The Crusades: 1095-1291
Civilization & War Civilization & War Civilization & War Civilization & War Civilization & War Civilization & War Civilization
CAUSES: THE CRUSADES: 1095-1291
1. Muslims control Palestine (the Holy Land) and threaten eastern Roman Expire at Constantinople.
2. Byzantine emperor Alexius-I calls for help from Pope (Urban II).
3. Pope sees opportunity to increase power reunite Christians.
4. Pope sends out appeal to all European Knights.
5. Knights promised forgiveness of past sins, riches and land.
6. Italian cities desire increased trade and power.
EFECTS: OF THE CRUSADES
1. Byzantium is weakened by crusader attacks.
2. Popes power decline because in the end the Crusades fail.
3. Power of Feudal Nobles weakened, many are killed.
4. Kings because stronger and better leaders.
5. Religious intolerance grows, non-Christians punished.
6. Muslins distrust Christians, regard them as enemies.
7. Italian cities expand and grow rich $$$$$.
8. New trade grows between Europe and Middle East.
9. European technology is improved by Muslim ideas.
10. Feudalism is weakened by Serfs service in Crusades.
11. Leaning & Science are encouraged Roman and Greek ideas are rediscovered:= Renaissance.
The Crusade: The leading events 1095-1291
Seven Military Crusades lasted almost 200 years. The First and Third Crusade were the most important.
First Crusade: Started in 1096 was a well-organized Military expedition that set out from W. Europe to
capture Jerusalem and the holy land of Modern Day Israel. This happened 1 year after a disastrous civilian
expedition of 50,000 unarmed men, women and children was destroyed by starvation, thirst, disease, and
cannibalism and finally capture and slavery by the Turkish Muslims.
The First Crusade was led by King Godfrey of Bouillox (France) and was the only crusade that
successfully was able to capture and held Jerusalem. And establish a Christian kingdom. This Kingdom
was divided into French, English & German states & lasted for 88 year. Later Recaptured by Saladin/Islam.
In 1187 Saladin retook Jerusalem and defeated the Christians. Second Crusade: 1147 – failed, many KIA
The Third Crusade: 1189 was led by 3 European Kings
Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Phillip Augustus of France, and Richard the Lion Hearted of England.
The third Crusade reached Jerusalem but failed to capture the city and Richard the Lion Headed was
captured and held hostage for a ransom. He was finally returned to England when his capture were paid a
huge amount worth $20,000,000 in gold. He died soon after.
Review Middle Ages: For quiz
Vocabulary: Feudalism was ended by gunpowder Cannon technology.
Medieval, clergy, manor, serf, knight, chivalry, usury lord, fief,
Feudalism: shared protection and local power
Castle: Bailey, tower, battle men, dungeon, moat, keep, portcullis, drawbridge, great hall, chapel
Important People: St. Peter (Emperor of Constantine), St. Jerome, and St. Augustine
Charlemagne and the kingdom of the franks Charles Martel defeats the moors at battle of Tours
Accomplishments of Charlemagne
Cause of the Middle Ages, Fall of Rome & no more Roman protection
Founded by Muhammad
1. Pray five times
2. Muhammad greatest prophet
3. God Allah
Earlier Christianity organization of Catholic Church
Contributions of Middle Ages in R.C. church
Cathedral picks three parts, thin walls, flying buttress’s volt stained glass and pointed arch
Rise of Islam and contributions of Islam Crusades/contributions of Crusades
*****What Next ???the Renaissance*****