Japanese Culture

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					Japanese
 Culture
Erik Brands
                       Japan
• 4 Main islands-Hokkaido,
  Honshu (or the
  mainland), Shikoku, and
  Kyushu.
• 75% Mountainous
• Rulers- The emperor was
  supposed to be the ruler,
  but the shogun are the
  ones who actually had
  more power.
• Religion- Shinto and
  Buddhism
                Samurai
• Japan’s form of military.
• Ruled by the shogun and
  daimyo.
• Fought mainly for land.
• 8% of the population
          Tokugawa Period
• Also know as the Edo Period
• 1601 to 1867
• In 1868, Tokugawa government fell and
  the samurai class was abolished.
• A time when the samurai were losing their
  military purpose. Many samurai became
  bureaucrats, courtiers, and administrators
  instead of warriors.
                 Bushido
• “way of the warrior”
• Code of the samurai
• Enforces the requirement to conduct
  themselves with calmness, fairness,
  justice, and politeness.
• It also stressed finding a proper death in
  battle, for the cause of their lord.
• The samurai must unswervingly obey his
  master.
                            Death
• Seppuku- An honorable form of
  suicide for defeated or dishonored
  samurai.
   – Could be performed as a ritual after
     committing a crime
   – Could be done on the battlefield in order
     not to be taken prisoner of be disgraced
     by being killed by an enemy.
   – Sometimes, when another samurai was
     defeated after a good fight, the victor
     would allow the opponent this honorable
     way of dying.
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zz6
  8_xDww2o&mode=related&search=
                   Clothing
• Kimono- worn by all
  classes, men and
  women.
  – Materials and colors
    showed the class. Silk
    was reserved for the
    upper classes like the
    samurai while others wore
    hemp, ramie, cotton and
    other common fabrics.
                       Clothing
• Kamishimo- Samurai wear it. It is a 2 piece
  costume worn over the kimono.
  – Kataginu- The upper half. It is a sleeveless vest with
    large shoulders.
  – Hakama- The lower half. They are flowing pants
    whose design contain an important meaning to the
    samurai.
     • The seven folds in these pants represent seven virtues of the
       Samurai – Yuki (courage), Jin (humility), Gi (justice), Rei
       (chivalry), Makoto (honesty), Chugi (loyalty), and Meiyo
       (prestige).

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4BnRMOCc
  Xg
                  47 Ronin
•   Ronin- masterless samurai.
•   Asano- The Lord of the Castle of Ako.
•   Oishi- Asano’s Chief Councilor.
•   Kira- High official appointed by the shogun
    to entertain guests.
                         47 Ronin
• Kira insults Asano and attempts to humiliate him for two months
  because he did not receive an expensive gift from Asano.
• Asano drew his sword and injured Kira for the constant insults and
  humiliation.
• Asano is sentenced to seppuku and Oishi is now in charge.
• Castle is taken over and the 321 samurai are ordered to disband.
• Oishi and other samurai want to bring back their master’s honor and
  seek revenge by killing Kira who was not punished at all.
• Eventually, the 47 ronin attacked Kira’s mansion and defeated his
  61 guards.
• Kira was beheaded because he would not commit seppuku.
• Oishi and 45 of his men were to execute themselves not as
  criminals but as honored warriors.
• The 46 ronin were buried side by side next to their master at
  Sengaku-ji Temple.
• http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/4142.htm
  #history
• http://marian.creighton.edu/~marian-
  w/academics/english/japan/samurai/samur
  ai.html
• le.daisho.free.fr/ceremonieduseppuku.htm
• http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/japan/re
  ligion.htm

				
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posted:12/2/2011
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