Docstoc

phy sci atoms and periodic table homework

Document Sample
phy sci atoms and periodic table homework Powered By Docstoc
					                                PHYSICAL SCIENCE
                             Atoms and Periodic Table Unit

Day 1a: Lab: Indirect evidence, or how do we know what’s inside the atom?
Before class:     Read the during class instructions. Write down any
questions you have.
During class:
Each group will be given a container of Play-Doh and three pieces of hardware from the
following list:
     Large Nail
     Small Nail
     Screw Eye
     Hex Head Bolt
     Flat Washer
No group has two of the same object. Samples of the objects are located on Mrs.
Schafer’s desk.

   1.  With your lab group, bury your hardware in your Play-Doh. Draw your “atom”
      below. Make sure to draw your pieces of hardware in the correct positions and
      orientations. Label the pieces of hardware. Insert a broken toothpick into the
      top of your atom to serve as a point of reference (so everyone knows which side
      is the top). Label the pieces of hardware.
   2. Trade atoms with another lab group. Use a toothpick to probe their atom. Push
      the toothpick straight into the atom and pull it straight out – don’t dig around. If
      you are caught “cheating” by digging around or trying to see the hardware, you
      will get zero points for this day. By this indirect investigation, you want to draw
      their atom complete with its pieces of hardware in the correct positions and
      orientations. Be sure to label the hardware.
   3. Now compare your drawing of the other group’s atom to what is actually in their
      atom. Which parts (if any) did you have wrong?

When you are finished, remove the hardware from the Play-Doh and clean it off. Put the
Play-Doh back in the container and put the lid on tightly. Bring the Play-Doh and
hardware up to Mrs. Schafer’s desk.
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. What factors may have caused you to make mistakes when identifying
     the contents of the other group’s atom?
  2. Would it have been easier if you could have just opened up the atom to
     see what was in it? Why or why not?
  3. What was the purpose of this lab? (How is this related to developing a
     model of a real atom?)
                              PHYSICAL SCIENCE
                           Atoms and Periodic Table Unit

Day 1b:                                Pretest
During class:
   1. 10 minutes - Work through the pretest by yourself without using your book. You
      aren’t expected to know all the answers – just do the best you can.
   2. 15 minutes - Using your book, try to find the answers you didn’t know.
   3. remaining time - Working with a partner or in a group of three, compare your
      answers. If you have different answers, see if you can determine who’s right.

Day 2:    Objectives 4.1.1, 4.1.2
Before class: Read section 4-1
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. Who was the first person known to suggest an atomic theory?
   2. Explain how a blueberry muffin is similar to Thomson’s atomic
      model.
   3. Who discovered the nucleus of an atom?
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Summarize the main ideas of Dalton’s theory.
  2. Explain why Dalton’s theory was more successful than Democritus’s
     theory.
  3. Does the term indivisible still describe the atom? Explain.


Day 3:    Objectives 4.2.1, 4.2.2
Before class: Read pages 119 – 124
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. Define: a. nucleus, b. electron, c. proton, d. neutron, e. atomic
      number, f. isotope
   2. How does the mass of an electron compare to the mass of a
      proton?
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Describe three kinds of particles in an atom. Include their names,
     charges, and locations.
  2. Explain how you can use an atom’s mass number and atomic number
     to determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the
     atom.
  3. Explain why the masses of atoms of the same element may differ.
  4. If an atom loses electrons, what will be its overall charge? Explain.
                            PHYSICAL SCIENCE
                         Atoms and Periodic Table Unit
   5. Calculate the number of neutrons that each of the following isotopes
      contains. Use the periodic table to find the atomic numbers.
         a. carbon-14
         b. nitrogen-15
         c. sulfur-35
         d. calcium-45

Day 4:    Objective 4.2.3
Before class: Read pages 124 – 127
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. Define: a. atomic mass unit, b. Avogadro’s number, c. molar mass
   2. How many atoms of carbon are in one mole of carbon?
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Explain why the masses of atoms of the same element may differ.
  2. Determine the molar mass of each of the following elements:
         a. manganese
         b. cadmium
         c. arsenic
         d. strontium
  3. What is the mass in grams of 0.48 mol of platinum?
  4. What is the mass in grams of 3.1 mol of mercury?
  5. How many moles does 11 g of silicon contain?
  6. How many moles does 205 g of helium contain?
  7. Which contains a greater number of moles: 3.0 g of iron or 2.0 g of
     sulfur?

Day 5:    Objectives 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.3
Before class: Read section 4-3
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. Define: a. orbital, b. valence electron, c. ground state, d. exicted
      state, e. photon
   2. How does the electron-wave model of the atom differ from earlier
      atomic models?
   3. What makes an electron jump from the ground state to an excited
      state?
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Compare and contrast an atom’s structure to a ladder. Identify at
     least one way in which a ladder is a good model for an atom and at
     least one way in which a ladder is not a good model for an atom.
                              PHYSICAL SCIENCE
                           Atoms and Periodic Table Unit
   2. Explain how Bohr’s model and the modern model of the atom differ in
      terms of the path of an electron.
   3. How many valence electrons does nitrogen (Z=7) have?
   4. Neon signs light up because atoms first gain energy from electricity
      and then release this energy in the form of light. What happens to the
      electrons as the light is released?

