synthetic biology by sritrirat.t

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synthetic biology,learning,genetic,cell,system,technology,organism,dna,engineering

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									                                                                                                                                 09/12/51




                 Synthetic Biology
                    ชีววิทยาสังเคราะห์                                              ทําไมในปัจจุบันวิศวกรถึงต้ องเรียนชีววิทยา
                      Asawin Meechai


                วิชา BIO 100 ภาคการศึกษา 2/2551
                          8 ธันวาคม 2551
                                                                         09/12/51




                                                                                                            ั
                                                                                           ยุคสมัยของการปฏิวติเทคโนโลยี


                                                    ่
                                                เมืออนาคตไล่ ล่าคุณ                        Opportunities!!!!!!!

                                            คุณจะรู้ ว่า จีโนมิกส์ และ
                                                           ่
                                                   อํานาจอืนๆ กําลัง
                                                 ่            ิ
                                           เปลียนแปลง ชีวต การงาน
                                            สุ ขภาพ และความรํ่ารวย
                                                   ของคุณได้ อย่ างไร

09/12/51                                                                 09/12/51




           ชีววิทยาคือการศึกษาเกี่ยวกับสิ่ งมีชีวต
                                                 ิ




                      ความเหมือนในความแตกต่ าง




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                                                                                       Bacterial Cell




                                                                              Plant Cell




                                                                                           Animal Cell
                                                                                                            Cell as a Factory
                                                                                                            Cell as I/O systems




        โรงงานเซลล์ กเ็ หมือนกับโรงงานเคมี




Cell likes a micro factory that contains many nano facilities for operation                          ภาพดีเอ็นเอจากกล้ องจุลทรรศน์ อเิ ล็คตรอน

  Bio-products are invaluable.                       Biotechnology




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                                                                                                                                                                                                         09/12/51




                                                                                       Variations




                             What a difference genes make!




