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					SECTION 1.1.4. A selection of projects funded by the National Science Foundation (search on their database conduced early October 2006)
Version 1 - National

Title                        Princi    St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
                             pal       ate   ation       zation
                             Investi                     City
                             gator
.SGER: Cooperation           Wilson,   TX    William     HOUST     This project submitted under the Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) program investigates cooperation among evacuees in the
among evacuees in the        Rick            Marsh       ON        aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In this regard the project offers the opportunity to study the levels of cooperation and conflict among
aftermath of Hurricane                       Rice                  strangers who have been dislocated due to the emergency. It also asks about the risk orientation of those who have been dislocated and
Katrina.                                     Universit             the levels of trust that individuals have for others within their group and for agencies working with them. Finally, project assesses the effect
                                             y                     of different sized evacuation centers on levels of in-group cooperation and trust and the way in which attitudes and behaviors change over
                                                                   time.
                                                                   The research is conducted at the Behavioral Research Laboratory located at Rice University in Houston, Texas. Houston currently is
                                                                   housing the largest population of evacuees from New Orleans and other places in the Gulf Coast. The investigator runs three different
                                                                   cross sections of evacuees: one beginning on September 9th and extending for one week; a second one month later; and, the final cross
                                                                   section will occur in two to three months, depending on the time table for moving evacuees out of Houston. Evacuees will be transported
                                                                   to the Behavioral Research Laboratory at Rice and will participate in studies assessing cooperation and attitude development and change
                                                                   With respect to the second review criterion of the National Science Foundation, broader applicability to societal needs, the research
                                                                   gathers fundamental data on how opinion changes over time on issues under debate in Washington in tandem with discussions of disaster
                                                                   relief and mitigation. This study will be of value to scholars interested in the topic and also to decision-makers trying to differentiate
                                                                   among threats to social dislocation and the American culture.
SGER Collaborative           Maesta    FL    Florida     TALLA     This project submitted under the Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) program investigates how the citizens use media
Research : Who is to         s,              State       HASSE     interpretations of the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina to help them develop a framework with which to attribute blame and interpret policy
Blame? Public                Cherie          Universit   E         relevant information. By examining three different frameworks, the researchers will study how these lead to different interpretations of the
Perceptions of the                           y                     effectiveness of the government's response to this crisis. In addition, this project will allow the researchers to examine how these
Aftermath of Hurricane                                             frameworks shape citizens' preferences for future policies such as the role of FEMA, the role of national, state, and local government in
Katrina and Preferences                                            disaster response, etc.
for Policy Change                                                  This research is being conducted by prominent researchers at Florida State University and the University of New Mexico through a
                                                                   national phone survey using the facilities at Texas Tech University.
                                                                   With respect to the second review criterion of the National Science Foundation, broader applicability to societal needs, the research
                                                                   gathers fundamental data on how different frameworks impact citizens' interpretations of natural disasters and governmental responses to
                                                                   the same. Accordingly, it addresses the larger question of citizens' views of the capacity and effectiveness of the government to deal with
                                                                   crisis. The results should be applicable to a wide variety of crises including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and technological
                                                                   disasters.
SGER Collaborative           Atkeso    N     Universit   ALBUQ     This project submitted under the Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) program investigates how the citizens use media
Research: Who's to           n,        M     y of New    UERQU     interpretations of the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina to help them develop a framework with which to attribute blame and interpret policy
Blame? Public                Lonna           Mexico      E         relevant information. By examining three different frameworks, the researchers will study how these lead to different interpretations of the
Perceptions of the           Rae                                   effectiveness of the government's response to this crisis. In addition, this project will allow the researchers to examine how these
Aftermath of Hurricane                                             frameworks shape citizens' preferences for future policies such as the role of FEMA, the role of national, state, and local government in
Katrina                                                            disaster response, etc.
                                                                   This research is being conducted by prominent researchers at Florida State University and the University of New Mexico through a
                                                                   national phone survey using the facilities at Texas Tech University.
