"Reach and Frequency: Reach Curves and Effective Frequency"
Reach and Frequency: Reach Curves and Effective Frequency Reach and Frequency Viewers Average Number GRPs = Counted X of Times Once They View GRPs = Reach X Frequency Reach is net unduplicated audience Frequency is average number of exposures R/F are Inversely Related • To raise one must lower the other – If GRPs are fixed, which they often are – GRPs = Reach x Frequency • Ex. If you afford 320 GRPs on TV Prime – You could have a 60% Reach with a 4 Freq – You could have an 80% Reach with a 4 Freq What is Reach? • Measure of Audience Accumulation – Tells how many different prospects are exposed over a specified time period • Typically measured over four weeks – Can be over any relevant period – Builds quickly at first and then slows – Usually represented as a percentage “Reach Builds on a Curve” • Reach builds in a consistent pattern • First airing, all viewers are “new” – Entire audience is unduplicated - All Reach • Second airing, some viewers are “new” others are “old” - seen the message before – Some Reach and some Frequency • Tenth airing, most viewers have already seen it, very few “new” exposures – Mainly build frequency, reach growth slows Typical Reach Curve Scheduling for Reach Exercise • Determine the Reach level for the following media buys: – Adults 18-34: 200 GRPs in early morning – Men 18-49: 300 GRPs in late night – Women 25-54: 150 GRPs during prime What is Frequency? • Provides the average number of times prospects are exposed – Calculated among those reached • Typically measured over four weeks – Though the period might be longer – Always represented as a real number An Average, not an Absolute • Actual distribution of frequency is higher and lower than the average – Averages affected by extreme scores – To guard against being deceived, you need to see the frequency distribution – Allows you to observe the patterns Skewed Distribution Effective Frequency & Reach • Addresses important question in media planning - How much is enough? – How many times must an message be repeated for it to convey the meaning? 3+ • Effective frequency: The number of times a message must be repeated to be effective • Effective reach: the percent of the population exposed to the message at or above the effective frequency level Is There a EF Threshold? • Grounded in assumption that there is a threshold after message “works” – Estimate of the number of repetitions needed to attain communication goals – Differs based on whether goal is brand awareness, message recall, attitude change, or a behavioral response Determining Effective Frequency • Use the Ostrow formula • Adjust 3+ generic EF level – Consider marketing factors – Consider message features – Consider media environment – Modify level up or down in relation to current situation & goals Comparing Two Plans Exercise • Determine the Effective Frequency for a New Floor Wax – Details provided on handout