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					      Chapter 9 - Intelligence
Definition
• Classic = verbal reasoning
     & visual-spatial problem-solving
• Neglects other aspects
Theories of Intelligence

A. Psychometric Theory
• Traits on which individuals differ
• Findings:
  - General mental ability (Spearman’s g)
  - S (special abilities)
  - Verbal vs. problem-solving
  - Fluid vs. crystallized
IQ & Aging
• Crystallized increases through life
• Fluid increases to young adulthood, then
  declines
• Slower processing speed
• IQ tests based on psychometric theory
• But only measure part of intelligence
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
• Information-processing
• How person processes information
3 Aspects of intelligent behavior:
• Context
  - “intelligent” depends on context
• Experience
  - doing well on familiar tasks is NOT intelligence
  - task must pose a challenge
  - BUT automatizing common tasks = intelligence
• Components/skills
  - must examine person’s cognitive
  processes in addition to answers
Incorporating into assessment
• Test behavior
  - how person approaches tasks
      (components/skills)
• Background
  - parents’ occupations & home environment
      (experience)
• Other observations (context)
Measuring Intelligence
• Test Construction
  - Select items
  - Norms
      Administer to standardization sample
      Scoring standards are based on group’s
              performance
      Group should be representative
- Standardized Testing
    Give test in same way to everyone
- Reliability
    Assess the test’s consistency
          (over time, over examiners, etc.)
    IQ is stable
          Reliability & Error
X=T+E
• X = person’s score
• T = person’s actual ability
• E = error in measuring person’s ability
             Sources of Error
1.   Person taking the test
2.   Situation
3.   Examiner
4.   Test content
5.   Time
- Validity
   Does test measure what it is supposed
          to measure?
   Compare test performance with related
          behavior
       Infant & Toddler Tests
• Measure development
  - not IQ (& may not be correlated)
  - how close development is to average for
  age (DQ)
  - to identify children at risk
Gesell Developmental Scales
• 4 scales (adaptive, motor, language,
  personal-social)
• Normed on small group of middle-class
  kids
Bayley Scales           (2-30 months)
- ability to manipulate toys

• Mental Scale - learning
• Motor Scale - controlling body
• Behavior Record - emotional adjustment
• Most commonly used
• Normed on 1,700 normal kids
  race/sex/geographic area/urban-rural/parent
  education
          Child & Adult Tests
History

Binet-Simon Scale - First intelligence test (1905)
• To identify “dull” kids for remedial work
• Test was reliable
• Test distinguished dull, average, bright by teacher
  ratings
• Reliable & valid
Binet: mental age
• Age at which child performs
Stanford-Binet (for ages 3-13)
• 1916 – Terman
• Normed on 1000 American kids
Terman: intelligence quotient (IQ)
  = MA x 100
    CA
  100 is average (MA=CA)
- To compare kids at different ages
- Problem: Still gives age at which child
  performs, not comparison to own agemates
Deviation IQ
• Compare kids to same-age peers
4 Main Tests

Stanford-Binet (2-90+)
• 2 hours
• Norms are representative (4,800 people)
      (SES, race, age, sex)
• 15 subtests
• IQ + other scores
Pros:
• Best test for very high/low IQs****
• Wide age span
• 2 equivalent forms
• Excellent norms
Cons:
• Lengthy
• Difficult to administer
• Lower examiner reliability
3 Wechsler Tests     .5-1.5 hours
• WPPSI-III (2.6-7.3) WISC-IV (6-16.11)
     WAIS-III (16-89)
• Also WASI (brief, ages 2-89)
• 11-13 subtests
• IQ + other scores
              Subtests
Verbal
• Information
• Digit Span
• Vocabulary
• Arithmetic
• Comprehension
• Similarities
Visual-Spatial
• Picture Completion
• Picture Arrangement
• Block Design
• Object Assembly
• Digit Symbol
Pros:
• Shorter
• Easier to administer
• Most commonly used
• Census-based norms
• Can compare performance across ages/tests
• For ages 6, 7 & 16, can pick best test
Con:
• Not as useful for IQ extremes
  - important for MR
   Wechsler IQ Classifications
130+       Very Superior
129-129    Superior
110-119    High Average
90-109     Average
80-89      Low Average
70-79      Borderline
<69        Mentally Retarded
K-ABC (2.5-12.5)       45-75 minutes
• No IQ score
• Composite
• Sequential/Simultaneous Processing
  - Sequential = in a series
  - Simultaneous = together
Pros:
• Differences in Seq/Sim can suggest
  interventions
• Flexible administration (hints, prompts)
• Short/quick
Cons:
• Unclear distinction between Sequential &
  Simultaneous
• Shorter age range
• Norms under-represent disadvantaged
  blacks & Hispanics**
McCarthy Scales (2.5-8.5)
• 45-60 minutes
• No IQ
• General Cognitive Index + 6 subscales
Pros:
• Gives profile of abilities
  - for kids with learning problems
• Includes motor coordination
• Census-based norms
• Very short
Cons:
• Few abstract or social judgment problems
• Restricted age range*
            Use of IQ tests
Historically
• 1905 - to identify kids needing remediation
• 1940s & 50s - widely given to categorize
• 1960s - aware of abuses, testing declined
Current uses
• To diagnose problems
• To rule out IQ problems
• To identify ways to help

