term ____Final Please use this form each week (mid-term or final) to indicate the student teacher‘s progress. Select the letter that symbolizes the current performance level of the student. The items included in the boxes are examples to be considered. A Accomplished (The student has consistently shown proficiency during the experience) S Satisfactory (Adequate but less than accomplished) N Needs improvement (Student is not making progress) NA No opportunity to observe or not yet scheduled for this experience A S N NA Plans instruction according to the IEP (includes but not limited to:) Uses formal and informal assessment data; writes specific learning objectives from the IEP goal statement; designs lessons appropriate for each student‘s learning ability; monitors student‘s learning for re-teaching purposes; submits lesson plans on schedule Comments: A S N NA Lesson delivery is individualized and uses special strategies and methods (includes but not limited to:) Uses methods that are different from the general education setting but pertinent to the individual student‘s needs; selects the correct strategy for the individual student; teaches students to generalize a learned skill or strategy; provides appropriate feedback to the students; models and encourages appropriate verbal interaction; monitors student learning during the lesson; provides closure Comments A S N NA Behavior intervention competencies (includes but not limited:) Conducts a Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and develops a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) based on the quantatative data; follows the objectives of the student‘s BIP; maintains records of the student‘s behavior; uses signaling, contact, or proximity to direct student behavior; reprimands students privately Comments 5/2003 Name ________________________________ K-6 A S N NA Professional communication with parents, staff, and community (includes but not limited to:) Participates in the SAT, MDT, and IEP meetings; consults with peers, administrators, general educators & related service personnel; plans accommodations and modifications; directs para-educators‘ work; plans and conducts parental conferences; maintains confidentiality; participates in faculty meetings; uses standard English when speaking and writing Comments A S N NA Personal qualities (includes but not limited to:) Uses positive responses for students; shows empathy and genuineness; maintains self- control; is open-minded; practices professional and ethical behavior; establishes rapport with colleagues Comments Constructive Comments Final Evaluation Letter grade ______________ ______________________________________ ______________________ Signature of Student Teacher Date ______________________________________ ______________________ Signature of Cooperating Teacher or WSC Supervisor Date 5/2003 Wayne State College SPD 410 Special Education Student Teaching 7-12 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Student Teacher ____________________________________________SS No.___________________ Cooperating Teacher _________________________________________________________________ School ______________________________________________ ______________________________ Week ________________ Date ________________ _____ Weekly _____Mid-term _____Final Please use this form each week to indicate the student teacher‘s progress. Select the letter which symbolizes the current performance level of the student. The items included in the boxes are examples to be considered. A Accomplished (The student has consistently shown proficiency during this experience) S Satisfactory (Adequate but less than accomplished) N Needs improvement (Student is not making progress) NA No opportunity to observe or not yet scheduled for this experience A S N NA Plans instruction according to the ITP (includes but not limited to:) Uses formal and informal assessment data; administers and interprets transitional/vocational assessments for lesson planning (includes life and social skills); writes specific learning objectives from the ITP goal statement; designs lessons for the student‘s transition according to the ITP; designs lessons appropriate for each student‘s learning ability and verified condition; monitors students learning in the content classes; submits lesson plans on schedule Comments A S N NA Lesson delivery is individualized and uses special strategies and methods (includes but not limited to:) Uses the learning and teaching strategies proven to be appropriate for secondary students in academic settings; consults with the content educators; teaches students to generalize a learned skill; provides appropriate feedback to students; models and encourages appropriate verbal & nonverbal interaction; monitors student‘s learning during the lesson; provides closure Comments A S N NA Behavior intervention competencies (includes but not limited:) Conducts a Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and develops a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) based on quantitative data; follows the objectives of the student‘s BIP; includes community-based and vocational settings; maintains records of the student‘s behavior; advises student‘s employer on behavior interventions; consults behavior interventions with content educators; uses signaling, contact, or proximity to direct student behavior Comments 5/2003 Name ______________________________ 7-12 A S N NA Transition planning (includes but not limited to:) Consults with parents on transitional plans; interviews employers to find potential