# Reach and Frequency: Reach Curves and Effective Frequency

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"Reach and Frequency: Reach Curves and Effective Frequency"

```					Reach and Frequency:
Reach Curves and
Effective Frequency
Reach and Frequency
Viewers        Average Number
GRPs   =   Counted   X      of Times
Once           They View

GRPs   =   Reach      X    Frequency

Reach is net unduplicated audience
Frequency is average number of exposures
R/F are Inversely Related

• To raise one must lower the other
– If GRPs are fixed, which they often are
– GRPs = Reach x Frequency

• Ex. If you afford 320 GRPs on TV Prime
– You could have a 60% Reach with a 4 Freq
– You could have an 80% Reach with a 4 Freq
What is Reach?

• Measure of Audience Accumulation
– Tells how many different prospects are
exposed over a specified time period
• Typically measured over four weeks
– Can be over any relevant period
– Builds quickly at first and then slows
– Usually represented as a percentage
“Reach Builds on a Curve”

• Reach builds in a consistent pattern
• First airing, all viewers are “new”
– Entire audience is unduplicated - All Reach
• Second airing, some viewers are “new”
others are “old” - seen the message before
– Some Reach and some Frequency
• Tenth airing, most viewers have already
seen it, very few “new” exposures
– Mainly build frequency, reach growth slows
Typical Reach Curve
Scheduling for Reach
Exercise

• Determine the Reach level for the
– Adults 18-34: 200 GRPs in early morning
– Men 18-49: 300 GRPs in late night
– Women 25-54: 150 GRPs during prime
What is Frequency?

• Provides the average number of
times prospects are exposed
– Calculated among those reached
• Typically measured over four weeks
– Though the period might be longer
– Always represented as a real number
An Average, not an Absolute

• Actual distribution of frequency is
higher and lower than the average
– Averages affected by extreme scores
– To guard against being deceived, you
need to see the frequency distribution
– Allows you to observe the patterns
Skewed Distribution
Effective Frequency & Reach

• Addresses important question in media
planning - How much is enough?
– How many times must an message be repeated
for it to convey the meaning? 3+
• Effective frequency: The number of times a
message must be repeated to be effective
• Effective reach: the percent of the
population exposed to the message at or
above the effective frequency level
Is There a EF Threshold?
• Grounded in assumption that there is
a threshold after message “works”
– Estimate of the number of repetitions
needed to attain communication goals
– Differs based on whether goal is brand
awareness, message recall, attitude
change, or a behavioral response
Determining Effective Frequency

• Use the Ostrow formula
• Adjust 3+ generic EF level
– Consider marketing factors
– Consider message features
– Consider media environment

– Modify level up or down in relation to
current situation & goals
Comparing Two Plans
Exercise

• Determine the Effective
Frequency for a New Floor Wax
– Details provided on handout

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 views: 280 posted: 12/3/2011 language: English pages: 16