Vitamins and Minerals

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Essential for Good Health
 Major nutrients in food are classified
 into six groups. They work in
 partnership for health.
  Carbohydrates
  Fats
  Proteins
  Water
  Minerals
  Vitamins
   Nutrients we ingest in large quantities on
    a regular basis. These includes:
     Carbohydrates
     Fats
     Proteins
     Water
Functions in the body

 Classified in two groups:
   complex carbohydrates or
   simple carbohydrates (sugar)
Complex Carbohydrates

 Longer lasting ENERGY!
 Complex carbs take longer to digest
  because digestive enzymes have to work
  harder to break the chain into individual
  sugars for absorption in the body.
       The slow absorption of sugars provides us with
        a steady supply of energy and limits the
        amount of sugar converted into fat and stored
Fiber –need 25 g a day

   It bulks up the food that travels through
    your intestines (making you feel fuller
    faster and longer- making it harder for
    you to over eat)

   Fiber aids in digestion (decreases

   Removes cholesterol build up in your
    Sources of Complex Carbs
 Legumes (beans)
 Whole-wheat bread, bran, many cereals,
 Strawberries
 Brussels sprouts
 Most raw fruits and vegetables,
 Nuts, seeds
           Carb Health Benefits
   Complex Carbs (fiber)
       Offers protection from diseases such as
        heart disease
         by   removing cholesterol build up in your arteries
     Lowers your risk of diabetes and certain
     Keeps digestive system regular and relieves
     Gives your body longer lasting energy it needs
      to function properly
Simple Carbohydrates

   Short term energy
       Simple sugars can easily be broken down an
        are ready to be absorbed immediately by
        digestive enzymes (so energy doesn’t last
        long- CRASH!)
              Sources of Simple Carbs
 Natural                                    Refined
    Fruit                                     Molasses
    Vegetables                                Table sugar
    Milk                                      Syrup
    Milk products                             Brown sugar
    Honey                                     Corn sweetener
                                               Corn syrup
    Foods that contain refined sugar are:      Fruit juice concentrates
      cookies, soft drinks,                    High-fructose corn syrup
     cakes, ice cream, candy
        Carb Health Consequences
   Simple Carbs (sugar) that aren’t used right away,
    it gets stored in your body as fat
       Eating too many simple carbs can lead to it being
        stored as fat and lead to issues with obesity.

   Sugar can cause tooth decay and increased risk
    of osteoporosis
       Eating a lot of refined sugar makes it so your body
        borrow nutrients (especially calcium) to breakdown
        the sugar which weakens your bones
Fats Functions in the body
   Storage for body's extra calories.
   Fills the fat cells (adipose tissue) that help
    insulate the body.
   Provides essential fatty acids (linoleic and
    linolenic acid)
   Important for controlling inflammation, blood
    clotting, and brain development.
   Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat. Fat
    helps the body absorb and move the vitamins A,
    D, E, and K through the bloodstream.
   Energy source
       When the body has used up the calories from
        carbohydrates, which occurs after the first 20
        minutes of exercise, it begins to depend on the
        calories from fat.

   Not all fats are bad and not all are good:
     Unsaturated
          Monounsaturated   and
          Polyunsaturated
       Saturated
          Cholesterol
       Trans Fat
Sources of Unsaturated Fat

 Monounsaturated             Polyunsaturated
   Vegetable oils:             Corn, safflower,
    Peanut, sesame, olive,       soybean and sunflower
    canola                       oils.
   Nuts and seeds              Fats in fish are mainly
   Other sources include        polyunsaturated (Wild
    avocados, peanut             Salmon, trout,
    butter                       herring)
Unsaturated Fat Health Benefits
 Monounsaturated           Polyunsaturated
   Reduces bad               Reduce the cholesterol
    cholesterol levels         levels in your blood
   Lower your risk of        Lower your risk of
    heart disease and          heart disease.
    stroke.                   Includes essential fats
   Provide nutrients to       (omega-6 and omega-3)
    help develop and           that help with brain
    maintain your body’s       function and in the
    cells.                     normal growth and
   Typically high in          development of your
    vitamin E, an              body.
    antioxidant vitamin
Saturated Fat                   Cholesterol

   **Usually contains high levels of

    Cholesterol: A fat like substance found in
     the body and found in animal tissue and fat
     high levels believed to lead to collection of
     cholesterol in the arteries, possibly leading
     to serious health risks.
            Cholesterol Function
   Healthy levels of cholesterol are an
    important part of a healthy body.