job sites for the school‘s training program; advises student‘s employer on behavior interventions; job coaches; writes training plans for the student and the employer; writes training contracts for the student, employer, and parent; provides career education instruction; writes the ITP; consults with post-secondary agencies Comments A S N NA Functional/Life skills curriculum (includes but not limited to:) Consults with agencies, organizations, and family resources; provides personal-social skills training; provides occupational guidance; teaches daily living skills; instructs a parallel curriculum Comments A S N NA Personal qualities (includes but not limited to:) Uses positive responses for students; shows empathy and genuineness; maintains self- control; is open-minded; practices professional and ethical behavior; establishes rapport with colleagues; uses professional communication with parents, staff, and community persons Comments Constructive Comment Final Evaluation Letter grade ______________ ______________________________________ _____________________ Signature of Student Teacher Date _____________________________________ ____________________ Signature of Cooperating Teacher or WSC Supervisor Date 5/2003 Title Relationships Introduction Main ideas Summary TRIMS Strategy Daryl J. Wilcox, Ed. D. Dec. 2002 TRIMS How to Analyze a Textbook MATCHING CONCEPTUAL STEPS TO INDIVIDUAL ABILITY STEPS TOO HIGH STEPS TOO LOW STEPS JUST RIGHT FRUSTRATING BORING SATISFYING This strategy provides you with two uses within the student‘s same content textbook— Part I: Checklist for determining the book‟s „Considerate Text Characteristics‟ You analyze the regular classroom teaching materials, such as textbooks, worksheets, etc. Read each part of the 25 items on the “Checklist for Considerate Text Characteristics.” Place a check or X on the line next to the numbered item, in the columns labeled “yes” or “no.” Use both pages. Count the number of “yes” marks. Write it at the bottom of page 2. Convert the number of “yes” responses to a % by dividing the number of „yes‟ responses by 25 then multiplying that number by 100 to get the percentage. The book can be rated as „considerate‟ for the individual student if it is 70% or higher. Analyze the ―no‖ items. Do they make a pattern? Where are the weakest items? How would these effect the student for whom you are completing this form? What accommodations can be made to by-pass the weaknesses in the text? A very low score (less than 60%) might indicate that this textbook is not appropriate for this student even with accommodations. Perhaps a text with parallel content would be better. Now you can confer with the General Educator and explain what needs to be changed for the particular student for whom you have completed this form. 12-02 Wilcox Strategies for Enhancing Text Problem Areas Possible Problem Areas Teaching Strategies Title Assist students in paraphrasing the title by eliciting or providing synonyms for Students are unable to paraphrase tile unknown vocabulary in the title because it contains: Have students change the title to a a) Unknown vocabulary question and find the answer to the b) Concepts not previously defined or question in the chapter introduction studied Assist students in dividing concept vocabulary into ―word parts‖ to paraphrase a definition or concept, e.g.: humanism = human + ism = system of belief Paraphrase the title for the students to provide in order to give a general definition of the title/chapter topic. Relationship provide practice in identifying relationships – use preceding chapters Students are unable to determine the (familiar materials) as a basis for identifying relationship of information due to relationships a) Unknown vocabulary and/or Provide examples of the 3 most common concepts in the chapter or unit titles relationship structures used in the text; b) Lack of understanding of and/or elicit ―real life‖ examples of the specific inexperience in identifying relationship; cite examples in the text; relationship structures have student find additional examples Name the relationship for students and provide text examples for them Direct students to analyze the order and The order of chapters in the text does relationship of assigned chapters not match the order assigned by the Explain the relationship of chapters teacher. assigned by the teacher Compare order selected by the teacher to the sequence in the text. Possible Problem Areas Teaching Strategies Introduction Introduce the chapter to the students; Provide a rationale for the importance of There is not introduction in the text the chapter content Review previously learned material and establish a link to this chapter content. Provide students with goals/objectives fro Introduction does not provide any reading goals/objectives for the chapter Continue with the strategy, then have students use the chapter summary, review questions, headings, etc. to develop goals/objectives for their reading Change the introductory sentences with Introduction does not explicitly state implicit statements of goals/objectives to (embeds) chapter goals/objectives explicit statement and list on paper/dry- erase board Provide students with vocabulary usually employed in goal/objective statements (e.g., should, will) Assist students in identifying goals/objectives embedded in the introduction‘s implicit statement Main Parts and Terms Direct st8dents to examine the size, shape, color, and placement of headings to Students cannot differentiate main help identify types of headings headings from