Flash Cards Chapters CM9002 by panniuniu

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									                 Metaphors                       Benefits of Communication in Organizations




                                                        Retrospective Sense Making
Structural Elements in an Organization & their
                consequences




                 Equifinality                                     Entropy
     1. Employees feel connected to the business
     2. New employees will feel a solid connection        -   Help us to understand things in terms of
        to the company culture through this                   something else. Organizations are complex,
        communication.                                        making it easier to use metaphors.
     3. Connects employees to changing business
        challenges, allowing them to adapt quickly        -   Aspects of Metaphors:
     4. Connects employees through strong                        o Always produce a one-sides insight.
        leadership during change                                     Doesn’t look at stuff from more than one
                                                                     way
                                                                 o Always creates distortions
                                                                 o Stretches imagination to create powerful
                                                                     insights




    Once we’ve told a story a few times , the narrative
    becomes part of us, and we draw on this story              Hierarchy
    again and again as a resource for conversation.            Differentiation and Specialization (Division of Labor)
                                                               Formalization (Rules, Regulations)
                                                               Time Orientation
    As a result, the very structure of messages and
    conversations can have implications for                    These elements can preserve an organization, but they
    organizations.                                             can also hurt an organization. They may rely on too
                                                               much structure.

                                                               However, with too little structure, the organization is
                                                               doomed, yet too much structure may also strangle to
                                                               organization.

                                                               Only makes sense in the process it is in.




Principle that stresses the need for organizations to
‘import’ new energies in order to avoid                        Recognizing that there are multiple paths to the
deterioration and disintegration.                              same outcome.
            Open Systems Theory                           9 Key Elements of Bureaucracy




       Gouldners View of Bureaucracy            Bureaucracy and Other Types of Organizational Forms
                                                              (Besides Bureaucracy)




“Flows” of messages and how they construct an               Post-Bureaucractic Structure
                organization
1. Fixed division of labour                         -   Input, Throughput and Output: open systems use
2. Hierarchy of positions                               elements from the environment (input), uses them
3. Applicants selected on qualifications                (throughput) and put the elements in the environment
4. Fixed salaries                                       (output)
5. The only job                                     -   Interdependence of Parts
6. Promotion according to seniority                 -   Totality
7. Separation of day-to-day workers from higher     -   Equifinality
   management                                       -   Equilibrium
8. Separation of work from home                     -   Homeostasis: striving to stay in equilibrium
9. Written rules that govern.                       -   Entropy
                                                    -   Feedback
The “ideal” type created by Weber                   -   Variable Coupling: may be loose/tight relationships
                                                    -   Continuum from closed to open: ‘relatively open’
                                                    -   Stages of Development: systems change stages



     o Rigid Bureaucracy: standard operating        -   Result of managerial succession
       procedures, emphasizes rules, stable         -   Desire to solve problems
       positions, formal relations.                 -   Influence and power of particular individuals
     o Matrix Organization: on-the-spot             -   Response to status generated tensions
       organizing, where work is carried out via    -   Occurs when all the people concerned give equal
       informal relations and messages                  importance and value to a rule, and form a
     o Project Organization: boundaries are             ‘representative bureaucracy’
       eliminated. Members of project teams
       come from differing parts of the
       organization, little predictability in
       relationships. High coordination
     o Organic Network: No clear blueprint.
       People join with common interests, to form
       an alliance.




                                                           1. Membership Negotiation Flows
Contemporary forms based on:                               2. Organizational Self-Structuring Messages
- Flat organizational structures                              (documents)
- No fixed positions                                       3. Activity Coordination (problem solving)
- Project centered                                         4. Institutional Positioning (relate to the identity)
- Little regard for seniority.
Organizational Narcissism          Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
                                       For Assessing Culture




3 Perspectives on Culture   4 Key Principles of Cybernetics as a theory of
        (Martin)                               learning
                                     (Complex Learning System)

                                          (Book Chapter 4)




          Rites                           Identity Conflicts
     1. Power Distance (High = Malaysia/Japan vs
        Low=US, Holland, Belgium etc…) The                  An organization that is caught up in polishing its
        acceptance of power being distributed equally       identity, whilst having forgotten the original
        or unequally.                                       purpose for communicating its values and goals.
     2. Individualism vs Collectivism
     3. Masculinity vs Femininity
     4. Uncertainty Avoidance




