Metaphors Benefits of Communication in Organizations Retrospective Sense Making Structural Elements in an Organization & their consequences Equifinality Entropy 1. Employees feel connected to the business 2. New employees will feel a solid connection - Help us to understand things in terms of to the company culture through this something else. Organizations are complex, communication. making it easier to use metaphors. 3. Connects employees to changing business challenges, allowing them to adapt quickly - Aspects of Metaphors: 4. Connects employees through strong o Always produce a one-sides insight. leadership during change Doesn’t look at stuff from more than one way o Always creates distortions o Stretches imagination to create powerful insights Once we’ve told a story a few times , the narrative becomes part of us, and we draw on this story Hierarchy again and again as a resource for conversation. Differentiation and Specialization (Division of Labor) Formalization (Rules, Regulations) Time Orientation As a result, the very structure of messages and conversations can have implications for These elements can preserve an organization, but they organizations. can also hurt an organization. They may rely on too much structure. However, with too little structure, the organization is doomed, yet too much structure may also strangle to organization. Only makes sense in the process it is in. Principle that stresses the need for organizations to ‘import’ new energies in order to avoid Recognizing that there are multiple paths to the deterioration and disintegration. same outcome. Open Systems Theory 9 Key Elements of Bureaucracy Gouldners View of Bureaucracy Bureaucracy and Other Types of Organizational Forms (Besides Bureaucracy) “Flows” of messages and how they construct an Post-Bureaucractic Structure organization 1. Fixed division of labour - Input, Throughput and Output: open systems use 2. Hierarchy of positions elements from the environment (input), uses them 3. Applicants selected on qualifications (throughput) and put the elements in the environment 4. Fixed salaries (output) 5. The only job - Interdependence of Parts 6. Promotion according to seniority - Totality 7. Separation of day-to-day workers from higher - Equifinality management - Equilibrium 8. Separation of work from home - Homeostasis: striving to stay in equilibrium 9. Written rules that govern. - Entropy - Feedback The “ideal” type created by Weber - Variable Coupling: may be loose/tight relationships - Continuum from closed to open: ‘relatively open’ - Stages of Development: systems change stages o Rigid Bureaucracy: standard operating - Result of managerial succession procedures, emphasizes rules, stable - Desire to solve problems positions, formal relations. - Influence and power of particular individuals o Matrix Organization: on-the-spot - Response to status generated tensions organizing, where work is carried out via - Occurs when all the people concerned give equal informal relations and messages importance and value to a rule, and form a o Project Organization: boundaries are ‘representative bureaucracy’ eliminated. Members of project teams come from differing parts of the organization, little predictability in relationships. High coordination o Organic Network: No clear blueprint. People join with common interests, to form an alliance. 1. Membership Negotiation Flows Contemporary forms based on: 2. Organizational Self-Structuring Messages - Flat organizational structures (documents) - No fixed positions 3. Activity Coordination (problem solving) - Project centered 4. Institutional Positioning (relate to the identity) - Little regard for seniority. Organizational Narcissism Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions For Assessing Culture 3 Perspectives on Culture 4 Key Principles of Cybernetics as a theory of (Martin) learning (Complex Learning System) (Book Chapter 4) Rites Identity Conflicts 1. Power Distance (High = Malaysia/Japan vs Low=US, Holland, Belgium etc…) The An organization that is caught up in polishing its acceptance of power being distributed equally identity, whilst having forgotten the original or unequally. purpose for communicating its values and goals. 2. Individualism vs Collectivism 3. Masculinity vs Femininity 4. Uncertainty Avoidance 1. System must sense, monitor and scan aspects of the - Integration: notion of a shared culture. This often environment difficult, and fractured by subcultures that 2. Must relate information to the operating norms that compete against each other guide the system - Differentiation: Organizational culture as a 3. Must detect deviations from the norms collection of coexisting subcultures, with its own 4. Must initiate corrective action if there are stable, shared an consistent values deviations. - Fragmentation: subcultures are dynamic and unstable. When satisfied, there will be a continuous exchange of information between the system and the environment. This leads to learning via single-loop and double-loop Ceremonial Acts that are customary for a - When allegiances to different organizations or culture/organization subgroups are experienced as incompatible. - E.g. when the customer orientation of one Rites of Passage workplace is at odds with the orientation of an Rites of degradation outside professional group to