                                                                   With respect to the second review criterion of the National Science Foundation, broader applicability to societal needs, the research
                                                                   gathers fundamental data on how different frameworks impact citizens' interpretations of natural disasters and governmental responses to
                                                                   the same. Accordingly, it addresses the larger question of citizens' views of the capacity and effectiveness of the government to deal with
                                                                   crisis. The results should be applicable to a wide variety of crises including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and technological
                                                                   disasters.
SGER: How Soon is Soon       Kartez,   M     Universit   Portlan   ABSTRACTMajor impacts like Katrina are windows of opportunity for public learning and action on long-term threats facing us, but how
Enough? Understanding        Jack      E     y of        d         well do we know how people's heightened awareness persists or recedes? This short-term, exploratory investigation captures data on
National Public                              Southern              public attitudes toward, and personal adjustment action intentions in response to, long-term coastal hazards. The focus is on the influence
Perceptions of the Need to                   Maine                 of Katrina on public views about future hurricanes and the related but long term threats of global warming. The study focuses specifically
Act on Very Long Term                                              on publics in six coastal cities not impacted by Katrina. It explores how attitudes and intentions of the respondents have developed soon
Threats as a Result of                                             after the current Gulf disaster, and months after the emergency/short-term recovery period is over. Data come from a total exploratory
Hurricane Katrina                                                  respondent group of 300 adults randomly sampled in equal proportions (50 from each city) who are surveyed at two points in time. The
                                                                   objectives are to: 1. understand how major hazard impacts influence public thinking about future threats, including more uncertain ones far

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Title                       Princi    St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
                            pal       ate   ation       zation
                            Investi                     City
                            gator
                                                                  in the future; 2. understand how personal actions to learn more about or adjust to such hazards develop dynamically over time and; 3.
                                                                  explore methods to understand public views on hazards more developmentally, beyond one-time snapshots of views.
                                                                  This study contributes to our understanding of how a centennial disaster of Katrina's scale affects public opinion toward and intentions to
                                                                  adjust to coastal hazards and related long-term global change threats. The underutilized methodology of longitudinal engagement of the
                                                                  public in such studies is explored. As such, this study can contribute to knowledge-based public deliberation about long-term hazards
                                                                  policy and also suggest methods to explore long-debated but infrequently tested issues about how to support large-scale public
                                                                  engagement in long-term hazards planning at a national level.
SGER Collection of          Kruse,    NC    East        Greenvi   ABSTRACTThis research will examine the economic impact of Hurricane Katrina upon both the metropolitan regions that were directly
Economic Impact Data:       Jamie           Carolina    lle       struck by the hurricane and the metropolitan regions that served as host regions for the thousands of evacuees he left New Orleans and
Implications for Disaster                   Universit             the Gulf Coast region. Initial estimates indicate that Katrina will likely be the costliest storm in United States history. More than a million
Areas and Receiving                         y                     Gulf coast residents were displaced by the storm. The research will focus upon the collection and analysis of ephemeral, time-sensitive
Regions                                                           data. Surveys of evacuees will be conducted in Gulfport/Long Beach, MS and Lubbock, TX. Economic, social, psychological and
                                                                  experiential data will be collected from a sample of approximately 400 evacuees at each site. The study will focus upon three primary
                                                                  economic issues: 1) the number of jobs lost, new jobs created from recovery efforts and job sustained; 2) value-added (in dollars) to the
                                                                  local economy from enterprise operations (including household income, excise and sales taxes, self-employed income, property income
                                                                  such as rents, etc.); 3) total output (in collars) lost in the local economy.
                                                                  This research examines the topic where little previous research has been done. By looking at the economic impacts on both the destroyed
                                                                  and the host communities, a more complete understanding of economic impacts of disasters will be obtained. There is a strong
                                                                  educational impact of the research, as graduate students from both East Carolina University and Texas Tech University will be involved in
                                                                  data collection and analysis.