subheadings and Teach students the outline notations, sub/subheadings symbols, and patterns Guide students through the outlining process Guide student through the mapping Students cannot diagram the headings process into content map form Provide a content map Guide students through the process of Students have difficulty changing formulating questions headings into questions. Provide students with a list of questions and have them match them to appropriate headings (Get questions for the content teacher if possible) (continued>>>>) Possible Problem Areas Teaching Strategies Students cannot find key terms in the Direct students to look for: highlighted chapter words; Students cannot find definitions of key bold print; terms footnoted; words in margins; and list at the end of the chapter. Use the Glossary if the book has one or look in the index for the term and page it will be found. Identify key terms and list on paper or dry-erase board Students‘ limited background Pre-teach vocabulary crit8ical to knowledge/experience makes understanding key concepts in the chapter understanding of key terms/concepts Have students create vocabulary cards difficult (see directions for making study cards in Part 2 of the TRIMS manual) Students cannot relate enrichment Guide students through the process. features to appropriate headings Possible Problem Areas Teaching Strategies Summary Check introduction and review questions The chapter does not contain a for summary information summary. Using the information gained through the survey process (introduction, headings, review questions, etc.) have students write their own summaries Summarize the chapter for students Segment the summary to focus students on smaller units of information Students have difficulty paraphrasing Identify words in the text that cue a the summary because it is too long or summary summary statements are embedded in the text Summarize the chapter for students Provide student with questions (you or the content teacher) No review/study questions are in the text. Guide students through process of formulating review questions based on what they have learned from TRIMS The review/study questions do not Identify types of information targeted by review the most important ideas in the questions chapter; or those that the content teacher will test Independent Student-Learning Part II: TRIMS for Learning Chapter Content Independently The previous material can be used to: a) determine the weaknesses of the text for a particular student/s; or b) teach the student how to study the content of the text. That is the purpose of Part II of TRIMS. To prepare to teach this strategy, you will need: One 3‘x5‖ or next size larger marked with a thin black line along one long side of the card per student. This is the ‗skim‘ card. Provide a stack of 3‖x5‖ cards or white paper that size for each student. Provide at least 2 pieces of paper that measure about one inch wide and the general length of the page in the book. These are bookmarks. It is advisable not to use card stock; it raises the page too much and the students ‗fight‘ with the page. Provide or request a pencil with a good eraser. Title 1. Direct the student to open the textbook to the next chapter to be studied. This may, in fact, be chapter one. Tell the student to read the title aloud (don‘t ask the student if he/she can read it—you will get a ―No‖ answer). When you hear the student read, you can determine his/her ability to understand the words and concepts. Talk about the title. You may ask prompting questions to clarify the understanding. Tell the student to copy the title from the book to line 1 on the student-learning-sheet. Stand behind the student. Take his/her left hand (right-handed writer) and place the index finger on the first letter in the title on the textbook page. Direct the student to use the pencil to check each letter he/she has written against the model tracked by the left finger. Make any corrections needed. (That‘s the reason for the eraser and pencil rather than a pen). 2. Ask, ―What is this chapter about. Say in your own words.‖ Direct the student to state, aloud, what he/she considers to be the main focus of the chapter as presented by the title. When the student can say the concept, direct him/her to write that statement on Line 2. This chapter is about ________. Tell the student to place a bookmark at the title page. Title 1. Title ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. This chapter is about _______________________________________________________________ Relationships among chapters There are three boxes for the student to use. (Example below) Current Chapter Chapter Before Chapter After 4. The relationship of current chapter to chapter before is ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 5. The relationship of current chapter to the chapter after is __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 1) Direct the student to go to the Table of Contents (front of the book) to find the chapter that has the same title. Read the list of main headings in the chapter. Direct the student to paraphrase the main ideas. Direct the student to write that statement in the box labeled ―Current Chapter.‖ 2) Return to the Table of Contents. The student reads the headings of the previous chapter studied. Repeat the same task as described in the immediate paragraph above but write the materials in the box labeled ―Chapter Before.‖ 3) For the third time, go the Table of Contents to find the chapter following the current chapter. Repeat the same activity. Write the summary in the box labeled ―Chapter After.