which the Rites of enhancement employee belongs. Rites of renewal Rites of conflict reduction Rites of integration Problems with the word Democracy Problems with the word Participation Employee Stock Ownership Programs (ESOPs) Dimensions of a Participative System Aspects of Working Teams 8 Dimension of Team Effectiveness to make teamwork work 1. Refers to a lot of activities - Democracy is a GOD term 2. Refers to active, voluntary involvement from o Unquestioned good sports to politics - Used in many different contexts 3. There can be a high level of political - It is an excuse of the WEST to spread ideals o “spread of capitalism” participation with very little democracy a. Overthrowing governments 4. Very vague. - Origin: is it mandated or vuluntary participation? - Rationale: participate towards democracy or - Most common form of employee participation productivity? - Company sets up a trust, or buys stocks directly - Direct or Indirect Participation - Stock stays in trust until employee leaves - Extent of Formality - Employees can attend shareholder meetings, - Decisional Domain contribute etc… - Employee Autonomy - Level(s): at what levels does participation occur? - Isolated vs Universal: all parts of the company? - Temporality - Rewards - Training: . 1. Clear goal 2. Unified commitment - Have a strong leader 3. Result-driven structure - Individual accountability 4. Collaborative climate - Group purpose 5. Competent members - Individual products 6. Standards of excellence 7. External support and recognition 8. Leadership. 3 Most Prominent Problems for Ineffective Teams Second Study on Teamwork SIX team competencies essential to HIGH quality teams Collective Action in Society Civil Society Organizaions Three Challenges of Alternative Organizations at the Three Challenges of Alternative Organizations at the Micro Level Macro Level 1. Interpersonal relations must be good 2. Willingness to engage in open discussion 1. No unified commitment 3. Trust 2. Lack of external support 4. Approachable and ready for feedback 3. Poor collaboration 5. Disciplined 6. Capacity to discuss long-term and short-term issues Importance of TRUST, COLLABORATION AND FOCUS Build social capital and improve the relationships - People coordinate resources between people and communities. - Develop relationships We participate in civil society organizations by - Mobilize politically to achieve common goals volunteering. - E.g. greenpeace, NRA Volunteering tends to be higher in societies that have little public welfare. Web 2.0 has made communication easier, and as such, has also made volunteering easier. 1. Self-Maintenance: Sustaining the commitment to 1. Time: To achieve consensus, or majority keep the organization going. agreement takes a lot of time. Can be frustrating. a. 1st person may be enthusiastic 2. Emotion: Many alternative organizations are b. 34th person who leads, may not be emotionally charged. May be outbursts c. Burnout 3. Inequality: People deem members to be equal. d. Adhoc-Democracy: too unstructured, This can be problematic causing it to die out quickly a. Constant changing of power 2. Autonomy: Pursuing goals without outside b. People come and go influence. Difficult because money doesn’t grow c. Some pay for a lot, others dont on trees 3. Goal Persistence: difficult to follow the same goals all the time. Paradoxes of Participation in the 3rd World Paradoxes of Structure Paradoxes of Agency Paradoxes of Identity Paradox of Power 3 Forms of Resistance Related to the architecture of participation. Try to solve these paradoxes! Paradox of Design: imposing of grassroots movements Lots of participatory programs in the 3rd world. But from the top they aren’t as participatory as you’d think. “” of Adaptation: reacting to outside forces, while losing the ‘soul’ of the organization - in Columbia, they exclude women Punctuation: short-cutting the democratic process - Laws may stop participation because it costs too much time Formalization: formalizing democracy so that the spontaneity is gone. Involves issues of membership, inclusion Involves the individuals, and their efficacy with the system: Paradox of Commitment: making commitment to the group, leading to exclusion rather than inclusion Paradox of Responsibily: Getting rid of your power Representation: losing one’s voice for the dominant interest to make decisions for the group, when they insist on Compatibility: problems in exporting a particular model of participating. democracy to another culture Cooperation: continuing procedures for further cooperation, while being undermined by confined rules Sociality: intense involvement at work limits other forms of participation Autonomy: get rid of your own autonomy for collective autonomy - Overt Forms: Primary means by which unhappy Concerns about the power individuals or groups oppose practices of an organization. The EVLN model. Exit, Voice, Paradox of Control: encountering less, not more Loyalty and Neglect. freedom in a team - Covert/Subtle Forms: symbolic resistance, Leadership: waiting for a charismatic leader to through language and framing. Trying to use inspire and maintain idendityy symbols to move ideas and people in a certain Homogeneity: failing to see the value of direction. resistance. - Control/Resistance Dialectic: Looks at control and resistance as intertwined