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					Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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                               Chapter 7

                                   Memory
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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  How to Study Memory Ⅰ

  • Recall and Recognition
       – Recall memory (填充題)
          • serial recall: exact order
          • free recall
          • paired-associates recall: (may be viewed as a form of
            cued recall)
       – Recognition memory (選擇題)
       – Cued recall: combining elements of both recall & recognition
       – Recognition memory is usually much better than recall
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    How to Study Memory Ⅱ
 • Explicit Versus Implicit Memory Tasks
      – Explicit Memory:
            a form of memory in which an individual consciously acts to
        recall or recognize particular information
      – Implicit Memory
            in which an individual recalls or recognizes information
        without consciously being aware doing so
            “word-completion task”
      – Procedural memory: “knowing how”, implicit memory
      – Declarative memory: “knowing that”
      – Priming: (implicit memory)
           the activating of one or more existing memories by a stimulus
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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  The Multiple-Store Model of Memory I
  • The Three-Store Model of Memory
       – Richard Atkinson & Richard Shiffrin (1968)
          • sensory store, short-term store, long-term store
          • No distinct physiological structures, “hypothetical construct”
       – Encoding, storage, and retrieval
            • All three memory store process information similarly.
            • Encode, Store, Retrieve
       – Sensory memory
            •   iconic store: visual memory
            •   echoic store: auditory memory
            •   George Sperling (1960): 12 letters in a 3×4 grid, 50ms
            •   Visual persistence
Robert J. Sternberg      Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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     Figure 7.1 The Three Stores View. In Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin's model of memory,
         information flows from sensory to short-term to long-term memory stores. Their metaphor for
         memory long served as the basis for research on memory processes. (After R.C. Atkinson &
         Shiffrin, 1971.)
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    The Multiple-Store Model of Memory II

    • Short-term memory
         – encoding information
             • R, Conrad(1964): B,C,F,M,N,P,S,T,V,X
                  short-term storage relies primarily on an acoustic
               rather than a semantic code
         – rehearsal
             • Maintenance vs. elaborative rehearsal
         – interference
             • interference theory
             • proactive interference
             • retroactive interference
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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  The Multiple-Store Model of Memory III
  • Decay
  • Capacity of Short-Term Store
     – Chunks
     – Serial position curve
     – Primacy and recency effect
     – Retrieval
  • Memory Scanning
  • Parallel Processing
  • Serial Processing
Robert J. Sternberg      Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Figure 7.3 Percentage of Recall from Short-Term Memory. In the study by Lloyd Patterson and
        Margaret Peterson, research participants could not use rehearsal to keep information in short-term
        memory. As a consequence, their ability to recall three consonants (a trigram) rapidly declined as
        the delay between presentations and recall increased form 3 to 18 seconds. Some have suggested
        that retroactive interference may cause rapid decline in recall.
Robert J. Sternberg       Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Figure 7.4 Proactive Interference and Short-Term Memory. Geoffrey Keppel and Benton Underwood
        demonstrated that proactive interference also affects recall, as shown by the decline in recall after
        increasing numbers of trigrams were presented. The effect of proactive interference intensified
        over increasingly long retention intervals.
Robert J. Sternberg       Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Figure 7.5 Idealized Serial Position Curve. Most people recall items at the end of a list (greatest recall)
        and at the beginning of a list (second-greatest recall) much more easily than items in the middle of
        a list (least recall).
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
                                                 Page 11 of 18



  The Multiple-Store Model of Memory IV
  • Long-Term Memory
       – Forms of encoding in long-term store
          • encoding meaning
          • representing images
       – Storing and forgetting
          • time and pace during learning
               total-time hypothesis
               distributed and massed learning
          • elaboration
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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Robert J. Sternberg       Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Figure 7.7 Image Size. Participants in Stephen Kosslyn's study tested their mental imagery limits by
        picturing the rabbit first with the honeybee and then with the elephant. They had to zoom in to see
        details of the honeybee, but the image of the elephant overflowed their image space as they
        imagined approaching it.
Robert J. Sternberg      Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Figure 7.8 Accuracy of Images in Stored Memory. Most people believe San Diego, California, to be
        west of Reno, Nevada, so their mental maps looks something like the one in Panel A. Actually,
        however, Reno is west of San Diego, as shown in Panel B.
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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  The Multiple-Store Model of Memory V
  • Organizing Information: Semantic and Episodic Memory
     – Semantic memory
          • concepts
          • schema
     – Episodic memory
  • Interference
     – Positive and negative transfer
  • Capacity
  • Retrieval
     – Accessibility or availability
     – Cue effectiveness and encoding specificity
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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  The Multiple-Store Model of MemoryⅥ
  • The Constructive Nature of Memory
       –   Reconstructive
       –   Constructive
       –   Flashbulb memories
       –   Autobiographical memory
       –   Memory distortions
       –   Eyewitness accounts
       –   Source-monitoring error
       –   Children’s memories
Robert J. Sternberg      Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Figure 7.9 Bartlett's Legend. Read the following legend quickly. Then turn the page over and write
        everything you can recall. Turn back to the legend and compare what you wrote with what you
        read.
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Alternative Models Of Memory

         – Levels-of-Processing Model
         – Baddeley’s Model
             Working memory
              • phonological loop
              • visuospatial sketchpad
              • central executive & episodic buffer
         – Parallel-Processing Model
Robert J. Sternberg       Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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    Table 7.1 Traditional Versus Nontraditional Views of Memory. The traditional three-stores view differs
        from a contemporary alternative view in the choice of terms, metaphors, and emphasis.
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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  Extremes of Memory
  • Memory Deficiencies: Amnesia
     – Anterograde amnesia
     – Retrograde amnesia
     – Infantile amnesia
  • Outstanding Memories: Mnemonists
  • Mnemonic Devices
     – Acronyms
     – Interactive images
     – Method of loci
     – Pegword system
     – Categorical clustering
     – Keyword system
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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  The Biological Underpinnings of Memory
  • Brain Structures Involved in Memory
  • Neurochemistry
  • Neurophysiology
Robert J. Sternberg   Psychology 4th Edition
Chapter 7: Memory
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