"The French Revolution - Download as PowerPoint"
(1789-1814) Standard 10.2 The French Revolution • Long-term causes • Immediate causes • Four phases of the Revolution – Phase I The National Assembly – Phase II The Radical Phase – Phase III The Moderate Phase (the Directory) – Phase IV The Age of Napoleon Long-term Causes of the Revolution • The Three Estates (estate is a social group) • First Estate – Clergy • Second Estate – nobles • Third Estate – everyone else: – Bourgeoisie – Peasants French Population • First Estate - .5 % of 1 the population. 0.9 0.8 • Second Estate – 1.5 0.7 First 0.6 Estate % of the population. 0.5 Second • Third Estate – 98% of 0.4 Estate Third 0.3 the population! 0.2 Estate 0.1 0 Look at the Chart on page 213 in your textbook. The Problems of the Third Estate • The Peasants (poor farmers): – They had to pay the taille (tax) while members of the first and second estates did not. – They had to perform certain duties for t he nobles who owned the land they lived on: • Pay a fee to grind their flour or press grapes. • They had to work a certain number of days during the harvest time on the noble’s crops. Problems of the Bourgeoisie • They were the educated professionals who were denied top government jobs because those jobs were given to men of noble status. • They were influenced by the Enlightenment and wanted to end the strict social system and disliked the monarchy. Immediate Cause • Financial Crisis!!!!! – Bad harvest in the years right before the revolution left thousands of peasants starving. – Increase in goods left many members of the Third Estate unable to pay for even the little things – like bread. – Louis XVI spent large sums of money to pay for court luxuries and the American Revolution, while 1/3 of his population was starving. Louis XVI The Tennis Court Oath • To solve the financial crisis, Louis XVI called the Estates-General. – First Estate 300 votes – Second Estate 300 votes – Third Estate 600 votes Jacques-Louis David To solve the problem, the third estate wanted the first and second estates to pay taxes… The Third estate called for reform of the voting system, but Louis XVI rejected their plea. Storming of the Bastille • The Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly and set out to write a constitution. • Louis XVI was prepared to use force against the estate, however, a revolt broke out among the peasants. National Assembly • On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly – Abolished all legal privileges of the nobles and clergy. – Wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. – Declared that all men were equal before the law. – Appointment to offices should be based on talent, not on social class. – All citizens could participate in government. – Freedom of speech and the press Women of the Revolution • Parisian women marched toward Versailles armed with pitchforks and swords and forced the king and his wife to leave Versailles and march back to Paris where the royal family was held captive. Reforming the Church • They sold Church lands. • The Church was brought under state control. • Civil Constitution of the Clergy – bishops and priests were now elected by the people. Rise of the Paris Commune Commoners became a significant force behind the revolution. They were still unemployed and still starving… a mob of men attacked the Legislative Assembly and called for a National Convention – demanding more radical reforms for the people – the revolution was taking a drastic turn towards chaos. Sans-culottes – without fine clothes. War with Austria • Austria and Prussia threatened to use force against the Legislative Assembly to restore Louis XVI to the throne. The Assembly took the offensive and declared war first. The Radical Phase (Phase II) • Paris Commune dominates political life. – Thousands of people are arrested and murdered. – A new constitution is drafted (#2). – Abolished the Monarchy. – Most members are under the age of 45. – Factions: • Girondins • Mountain – Georges Danton – Jean-Paul Marat. Jean-Paul Marat – popular revolutionary leader in France – He was stabbed to death in his bathtub. Execution of the KING! • In early 1793, the convention condemned Louis XVI to death – In January, the king was beheaded by the guillotine. • His execution resulted in two effects: – A coalition of European countries prepared to invade France. – Conservatives at home feared that the revolution had gone too far. Louis XVI and his wife Marie- Antoinette were executed by the Guillotine – a French device they felt was more humane. Their execution would mark the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The Reign of Terror • The National Convention gave power to a group of 12 people called the Committee of Public Safety. Their job was to get rid of foreign and domestic threats to the Convention. – In Lyon along, over 1,880 were executed. Maximilien Robespierre – leader of the Committee of Public Safety. The Republic of Virtue • A democratic republic of good citizens. • Primary education. • Abolished slavery in their colonies. • Controlled the price of food and inflation. • De-Christianization! – The word Saint was removed from street names. – Churches were closed. – Priests were encouraged to marry. – Churches were renamed – Temple of Reason. – Adopted a new calendar – years began in September 1792. – Changed the names of the months! Vendémiaire (September) Third Phase – The Directory • The French people turned on Robespierre, and he was executed on July 28th, 1794 – marking the end of the Reign of Terror. • The next phase was a moderate phase: – Church reopened. – Set up a 5 man directory and two councils that made up the legislative branch: • Council of 500 • Council of Elders Coup d’etat The Directory was corrupt and only lasted for four years: In 1799, a young military general, Napoleon Bonaparte, overthrew the directory and took power into his own hands. Napoleon’s reign of France marked the Fourth Phase of the The Eighteenth of Brumaire by Francois Bouchot Revolution.