in organizations. There can be no resistance without control. Systems of Control Strategies by Which Power can get Accumulated (Basic ways workers are organized) 5 Sources of Power Hegemony Negotiation Luke’s Three Dimensional Model of Power (1 of the 5 Sources of Power) - Defining Terms The basic ways that work and workers are - Setting Agendas organized and controlled in the interests of the - Access to Info larger organizations. - Who is Invited - Who gets attention Simple: Direct, Person-to-Person - Who talks Technical: Indirect, Impersonal (assembly line, - Who controls the convo although cell phones/call centres are technical and always in contact!) Bureaucractic: Rules, regulations, standards Concertive: Among workers (subgroups) 1. Resources Antonio Gramsci 2. Knowledge and Information 3. Relationships: Whereby a particular way of seeing and doing a. Reward Power: O can grant or deny becomes dominant. something to P The powerful dominate, and cause people to b. Coercive Power: O can threaten P participate in certain ways of seeing and doing, c. Legimitate Power: O has recognized even if it’s not in their best interests. authority over P It becomes “common sense”, and may harm d. Referent Power: O has power over P, society as a whole. because P identifies with O e. Expert Power: P acknowledges that O has information that P doesn’t. 4. Negotiation Artistic Proofs: the use of persuasion Level 1: Most observable, overt uses of power Inartistics Proofs: the use of means other than Level 2: less observable, people not expressing persusasion. Level 3: least observable. Sovereign Use: Power that comes from a distinct and visible source, WHO has power & is known by everyone. Strategic Use: HOW power is exercised Downsides to Globalization Convergence Hypothesis (Stohl) Institutional Isomorphism Global Reflexivity Rationality Scientific Management (Taylorism) Forces and trends push societies together, - Technological Globalization: towards similar goals. They converge. o Increasing connectivity causes pollution and extra chemical waste The differences between countries is - Market Globalization/Neoliberalism: insignificant compared to the forces that push o Free trade undermines environmental societies together. protection, labor rights, unions etc… Things will only grow closer in the future. Localism, or countertrends are forming to combat cultural imperialism. A rise in reflexive global consciousness. The tendency of organizations to become increasingly similar. We have become aware of the world as an Competitive Isomorphism: convergence propelled interdependent space. This awareness is facilitated by competitive market forces by technological and cultural forces. Institutional: looks at influences other than economic ones. Has a great sense on what we may become. There will be conformity to political standards. Coercive Isomorphism: if legal structures require similarity Mimetic: organizations imitate larger, respected organizations Normative: living up to professional standards. - Standardize work, and more business more - Ordering our world based on reason. organized and efficient. - Using observable, limited facts to reach - Taylorism is production-oriented. conclusions - Workers simply use their skills - Selecting and training the right labor - Unity of work. People do what they gotta do Limitations: - A harmonious relationship forms. - We are not perfectly rational - HOWEVER - We live with “good enough” o Chester Barnard: noticed that motivation and human relationships are also important for an efficient organization. o Elton Mayo: HAWTHORNE STUDIES Information Processing Theory Bounded Rationality Functional Theory Garbage Can Model Equivocality rationality of individuals is limited by the Focuses on decision-making processes, such as information they have, the cognitive the cognitive and information-related aspects. limitations of their minds, and the finite On controlling uncertainty. amount of time they have to make decisions There has to be emphasis on the cognitive, rational and information related aspects of organizational life. WE ARE NOT MACHINES. Non-Rationalist Explanation, on how decisions are - Rationalist and Normative Theory of group made. decision making - Suggests a standard norm for effective groups to When a problem or issue emerges, various follow. stakeholders dump their solutions, feelings etc.. into - Assumes all groups face similar tasks. a garbage can, very quickly, and there is a resulting - First: decision made to match the problems. o Assess the problem o Specify goals o Identify possible solutions o Evaluate the positive and negative features of alternatives. - When two or more possible interpretations exist for a situation. Decisions have to be made - Enactment: Actively producing/enacting the information we get from the environment - Selection: Choices we make about what we single out and what we don’t focus on - Retention: what we remember from the process, and what we will use in the future. Strengths of the Culture Metaphor The Political Metaphor of Organizations (Chapter 5) (Chapter 6) Organizations As Political Metaphor: Governments Co-Determination Principle & Problems (Organizations as Governments) (Chapter 6) (Chapter 6) Organizations as Coalitions Organizational Interests (Politics and Organizations) (What causes a person to do a certain thing?) (Chapter 6) (Chapter 6) Directs attention to the symbolic significance of almost every aspect of organizational life. We see how organizations function in day-to-day life Encourages us to see organizations as loose networks or people with divergent interests who It shows how organizations ultimately rest in shared gather together for the sake of making a living. systems of meaning. It encourages us to recognize that relations between an organization and its environment are socially constructed. Organizations choose their environment. It makes us understand organizational change. Allows us to implement effective change. 