   Your body needs cholesterol to produce
    cell membranes and certain hormones.

   Cholesterol can be good or bad
Cholesterol- HDL (High-density lipoprotein)
 HDL carries cholesterol away from your
  arteries and takes it to your liver, where
  it’s removed from your body.
 High levels of HDL protect you from heart
  attacks and decrease your risk against
  heart disease.
Cholesterol- LDL (Low-density lipoprotein)

   High levels of “bad” cholesterol in your body can
    clog your arteries and increase your risk of
    heart attack and stroke.
   Too much bad cholesterol builds up in the walls
    creating plaque in the arteries in your heart and
       Plaque narrows the arteries and make them less
        flexible. This is a medical condition called
            If a blood clot forms and blocks an artery narrowed by
             plaque, you could have a heart attack or stroke.
Sources of Saturated Fat
   Animal products:
       fatty beef, lamb, pork, poultry with skin, beef
   Animal by-products:
       lard and cream, butter, cheese and other
        dairy products made from whole or reduced-
        fat (2 percent) milk. These foods also contain
        dietary cholesterol.
   Coconut, palm and palm kernel oils.
    Saturated Fat Health Consequences
 Raises the level of cholesterol in your
 High levels of blood cholesterol increase
  your risk of heart disease and stroke.
 Many foods high in saturated fats are also
  high in cholesterol – which raises your
  blood cholesterol even higher.
Sources of Trans Fat
   Fried foods like: French fries and

   Baked goods including: pastries, pie crusts,
    biscuits, pizza dough, cookies, crackers,

   Stick margarines and shortenings
     Trans Fat Health Consequences
   Raises your bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and
    lower your good (HDL) cholesterol levels.

   Increases your risk of developing heart disease
    and stroke.

   Associated with a higher risk of developing type
    2 diabetes.
Protein Functions in the body
   Essential in the structure of red blood
    cells that help make and regulates
    antibodies to fight disease

   Regulates enzymes and hormones for
    growth and repair of body tissue

   Proteins provide energy when
    carbohydrates and fat are in short supply.
Sources of Protein
  Lean meat
  Poultry
  Fish
  Eggs
  Dry beans, soy (tofu)
  Nuts, peanut butter
  Dairy foods
    Protein Health Benefits
 Builds and tones muscles
 Helps with recovery from illness, injury, or
 Body proteins are constantly being broken
  down and replaced.
       Eating enough protein assures that we get
        enough amino acids that are later used to
        replace these proteins in our bodies
Protein Health Consequences
   Consuming more than 30% of your total daily caloric
    intake from protein could causes a buildup of toxic
    ketones which overwork kidneys and cause
    dehydration and loss of muscle mass

   Some protein sources have saturated fat and
    cholesterol (fatty meats)
        important to eat lean cuts of meat and non-animal sources of
        If vegetarian, some food items do not have complete amino
         acids -diet must be monitored to assure that the right
         combination is made to get all essential amino acids
Get up, stretch, move around
        for a little bit.

We will resume again in a few
Water Functions in the body
 Regulates body temperature
 Carries nutrients and other body
 Carries waste products away through
  urination, perspiration and bowel
 Aids in digestion
 Lubricates and cushions your joints.
 Protects your spinal cord and other
  sensitive tissues.
Sources of Water
 Water (of course)
 Tea
 Broth soups
 Juice
 Milk
 Other foods that are 85% to 95% water
  such as celery, tomatoes, oranges, and
Water Health Benefits
 Water promotes healthy skin
 Keeps your body functioning normally and
  avoids dehydration
     Alcoholic beverages and beverages containing
      caffeine (such as coffee, tea, and colas) have
      a water-excreting effect and take water out
      of the body
     6 to 8 8oz of water everyday (more if you
      exercise, sick, hot weather)
Vitamins and Minerals
  The Real Team Players!
              Minerals and Vitamins
   The name given to vitamins and minerals
    because your body needs them in small

   Micronutrients are vital to your body's
    ability to process the macronutrients
   Nutrients found in the earth or water and
    absorbed by plants and animals for proper

   Minerals are the main component of teeth
    and bones, and help build cells and support
    nerve impulses, among other things
Calcium Functions in the body
   Calcium is essential to the formation and
    maintenance of strong bones and teeth.