SGER: Emergency             Meier,    TX    Texas       College   Abstract:
Response and the Impact     Kennet          A&M         Station   K-12 schools are an integral component of America's societal infrastructure. However, little is known about how these organizations
of Hurricane Katrina on     h               Researc               participate in the larger system of disaster response for the various types of hazards we may face (which range from natural disasters, to
Texas Public Schools                        h                     terrorist attack, to violent students). In the case of the recent Hurricane Katrina, K-12 schools have been asked to absorb tens of
                                            Foundati              thousands of displaced children. Without the close integration of schools, the network of social services provided to persons displaced by
                                            on                    Hurricane Katrina will be incomplete. This study will assess the impact of displaced persons on school districts in Texas as well as
                                                                  analyze the school districts' experiences collaborating with the various deliverers of relief. This research will also gather perishable data
                                                                  on the districts' perceived vulnerability to disaster and the impact of the hurricane on emergency planning processes in school districts.
                                                                  This study will contribute to scientific knowledge about educational organizations, disaster response, and the role of collaboration on
                                                                  hazard and emergency preparedness in public organizations. There are four likely contributions of this study. First, the study will provide
                                                                  an assessment of the impact of the movement of people displaced by Hurricane Katrina on school districts in Texas. Second, the research
                                                                  will identify the factors most closely related to policy collaboration on the part of K-12 school districts in the response to Hurricane Katrina.
                                                                  Third, the research will contribute to the literature on network policy making and public management. While there is broad consensus that
                                                                  an increasing amount of policy making is occurring in collaborative networks, there is little known about the determinants of highly effective
                                                                  collaboration in disaster response. Fourth, the research will contribute to our understanding of how disasters affect the planning processes
                                                                  initiated in educational organizations. The research will reveal how the disaster in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama has affected the
                                                                  vulnerability assessments of school districts in Texas. These contributions should empower emergency planners in schools (and those
                                                                  who work with schools) to understand how best to coordinate disaster response in a complex network of first responders and relief
                                                                  organizations.
SGER: Factors               Paul,     KS    Kansas      MANHA     ABSTRACT
Associated with             Bimal           State       TTAN      In the period preceding landfall of Hurricane Katrina, evacuation orders were made for all or parts of seven coastal Louisiana parishes,
Compliance to Katrina                       Universit             including New Orleans. In spite of hurricane warnings and evacuation mandates, thousands of individuals remained in the affected area.
Mandatory Hurricane                         y                     In the aftermath of Katrina, the lack of sufficient aid for the large number of people remaining in the New Orleans area contributed to the
Evacuation Orders in                                              scope of the disaster. This project will explore the geographical, psychological, and social factors related to compliance with mandatory
Seven Coastal Louisiana                                           hurricane evacuation orders in southeastern Louisiana prior to hurricane landfall. Understanding of compliance and noncompliance
Parishes                                                          regarding evacuation under a hazard situation is critical to risk management. Data will be collected through interviews with individuals who
                                                                  previously or currently reside in areas placed under mandatory evacuation orders prior to Katrina's landfall. Both those who evacuated
                                                                  and those who rejected an evacuation mandate will be included in the study. A survey conducted by the University of New Orleans (UNO)
                                                                  Survey Research Center that was released by the Southeast Louisiana Hurricane Task Force six weeks prior to Katrina explored some of
                                                                  these same questions and offers benchmark from which to examine actual behavior in relation to self reports of intentions prior to Katrina.
                                                                  Understanding the geographical, social, and other factors illuminates human motivations and barriers germane to management of
                                                                  hurricane hazards. Such understanding can help public authorities and agencies dealing with emergency management to design more
                                                                  effective hurricane preparedness and evacuation communication programs. Results from this study also may be applicable to other

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Title                      Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
                           pal       ate   ation        zation
                           Investi                      City
                           gator
                                                                 hazards such as floods, forest fires, and chemical spills.




SGER: Disaster             Neal,     OK    Oklahom      STILLW   ABSTRACT
Preparedness and the Use   David           a State      ATER     The recently established National Incident Management System (NIMS) mandates the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) for
of the Incident Command                    Universit             local, state and federal organizations during disaster response. First developed and used by firefighters over thirty years ago, many now
System for Responding to                   y                     consider ICS as the gold standard for managing disasters. Despite the long history of fire departments and other emergency response
Hurricane Katrina                                                agencies using ICS, this will be the first known scientific analysis of ICS. In order to gather data on how officials used ICS for responding to
                                                                 Hurricane Katrina, researchers from the Center for the Study of Disasters and Extreme Events at Oklahoma State University will interview
                                                                 disaster managers involved with the response to Hurricane Katrina and obtain relevant documents.
