"02 PNNL Parker New Technologies Eng"
U.S. Department of Energy European Regional Workshop: Update on Detection Technologies March 22, 2011 March 2011 Briefing Contents Megaports Equipment Emerging Detection Solutions Radiation Detection Straddle Carrier (RDSC) Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS) Spreader Bar Radiation Detectors (SBRD) Spectroscopic Portal Monitors (SPM) Neutron Detection March 2011 Equipment Goals The Megaports Initiative aims to scan as much container cargo at a port as possible, including exports, imports and transshipments. Ports are dynamic environments with varying configurations. This presents a wide range of challenges to effectively scan cargo in the maritime network. To address this challenge, the Megaports program actively evaluates and employs new and emerging technologies in an effort to maximize scanning effectiveness while minimizing impacts on port operations. March 2011 US DOE Megaports Equipment Fixed Radiation Portal Monitors Vehicle, Rail, and Pedestrian Handheld Personal Radiation Pagers Radioisotopic Identifiers (RIID) Mobile Systems Radiation Detection Straddle Carrier Mobile Radiation Detection & Identification System Spectroscopic Portal Monitors March 2011 Radiation Detector Straddle Carrier For straddle carrier ports, Megaports developed an alternative scanning approach with the RDSC. Prototype was developed in the Bahamas Operated from June 2006 to October 2010 Consists of Kalmar straddle carrier with lifting mechanism removed and equipped with radiation detection panels Approximately 90% of full containers are scanned without significantly impacting port operations. March 2011 RDSC Procurement Based on the success of the prototype RDSC, DOE decided to commercially procure additional units Competitive bid process conducted for next generation of RDSC units Process included technical experts from various US national laboratories Contract awarded to Detector Networks International (DNI) on September 25th, 2008 Initial unit delivered to Freeport, Bahamas Contract is for 4 units March 2011 RDSC Design Overview DNI has teamed with several experienced subcontractors Platform – Isoloader Uses existing straddle carrier design with some modifications Detectors Primary scan: using Thermo Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors Secondary/Tertiary scan using Ortec High purity germanium (HPGe) detectors Communication System Using commercially available equipment where applicable Ruggedized, durable equipment March 2011 RDSC Detection Systems Primary scan conducted at 3 kph 8 Thermo NaI (16”x4”x2” or 40.5x10x5cm) detectors per level NaI in primary reduces secondary referral rate by ~50% Secondary scan conducted at 0.3 kph 4 HPGe Ortec Interchangeable Detector Modules (IDM) Detectors on movable elevator system Provides isotope identification and threat localization Tertiary scan Long dwell on identified threat location March 2011 RDSC Video March 2011 Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS) The MRDIS can be driven and strategically positioned to maximize scanning Allows for scanning as containers are discharged from vessel System can be relocated as needed (e.g., repositioned when the crane moves) Standard RPM for primary radiation detection Spectroscopic system for secondary identification Targeted primarily for transshipment ports March 2011 MRDIS Specifications Autonomous power systems (Diesel) Speed 0-10 kph 15-meter turning radius Autonomous Operations or CAS operation via wireless interface On-board video, OCR and traffic control GPS location MRDIS Berth 1 Port of Salalah 5-meter wide lane March 2011 MRDIS Operation Initial Deployment to Port of Salalah, Oman 4 Primary MRDIS with TSA VM-250-AGN Monitors 1 Secondary MRDIS with Thermo-fisher ARIS-512 Spectroscopic Monitor Container Scanning on Quay March 2011 MRDIS Video March 2011 MRDIS 2nd Generation Incorporate Lessons Learned from Initial Procurement Commercial-of-the-Shelf (COTS) Mobile Frame Government Furnished Radiation Detectors Software Design for Data Processing Design-Build Scope for Integrating Components Quality Assurance RFP Issued December 16, 2009 Proposals Due March 1, 2010 Initial Port Delivery Estimated in August 2011 March 2011 Spreader Bar Radiation Detection USG evaluated