1. System must sense, monitor and scan aspects of the    - Integration: notion of a shared culture. This often
   environment                                              difficult, and fractured by subcultures that
2. Must relate information to the operating norms that      compete against each other
   guide the system                                      - Differentiation: Organizational culture as a
3. Must detect deviations from the norms                    collection of coexisting subcultures, with its own
4. Must initiate corrective action if there are             stable, shared an consistent values
   deviations.                                           - Fragmentation: subcultures are dynamic and
                                                            unstable.
When satisfied, there will be a continuous exchange of
information between the system and the environment.

This leads to learning via single-loop and double-loop




                                                         Ceremonial Acts that are customary for a
  - When allegiances to different organizations or       culture/organization
    subgroups are experienced as incompatible.
  - E.g. when the customer orientation of one            Rites of Passage
    workplace is at odds with the orientation of an      Rites of degradation
    outside professional group to which the              Rites of enhancement
    employee belongs.                                    Rites of renewal
                                                         Rites of conflict reduction
                                                         Rites of integration
    Problems with the word Democracy                Problems with the word Participation




Employee Stock Ownership Programs (ESOPs)            Dimensions of a Participative System




        Aspects of Working Teams            8 Dimension of Team Effectiveness to make teamwork
                                                                   work
     1. Refers to a lot of activities                  - Democracy is a GOD term
     2. Refers to active, voluntary involvement from           o Unquestioned good
        sports to politics                             - Used in many different contexts
     3. There can be a high level of political         - It is an excuse of the WEST to spread ideals
                                                               o “spread of capitalism”
        participation with very little democracy
            a. Overthrowing governments
     4. Very vague.




- Origin: is it mandated or vuluntary participation?
- Rationale: participate towards democracy or          -   Most common form of employee participation
   productivity?                                       -   Company sets up a trust, or buys stocks directly
- Direct or Indirect Participation                     -   Stock stays in trust until employee leaves
- Extent of Formality                                  -   Employees can attend shareholder meetings,
- Decisional Domain                                         contribute etc…
- Employee Autonomy
- Level(s): at what levels does participation occur?
- Isolated vs Universal: all parts of the company?
- Temporality
- Rewards
- Training:

     .



1.   Clear goal
2.   Unified commitment                                -   Have a strong leader
3.   Result-driven structure                           -   Individual accountability
4.   Collaborative climate                             -   Group purpose
5.   Competent members                                 -   Individual products
6.   Standards of excellence
7.   External support and recognition
8.   Leadership.
 3 Most Prominent Problems for Ineffective Teams
                                                                  Second Study on Teamwork
                                                        SIX team competencies essential to HIGH quality
                                                                            teams




            Collective Action in Society
                                                                   Civil Society Organizaions




Three Challenges of Alternative Organizations at the   Three Challenges of Alternative Organizations at the
                   Micro Level                                           Macro Level
   1.   Interpersonal relations must be good
   2.   Willingness to engage in open discussion             1. No unified commitment
   3.   Trust                                                2. Lack of external support
   4.   Approachable and ready for feedback                  3. Poor collaboration
   5.   Disciplined
   6.   Capacity to discuss long-term and short-term
        issues

   Importance of TRUST, COLLABORATION AND
   FOCUS




Build social capital and improve the relationships        - People coordinate resources
between people and communities.
                                                          - Develop relationships
We participate in civil society organizations by          - Mobilize politically to achieve common goals
volunteering.
                                                          - E.g. greenpeace, NRA
Volunteering tends to be higher in societies that have
little public welfare.

Web 2.0 has made communication easier, and as such,
has also made volunteering easier.




1. Self-Maintenance: Sustaining the commitment to         1. Time: To achieve consensus, or majority
   keep the organization going.                              agreement takes a lot of time. Can be frustrating.
        a. 1st person may be enthusiastic                 2. Emotion: Many alternative organizations are
        b. 34th person who leads, may not be                 emotionally charged. May be outbursts
        c. Burnout                                        3. Inequality: People deem members to be equal.
        d. Adhoc-Democracy: too unstructured,                This can be problematic
            causing it to die out quickly                        a. Constant changing of power
2. Autonomy: Pursuing goals without outside                      b. People come and go
   influence. Difficult because money doesn’t grow               c. Some pay for a lot, others dont
   on trees
3. Goal Persistence: difficult to follow the same goals
   all the time.
Paradoxes of Participation in the 3rd World   Paradoxes of Structure




          Paradoxes of Agency                 Paradoxes of Identity




            Paradox of Power                  3 Forms of Resistance
Related to the architecture of participation. Try to solve
these paradoxes!