‖ Exception: If the current chapter is the last one in a Unit , do not complete the Chapter After box. If the current chapter is the first one in a new unit, do not complete the Chapter Before box. Also, be aware that the content teacher may not use the chronological sequence in the classroom assignments. Check with him/her. 4) Ask the student to state aloud the relationship between the materials written in the Current Chapter box and the Chapter Before box. Direct him/her to write that on the lines numbered 4. 5) Ask the student to state aloud the relationship between the materials written in the Current Chapter box and the Chapter After box. Direct him/her to write that on the lines numbered 5. Introduction The introduction part is numbered ‗6‘ on the student‘s sheet. Direct the student to read aloud the introduction. Supply any words the student over which the student hesitates. Keep the fluency (comprehension) flowing. The student may want to use the ‗skim‘ card while reading. _______________ 3x5‖ card Mark a black line about ¼‖ wide across the length of the card at the top Skim Card (Not shown in actual size) Ask the student to state what he/she thinks the chapter will contain. Direct the student to write that on the lines at No. 6. Main Parts and Content When the student does this pass through the chapter, direct him/her to read the captions of pictures, figures, and tables. Look at maps and the legend. If there is a figure and number or a table and number, follow the next directions: Use the skim card to find the figure or table in the narrative. Read the sentence that contains the figure/table and number. This will set the stage for the content in the graphic. Assist the student to read the material in the figure, graph, or table. The section numbered „7‟ is presented on the student‟s second page. Ask the student what kind of information the teacher expects him/her to know, such as, terms/definitions/ names and what that person is famous for, dates of important events, and places of importance. Study cards can be made for literature, science areas, government, history, and etc. Ask the student to use the skim card to look for these items by type, bold, italicized, 1994, West Virginia, President Carter, and so forth. The format is shown on the student‘s sheet. A card the actual size is presented here for your assistance. Tell the student to place the study card on top of the skim card and copy the term (etc.) on the front of the card with the chapter and page numbers. protozoan Ch. 6 p. 140 Front Direct the right-handed student to place his left index finger on the ‗p‘ in the book and his pencil on the ‗p‘ on the card. Direct him to follow across to check all of the written material on the card. Self-correcting is a weakness for some students. If they develop the habit to self-correct the cards and what they write on the TRIMS sheets, it will generalize to other written work. Any microscopic, single celled animal Back Direct the student to continue to make study cards only for items they need to learn. Make cards for the whole chapter, checking each one for accuracy in spelling and content. When all of the cards have been made, direct the student to stack them in front of him/her with the term (front) facing up. Direct the student to say it, then say what is on the back of the cards without looking. Say, ―Now, check yourself.‖ Ask the student to read the back of the card if the response was vague, incomplete, or in error. Correct cards are placed to the student‘s right side (right for right) and the ones to be studied further go to the left of the student. Spend time on the ‗left‘ pile until the majority of the cards or ‗right.‘ Next, direct the student to shuffle the stack, place them definition side up. Say, ―Read the definition and say what is on the front of the card without looking.‖ The same procedure is followed as done for front-to-back. Do not skip this step. Some students with LD tend to lean material only one way and then not recognize it presented in an altered form. Example; more than one meaning for a word. It is advantageous if two students (study-buddy) can shuffle both sets of cards together and take turns using the flash cards for each other, both sides. Summary Section 8. provides lines and additional space for the student to write a summary of the chapter. Also, if the book as a good summary, ask the student to read it and then prepare a summary statement to write. **************************** Do not duplicate this material without the author‟s permission. Only the student‟s study sheet may be duplicated. You may make a copy of the following page 9 to display for the student‘s use. 12-02 Wilcox TRIMS 1. Talk about the title 2. Relationships among the chapters 3. Introduction to the chapter 4. Make study cards for main ideas 4. Summarize the chapter Adapted from the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning, Jan. „07 Wilcox 12-02 Checklist for Considering Text Characteristics TRIMS Approach Textbook Title _________________________________________________ Student Using This Textbook____________________________________________________________ Check each question/item with Yes or No. Yes No T 1. Does the title reflect the main idea/topic of the chapter? __ __ 2. Does the table of contents show relationships or organizational patterns between the unit and the current chapter? __ __ 3. Are the headings listed in the table of contents or is there an expanded table of contents? __ __ 4. Does the table of contents show a clear arrangement