Human Growth
 D   l     t
 Development




                                                                 GENETIC CODE of AIDS
        A Genetic Language   gggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaagtagtgtgtgcccgtctgttgtgtgactctgatagctagagatcccttcagaccaaatttagtcagtgtgaaaa
                             atctctagcagtggcgcctgaacagggacttgaaagcgaaagagaaaccagagaagctctctcgacgcaggactcggcttgctgaagcgcgcacggcaagaggcgaggggacggcgactggtgagtacgccaaaattttgactagcggaggctagaaggagagagatgggtgc
                             gagagcgtcgatattaagcgggggaggattagatagatgggaaaaaattcggttaaggccagggggaaagaaaaaatatagattaaaacatttagtatgggcaagcagggagctagaacgattcgcagtcaatcctggcctattagaaacatcagaaggttgtagacaaatac
                             tgggacaactacaaccagcccttcagacaggatcagaagaacttagatcattatataatacagtagcaaccctctattgtgtgcatcaaaagatagatgtaaaagacaccaaggaagctttagataagatagaggaagagcaaaacaaaagtaagaaaaaagcacagcaagca
                             gcagctgacacaggaaatagcagccaggtcagccaaaattaccccatagtgcagaacatccaggggcaaatggtacatcaggccatatcacctagaactttaaatgcatgggtaaaagtagtagaagagaaggctttcagcccagaagtaatacccatgttttcagcattatc
                             agaaggagccaccccacaagatttaaacaccatgctaaacacagtggggggacatcaagcagccatgcaaatgttaaaagagaccatcaatgaggaagctgcagaatgggatagattgcatccagtgcatgcagggcctcatccaccaggccagatgagagaaccaaggggaa
                             gtgacatagcaggaactactagtacccttcaggaacaaatagcatggatgacaaataatccacctatcccagtaggagaaatctataagagatggataatcctgggattaaataaaatagtaaggatgtatagccctaccagcattctggacataaaacaaggaccaaaggaa
                             ccctttagagactatgtagaccggttctataagactctaagagccgagcaagcttcacaggaggtaaaaaattggatgacagaaaccttgttggtccaaaatgcgaacccagattgtaagactattttaaaagcattgggaccagcagctacactagaagaaatgatgacagc
                             atgtcagggagtgggaggacccggccataaagcaagagttttggcagaagcaatgagccaagtaacaaattcagctaccataatgatgcagaaaggcaattttaggaaccaaagaaaaattgttaagtgtttcaattgtggcaaagaagggcacatagccaaaaattgcaggg
                             cccctaggaaaaggggctgttggaaatgtggaaaggagggacaccaaatgaaagattgtactgagagacaggctaattttttagggaaaatctggccttcccacaggggaaggccagggaattttcctcagaacagactagagccaacagccccaccagccccaccagaagag
                             agcttcaggtttggggaagagacaacaactccctctcagaagcaggagctgatagacaaggaactgtatccttcagcttccctcaaatcactctttggcaacgaccccttgtcacaataaagataggggggcaactaaaggaagctctattagatacaggagcagatgataca
                             gtattagaagaaataaatttgccaggaagatggaaaccaaaaatgatagggggaattggaggttttatcaaagtaagacagtatgatcaaatactcgtagaaatctgtggacataaagctataggtacagtattagtaggacctacacctgtcaacataattggaagaaatct
                             gttgactcagattggttgcactttaaattttcccattagtcctattgaaactgtaccagtaaaattaaagccaggaatggatggcccaaaagttaaacaatggccattgacagaagaaaaaataaaagcattagtagaaatctgtacagaaatggaaaaggaaggaaaaattt
                             caaaaatcgggcctgaaaatccatataatactccagtatttgccataaagaaaaaagacagtactaaatggagaaaattagtagatttcagagaacttaataagaaaactcaagacttctgggaagttcaattaggaataccacatcccgcagggttaaaaaagaaaaaatca
                             gtaacagtactggatgtgggtgatgcatatttttcagttcccttagataaagaattcaggaagtacactgcatttaccatacctagtataaacaatgagacaccagggattagatatcagtacaatgtgcttccacagggatggaaaggatcaccagcaatattccaaagcag
                             catgacaaaaatcttagagccttttagaaaacaaaatccagacatagttatctatcaatacatggacgatttgtatgtaggatctgacttagaaatagggcagcatagaacaaaaatagaggaactgagacaacatctgttgaagtggggatttaccacaccagacaaaaaac
                             atcagaaagaacctccattcctttggatgggttatgaactccatcctgataaatggacagtacagcctatagtgctgccagaaaaggacagctggactgtcaatgacatacagaagttagtgggaaaattgaattgggcaagtcagatttacccagggattaaagtaaagcaa
                             ttatgtagactccttaggggaaccaaggcactaacagaagtaataccactaacaaaagaagcagagctagaactggcagaaaacagggaaattctaaaagaaccagtacatggagtgtattatgacccatcaaaagacttaatagcggaaatacagaagcaggggcaaggtca