Paradox of Design: imposing of grassroots movements            Lots of participatory programs in the 3rd world. But
from the top                                                   they aren’t as participatory as you’d think.
“” of Adaptation: reacting to outside forces, while
losing the ‘soul’ of the organization                           - in Columbia, they exclude women
Punctuation: short-cutting the democratic process               - Laws may stop participation
because it costs too much time
Formalization: formalizing democracy so that the
spontaneity is gone.




Involves issues of membership, inclusion                            Involves the individuals, and their efficacy with the
                                                                    system:
Paradox of Commitment: making commitment to the group,
leading to exclusion rather than inclusion                          Paradox of Responsibily: Getting rid of your power
Representation: losing one’s voice for the dominant interest        to make decisions for the group, when they insist on
Compatibility: problems in exporting a particular model of          participating.
democracy to another culture                                        Cooperation: continuing procedures for further
                                                                    cooperation, while being undermined by confined
                                                                    rules
                                                                    Sociality: intense involvement at work limits other
                                                                    forms of participation
                                                                    Autonomy: get rid of your own autonomy for
                                                                    collective autonomy




  - Overt Forms: Primary means by which unhappy                     Concerns about the power
    individuals or groups oppose practices of an
    organization. The EVLN model. Exit, Voice,                      Paradox of Control: encountering less, not more
    Loyalty and Neglect.                                            freedom in a team
  - Covert/Subtle Forms: symbolic resistance,                       Leadership: waiting for a charismatic leader to
    through language and framing. Trying to use                     inspire and maintain idendityy
    symbols to move ideas and people in a certain                   Homogeneity: failing to see the value of
    direction.                                                      resistance.
  - Control/Resistance Dialectic: Looks at control
    and resistance as intertwined in organizations.
    There can be no resistance without control.
        Systems of Control           Strategies by Which Power can get Accumulated
(Basic ways workers are organized)




                                                  5 Sources of Power
            Hegemony




             Negotiation               Luke’s Three Dimensional Model of Power
   (1 of the 5 Sources of Power)
-   Defining Terms                                        The basic ways that work and workers are
-   Setting Agendas                                       organized and controlled in the interests of the
-   Access to Info                                        larger organizations.
-   Who is Invited
-   Who gets attention                                    Simple: Direct, Person-to-Person
-   Who talks                                             Technical: Indirect, Impersonal (assembly line,
-   Who controls the convo                                although cell phones/call centres are technical and
                                                          always in contact!)
                                                          Bureaucractic: Rules, regulations, standards
                                                          Concertive: Among workers (subgroups)




    1. Resources                                          Antonio Gramsci
    2. Knowledge and Information
    3. Relationships:                                     Whereby a particular way of seeing and doing
          a. Reward Power: O can grant or deny            becomes dominant.
              something to P                              The powerful dominate, and cause people to
          b. Coercive Power: O can threaten P             participate in certain ways of seeing and doing,
          c. Legimitate Power: O has recognized           even if it’s not in their best interests.
              authority over P                            It becomes “common sense”, and may harm
          d. Referent Power: O has power over P,          society as a whole.
              because P identifies with O
          e. Expert Power: P acknowledges that O
              has information that P doesn’t.
    4. Negotiation




                                                      Artistic Proofs: the use of persuasion
   Level 1: Most observable, overt uses of power     Inartistics Proofs: the use of means other than
   Level 2: less observable, people not expressing   persusasion.
   Level 3: least observable.                        Sovereign Use: Power that comes from a distinct and
                                                      visible source, WHO has power & is known by
                                                      everyone.
                                                      Strategic Use: HOW power is exercised
Downsides to Globalization
                             Convergence Hypothesis
                                    (Stohl)




Institutional Isomorphism      Global Reflexivity




       Rationality           Scientific Management
                                  (Taylorism)
   Forces and trends push societies together,          - Technological Globalization:
   towards similar goals. They converge.                     o Increasing connectivity causes pollution
                                                                and extra chemical waste
   The differences between countries is                - Market Globalization/Neoliberalism:
   insignificant compared to the forces that push            o Free trade undermines environmental
   societies together.                                          protection, labor rights, unions etc…

   Things will only grow closer in the future.             Localism, or countertrends are forming to
                                                           combat cultural imperialism.