NOT simply to place children in classrooms
To diagnose a learning disability
• Normal intelligence (IQ)
• Performing below level in 1+ subject
     (on achievement test)
 Factors that Influence IQ Scores
Heredity – Family, Twin, & Adoption Studies
IQ correlations are higher:
• For more closely related people
• For MZ than for DZ twins
• For MZ than for non-twin siblings
• For biological relatives
  - grows with age (3 vs. 7)

Strong influence of heredity on IQ
Environment/Socioeconomic Status (SES)
• Twin & Family studies
  - imperfect correlation for MZ twins
  - correlations higher if raised together
• Adoption Studies
  - some correlation with adoptive parents &
  siblings
• Impoverished Environments
  - lower than average IQs for kids in poor
  communities
• Enriched Environments
  - when community is enriched, average IQ
  rises
  - impoverished kids placed in advantaged
  adoptive families show IQ increases
• IQ does correlate with SES
• Significant influence of environment/SES
Race - General findings
• Asian > Caucasian > Hispanic > African-
  American/Native American
Much overlap among the groups
• More variability within than between
  groups
• Group differences don’t explain why
• Group differences don’t address any
  individual’s performance
• Differences often accounted for by SES
4 Theories
1. Genetic - Jensen/Rushton
• Racial differences are genetic because they
  are stable
• Because IQ is equally due to genetics within
  any race, differences between races must
  also be due to genetics
Criticism:
• Individual differences may be genetic and
  group differences may be environmental
Rushton: More “white” genes = smarter person
Findings:
• IQs of mixed-race kids are not lower than IQs of
  Caucasians
• IQs of blacks don’t differ by number of white
  ancestors

-> NO support for genetic theory
2. Test Bias
• Tests measure cognitive skills & knowledge
  of middle-class Caucasians
• Testing culture-based experience
• Tests are in standard English
Revisions
• “Culture-fair” tests
• Revision of standard tests
Findings
• Caucasians still perform better
Conclusion
• Test bias may not be the reason
• Or tests are still culture-laden
3. Motivation
• Lower class and ethnic minority kids may
  be less motivated on these tests
• Discrimination
  -> lower self-esteem & motivation
Findings:
• Friendly examiners & flexible
  administration raise IQ by 7-10 points
• K-ABC halves race difference
• But: Caucasian kids also score higher in
  these situations
Conclusion
• Test procedures & motivation may bias
  results
• But don’t fully explain race differences
4. Environment/SES
• Low SES environments are less conducive
  to intellectual development
• Parents may have fewer resources
Evidence
• African-American kids who move to better
  environments show IQ jumps
• Lower-class African-American kids adopted
  into middle-class homes have average+ IQs
• SES statistically accounts for most racial
  differences****
• SES is strongest explanation
• Test bias & motivation may play more
  subtle roles
         Mental Retardation
Definition
• Subaverage intellectual functioning
  - IQ < 70
• AND poor adaptive behavior skills
  - pattern of low functioning
               MR Levels
1. Mild (55-69) - “Educable” - majority
• Often self-sufficient
• May reach 3rd - 6th grade level
Moderate (35-55) - “Trainable”
• Developmental delays
• Simple communication
• Sheltered workshops
Severe (20-35)
• Large developmental delays
• Understand some speech
• Routines & supervision
• Some daily living skills
Profound (< 20/25)
• Nursing care
• May not be able to walk/talk
• Poor/no daily living skills
              Life Outcomes
All retarded people (mild/moderate)
• Worse than non-retarded peers
• But better than stereotypes suggest
  - majority (80%) of males work
       skilled labor & retail
  - most are self-supporting
  - most married
  - life satisfaction
• Conclusion
  - Sternberg’s contextual intelligence
      (not measured with IQ)
• Severe & Profound
  - institutionalization
  BUT, a very small percentage of MR
  population
              Mentally Gifted
Terman’s “Termites” (1921)
- 1500 kids with IQ > 140
As kids
• Weighed more at birth
• Walked & talked sooner
• Puberty earlier/health better
• Mature & well adjusted
• Classroom leaders
As adults
• Fewer psychological & health problems
• Higher marital/sex satisfaction
• Many college graduates
• Many notable careers
Why better in all domains?
• IQ
• Home
  - parent education
  - fewer divorced parents
                Creativity
Definition
• No standard
• Imagination, originality
• Different from intelligence
• Reach goal in novel way
     (useful & unusual)
Ways to measure:
• Divergent thought - originality
• Ideational fluency - many ideas
• Consensual assessment
  - others agree that something is creative
• Remote associations
  - see relationships among ideas that are remote
  from one another
     For each set of words, think of 4th word
                  related to all 3
•   Rough         Cold             Beer
•   Food          Catcher          Hot
•   Hearted       Feet             Bitter
•   Dark          Shot             Sun
•   Canadian      Golf             Sandwich
•   Tug           Gravy            Show
•   Attorney   Self    Spending
•   Magic      Pitch   Power
•   Arm        Coal    Peach
•   Type       Ghost   Story
        To increase creativity:
              3 methods
Brainstorming
• People alone are often more creative

Synectics
• Use of analogies in creative thinking
• Look to other areas for a solution
• Used in industry but no research
Incubation
• More likely to solve difficult problem if
  delay between periods of work
• Plausible but seldom demonstrated
Why not more effective?

Social Factors
• Evaluation decreases creativity
Other conditions
• When someone is watching you work
• When you are offered a reward
• When you must compete for prizes
• When someone restricts your choices about how
  you can express creativity

Creativity seems to be more personal/private

				
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posted:12/2/2011
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