                             atggacatatcaaatttatcaagagccatttaaaaatctgaaaacaggaaaatatgcaagaatgaggggtgcccacactaatgatgtaaaacaattaacagaggcagtgcaaaaaataaccacagaaagcatagtaatatggggaaagactcctaaatttaaactacccatac
                             aaaaagaaacatgggaaacatggtggacagagtattggcaagccacctggattcctgagtgggagtttgtcaatacccctcccttagtaaaattatggtaccagttagagaaagaacccataataggagcagaaactttctatgtagatggggcagctaacagggagactaaa
                             ttaggaaaagcaggatatgttactaacaaagggagacaaaaagttgtctccataactgacacaacaaatcagaagactgagttacaagcaattcttctagcattacaggattctggattagaagtaaacatagtaacagactcacaatatgcattaggaatcattcaagcaca
                                   t     t   t      t t
                             accagataaaagtgaatcagagatagtcagtcaaataatagagcagttaataaaaaaagaaaaggtctacctgacatgggtaccagcgcacaaaggaattggaggaaatgaacaagtagataaattagtcagtactggaatcaggaaagtactctttttagatggaatagata
                                                           t    t t        tt t               t t   t    t   t                 tt        t       t   t   tt t    t t     t        t t ttttt    t    t   t
                             aagcccaagaagaacatgaaaaatatcacagtaattggagggcaatggctagtgattttaacctgccacctgtggtagcaaaagagatagtagccagctgtgataaatgtcagctaaaaggagaagccatgcatggacaagtagactgtagtccaggaatatggcaactagat
                             tgtacacatttagaaggaaaaattatcctggtagcagttcatgtagccagtggatatatagaagcagaagttattccagcagaaacagggcaggaaacagcatactttctcttaaaattagcaggaagatggccagtaaaaacagtacatacagacaatggcagcaatttcac
                             cagtactacagttaaggccgcctgttggtgggcaggaatcaagcaggaatttggcattccctacaatccccaaagtcaaggagtagtagaatctataaataaagaattaaagaaagttataggacagataagagatcaggctgaacatcttaagacagcagtacaaatggcag
                             tattcatccacaattttaaaagaaaaggggggattggggggtacagtgcaggggaaagaatagtagacataatagcaacagacatacaaactaaagaactacaaaaacaaattacaaaaattcaaaattttcgggtttattacagggacagcagagatccactttggaaagga
                             ccagcaaagcttctctggaaaggtgaaggggcagtagtaatacaagataatagtgacataaaagtagtgccaagaagaaaagcaaagatcattagggattatggaaaacagatggcaggtgatgattgtgtggcaagtagacaggatgaggattagaacatggaaaagtttag
                             taaaacaccatatgtatgtttcaaggaaagctaagggatggttttatagacatcactatgaaagtactcatccgagaataagttcagaagtacacatcccactagggaatgcaaaattggtaataacaacatattggggtctacatacaggagaaagagactggcatttgggt
                             caaggagtctccatagaattgaggaaaaggagatatagcacacaattagaccctaacctagcagaccaactaattcatctgcattactttgattgtttttcagaatctgctataagaaatgccatattaggacatatagttagccctaggtgtgaatatcaagcaggacataa
                             caaggtaggatctctacagtacttggcactaacagcattagtaagaccaagaaaaaagataaagccacctttgcctagtgttacaaaactgacagaggatagatggaacaagccccagaagaccaagggccacaaagggaaccatacaatgaatggacactagaacttttaga
                             ggagctcaagaatgaagctgttagacattttcctaggatatggctccatagcttagggcaacatatctatgaaacttatggagatacttgggcaggagtggaagccataataagaattctgcaacaactgctgtttattcatttcagaattgggtgtcaacatagcagaatag
                             acattcttcgacgaaggagagcaagaaatggagccagtagatcctagactagagccctggaagcatccaggaagtcagcctaggactgcttgtaccaattgctattgtaaaaagtgttgctttcattgccaagtttgtttcataacaaaaggcttaggcatctcctatggcag
                             gaagaagcggagacagcgacgaagagctcctcaagacagtcagactcatcaagtttctctatcaaagcagtaagtagtacatgtaatgcaatctttacaaatattagcagtagtagcattagtagtagcagcaataatagcaatagttgtgtggtccatagtattcatagaat
                             ataggaaaataagaagacaaaacaaaatagaaaggttgattgatagaataatagaaagagcagaagacagtggcaatgagagtgacggagatcaggaagaattatcagcacttgtggaaatggggcacgatgctccttgggatgttaatgatctgtaaagctgcagaaaattt
                             gtgggtcacagtttattatggggtacctgtgtggaaagaagcaaccaccactctattttgtgcctcagatgctaaagcgtatgatacagaggtacataatgtttgggccacacatgcctgtgtacccacagaccccaacccacaagaagtagaactgaagaatgtgacagaaa