A rise in reflexive global consciousness.             The tendency of organizations to become
                                                      increasingly similar.
We have become aware of the world as an               Competitive Isomorphism: convergence propelled
interdependent space. This awareness is facilitated   by competitive market forces
by technological and cultural forces.                 Institutional: looks at influences other than
                                                      economic ones.

Has a great sense on what we may become.              There will be conformity to political standards.

                                                      Coercive Isomorphism: if legal structures require
                                                      similarity
                                                      Mimetic: organizations imitate larger, respected
                                                      organizations
                                                      Normative: living up to professional standards.



- Standardize work, and more business more             - Ordering our world based on reason.
   organized and efficient.                            - Using observable, limited facts to reach
- Taylorism is production-oriented.                      conclusions
- Workers simply use their skills
- Selecting and training the right labor
- Unity of work. People do what they gotta do              Limitations:
- A harmonious relationship forms.
                                                       - We are not perfectly rational
- HOWEVER                                              - We live with “good enough”
    o Chester Barnard: noticed that
       motivation and human relationships are
       also important for an efficient
       organization.
    o Elton Mayo: HAWTHORNE STUDIES
Information Processing Theory
                                Bounded Rationality




     Functional Theory          Garbage Can Model




        Equivocality
rationality of individuals is limited by the                Focuses on decision-making processes, such as
information they have, the cognitive                        the cognitive and information-related aspects.
limitations of their minds, and the finite                  On controlling uncertainty.
amount of time they have to make decisions
                                                            There has to be emphasis on the cognitive,
                                                            rational and information related aspects of
                                                            organizational life. WE ARE NOT
                                                            MACHINES.




Non-Rationalist Explanation, on how decisions are        - Rationalist and Normative Theory of group
made.                                                       decision making
                                                         - Suggests a standard norm for effective groups to
When a problem or issue emerges, various                    follow.
stakeholders dump their solutions, feelings etc.. into   - Assumes all groups face similar tasks.
a garbage can, very quickly, and there is a resulting    - First:
decision made to match the problems.                            o Assess the problem
                                                                o Specify goals
                                                                o Identify possible solutions
                                                                o Evaluate the positive and negative features
                                                                    of alternatives.




                                                         - When two or more possible interpretations exist for a
                                                           situation. Decisions have to be made

                                                         - Enactment: Actively producing/enacting the
                                                           information we get from the environment

                                                         - Selection: Choices we make about what we single out
                                                            and what we don’t focus on

                                                         - Retention: what we remember from the process, and
                                                           what we will use in the future.
        Strengths of the Culture Metaphor          The Political Metaphor of Organizations

                  (Chapter 5)                                    (Chapter 6)




Organizations As Political Metaphor: Governments   Co-Determination Principle & Problems
                                                      (Organizations as Governments)
                  (Chapter 6)                                   (Chapter 6)




                                                         Organizations as Coalitions
           Organizational Interests                      (Politics and Organizations)
  (What causes a person to do a certain thing?)
                                                                 (Chapter 6)
                  (Chapter 6)
                                                         Directs attention to the symbolic significance of almost
                                                         every aspect of organizational life.
                                                         We see how organizations function in day-to-day life
    Encourages us to see organizations as loose
    networks or people with divergent interests who      It shows how organizations ultimately rest in shared
    gather together for the sake of making a living.     systems of meaning.

                                                         It encourages us to recognize that relations between an
                                                         organization and its environment are socially
                                                         constructed. Organizations choose their environment.