   Helps clot blood normally

   Keeps heartbeat regular
Sources of Calcium
   Milk and other dairy foods

   Dark green, leafy vegetables

   Fish with edible bones

   Calcium-fortified foods (fortified orange
    juice, fortified soymilk)
Iron Functions in the body
   Necessary for healthy blood (helps your
    blood transport oxygen through your body)
    helps prevent tiredness

   Builds red blood cells, which transports
    oxygen through the body
Sources of Iron
   Meat, fish, poultry

   Lentils, Beans, Chickpeas, Black-eyed peas

   Leaf vegetables

   Tofu

   Strawberries
Potassium Functions in the body
   Regulates fluid balance in cells; helps
    nerves function

   Regulates muscle contractions

   Helps regulate fluid in cells

   Works with sodium to regulate blood
Sources of Potassium
   Orange juice      Apricots

   Potatoes          Dairy products

   Bananas           Meat, poultry, fish

   Avocados
Sodium Functions in the body
   Helps regulate blood pressure and fluid
    balance in the body
   Helps muscles relax (including your heart)
   Helps transmit nerve impulses

   **While sodium is needed in the diet, consuming
    too much sodium will lead to HIGH blood
    pressure which is a major risk factor for stroke,
    heart disease and kidney disease.
Sources of Sodium
   Table Salt

   Processed foods

   Most people consume TOO much sodium in
    their diets as salt is naturally found in or
    added to many of the food items we eat
Phosphorus Functions in the body
   Works with calcium to help build and
    maintain strong bones and teeth

   Helps body obtain energy from other
Sources of Phosphorus
   Dairy products

   Meat, fish, poultry

   Beans and peas

   Whole-grain breads and cereals
Magnesium Functions in the body
   Helps the body build strong bones

   Regulates nervous system and body
Sources of Magnesium
   Whole grain cereals and breads

   Dry beans and peas

   Dark green leafy vegetables

   Nuts and seeds
Zinc Functions in the body
   Is needed for proper growth

   Affects senses of taste and smell

   Helps wounds heal
Sources of Zinc
   Shellfish

   Meat

   Egg

   Dairy-products

   Whole-grain breads
Iodine Functions in the body
   Needed for proper functioning of thyroid
    gland, which produces substances that
    help the body obtain energy from
Sources of Iodine
   Iodized salt

   Seafood
   Naturally found in plants and animals,
    vitamins are vital to growth, energy, and
    nerve function.

   There are two types of vitamins used by
    the body to support health: fat-soluble
    and water-soluble
Water Soluble vs Fat Soluble
 Water      Soluble                    Fat    Soluble
   B-complex                             Vitamin A
   Vitamin C                             Vitamin D
                                          Vitamin E
   Easily absorbed by the body.          Vitamin K
   Your body uses the vitamins it
    needs, then excretes excess           Absorbed by the body with
    water-soluble vitamins in urine.       fats.
   Not stored in the body, there         Excess fat-soluble vitamins in
    is less risk of toxicity
                                           your liver and body fat, then
                                           uses them as needed.
                                          Ingesting more fat-soluble
                                           vitamins than you need can be
Vitamin A Functions in the body
   Builds good vision, healthy teeth and gums
    and strong bones

   Helps immune system resist infection

   An antioxidant vitamin
Sources of Vitamin A
   Yellow-orange fruits and vegetables:
     Cantaloupe
     Carrots
     Pumpkin
     Sweet potatoes

   Dark green leafy vegetables:
     Broccoli
     Spinach

   Eggs, Liver and Milk products
B vitamins            •Helps with nerve and brain
                            tissue work well
                           •Aid in digestion

 Thiamine   (B1)      Vitamin       B 12

 Riboflavin   (B2)    Folate    (folic acid)

 Niacin               Pantothenic         acid

 Vitamin   B6         Biotin
Thiamine (B1) Functions in the body
 Turns food into energy
 Helps digest carbohydrates
 Essential for the nervous system, muscles
  and heart to function
 Stabilizes appetite
 Promotes growth
 Enhances muscle tone
Thiamine (B1) Sources
 Whole grain cereal
 Nuts
 Soybean
 Wheat germ
 Pork
 Enriched flours
 Organ meat (like liver)
Riboflavin (B2) Functions in the body
 Necessary to digest carbohydrates, fat
  and protein
 Helps form antibodies and red blood cells
 Maintains cell respiration
 Promotes good vision, skin, nails and hair
 Reduces eye strain
Riboflavin Sources
   Milk                      Bread