                             attttaacatgtggaaaaataacatggtagaccaaatgcatgaggatataattagtttatgggatcaaagcctaaagccatgtgtaaaattaaccccactctgtgttactttaaattgcactgattatgggaatgatactaacaccaataatagtagtgctactaaccccact
                             agtagtagcgggggaatggaggggagaggagaaataaaaaattgctctttcaatatcaccagaagcataagagataaagtgaagaaagaatatgcacttttttatagtcttgatgtaataccaataaaagatgataatactagctataggttgagaagttgtaacacctcagt
                             cattacacaggcctgtccaaaggtatcctttgaaccaattcccatacattattgtgccccggctggttttgcgattctaaagtgtaatgataaaaagttcaatggaaaaggaccatgtacaaatgtcagcacagtacaatgtacacatggaattaggccagtagtatcaactc
                             aactgctgttaaatggcagtctagcagaagaagaggtagtaattagatcagacaatttctcggacaatgctaaagtcataatagtacatctgaatgaatctgtagaaattaattgtacaagactcaacaacattacaaggagaagtatacatgtaggacatgtaggaccaggc
                             agagcaatttatacaacaggaataataggaaaaataagacaagcacattgtaacattagtagagcaaaatggaataacactttaaaacagatagttacaaaattaagagaacaatttaagaataaaacaatagtctttaatcaatcctcaggaggggacccagaaattgtaat
                             gcacagttttaattgtggaggggaatttttctactgtaattcaacacaactgtttaacagtacttggaatggtactgcatggtcaaataacactgaaggaaatgaaaatgacacaatcacactcccatgcagaataaaacaaattataaacatgtggcaggaagtaggaaaag
                             caatgtatgcacctcccatcagaggacaaattagatgttcatcaaatattacagggctgatattaacaagagatggtggtattaaccagaccaacaccaccgagattttcaggcctggaggaggagatatgaaggacaattggagaagtgaattatataaatataaagtagta
                             aaaattgaaccattaggagtagcacccaccaaggcaaagagaagagtggtgcaaagagaaaaaagagcagtgggaataataggagctatgctccttgggttcttgggagcagcaggaagcactatgggcgcagcgtcaatgacgctgacggtacaggccagacaattattgtc
                             tggtatagtgcaacagcagaacaatttgctgagggctattgaggcgcaacagcatctgttgcacctcacagtctggggcatcaagcagctccaagcaagagtcctggctgtggaaagatacctaagggatcaacagctcctggggttttggggttgctctggaaaactcattt
                             gcaccactgctgtgccttggaatactagttggagtaataaatctctgagtcagatttgggataacatgacctggatgcagtgggaaagggaaattgataattacacaagcttaatatacaacttaattgaagaatcgcaaaaccaacaagaaaagaatgaacaagagttattg
                             gaattagataactgggcaagtttgtggaattggtttagcataacaaattggctgtggtatataaaaatattcataatgatagtaggaggcttggtaggtttaagaatagtttttactgtactttctatagtaaatagagttaggcagggatactcaccattgtcgtttcagac
                             gcgcctcccagccaggaggggacccgacaggcccgaaggaatcgaagaagaaggtggagagagagacagagacagatccggtcaattagtggatggattcttagcaattatctgggtcgacctgcggagcctgtgcctcttcagctaccaccgcttgagagacttactcttga
                             ttgtaacgaggattgtggaacttctgggacgcagggggtgggaagccctcaaatattggtggaatctcctacaatattggattcaggaactaaagaatagtgctgttagcttgctcaacgccacagccatagcagtagctgagggaactgatagggttatagaagtattacaa
                             agagcttgtagagctattctccacatacctagaagaataagacagggcttagaaagggctttgcaataagatgggtggtaagtggtcaaaaagtagtaaaattggatggcctactgtaagggaaagaatgagaagagctgagccagcagcagatggggtgggagcagtatctc
                             gagacctggaaaaacatggagcaatcacaagtagtaatacagcaactaacaatgctgattgtgcctggctagaagcacaagaggaggaggaggtgggttttccagtcagacctcaggtacctttaagaccaatgacttacaagggagcgttagatcttagccactttttaaaa
                             gaaaaggggggactggaagggctaatttggtcccagaaaagacaagacatccttgatttgtgggtccaccacacacaaggctacttccctgattggcagaactacacaccagggccagggatcagatatccactgacctttggttggtgcttcaagctagtaccagttgagcc
                             agagaaggtagaagaggccaatgaaggagagaacaacagattgttacaccctgtgagcctgcatgggatggaggacccggagaaagaagtgttagtatggaggtttgacagccgcctagtactccgtcacatggcccgagagctgcatccggagtactacaaggactgctgac
                             actgagctttctacaagggactttccgctggggactttccagggaggcgtggcctgggcgggactggggagtggcgagccctcagatgctgcatataagcagctgctttttgcctgtactgggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagg
                              09/12/51
                             gaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttca



                                             Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, complete genome 9214 BP




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OUR GENETIC CODE
                                                                                     Becoming one and the same
             CONSISTS OF

Three Billion Letters                                                                  An orange                       A CD-rom
      [3,000,000,000]
              (A, T, C, AND G)….
               WITHIN…
           EACH ONE…OF OUR


Fifty Thrillion Cells
 [50,000,000,000,000].
                                                                              ATCGCATGTGAC                          1001110101110
   09/12/51
  “As The Future Catches You” by Juan Enriquez (2001)
                                                                                     Natural digital               Computational digital




                                                                                       กลไกการถอดรหัสของยีนส์
          เราจะอ่ าน                GENETIC CODE        ได้ อย่ างไร   Central dogma of molecular biology




                                                                                                          See
                                                                                                       animation




                          หน้ าตาของโปรตีนเป็ นอย่ างไร
                                                                         กรดอะมิโน
                                                                         20 ตัว




                                                                          09/12/51




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                                                                 การถอดรหัสพันธุกรรม
     ภาษาไทย: คุณชื่ออะไร
                                                • 3 bases (triplets) of A, C, G, T are used to
     ภาษาอังกฤษ:   I love you                     code for 20 essential amino acids

            ิ
    ภาษาชีีวต:                                  • 64 possible codes (4x4x4)
    TACATGTTACGCTACCTTTAGAGACGGAGG                – 61 amino acid coding codons
    CGCACCTATTTGTACCTTCTCACAGTACGT
                                                  – 3 terminating codons (“full stops”)
    TAA

                                                • 3rd base is degenerate (redundant)




                 ตารางการถอดรหัส DNA
                                                 Game: Cracking a genetic code


                                                 Can you read this genetic code?

                                                 TACATGTTACGCTACCTTTAGAGACGGAGG
                                                 CGCACCTATTTGTACCTTCTCACAGTACGT
                                                 TAA
Start codon




                                                                                ื
                                                           ชีววิทยาสั งเคราะห์ คออะไร
              Synthetic Biology                 • Synthetic biology is a new area of
                 ชีววิทยาสังเคราะห์               biological research that combines science
                                                  and engineering in order to design and
                   Asawin Meechai                 build ("synthesize") novel biological
                                                  functions and systems.

              วิชา BIO 100 ภาคการศึกษา 2/2551
                       8 ธันวาคม 2551              From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




                                                                                                       5
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           ชีววิทยาสั งเคราะห์ คออะไร
                                ื                        Genetic Engineering
  Engineering new     Redesigning
     biological     existing systems
                                                                         DNA sequence
   systems that      to understand
   don’t exist in   their underlying
                                y g
       nature         mechanisms
                                                                         Cut and insert




                                                                           Amplify
          Are these possible???
                                        Who am I?




Genetic Engineering                                 Engineers Love to Build Things




              Electronic Parts                         A collection of reusable parts




                                                                                                6
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          Building Cars         Computer Parts




                                  Lego-Trains
Sweeper Bot               Jet




              Ships               Lego-Bricks




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                Imagination is the Limit!
                                                            Creating Life by Engineering
                                                                     Approach

                                                                                   Synthesize




                                                       Well understood parts                                            Who am I?
                                                                                      Foundation for engineering biology, 2005, Nature reviews




Bringing engineering principles to biology
Systems
 Combinations of 1 or more devices that                     Creating Life with BioBrick?
 encode human-defined functions


Devices
Combinations of 1or more parts that
encode human-defined functions



Parts
Basic biological functions
that can be encoded as
genetic material

DNA
                             TAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGA              BioBrick: Standard biological parts
Genetic material




                                                                               Biobricks
                     What is Biobrick?

     BioBrick standard biological parts are DNA
     sequences of defined structure and function




                                                                                                                                                 8
                                                         09/12/51




      Making an Inverter




                                         Biobricks




                                      Constructing DNA
                 ี่   ้ ั
ลองมาสร้ างเซลล์ทลอยนําได้ กนเถอะ




                        I can float




                                                               9
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              Programming Genetic                                                   ี่   ้
                                                                        สร้ างเซลล์ทลอยนําได้




               Synthetic Organisms
•   Magnetic Bacteria,               •   Counter, time bomb
•   Fuel, bio-removal                •   Biogurt
•   Betacarotine production          •   “Bug Busters”
•   Counter in yeast                 •   Kill bad E.coli O157:H7
•   Slot machine                     •           O Clock
                                         Bacter O’Clock
•   Yeast biosensor                  •   Hormone biosensor                            This comic appeared in the following article

•   Bioprinter                       •   Biobeer                                      Story: Drew Endy, Isadora Deese & The MIT Synthetic
•   Starch-producing E.coli          •   Thermometer                                  Biology Working Group
                                                                                      Art: Chuck Wadey, www.chuckwadey.com
•   Yeast sex detector               •   Lysophonix - sound sensitive                 Nature 438, 449 - 453 (24 November 2005)
•   Bacterial drug delivery system       bacteria                                     doi:10.1038/nature04342