                                                                 This study looks at how well ICS operated during and following Hurricane Katrina. We will determine the effectiveness of ICS during
                                                                 Hurricane Katrina by drawing upon the perceptions of disaster managers using ICS, and comparing the formal standards of effectiveness
                                                                 within ICS documents to actual behavior. This first scientific look at ICS should provide at least two crucial outcomes. First, we will
                                                                 establish what improvements, if any, are needed with ICS and more broadly with NIMS. Second, we will provide insight how organizations
                                                                 can respond more effectively during turbulent and unpredictable situations.

SGER: Impacts of           Levitan   LA    Louisian     Baton    CMS-055318
Hurricane Katrina Storm    , Marc          a State      Rouge    Abstract:
Surge on the Human and                     Universit             Hurricane Katrina is likely to go into the history books as the most catastrophic windstorm to strike the United States in recorded history. It
Built Environments                         y&                    offers an unprecedented opportunity to collect perishable data that will assist emergency planners and bridge officials in facing similar
                                           Agricultur            disasters in the future. The American Association for Wind Engineering (AAWE) is coordinating a documentation effort from research
                                           al and                institutions with wind- and surge-related expertise across the United States in an effort to collect perishable data by acknowledged experts.
                                           Mechani               Currently teams from Louisiana, Texas, Florida, South Carolina, Colorado, Iowa and New York are participating in this AAWE coordinated
                                           cal                   effort. This award supports the data collection effort conducted by a team of faculty and graduate students from Louisiana State University
                                           College               (LSU). The focus of LSU's effort will be on two of the most catastrophic and unique aspects of this storm: (1) the terrible loss of life due to
                                                                 storm surge, and (2) the damage and destruction of numerous short- and medium-span bridges due to surge and waves. The first task
                                                                 concerns collection of perishable data about flood casualties. Previous research has documented a strong relationship between fatality
                                                                 rates and depth of flooding, but the effects of other variables are less well understood. Detailed data will be collected about the conditions
                                                                 surrounding fatalities, including: (1) location (GPS coordinates); (2) depth of water; (3) where the fatality occurred, e.g., building, car, in
                                                                 open space; (4) building type, elevation, number of stories, and damage sustained (if fatality occurred in a building); and (5) demographic
                                                                 data. The collected data is vital to flood fatality model development and validation. Such models are valuable to emergency managers
                                                                 and disaster public health officials to aid in disaster planning, design of mitigation measures, search and rescue operations, and recovery
                                                                 operations.
                                                                 The second task in this award will be concerned with collecting bridge damage data. It will focus on short- and medium-span bridges that
                                                                 have performed poorly during Hurricane Katrina and last year during Hurricane Ivan. Many unanchored, or poorly anchored, simply
                                                                 supported spans were lost due to unseating. These failures will be surveyed to collect data on: (1) failure modes (e.g., anchor failure, pile-
                                                                 to-cap connection, pile failure, other modes); (2) scour; (3) corrosion; (4) high water mark elevations; and (5) bridge railing type
                                                                 (solid/open). The collected bridge data will be used to develop design solutions for new construction of coastal bridges and rehabilitation of
                                                                 existing coastal bridges to avoid the occurrence of similar tragedies. Collected data from both tasks will be assembled into a report along
                                                                 with results from other AAWE partner investigations, which will be the subject of a one-day workshop held in Washington, DC, with
                                                                 financial and administrative support from the American Society of Civil Engineers' Structural Engineering Institute. This forum will transfer
                                                                 critical knowledge on infrastructure performance during Hurricane Katrina and provide an informed input to government and industry
                                                                 decision-making bodies.




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Title                        Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
                             pal       ate   ation        zation
                             Investi                      City
                             gator
SGER: Hurricane Katrina      Seed,     CA    Universit    BERKE    ABSTRACT
and Lessons for              Raymo           y of         LEY      Raymond B. Seed, University of California, Berkeley
Responding and Repairing     nd              California            "SGER: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons for Responding and Repairing Catastrophic Levee Failures Applicable to Other Similarly
Catastrophic Levee                           -Berkeley             Threatened Areas in the U.S."