Spreader Bar Radiation Detection systems (May - December 2008) Primary goal was to evaluate performance and detection capability Sensitivity to SNM sources of HEU and Pu, as well as other industrial radioactive sources Comparison to existing dual-pillar radiation portal monitors Operational reliability was observed but not a focus March 2011 Spreader Bar Radiation Detection Systems VeriTainer Corp VeriSpreaderTM Neutron Gamma Detectors Detectors IAT Spreader Bar Radiation Verification System March 2011 SBRD Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages High percentage of transshipment containers scanned Quick implementation/minimal construction Minimal changes to traffic flow Potential Disadvantages Single sided system not as sensitive as dual sided Crane needs be removed from service for detector maintenance Unproven technology March 2011 Single Sided System Sensitivity Potential shielding from cargo is more than twice a double sided system (8.5’ – 9.5’ vs 4’) March 2011 Spectroscopic Portal Monitors Provides isotope identification by analyzing energy spectrum of gamma-ray energy Every isotope has a unique signature of energies emitted as gamma radiation Gross-Count monitors provide only the number of gamma-rays recorded at detector face Resolution of energy spectrum is important High resolution – e.g., High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Matches energy peaks to isotope signatures Higher cost, requires cryogenic temperatures (~95 K) Low resolution – e.g., Sodium Iodide (NaI) Matches spectrum shape to library (i.e. template matching) March 2011 High Resolution (HPGe) Background March 2011 Background with Isotope March 2011 Background with Isotope March 2011 SPM Deployments and ConOps SPM Deployments Belgium (Antwerp) Sri Lanka (Colombo) Taiwan (Kaohsiung, ) Malaysia (PTP and Klang) Spain (Algeciras, Barcelona, Valencia) Goal of Deployments Operational data collection to guide future Concept of Operations decisions SPM data is supplementary “Should not be the determining factor in closing an alarm or releasing a container” “Should not be used for neutron alarm confirmation except in a data-gathering mode” – still use RPM second passes March 2011 SPM Deployments and Testing Controlled Laboratory Tests Outdoor test bed at Los Alamos National Laboratory Conduct of Tests conducted with various sources Use various sources (including HEU, WGPu) in different configurations (bare and shielded) Tests run at varying speeds, including step scan modes Multiple configurations of NORM loads Performance Measures Detection sensitivity Alarm rates (false negative, false positive, innocent) Field Tests Direct comparison of TSA, Canberra, and Thermo units in Antwerp to test alarm rates and sensitivity Analyze field data from various sites March 2011 SPM Challenges System Stability Sustained system reliability System Performance Identification and false alarms Life-cycle Costs Includes procurement, installation, upgrades, spare parts, maintenance, etc Sustainability Integration March 2011 Neutron Detection Industry Standard uses helium-3 Helium-3 production is limited Gas is a byproduct of tritium production Gas collected over several years with little demand Current demand outpaces production capacity (~60-70 kL/yr vs 10-20 kL/yr) Alternate technology is needed Key detection characteristics Sensitivity/efficiency Gamma rejection Maintains low false alarm rate March 2011 Alternate Neutron Detection Technologies Boron Tri-Fluoride (BF3) Pros: Comparable performance Cons: Toxic gas, high voltage requirements Non-Scintillating Plastic Fibers Pros: Comparable performance Cons: Manufacturability in large scale, high-cost Boron-10 Lined Tubes Pros: Raw material is cheap, plentiful Cons: Low neutron sensitivity Lithium-6 Glass Fibers Pros: Good neutron sensitivity Cons: Gamma rejection is poor March 2011 Summary Effective radiation detection equipment is a key component of the Megaports Initiative mission to assist international partners in the effort to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking of radioactive material Megaports is continually evaluating and adapting detection technologies to meet the challenges of scanning cargo in the global maritime network while minimizing the impact on port operations. March 2011