of ideas by use of one of the most common relationship structures? Check the structure used: R ______ Order _____ Explanation ______ Process _____ Comparison ______ Causality _____ Deliberation ______ Problem/Solution 5. Is there a clear relationship or structure of ideas between the current chapter and the __ __ immediately preceding and the immediately following the chapter? __ __ 6. Is there a clearly identified introduction to the chapter? __ __ 7. Does the introduction specify chapter goals/objectives for reading? Are the goals/objectives: _____ Explicit (stated/listed) _____ Implied (embedded) __ __ 8. Does the introduction provide an overview of the chapter? __ __ 9. Does the introduction specify the relationship or organization of ideas/events in the chapter through use of: ______ Order _____ Explanation ______ Process _____ Comparison ______ Causality _____ Deliberation ______ Problem/Solution __ __ 10. Does the introduction state the rationale/relevance of the chapter content? _____ Explicit (stated/listed) _____ Implied (embedded) __ __ 11. Does the introduction: _____ Review previously studied relevant material/information? _____ Relate it to the topic of the current chapter? _____ Explicitly state the relationship? _____ Imply the relationship? Wilcox 2003 Excerpted and adapted from University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning January, 1997 Checklist for Considering Text Characteristics TRIMS Approach Yes No __ __ 12. Do titles of main headings and subheadings clearly reflect the main idea structure of information presented? __ __ 13. Do subheadings follow a clear sequence of information directly related to the main headings? __ __ 14. Does the author use size, shape, color, and/or placement to distinguish types of headings? 15. Any new/key vocabulary highlighted in the text? __ __ _____ In bold print or italics? M _____ Listed at end of chapter, bottom of page, or margins? (circle which one/s) 16. Does the text provide: __ __ _____ A definition of key terms? _____ A pronunciation guide for key terms? 17. Do graphics enhance the most important information contained in the chapter and/or __ __ related directly to headings? 18. Do graphics depict information in a succinct, easy-to-read format with instructions __ __ provided for interpretation or use of charts and graphs? __ __ 19. Is there a clearly identified summary? __ __ 20. Does the summary synthesize chapter contents? __ __ 21. Does the summary review chapter goals/objectives? S __ __ 22. Does the summary focus student attention on the most important concepts, ideas, and information? __ __ 23. Are there chapter review/study questions? __ __ 24. Are chapter review questions based on the critical key concepts and ideas? __ __ 25. Is there a good balance among main ideas, detail/fact, and critical thinking (applications, analysis, synthesis) questions? Total number of questions answered “YES” __________ 25 = _____ x 100 = ____% considerate A higher score indicates a more considerate and ―user friendly‖ the textbook. The more considerate a textbook is, the more likely students will be able to use it independently. The more inconsiderate a textbook, more the teacher facilitation and intervention will be required. Analyze the ―NO‖ answers. Compare these to the student‘s learning characteristics. Make accommodations as needed for this student. Excerpted and adapted from University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning January, 1997 TRIMS Learning Sheet per Chapter Title 1. Title ________________________________________________________________ 2. This chapter is about __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Relationships 3. Current Chapter Chapter Before Chapter After 5. The relationship of current chapter to last chapter is ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 6. The relationship of current chapter to the next chapter is __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Introduction 7. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Main Parts and Content Read the captions of pictures, figures, and tables. Look at maps and the legend. 2-2002 Dr. Wilcox These two pages may be duplicated for student use. 8. Make study cards (See next page) Front Back independent reading level 57% correct responses Ch. 12 p. 234 Study Card example Make cards throughout the chapter. You should make cards only for material you need to learn. Recall what the teacher wants you to know, e.g., terms/definitions, names, dates, events...? Each content course may ask for learning different kinds of material. Look for the topological information, such as, bold print, italics, color, etc. a. Look for textual clues. b. Make study cards for the terms and facts. Write the term, chapter number, and page number of the face of the card. On the back of the card, write the definition, etc. Sometimes it is necessary to skim through the surrounding text to find the answer to the question or define the term. Summary 9. __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2-2003 Dr. Wilcox These two pages may be duplicated for student use. Below are two sites on the Internet that you need to visit. You will want to print out the information from both sites. Visit www.askeric.org and view ERIC_NO: ED429771 Go on-line and view the May/June 2000, Vol. 32 Issue 5, p12, 8p of Teaching Exceptional Children to view and print the article titled ―Using Collaboration and the Web to Implement the CEC Standards‖. You can find the article on EBSCO HOST.
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