Failures Applicable to                                             The potential for hurricane-induced catastrophic failure of the levees and subsequent flooding of New Orleans had long been foreseen by
Other Similarly Threatened                                         technical experts. However, New Orleans is not the only region in the United States in which this type of catastrophic hazard exists, but
Areas in the U.S.                                                  goes largely unaddressed. A stunningly similar situation exists in California with regard to potentially catastrophic seismic risk associated
                                                                   with the fragile labyrinth of levees that pass two-thirds of California's vital fresh water safely through the key node in the State's extensive
                                                                   water distribution system. The city of Sacramento is currently the largest metropolitan area with the lowest level of levee flood protection in
                                                                   North America. Additional critical levee systems provide flood protection throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River basins, as well as in the
                                                                   Charleston area, and in other regions of the U.S.
                                                                   There are key lessons of vital importance to be learned from the performance of the New Orleans levee systems, and the emergency
                                                                   repair and pumping to dewater the inundated areas. Although there is considerable experience in the emergency repair of isolated breaks,
                                                                   the New Orleans disaster represents an unprecedented instance in which military assets were made available for assisting in emergency
                                                                   repairs. This event provides the first opportunity to quantitatively assess the value and impact of such operations as opposed to more
                                                                   traditional use of barges to dump rock and dredged fill, or land-borne transport and equipment to carry and place new fill soils. The degree
                                                                   of scour erosion at the various levees breaks will be investigated and compared to placement rates of oversized helicopter-borne "sand
                                                                   bags." The team will investigate issues related to contracting and difficulties in the field placement of material. Additional elements include
                                                                   the seepage as well as settlement and subsidence of the emergency repaired sections. Long term performance of the hurried repairs is an
                                                                   important element of the problem, as is the degree to which permanent repairs will be affected by the presence of the unorthodox
                                                                   emergency levee "patches." Other issues that will be investigated include the degree to which wind driven waves eroded the back faces of
                                                                   the flooded levees, the degree of erosion and damage caused in non-breached levee sections due to partial and wave-driven overtopping,
                                                                   and the levee configurations and crest and upper face protection details, and their interaction with surge-driven water levels and wind-
                                                                   driven waves. Another set of issues that will be studied are the levee designs and configurations, and their overall performances in this
                                                                   event. Many critical levees did not fail, and these represent important lessons as well. The design basis and decision process that led to
                                                                   the current levee configurations are also key elements that will be investigated.
                                                                   It is vital to absorb these lessons from the engineers and personnel who performed and oversaw the repairs, and that these lessons be
                                                                   effectively transmitted to levee repair experts, emergency planners, and risk assessment experts in other regions. These lessons can
                                                                   improve speed and efficiency and thus are invaluable in planning the response to large (catastrophic) emergencies. The interdisciplinary
                                                                   team benefits from the synergistic efforts and/or funding from the American Society of Civil Engineers and the California Department of
                                                                   Water Resources. The team members are diverse and include nationally recognized levee experts and outstanding experience in the field
                                                                   of natural disasters. The investigation of the performance of the New Orleans area levees in the aftermath of the Hurricane Katrina will
                                                                   provide vital information for the future performance of critical protective levee systems throughout large areas of the U.S.
Social Networks and          Beggs,    LA    Louisian     Baton    Social Networks and Displacement after Hurricane Katrin
Displacement After           John            a State      Rouge    This mixed-method study focuses on victims of Hurricane Katrina who lived in the New Orleans area prior to the storm but were displaced
Hurricane Katrina                            Universit             to Baton Rouge, Louisiana. We will conduct telephone interviews with a random sample of 500 displaced persons and video
                                             y&                    ethnographies with 200 displaced informants. These interviews will focus on the role that social networks played in their immediate
                                             Agricultur            response to the storm (including evacuation and sheltering decisions), their ability to activate network ties to garner both social support and
                                             al and                instrumental resources in response and recovery, and their decision of whether to return to New Orleans. The intellectual merit of the
                                             Mechani               study lies in advancing our understanding of (1) the allocation of social resources through networks and their impacts on economic and
                                             cal                   non-economic outcomes (health, finding jobs, housing, and schools) and (2) the understudied topic of network disruption and
                                             College               transformation. The broader impacts of the study include (1) producing an early assessment of how displaced persons have been affected
                                                                   by Hurricane Katrina and how social resources affect their ability to recover, which will provide a foundation for (2) improving planning,
                                                                   policy, and relief efforts aimed at disaster preparation, evacuation, sheltering, and recovery.




