Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET�S THEORY AND by Zj5GamFF

VIEWS: 123 PAGES: 49

									            Chapter 7
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S
    THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S
   SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT
     PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• Genetic epistemology – experimental study of
  the origin of knowledge
• What is intelligence?
   – A basic life function that helps an organism
     adapt to the environment
   – Cognitive equilibrium – balance between
     thought processes and the environment
   – Constructivist approach – child constructs
     knowledge
     PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• Gaining Knowledge: Schemes and Processes
  – Schemes: mental patterns (thought/action)
     • Organization – combine existing
       schemes into new/complex schemes
     • Adaptation – adjustment to environment
        –Assimilation – new information into
          existing schemes
        –Accommodation – modify existing
          schemes for new information
•   Table 7.1 A small sample of cognitive growth from Piaget’s perspective
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• Invariant developmental sequence
   – Sequencing fixed
   – Individual differences entering/emerging
     stages
      PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
              DEVELOPMENT

• The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years)
   – Coordinate sensory inputs and motor skills
   – Transition from being reflexive to reflective
   – Development of Problem-Solving Abilities
      • Reflex activity (birth – 1 month)
      • Primary circular reactions (1-4 months)
         –first motor habits, repetitive
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
        DEVELOPMENT

• Secondary circular reactions
  (4-8 months)
    –Repetitive actions with objects
      beyond the body
• Coordination of secondary reactions
   (8-12 months)
    –Coordinate 2 or more actions to
      achieve an objective (intentional)
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
        DEVELOPMENT

• Tertiary circular reactions -12-18 months
   –Active experimentation, trial & error
• Symbolic problem solving -18-24 months
   –Inner (mental) experimentation
  PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
          DEVELOPMENT

– Development of Imitation
   • Novel responses by 8-12 months of age
   • Deferred imitation – 18-24 months
   • Research now shows 6-month-olds are
     capable of deferred imitation
  PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
          DEVELOPMENT

– Development of Object Permanence
   • Objects continue to exist when they are
     no longer visible/detectable
   • Appears by 8-12 months of age
      –A-not-B error: search in the last place
        found, not where it was last seen
   • Complete by 18-24 months
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• Challenges to Piaget Account
  – Neo-nativism –
     • Infants are born with substantial innate
       knowledge
     • Require less time/experience to be
       demonstrated
     • Young children seem to possess some
       object permanence, memory
•   Table 7.2 Summary of Piaget’s account of sensorimotor development
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• Challenges to Piaget’s Approach
  – Theory theories
     • Combination of neo-nativist and
       Piagetian perspective
        –Infants are prepared at birth to make
          sense of some information
        –Beyond this, Piaget’s constructivist
          approach is generally accurate
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• The Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
   – Symbolic function / representational insight
      • One thing represents another
      • Language
      • Pretend (symbolic) play –
        developmentally a positive activity
      • New views on symbolism
         –Dual representation – think about an
           object in 2 ways at one time (3 years)
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
        DEVELOPMENT

• Deficits in preoperational thinking
   –Animism
      »Attribute life/life like qualities to
        inanimate objects
   –Egocentrism
      »View world from own perspective,
        trouble recognizing other’s point of
        view
•   Figure 7.2 Piaget’s three-mountain problem. Young preoperational children are egocentric. They
    cannot easily assume another person’s perspective and often say that another child viewing the
    mountain from a different vantage point sees exactly what they see from their own location.
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
        DEVELOPMENT

• Deficits in preoperational thinking
   –Appearance/reality distinction
      »Cannot distinguish between the
        two
   –Dual encoding
      »Representing an object in more
        than one way at a time
•   Figure 7.3 Maynard the cat, without and with a dog mask. Three-year-olds who met Maynard
    before his change in appearance nonetheless believed that he had become a dog.
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
        DEVELOPMENT

• Deficits in preoperational thinking
   –Lack of conservation – do not realize
    properties of objects do not change
    just because appearance does
      »Lack of decentration – concentrate
        on more than one aspect of a
        problem at the same time
      »Lack of reversibility – mentally
        undo an action
•   Figure 7.4 Some common tests of the child’s ability to conserve.
•   Figure 7.5 Reversibility is an important cognitive operation that develops during middle childhood.
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• Did Piaget Underestimate the Preoperational
  Child?
  – New evidence on egocentrism
     • Piaget’s tasks were too complex
  – Another look at children’s reasoning
     • Animism not routine among 3-year-olds
  – Can preoperational children conserve?
     • Can be trained at 4 years (identity
       training)
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• The Development Theory of Mind (TOM)
   – Belief-desire reasoning
      • Understand behavior is based on
         –What an individual knows or believes
         –What they want or desire
      • Develops after preschool age
      • False-belief task – desire, not belief
         –Based on lack of cognitive inhibition
         –Improves with interaction with siblings
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)
   – Cognitive operations
      • Internal mental activity to modify
        symbols to reach a logical conclusion
          –Conservation – capable of
             »Decentering
             »Reversibility
•   Table 7.3 A comparison of preoperational and concrete operational thought
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
        DEVELOPMENT

   –Relational logic – capable of
      »Mental seriation
      »Transitivity
• Horizontal decalage – different levels of
  understanding that seem to require
  same mental operations
   –Based on complexity
• Limited to real or tangible aspects of
  experience
•   Figure 7.7 Children’s performance on a simple seriation task. If asked to arrange a series of sticks
    from shortest to longest, preoperational children often line up one end of the sticks and create an
    incomplete ordering (a) or order them so the top of each successive stick extends higher than the
    preceding stick (b). Concrete operators, by contrast, can use the inverse cognitive operations
    greater than (>) and less than (<) to quickly make successive comparisons and create a correct
    serial ordering.
     PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
             DEVELOPMENT