   Green leafy               Pasta
                              Meat
   Whole grain/enriched
    flour                     Eggs
Niacin Functions in the body
 Improves circulation
 Reduces cholesterol
 Maintains the nervous system
 Reduces high blood pressure
 Increases energy
 Helps maintain healthy skin, tongue and
  digestive system
Niacin Sources
   Nuts                      Lean meats

   Legumes (beans)           Yeast

   Whole grain products      Liver

   Poultry
Vitamin B6 Functions in the body
 Breaks down amino acids (protein)
 Helps digest fats and carbs
 Helps for antibodies
 Maintains the nervous system
 Regulates mental processes and mood
 Reduces excess fluid (bloating) in pre-
  menstrual women
 Promotes healthy skin
B6 Sources
   Walnuts         Whole wheat products

   Peanuts         Eggs

   Brown rice      Fish

   Soybean         Banana

   Oats
Folic Acid (Folate) Functions in the body
   Necessary for growth and reproduction of all
    body cells (especially important to a developing
   Necessary for the formation of red blood cells
   Helps treat anemia
   Helps metabolize amino acids
   Protects the body against intestinal parasites
    and food poisoning
   Maintains healthy skin
   May prevent memory loss and help with learning
Folic Acid Sources
   Beans                 Egg yolk

   Dark-green leafy      Beets
                          Whole wheat bread
   Orange Juice
                          Liver
   Wheat germ
Biotin           Functions in the body

   Helps the body use protein, carbs, fats,
    folic acid and Pantothenic Acid and
    Vitamin B-12

   Promotes healthy hair

   Maintains healthy skin
Biotin Sources
   Soybean      Kidney

   Nuts         Liver

   Cereal       Egg Yolk
Pantothenic Acid Functions in the body
 Maintains the nervous system
 Releases energy other nutrients
 Improves resistance to stress
 Helps build cells
 Helps the adrenal glands
 Builds antibodies to fight infections
Pantothenic Acid Sources
   Meats                    Egg yolks

   Whole grain cereals      Milk

   Legumes (beans)          Fruit

                             Vegetables

         Get   up, move around

 Be   ready to start again in a few
Vitamin C Functions in the body
   Helps body build cells- aids in healing cuts
    and bruises

   Helps form healthy teeth and gums and
    strong bones

   Antioxidant vitamin
Vitamin C Sources
   Citrus fruits:       Broccoli
       Oranges
       Grapefruits      Kiwi

   Tomatoes             Strawberries

                         Cantaloupe
Vitamin D Functions in the body
   Helps body use minerals, such as calcium
    and phosphorus

   Helps form strong bones and teeth
Vitamin D Sources
   Your body makes it if skin is exposed to
    enough sunlight

   Fortified Vitamin D milk products

   Fatty fish like salmon and mackerel
Vitamin E Functions in the body
   Helps keep red blood cells healthy

   Antioxidant vitamin
Vitamin E Sources
   Vegetable oils: olive oil

   Grains

   Nuts

   Dark green leafy vegetables
Vitamin K Functions in the body
   Helps blood to clot
Vitamin K Sources
   Broccoli and other dark green leafy veggies

   Cauliflower

   Egg yolks

   Wheat bran

   Wheat germ
            Phyto       Chemicals

            Plant       Chemicals

 Naturally occurring chemical in foods
 These substances appear to help prevent
  certain diseases
             What are they?
         What do they do for plants?

   Plants develop these “protective chemicals”
    to protect themselves from damage by
    sunshine and other dangers in their
    environment like: bacteria, molds, fungi,
    cold, heat, insects, and toxic pollutants.
   Some also give plants color, flavor and
   It is the plant’s own immune system
   Helps them grow stronger or brighter
        How do they work in us?
   When we eat foods with phytochemicals…
            we get their benefits too!
     Serve as antioxidants
     Enhance communication among
      body cells
     Enhance our immunity
     Detoxify carcinogens (pollution)
     Repairs damage to DNA
     Keeps cancer cells from forming and

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