Electron Location Chapter 5 Lec 5 | MIT 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry Animations of Electron Levels Electron “jumping” website Electron levels animation link McGraw Hill animation link Jumping Electrons normally electrons exist in the ground state, meaning they occupy the lowest energy level possible (the electron shell closest to the nucleus) when an electron is excited by adding energy to an atom (for example, when it is heated), the electron will absorb energy, "jump" to a higher energy level after a short time, this electron will spontaneously "fall" back to a lower energy level, giving off a quantum of light energy called a photon the key to Bohr's theory was the fact that the electron could only "jump" and "fall" to precise energy levels, thus emitting a limited spectrum of light. quantum is the amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another Quantum Numbers electrons display the properties of both waves and particles. think of an atom as a very bizarre house (like an inverted pyramid) with the nucleus living on the ground floor, and then various rooms (orbitals) on the higher floors occupied by the electrons electrons fill low energy orbitals (closer to the nucleus) before they fill higher energy ones electron configuration is defined to be the arrangement and distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals the electron configuration of each atom is made up of four quantum numbers, which describe different properties of each electron and its orbital. Where is an electron? What level/size? What shape? Orientation? Spin? Quantum numbers give “the address” of the electron. Principle quantum number (n) - describes the SIZE of the orbital or ENERGY LEVEL of the atom. Angular quantum number (l) - describes the SHAPE of the orbital. Magnetic quantum number (m) - describes an orbital's ORIENTATION in space. This tells the placement of the electrons in the sub-orbitals Spin quantum number (s) - describes the SPIN or direction (clockwise or counter-clockwise) in which an electron spins.
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