• The Formal Operational Stage (11-12 +)
   – Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
      • Ability to generate hypotheses and use
        deductive reasoning (general to specific)
      • Inductive reasoning
          –Going from specific observations to
           generalizations
  PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
          DEVELOPMENT

– Personal and Social Implications of Formal
  Thought
   • Thinking about what is possible in life
   • Stable identity
   • Understanding of other’s perspectives
   • Questioning others
   • Thinking of how the world “ought to be”
  PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
          DEVELOPMENT

– Does Everyone Reach Formal Operations?
   • Early Piaget – Yes, at least some signs
     by 15-18
   • Other researchers – No. Lack of
     education
   • Later Piaget – Yes, but only on problems
     that are either interesting or important
   • Seem to be more adolescents at this
     level than 30 years ago
•   Figure 7.8 Expertise and formal operations. College students show the greatest command of
    formal-operational thought in the subject area most related to their major. ADAPTED FROM DE
    LISI & STAUDT, 1980.
  AN EVALUATION OF PIAGET’S THEORY


• Piaget’s Contributions
  – Founded cognitive development
  – Stated children construct their knowledge
  – First attempt to explain development
  – Reasonably accurate overview of how
    children of different ages think
  – Major influence in social and emotional
    development, and education
  – Influenced future research
  AN EVALUATION OF PIAGET’S THEORY


• Challenges to Piaget
  – Piaget failed to distinguish competence
    from performance
  – Does cognitive development really occur in
    stages?
      • Little evidence of broad stages
  – Does Piaget “explain” cognitive
    development? – more of an description
  – Little attention to social/cultural influences
      VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
            PERSPECTIVE

• The Role of Culture in Development
   – Ontogenetic development – development
     of an individual over his or her lifetime
   – Microgenetic development – change over
     relatively brief periods of time
   – Phylogenetic development – changes over
     evolutionary time
   – Sociohistorical development – changes in
     one’s culture
 VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
       PERSPECTIVE

• Tools of Intellectual Adaptation
   –Born with elementary mental
    functions (attention, memory)
   –Culture transforms these into higher
    mental functions
      »Culture specific tools allow the use
       of the basic functions more
       adaptively (language, pencils)
•   Table 7.4 Chinese and English number words from 1 to 20. The more systematic Chinese
    numbering system follows a base-ten logic (i.e., 11 translating as “ten one” [“shi yee”]) requiring
    less rote memorization, which may explain why Chinese-speaking children learn to count to 20
    earlier than English-speaking children.
       VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
             PERSPECTIVE

• The Social Origins of Early Cognitive
  Competencies
   – Many discoveries active learners make
     occur in collaborative dialogue with a tutor
   – The Zone of Proximal Development
      • Difference between what a learner can
        do independently and what can be done
        with guidance
 VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
       PERSPECTIVE

• Scaffolding – tendency to tailor support
  to a learner near the limit of capability
• Guided participation/apprenticeship
    –May be very formal and context
     dependent
    –May occur in day-to-day activities
•   Figure 7.9 Some functions of shared remembering in children’s memory development. Source:
    Gauvin, M (2001). The social context of cognitive development. New York: Guilford, p. 211.
      VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
            PERSPECTIVE

• Working in the Zone of Proximal
  Development in Different Cultures
  – Cultures where adults and children are
    segregated, learning is in schools
  – Cultures where adults and children are
    together most of the day, learning is
    through real life observation
  – Verbal versus nonverbal emphasis of
    instruction
      VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
            PERSPECTIVE

• Playing in the Zone of Proximal Development
  – More likely to engage in symbolic play
    when others are present
  – Cooperative social play of preschoolers is
    related to later understanding of others’
    feeling and beliefs
      VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
            PERSPECTIVE

• Implications for Education
   – Active, not passive learning
   – Assess what is known to estimate
     capabilities
   – Guided participations structured by
     teachers who would gradually turn over
     more of activity to students
   – Cooperative learning exercises – help each
     other; very effective!
       VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
             PERSPECTIVE

• The Role of Language in Cognitive
  Development
   – Primary method of passing modes of
     thinking to children
   – Becomes important tool of intellectual
     adaptation
 VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
       PERSPECTIVE

• Piaget’s Theory of Language/Thought
   –Egocentric speech
      »Self-directed utterances
      »Reflected ongoing mental activity
      »Shifted to communicative speech
       with age
      »Little role in cognitive development
 VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
       PERSPECTIVE

• Vygotsky’s Theory of Language/Thought
   –Egocentric is really an illustration of
    transition from prelinguistic to verbal
    reasoning
   –Private speech – communicative
    “speech for self”
      »Serves as a cognitive self-
       guidance system; does not
       disappear, becomes inner speech
 VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
       PERSPECTIVE

• Which viewpoint should be endorsed?
   –Vygotsky
     »Social speech gives rise to private
       speech
     »More common with difficult tasks
     »Self-instruction improves
       performance
     »Does tend to turn into inner
       speech
       VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
             PERSPECTIVE

• Vygotsky in Perspective: Summary
  – Cognitive development involves
     • Dialogues with skilled partners within the
       zone of proximal development
     • Incorporation of what tutors say into
       what they say to themselves
  – Expect wide variations in development
    across cultures
      VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL
            PERSPECTIVE

• Vygotsky in Perspective: Evaluation
  – Not yet received intense scrutiny
     • Verbal guided participation may be less
       adaptive in some instances than others
     • Collaborative problem solving can
       undermine performance
  – More a perspective, not a theory with as
    many testable hypotheses as Piaget
•   Table 7.5 Comparing Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s theories of cognitive development

								
To top