                                                         It makes us understand organizational change. Allows
                                                         us to implement effective change. 12



                                                         Organizations employ ‘rule’ to maintain order. The
    Owners and employees codetermine the future of       following are the most common:
    the organization.                                    Autocracy: Dictatorial leader rules the group
                                                         Bureaucracy: Rule excercised thru written word.
    Problem 1:Fear that involvement results in one’s     Everything is done rationally.
    right to oppose possible group decisions.            Technocracy: Expert power of someone. Is in constant
    Solution 1:Labor unions that adopt an                flux, as ‘expert’ power depends on the problem.
    oppositional role.                                   Co-Determination: where opposing parties combine
                                                         jointly to manage for mutual interests.
    Problem 2: Employees given partial power, but        Representative Democracy: The election of a leader to
    not enough to make large changes.                    rule on behalf of the voting people. Works as long as
    Solution 2: Participation not enough, there should   the person is loved.
    be management based on workers control.              Direct Democracy: Everyone has an equal right to rule
                                                         and make decisions.
Organizational choice ALWAYS implies political                    Often MIXED types found in practice
choice. .



    When a group of individuals get together to              Task Interests: Connected with work. A quota
    cooperate in relation to specific issues, evens or       someone has to achieve, or to ensure products
    decisions. To get to a desired end.                      arrive on time.
                                                             Career Interests: Workplace aspirations and
    Managers, shareholders etc..                             visions of what the future may hold, and may be
                                                             independent of the job being performed.
    Offers a strategy for advancing one’s interests in       Extramural (Personal): shape life outside of the
    an organization, and the members often give              career.
    considerable attention to increasing their power
    and influence through this process.                      They interact and remain separate. Tensions
                                                             between interests are political. We strike a
                                                             balance. We have to see organizations as political
                                                             metaphors where people with divergent
                                                             interests meet to make a living.
              Conflict                             Power
       (Political Metaphor)                (Political Metaphor)

           (Chapter 6)                         (Chapter 6)




Most Important Sources of POWER 1   Most Important Sources of POWER 2
       (Political Metaphor)                (Political Metaphor)

           (Chapter 6)                         (Chapter 6)




                                          Pluralist Organizations
Most Important Sources of POWER 3          (Political Metaphor)
       (Political Metaphor)
                                               (Chapter 6)
           (Chapter 6)
                                                             When interests collide
                                                             Personal, interpersonal, between rivals, coalitions
                                                             etc…
       The ability to get another person to do something     Explicit or covert
       that he or she would not otherwise have done          Due to a divergence of interests
                                                             Organizations encourage organizational politics
                                                             because they are designed as systems of simultaneous
                                                             competition and collaboration.
                                                             People have to collaborate to get a common task.
                                                             This system ensures the competitive struggle on which
                                                             organizational politics thrives.




Control of Boundaries:                                       Formal Authority: Respected, legal authority.
    - E.g a secretary is able to exert major impact on       Characterized by charisma, traditional authority and
        the way the boss perceives reality by determining    power.
        who is given access to the boss, when and with       Control of Scarce Resources: control over e.g. money
        what info.                                           Organiz. Rules/Regulation: rules give power, e.g. in a
    - Can integrate or isolate someone from the world        bureaucracy.
Cope with Uncertainty: Ability to deal with uncertainty      Control of Decision Processes: Influence outcome of
    - Environmental Uncertainty: markets/raw                 decisions.
        materials etc..                                      Decision Premise: preventing/allowing first decisions.
    - Operational Uncertainty: breakdown of machine          Decision Processes: how a decision should be made
    - Depends on their skill and when they can use it        Decision Issues: what to focus on
Control of Technology: Can manipulate productive             Control of Knowledge and Info
power                                                         - Controlling info flows
Interpersonal Alliances, networks and friendships             - Gatekeeping
    - Based on mutual beneficial exchange                     - Make people dependent on YOUR info
    - Internal or external
                                                             Control of Counterorganizations: Control of trade
                                                             unions to go against the large and powerful organization
       There is a plural nature in interests, conflicts, and Symbolism: Someone’s ability to listen, persuade and
       soruces of power.                                     enact realities. E.g. a powerful leader who wields
                                                             symbolic power, that other people look up to.
       A pluralist vision is one where people are in         Gender: easier if you’re a man.
       different groups and they bargain/compete from a Structural Factors: A lot of people don’t know, or don’t
       share in the balance of power.                        want to reveal they have power.
                                                             The Power You ALREADY have, and using it to acquire
       Stands in contrast with the unitary philosophy,       even more power.
       whereby people are singular and individual.

								
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