Stills From Pan's Labyrinth

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					Stills From Pan’s Labyrinth

       Film Techniques
                     Mise en scene
• Mise en scene refers to the placement of visual elements
  on the screen
   –   Shot
   –   Angle
   –   Lighting
   –   Color, filter
   –   The dominant
   –   Placement of characters within the frame
   –   Framing
   –   Proxemic patterns
   –   Staging positions
   –   Composition
   –   Depth
• Shot – indicated by how much of an object or
  an actor’s body is visible within the camera
  – Extreme long shot, establishing shot – objects,
    people seen at a great distance – setting, distance
  – Long shot – distance from viewer to stage in a
    stage play
  – Full shot – the actor’s body fills the frame
• Medium shot – the actor can be seen from the
  knees or waist up – common shot, dialogue
• Close-up – the actor’s face or a small object
  fills the frame; nothing else can be seen –
  emotion, important detail
• Extreme close-up – only a small part of the
  actor’s face (e.g. eye, mouth) or an object can
  be seen – intense emotion, important detail
• Deep-focus shot – long shot showing objects
  at close, medium, and long range in focus
  simultaneously – viewer’s eye is drawn into
  the scene
Long Shot
Full Shot
Medium Shot
Close Up
Deep Focus Shot
Deep Focus
• Angles are determined by the position of the
  camera in relation to the object being
  – Bird’s-eye view – Scene is photographed from
    directly overhead, disorienting – may make people
    shown seem small, unimportant
  – High angle – Makes the subject seem
    unimportant, small – may give a the viewer a
    sense of power
• Eye level – Most common angle, not very
  dramatic – seldom used to convey emotion or
  important information about a character
• Low angle – makes object, character seem more
  important and powerful – makes viewer feel
  fearful, insecure
• Extreme low angle – invokes fear, discomfort in
• Oblique angle – disorienting -- may show
  character’s point of view, indicating disorientation
  or drunkenness
Bird’s Eye View
High Angle
Eye Level
Low Angle
Extreme Low Angle
            Lighting, Color, Filters
• Lighting key = lighting style
   – High key – bright, even lighting – happiness, joy
   – Low key – dark, shadowy – mystery, suspense, drama, the
     unknown – evokes fear
   – High contrast – combination of dark and bright light
   – Lighting keys can be combined in a single shot
• Colors
   – Warm (red, orange, yellow) – stimulation, action, excitement
   – Cool (blue, green) – calm, aloof, distant
   – Some colors have symbolic importance (e.g. red)
• Filters can be used to emphasize a particular color, may
  have emotional or symbolic impact
Low Key
High Contrast
              The Dominant
• The object in the frame to which the viewer’s
  eye is first drawn
  – May be indicated by size or color
  – Often of great (sometimes symbolic) importance
Placement of Characters or Objects
        within a Frame
  • Dominant characters, more important characters
    occupy more space
  • Top = powerful, dominant
  • Bottom = powerless, weak, less important
  • Left and right sides of = placing characters here
    suggests their insignificance or may be used to suggest
    danger , the unknown (We do not know what is beyond
    the edge of the frame.)
  • Most important object may be placed beyond the
    edges of the frame – especially if associated with
    mystery or death
• Framing – The amount of space of within the
  frame has symbolic meaning
  – Tight frame – close-up shots, crowded shots = lack
    of freedom
  – Loose frame = freedom
            Proxemic Patterns
• Proxemic patterns = the relationship of
  characters within a given space
  – The greater the distance between the camera and
    the character, the greater the sense of emotional
  – The smaller the distance between the camera and
    the character, the greater the sense of emotional
  – The distance between characters also implies their
    emotional relationship.
               Staging Position
• Character’s position in relation to the camera
  – Full front (facing camera) – great emotional
    involvement of viewer with actor
  – Quarter turn (slightly turned away from camera) –
    most popular position – intimacy yet less emotional
  – Profile (looking off frame) – Character is unaware of
    being observed
  – Three-quarter turn (only a small portion of the face is
    visible) – Character is unfriendly, antisocial
  – Back to camera – lack of involvement, mystery
• Composition refers to the way in which the visual
  elements of a frame are arranged or put together.
  Frames in films are often arranged the way that
  paintings are arranged.
• Lines may be used to direct the viewer’s eye.
  – Diagonal lines convey a sense of movement, tension
  – Lines may point to most important element in the
• Recurrent patterns, shapes
• Films are usually arranged on three planes:
   – Foreground – Objects in the foreground usually
     provide important information about a scene or the
     film, foreshadowing
   – Midground
   – Background
• Use of three planes give film a sense of depth.
• Placement of objects, characters on different
  planes changes the meaning of objects,
All three planes are of importance

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