Day 6a:    Objectives 4.2.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2
Before class: Read the Quick Labs on pages 122 and 131
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. How many protons and electrons does a hydrogen atom have?
   2. How many protons and electrons does a helium atom have?
   3. How do you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom if you
      know the number of protons and the mass number?
   4. What types of orbitals (s, p, d, f) does each of the following energy
      levels contain?
         a. 1
         b. 2
         c. 3
         d. 4
During class:
   1. Perform the procedure for the Quick Lab on page 122. You will be using
      marshmallows instead of gumdrops.
   2. Perform the first three steps of the Quick Lab on page 131
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Answer the analysis questions for the Quick Lab on page 122.
  2. Perform step four of the Quick Lab on page 131.

Day 6b: worksheet to come later
Day 7: Skills Demonstrated: finding a pattern and organizing information
Before class:        Read the Inquiry Lab on page 143
Answer the following on the back of your blank seating chart. Complete
sentences are not needed.
   1. Should you get information from everyone in the class at the
      beginning of the lab? Why or why not?
   2. What should you do if your first pattern doesn’t fit the new
      information you gathered at the beginning?
                               PHYSICAL SCIENCE
                            Atoms and Periodic Table Unit

During class:
   1. Perform the Inquiry Lab on page 143. Remember that the only information that
      could be used to create the seating chart is information to which Mrs. Schafer
      has access.
After class:
Answer the following on the back of your seating chart using complete
sentences.
   1. Explain the patterns you found and how you found them.
   2. What does this lab have to do with the Periodic Table of Elements?

Day 8:    Objectives 5.1.1, 5.1.2, 5.1.3
Before class: Read section 5-1
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. Define: a. periodic law, b. period, c. group, d. exicted state, e.
      photon
   2. Why did Mendeleev leave gaps in the periodic table?
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Metals conduct electricity well, while nonmetals do not. Which
     element should conduct electricity better: germanium, aluminum, or
     helium?
  2. Are the properties of sodium more like the properties of lithium or
     magnesium? Explain your answer.
  3. Identify the following on the periodic table.
         a. the chemical symbol for mercury
         b. the period and group of gold
         c. the atomic mass of iron
         d. the atomic number of neon
         e. the element represented by Cu

Day 9:    Objectives 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.2.3
Before class: Read section 5-2
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. Define: a. ion, b. metal, c. nonmetal, d. semiconductor,
      e. ionization, f. insulators, g. metalloids
   1. Why do group 1 and group 17 elements easily form ions?
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Explain why some atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions.
  2. Describe why lithium and other group 1 elements usually form positive
     ions, while fluorine and other group 17 elements form negative ions.
                               PHYSICAL SCIENCE
                            Atoms and Periodic Table Unit
   3. Predict which ions cesium forms: Cs+ ions or Cs2+ ions. Explain your
      answer
   4. Determine whether elements that fit the following descriptions are
      more likely to be metals or nonmetals:
         a. a shiny substance used to make flexible bed springs
         b. a yellow powder from underground mines
         c. a gas that does not react
         d. a conducting material used within flexible wires
         e. a brittle substance that does not conduct heat

Day 10:    Objectives 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3
Before class: Read section 5-3
Answer the following. Complete sentences are not needed.
   1. Define: a. alkali metal, b. alkaline earth metal, c. transition metal,
      d. noble gas, e. halogen, f. family, g. radioactive
   2. What are some examples of transition metals
   3. Why are the noble gases unreactive?
After class:
Answer the following using complete sentences.
  1. Describe why atoms of bromine are very reactive. To which family
     does bromine belong?
  2. Identify which element is more reactive: lithium or beryllium.
     Explain your answer.
  3. Imagine that you are a scientist who is analyzing an unknown
     element. You have confirmed that the element is a metal, but you do
     not know which kind of metal it is: an alkali metal, an alkaline-earth
     metal, or a transition metal. Write a paragraph describing the
     additional tests that you can do to further classify this metal.

Days 11 and 12:                    All Objectives
Before class:         Read the Quick Lab on page 160. Study chapters 4
and 5.
During class:
Perform the Quick Lab on page 160. For Analysis number 3, you do not need to make a
spreadsheet. Simply describe what you would do to calculate the number of grams of a
metal that you could buy with $100 using the information given in the table. Include an
example of one of the given metals.

Answer the following questions from the chapter 4 review on pages 138 – 139. Complete
sentences are not needed. You make work in a group of 2 or 3 if you wish. 2 – 5, 7 – 14,
18 – 20, 23, 25 – 28
                                PHYSICAL SCIENCE
                             Atoms and Periodic Table Unit
Answer the following questions from the chapter 5 review on pages 170 – 171. Complete
sentences are not needed. You may work in a group of 2 or 3 if you wish. 1, 3, 6 – 14, 20,
26

After class:
Study for unit test

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:80
posted:12/2/2011
language:English
pages:7