•   “Redhawk: Search and             •   Singing bacteria                             Founda  tions for engineering biology p
                                                                                      Story: Drew Endy, Isadora Deese & The MIT Synthe Biology Working Grou
                                                                                      Art: Chuck Wa
                                                                                                   ,
                                                                                                       dey, www.ch
                                                                                      Nature 438 449 - 453 (24 November 2005)
                                                                                      doi:10.1038 ture
                                                                                                  /na 04342
                                                                                                                             449

                                                                                                                    uckwadey.com
                                                                                                                                      tic                  p




    destroy”


                                                     And more . . .




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สรุปการสร้ าง Synthetic Cells                                                                               การสร้ าง Synthetic Cells

                            Selection of parts =                                                                                 Putting parts together =
                            gene and regulators                                                                                 input, gates, and output




    Synthetic biology - new engineering rules for an emerging discipline, 2006, Molecular systems biology     Synthetic biology - new engineering rules for an emerging discipline, 2006, Molecular systems biology




 การสร้ าง Synthetic Cells                                                                                  การสร้ าง Synthetic Cells

                      Combination of gates =                                                                                    Introduce circuit into cell
                        Pathway (circuit)




    Synthetic biology - new engineering rules for an emerging discipline, 2006, Molecular systems biology     Synthetic biology - new engineering rules for an emerging discipline, 2006, Molecular systems biology




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           14
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             การสร้ าง Synthetic Cells

                      Special task can be done                                                                                             iGEM -
                        by more than one cell                                                                             The International Genetically Engineered
                                                                               Network                                              Machine Competition


                                                                                      Hello E. coli



                                                                    Hi Strepto

                  Synthetic biology - new engineering rules for an emerging discipline, 2006, Molecular systems biology




                                                                                                                          iGEM-initiated publications
2003 (Jan)
2004 (Jan)
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008




   iGEM-initiated publications                                                                                               iGEM-initiated publications




                                                                                                                                                                      15
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  iGEM-initiated publications                             iGEM-initiated publications




   iGEM-initiated publications

                                                                      iGEM 2008 Projects
                                              •   RNA Logic, Biological Memory,         •   Ligase independent cloning
                                              •   Turing Patterns, Voltage Output,      •   Counter, time bomb
                                              •   Magnetic Bacteria,                    •   Ligain peroxide degrading
                                              •   Polutants                             •   Biogurt
                                              •   GFP Modification,                     •   Repressilator
                                                  Biomacromolecule                      •   “Bug Busters”
                                              •   Fuel, bio-removal                     •   Kill bad E.coli O157:H7
                                              •   Betacarotine production               •   Bacter O’Clock
                                              •   Quorum sensing                        •   Hormone biosensor
                                              •   Counter in yeast                      •   Bacterial UV sensor
                                              •   Game of life                          •   “Redhawk: Search and destroy”
                                              •   GM Symbiots                           •   Viral amplification
                                              •   Cyanobacteria                         •   Biobeer
                                              •   Slot machine                          •   Chemotaxis
                                              •   ‘Stress kit’, transcription factors   •   Thermometer
                                              •   Yeast biosensor                       •   Lysophonix - sound sensitive
                                              •   Bioprinter                                bacteria
                                              •   Starch-producing E.coli               •   Clotho (biocad)
                                              •   Yeast sex detector                    •   Multiplexor/Demultiplexor
                                              •   Bacterial drug delivery system        •   Singing bacteria

                                                                                                         And 40 more . . .




iGEM 2008 Jamboree, Nov 8-9, 2008, MIT, USA


                                                                   BIO100: KMUTT-GEM
                                                                        Projects
                                                                            j


                                                      Excellent ideas will be chosen for further
                                                                study for iGEM 2009




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                                              09/12/51




                                     ิ
                       การอ่านภาษาชีวต
             DNA strand:
             TACATGTTACGCTACCTTTAGAGACGGAGG
             CGCACCTATTTGTACCTTCTCACAGTACGT
Questions?   TAA
             mRNA:
             AUGUACAAUGCGAUGGAAAUCUCUGCCUCC
             GCGUGGAUAAACAUGGAAGAGUGUCAUGCA
             AUU
             Protein:
             MYNAMEISASAWINMEECHAI




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