12 Organizations employ ‘rule’ to maintain order. The Owners and employees codetermine the future of following are the most common: the organization. Autocracy: Dictatorial leader rules the group Bureaucracy: Rule excercised thru written word. Problem 1:Fear that involvement results in one’s Everything is done rationally. right to oppose possible group decisions. Technocracy: Expert power of someone. Is in constant Solution 1:Labor unions that adopt an flux, as ‘expert’ power depends on the problem. oppositional role. Co-Determination: where opposing parties combine jointly to manage for mutual interests. Problem 2: Employees given partial power, but Representative Democracy: The election of a leader to not enough to make large changes. rule on behalf of the voting people. Works as long as Solution 2: Participation not enough, there should the person is loved. be management based on workers control. Direct Democracy: Everyone has an equal right to rule and make decisions. Organizational choice ALWAYS implies political Often MIXED types found in practice choice. . When a group of individuals get together to Task Interests: Connected with work. A quota cooperate in relation to specific issues, evens or someone has to achieve, or to ensure products decisions. To get to a desired end. arrive on time. Career Interests: Workplace aspirations and Managers, shareholders etc.. visions of what the future may hold, and may be independent of the job being performed. Offers a strategy for advancing one’s interests in Extramural (Personal): shape life outside of the an organization, and the members often give career. considerable attention to increasing their power and influence through this process. They interact and remain separate. Tensions between interests are political. We strike a balance. We have to see organizations as political metaphors where people with divergent interests meet to make a living. Conflict Power (Political Metaphor) (Political Metaphor) (Chapter 6) (Chapter 6) Most Important Sources of POWER 1 Most Important Sources of POWER 2 (Political Metaphor) (Political Metaphor) (Chapter 6) (Chapter 6) Pluralist Organizations Most Important Sources of POWER 3 (Political Metaphor) (Political Metaphor) (Chapter 6) (Chapter 6) When interests collide Personal, interpersonal, between rivals, coalitions etc… The ability to get another person to do something Explicit or covert that he or she would not otherwise have done Due to a divergence of interests Organizations encourage organizational politics because they are designed as systems of simultaneous competition and collaboration. People have to collaborate to get a common task. This system ensures the competitive struggle on which organizational politics thrives. Control of Boundaries: Formal Authority: Respected, legal authority. - E.g a secretary is able to exert major impact on Characterized by charisma, traditional authority and the way the boss perceives reality by determining power. who is given access to the boss, when and with Control of Scarce Resources: control over e.g. money what info. Organiz. Rules/Regulation: rules give power, e.g. in a - Can integrate or isolate someone from the world bureaucracy. Cope with Uncertainty: Ability to deal with uncertainty Control of Decision Processes: Influence outcome of - Environmental Uncertainty: markets/raw decisions. materials etc.. Decision Premise: preventing/allowing first decisions. - Operational Uncertainty: breakdown of machine Decision Processes: how a decision should be made - Depends on their skill and when they can use it Decision Issues: what to focus on Control of Technology: Can manipulate productive Control of Knowledge and Info power - Controlling info flows Interpersonal Alliances, networks and friendships - Gatekeeping - Based on mutual beneficial exchange - Make people dependent on YOUR info - Internal or external Control of Counterorganizations: Control of trade unions to go against the large and powerful organization There is a plural nature in interests, conflicts, and Symbolism: Someone’s ability to listen, persuade and soruces of power. enact realities. E.g. a powerful leader who wields symbolic power, that other people look up to. A pluralist vision is one where people are in Gender: easier if you’re a man. different groups and they bargain/compete from a Structural Factors: A lot of people don’t know, or don’t share in the balance of power. want to reveal they have power. The Power You ALREADY have, and using it to acquire Stands in contrast with the unitary philosophy, even more power. whereby people are singular and individual.
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