Elements, Compounds, &
Gold Salt Fields Granite
• Are pure substances that cannot be
separated into simpler substances by
physical or chemical changes.
• Elements are found on the periodic table
• Contains only one type of particle.
• Example: 5 grams of the element gold is
like all other particles of gold.
• The particles of a pure substance are alike
no matter where that substance is found.
• Physical properties and Chemical properties are
ways in which you may identify an element.
• Examples of Physical Properties: melting point,
density, color, hardness, and texture.
• Examples of Chemical Properties: flammability,
reactivity with oxygen, acid & water.
Elements are Classified by their
• Elements are divided into three categories:
Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids.
• Elements are classified into groups
according to their shared properties.
• Example: Iron, Nickel & Cobalt are all
shiny and conduct electric current
therefore scientists have grouped them
into the metal section of the periodic table.
– Good conductors of thermal energy
– Good conductors of electric current
– Malleable (hammered into sheets)
– Ductile (drawn into thin wires)
Examples: Copper, Lead, Tin
– Dull Sulfur
– Poor conductors of thermal energy
– Poor conductors of electric current
Examples: Sulfur, Bromine, Neon
– Have both properties of metals & nonmetals
– Some are shiny some are dull
– Somewhat Malleable and ductile
– Some conduct thermal energy and electric
Examples: Silicon, Antimony, Boron
• A pure substance composed of two or more
elements that are chemically combined.
• In order for elements to combine they must react
or undergo a chemical change with another.
Table salt- sodium and chlorine
Water- hydrogen and oxygen
• Once the chemical change occurs you have
another pure substance
• Each compound like elements has its own
unique set of physical and chemical properties
that helps you identify it.
Compounds in Nature
• Proteins are compounds found in all living
• Nitrogen is needed to make proteins.
• Plants get their nitrogen compounds from
the soil. Animals get the nitrogen they
need by eating plants or animals that have
1. An element is a pure substance that cannot be _________ into other
A. combined C. made
B. separated D. burned
2. Which two categories of elements are good conductors of electricity?
A. Metals and Nonmentals c. Metals and some Metalloids
B. Nonmetals and Metalloids d. Water and Metals
3. Elements are divided into three categories
A. metals, nonmetals, metalloids
B. metals, solids, liquids
C. solids, liquids, gasses
D. cobalt, iron, nickel
4. Two or more elements that are chemically
combined are called___________.
A. metals C. pure substance
B. elements D. compounds
5. True or False
In order for elements to combine they
must react or undergo a chemical
change with another.
• Are a combination of two or more
substances that are not chemically
• Two or more materials together form a
mixture if they do not react to form a
Example: A Pizza: dough, sauce, pepperoni,
cheese, olives. They do not react when
• Since no chemical change has occurred
the substance still has the same chemical
makeup it had before it was combined with
the other substances.
• Mixtures can be physically separated. If
you don’t like olives on your pizza you may
pick them off. This is a physical change of
• Mixtures are not all as easy to separate. Salt water can
be separated but you must separate the salt from the
water by heating the mixture. The water changes from a
liquid to a gas, and the salt remains.
• Other ways to separate mixtures:
- Distillation is a process that separates a mixture based
on its boiling point. (saltwater)
-Centrifuge separates according to the densities of the
-Magnet can separate iron from aluminum.
Mixtures vs. Compounds
1. Are elements, 1. Are elements.
compounds, or both. 2. Lose their original
2. Separated by properties.
physical means. 3. Separated by
3. They keep original chemical means.
• A mixture that appears to be a single
substance but is composed of particles of
two or more substances that are
distributed evenly amongst each other.
• Example: Saltwater
Solute vs. Solvent
• In solutions the Solute is the substance
that is dissolved.
• The Solvent is the substance in which the
solute is dissolved.
• Example: In saltwater salt is the solute
or the substance that is dissolved.
While water is the solvent which
dissolves the salt.
• Is the amount of solute needed to make a
• If a solution contains all the solute it can hold at
a given temperature it is saturated. An
unsaturated solution contains less solute than it
can hold at a given temperature.
• Mixing, Heating & Crushing all affect how quickly
solids will dissolve in liquids.
• Are mixtures that have particles of a material
throughout it. They settle to the bottom but do
• Example: When you shake a snow globe, the
snow moves around but eventually falls to the
• Are mixtures in which
particles are dispersed
throughout but are not heavy enough to
settle to the bottom. The particles are small
and fairly well mixed.
• Example: Jello is an example of a colloid.
1. A mixture is a combination of ______ substance(s)
that are not ______ combined.
A. one, chemically C. two, chemically
B. two, physically D. one, physically
2. True or False
Mixtures can be physically separated.
3. The __________ is the substance that is dissolved, and
the _________is the substance that dissolves.
A. water, salt C. solvent, solute
B. solute, solvent D. solution, water
4. Solubility is how much __________ can be dissolved.
A. metal C. gas
B. water D. solute
5. A snow globe is an example of a ______.
A. colloid C. solvent
B. suspension D. compound
6. A ________is a fairly well mixed mixture which the
particles are not heavy enough to settle out.
A. suspension C. solution
B. colloid D. ratio