                                                                                                    4
Title                        Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
                             pal       ate   ation        zation
                             Investi                      City
                             gator
SGER: The Social Fabric      Weil,     LA    Louisian     Baton    The Social Fabric Under Stress. Baton Rouge's Explosive Growth after Hurricane Katrina
Under Stress. Baton          Frederi         a State      Rouge    Frederick Weil, Edward Shihadeh, Matthew Lee, Louisiana State University
Rouge's Explosive Growth     ck              Universit             Abstract
after Hurricane Katrina                      y&                    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita displaced hundreds of thousands of people from their homes, and many of them evacuated to nearby cities
                                             Agricultur            and communities. Baton Rouge received perhaps the largest share of evacuees relative to its population size; as many as a quarter
                                             al and                million added to a population base of about 400,000, according to some estimates and a substantial number of them are expected to
                                             Mechani               remain long-term or permanently. This study investigates the strains on Baton Rouge's social fabric posed by this influx. It then builds on
                                             cal                   previous annual community surveys, and develops a panel sample that began the spring before the hurricanes and will continue for three
                                             College               additional waves over the course of the year following the event. The study focuses on the impact that social capital, community
                                                                   involvement, connections, and trust, has on a range of outcomes, including trust or blame of authorities, public policy preferences, fear of
                                                                   crime, feelings of stress and/or optimism, attitudes toward the evacuees, and intergroup relations, especially race relations. Given the
                                                                   magnitude of the event, the PIs expect to measure effects that are otherwise difficult to detect. The study addresses central concerns of
                                                                   sociology, political science, and criminology. The researchers also provide local government and civic, religious, relief, and economic
                                                                   organizations with findings they can use in their decision-making. This activity builds on on-going relationships with these leaders: the
                                                                   mayor has attended the PIs' briefings for the last four years, and the PIs have provided leaders and community groups with numerous
                                                                   briefings, fact sheets, and policy briefs.

SGER: Tracking Migratory     Johnso    NC    Universit    CHAPE    Hurricane Katrina led to the largest urban evacuation in U.S. history, triggering a major, unplanned social experiment in the dynamics of
Behavior of Hurricane        n, Jr,          y of         L HILL   contemporary urbanization and migration. To improve understanding of these dynamics, this project identifies a sample of evacuees from
Katrina Evacuees, Phase      James           North                 New Orleans, designs and implements a survey to collect data on their short-term migratory behavior, and uses the collected data, in
I: Sample Identification,                    Carolina              conjunction with ecological data on current and prior neighborhood characteristics, to test hypotheses regarding migration networks and
Data Collection &                            at                    links between spatial and economic mobility. Results will provide new information on post-disaster migratory dynamics and assess how
Analysis" (Program                           Chapel                and to what extent these dynamics differ from existing understanding of migratory behavior in more routine times. Theoretical
Reference Code # 7582)                       Hill                  contributions will be particularly strong in three areas: (a) the extent to which path-dependence and social networks predict the migratory
                                                                   behavior of evacuees; (b) the extent to which individuals' socioeconomic status mediates this behavior; and (c) the extent to which
                                                                   neighborhood characteristics associated with concentrated poverty and social isolation also play a role. Scientific understanding of these
                                                                   dynamics will be valuable for state and local policymakers anticipating the number and types of evacuees likely to return to the affected
                                                                   area, as well as for federal policymakers seeking to improve emergency planning and response to hurricanes and other types of disasters,
                                                                   such as a devastating terrorist attack or major industrial acciden




SGER: Perceived Risks        Shaw,     TX    Texas        COLLE    A common problem for policy makers that wish to support programs that mitigate against risk is that people do not generally wish to pay for
and Willingness to Pay for   W.              Agricultur   GE       programs to reduce risks when the consequences of an event are not foremost in their thoughts. However, strong support for such
Hurricane Protection         Dougla          al           STATIO   programs is evident immediately after an event like a hurricane happens. Support generally fades over time, in the absence of another
                             ss              Experime     N        hurricane. This study will examine the nature of this eroding support, focusing on society's perception of risks. Psychologists and other
                                             nt Station            social scientists have long known that a person's beliefs about the magnitude of risks and the magnitude assessed by experts can be quite
                                                                   different from each other, but such differences are rarely introduced in economic models of behavior. The decision to move back to the
                                                                   Gulf Coast is an example of such behavior. Since policy is often responsive to public perceptions of risk following such events,
                                                                   understanding the "rationality" of perceptions at that time and how preferences change over time will be valuable to the scientific and policy
                                                                   processes. This study allows the dynamics of risk and ambiguity (uncertainty about risks themselves) and gain insight into how subjective
                                                                   risk and ambiguity change over time for people exposed to a natural disaster.
