Motivation by 5K3o4C

VIEWS: 129 PAGES: 30


Spring 2007                Motivation   1

              • Definitions
              • Content models
              • Process models

Spring 2007                  Motivation   2
              What is Motivation?
              • “Willingness to exert effort to reach
                organizational goals”
              • The force that starts, sustains, and directs

                   Tension                             Sat.

                             Drive            Search


Spring 2007                          Motivation                              3
              Why Does it Matter?

                 Ability                  Motivation


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              Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
              • Where does our motivation come from?
                 • Extrinsic = external rewards
                 • Intrinsic = rewards from the task itself
              • Application to domains of human activity

                Type of
                Activity     Motivation               Freedom         Human Value
                Work         Extrinsic                Constrained     ???
                Play         Intrinsic                Freely Chosen   Distraction
                Leisure      Intrinsic                Freely Chosen   Self-Fulfillment

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              Content vs. Process

              • Content
                • What motivates us?
              • Process
                • How are we motivated?

Spring 2007                    Motivation   6
              Content Models

              •   Maslow
              •   Herzberg
              •   McClelland
              •   Theory X, Theory Y

Spring 2007                    Motivation   7
              Maslow’s Pyramid


Spring 2007                    Motivation   8
              Herzberg’s Two Factor Model
              • Ideas developed through work with engineers and
              • Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are separate, not
                two ends of a single scale
              • One group of factors prevents dissatisfaction, but does
                not cause satisfaction
              • Another group of factors cause satisfaction
              • Question: does satisfaction lead to performance?
                 • Traditionally, we said Yes
                 • However, performance may cause satisfaction
                 • But, satisfaction is related to turnover

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              Hygiene vs. Motivators
                       Hygiene                          Motivators
                Quality of                        Career Advancement
                 supervision                       Personal growth
                Rate of pay                       Recognition
                Company policies                  Responsibility
                Working conditions                Achievement
                Relations with others
                Job security
               Lack of these results in           These result in
               dissatisfaction                    satisfaction

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              McClelland - Needs
              • Three basic human needs
                • Achievement
                • Power
                • Affiliation
              • N Ach performance
              • Tested on large scale basis
                • N Ach (children’s stories)
                • National performance (utility usage)

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              Theories X and Y

               Theory X                           Theory Y

           Little ambition                      Self-directed
            Dislike work                         Enjoy work
         Avoid responsibility                Accept responsibility

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              Motivating with Money
              • Does money matter?
                • According to Herzberg, no
                • But…..

Spring 2007                       Motivation   13
              Process Models

              •   Behavior modification
              •   Goal setting
              •   VIE
              •   Equity Theory
              •   Job Characteristics Model

Spring 2007                     Motivation    14
              Behavior Modification

              • Basic psychological theory
                • Pavlov
                • Skinner
              • Behavior is a function of its
              • Some say….assumes that people have
                little free will

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              Basic Terms

              •   Positive reinforcement
              •   Negative reinforcement
              •   Extinction
              •   Punishment

       Reward close approximations, then closer
       approximations, until desired response is

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              How it Works
                                  Reward                Punishment
                Apply            Positive                Punishment

                                  Extinction            Reinforcement

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         Schedules of Reinforcement
 Reinforcement occurs at fixed intervals of
 time: the bimonthly paycheck.

Reinforcement occurs at random intervals of
time: the supervisor visits the employee, on no
fixed or set schedule, to praise at that time.

 Reinforcement occurs after a set number of
 behaviors: piece rate pay.

 Reinforcement occurs after a random number
 of behaviors: gambling, especially slot
              Using Reinforcement
              •   If workers are positively reinforced for their high
                  performance, they will work harder.

              •   If workers receive immediate reinforcement for their
                  hard work, they will work harder than if their
                  reinforcement is delayed.

              •   Frequent reinforcement of positive behavior and
                  infrequent reinforcement of negative behavior results in
                  higher performance.

Spring 2007                           Motivation                         19
              More on Using Reinforcement
              • Workers will work harder if their reinforcements for work
                are somewhat random.

              • If a positive work behavior is never reinforced, it will be

              • Reinforcements may be of several different kinds and
                must be tied to the individual worker.

              • If workers are rewarded for even small increases in
                performance, then greater performance may result.

Spring 2007                            Motivation                             20
              Goal Setting
              • Goals lead to performance
              • Specific goals lead to higher performance than
                general goals
              • Performance increases in proportion to goal
                difficulty -- but goals should be attainable
              • Goals must be accepted
              • Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards

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              What is a Good Goal ?

              •   Specific
              •   Measurable
              •   Attainable
              •   Rewarded, realistic
              •   Timely
              • Feedback
              • Integrated, Intermediate
              • Challenging, clear

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              Using Goal Setting
              •   Workers work harder if they have goals to strive for.

              •   Workers work harder if they have goals that are high and
                  challenging, rather than easy or unattainable.

              •   If goals are clear and understandable, workers will work

              •   If workers have a chance to participate in setting goals, they
                  will be more committed to attaining those goals.

Spring 2007                               Motivation                               23
              More on Goal Setting
              • If larger goals are broken down into short-term goals,
                workers will receive more frequent feedback about goal
                accomplishment and, thus, strive harder to meet those

              • If employees know what the consequences of goal
                accomplishment are (for themselves and the
                organization), they will strive harder to meet those goals.

Spring 2007                           Motivation                              24
              Yet More…
              • If individual goals are integrated with organizational
                goals, workers will work harder.

              • If progress toward goal accomplishment is measurable
                and feedback is given, the workers will strive harder to
                meet those goals.

              • Workers work harder if goals are specific, rather than
                general or “do your best”.

Spring 2007                           Motivation                           25
The Complex Model….

 V                                                     Perceived
                                                       Equity of
     Value of         Skills, Abilities   Extrinsic    Rewards
     Reward             and Traits        Rewards

      Effort            Performance Goals             Satisfaction
                       Role               Intrinsic
                     Perception           Rewards
              A Simplified Model


Spring 2007                Motivation                27
              Equity Theory
              • Employees must believe they are treated fairly, or
                motivation will wane. Equity theory maintains that
                employees evaluate their inputs (IS) in relation to
                their outcomes (OS) as compared to the inputs (IO)
                and outcomes (OO) of others to determine fairness.

                   Is   IO
                   Os OO
Spring 2007                          Motivation                       28
              Responses to Perceived Inequity
              • Change perception of own outputs
              • Change perception of own inputs
              • Change own outputs (ask for raise)
              • Change own inputs (work less)
              • Change perception of others’ inputs or outputs
              • Choose a different referent
              • Withdraw from situation (quit)

Spring 2007                       Motivation                     29
   Job Characteristics Model
   Core Job                   Critical              Personal and
  Dimensions            Psychological States       Work Outcomes

   Skill Variety           Experienced              High Internal
  Task Identity           Meaningfulness           Work Motivation
Task Significance          of the Work
                                                   Work Performance
    Autonomy             Responsibility for
                         Work Outcomes             High Satisfaction
                                                    With the Work
                         Knowledge of the
   Feedback             Actual Results of the      Low Absenteeism
                           Work Activities           And Turnover

                    Strength of Employee Growth Need

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