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Title                       Princi     St    Organiz      Organi      Abstract
                            pal        ate   ation        zation
                            Investi                       City
                            gator
                                                                      Residents of Gulf Coast regions hit by Hurricane Katrina have been transported to a variety of places around the United States, including
                                                                      hundreds relocated to Bryan/College Station (BCS), Texas. Researchers will establish contact with a sample of transplanted residents to
                                                                      gauge their current risk perception for damage from future hurricanes and find their current maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for
                                                                      hurricane risk-reduction programs. We will track the members of the sample for approximately one year, and collect information on those
                                                                      perceptions and WTP at the end of the year. A novel way will be used to determine WTP: the valuation question will be based on
                                                                      willingness to relocate to locations that face a variety of levels of hurricane risk. A sample of evacuees and a control sample of BCS
                                                                      residents will also be interviewed to examine differences between evacuees risk perceptions and those of BCS residents.
                                                                      The study will provide an estimate of people's willingness to return to areas with significant hurricane risk, both in the recent aftermath of a
                                                                      large and devastating hurricane, and, unless another hurricane of similar magnitude occurs, a year later in the absence of a recent one.
The Role of Schools in      Barrett,   TX    Universit    arlingto    This study examines the role of schools in helping youth adopt to their life after the catastrophic event of Hurricane Katrina. Thousands of
Mediating the Academic,     Edith            y of         n           Gulf coast residents, both affluent and poor, moved to Fort Worth, Texas. Schools possibly provide the foundation for families and
Social, and Psychological                    Texas at                 adolescents to become adapted to their new life. The study is would examine sociological, and psychological influences on the social and
Effects of a Forced                          Arlington                academic outcomes of children and their families who were forced to move to new neighborhoods. The study would describe the
Evacuation on Youth                                                   characteristics of the adolescents evacuated to Fort Worth area, measure psychological and social well-being (such as anger), examine
                                                                      school response to needs of new students, and study the reaction of local homeowners, churches, and governments. The study would
                                                                      obtain information from 300 adolescents moved to Fort Worth, interview parents of the adolescents, interview principal and teachers in the
                                                                      schools of the adolescents, and interview leaders of local organizations. The researchers intend to develop reports that will be
                                                                      disseminated at educational land sociological conferences, seek publication in journals for those fields, create reports on best practices,
                                                                      and seek to report their findings to the media.
                                                                      The theoretical perspective of this proposal is taken mostly from sociology and education with some reference to psychological concepts of
                                                                      well-being. The research question is centered on how adolescent children adjust to totally new environments forced on them by relocation.
                                                                      Many of the relocated students are minority who may be moved to majority dominant schools. The investigators would obtain information
                                                                      from students, families, and school leaders to better describe the types of adjustments that were necessary and how well they were
                                                                      accommodated. They would investigate how the institutional structures of family and schools help, or not help, students adjust to an
                                                                      entirely new environment forced on them by destruction of their New Orleans homes.
Collaborative Research:     Jones,     W     Universit    SEATT       This project, funded as a NSF SGER in response to Hurricane Katrina, is a scholarly study of organizational constraints on federal disaster
Organizational Design       Bryan      A     y of         LE          activities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Coast Guard. The research will consist of data collection
Issues in Emergency                          Washingt                 about perceptions of each organization's performance in Hurricane Katrina, analysis of rule-making and budgetary changes in affecting
Management                                   on                       each organization's outputs, and initial development of a dynamic model of organizational processes. The organizational process model
                                                                      will focus on the dynamics of agency adoption of new missions where agency information processing capacity is serial rather than parallel.
                                                                      The project team will collect secondary data from publicly available data archives and a limited number of interviews in order to better
                                                                      understand the changes over time in organizational structures and responsibilities for federal emergency management. These interviews
                                                                      are to be selected as a dozen or so individuals among current and prior congressional and agency staff who can provide insights about
                                                                      these issues. The data will be used to develop the model and to report on the particular organizational bottlenecks in emergency
                                                                      management.
HSD-SGER:                   Simps      KY    Universit    Louisvill   This project will model the relationships of critical infrastructure in a community, and in particular the cascading effects of loss of key
Understanding Critical      on,              y of         e           components in the system. The effort will focus on the Hurricane Katrina experience to provide a test bed for the examination of key
Infrastructure in Crisis:   David            Louisville               factors and linkages in the effects of cascading failures as a result of a disaster. The research design will utilize three essential techniques:
Impacts, Linkages and                        Researc                  Key informant interviews, Case study, and Probabilistic modeling. Upon conclusion of the work, the research should provide a clearer
Resiliency in Hurricane                      h                        understanding of the interrelatedness of key urban infrastructure systems during crisis events.
Katrina                                      Foundati                 The impact of the research will have a direct effect on three specific areas: 1) creating a better understanding of the interrelated
                                             on Inc                   vulnerability of infrastructure systems; 2) creating a more robust picture of the "ripple" effects that occurs in key infrastructure systems; and
                                                                      3) increasing our ability to model "resiliency" in a community by identifying critical inputs in the development of fragility curves across
                                                                      systems.
                                                                      The results will have implications for hazards mitigation planning and research with respect to natural and technologically-induced disaster
                                                                      events, as well as direct implications for Homeland Security efforts. In both cases, a clearer understanding of the vulnerability and potential
                                                                      resiliency of a community's infrastructure will provide insight into the best allocation of resources to improve capacity and preparedness.
Katrina and Rita: The       Silva,     TX    Texas        College     How do different types of people respond to information gleaned from catastrophic events such as Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita?
Impact of Exogenous         Carol            A&M          Station     In the wake of a catastrophic event, an individual's assessment of the risks encountered in his/her daily life is likely to be subject to
Shocks on Risk                               Researc                  frequent updating. Over time, one's updated risk assessment may result in a decision to move from a city at risk of hurricane damage to
Assessment                                   h                        one that is perceived to be safer. With this project, the PIs intend to launch a survey of people that live in hurricane-threatened regions
                                             Foundati                 along the US Southeastern and Gulf Coasts. This survey will include an examination of at least four dimensions of an individual's choice to
                                             on                       migrate or remain in a hurricane-threatened region: re-assessments of the probability and consequences of the exogenous event (the

                                                                                                       6
Title                        Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
                             pal       ate   ation        zation
                             Investi                      City
                             gator
                                                                   hurricane); perceptions and images of "place" associated with a region of residence that differ in the perceptions of individuals in that area;
                                                                   evaluations and beliefs concerning the policy programs put in place to mitigate future disasters, as well as the people responsible for
                                                                   managing them; and responses to the bundle of incentives that are structured to influence the recovery of a region after a major hurricane
                                                                   disaster.
                                                                   The objective of this project is to explore the economic, cultural, and institutional dimensions of an individual's risk assessment. The
                                                                   specific questions of focus are:
                                                                   How do people update their risk assessments after a catastrophic exogenous shock such as Hurricane Katrina or Hurricane Rita?
                                                                   What values or characteristics beyond risk assessment influence the formation of preferences?
                                                                   How does one's perception of government competence, combined with various types of government incentives, influence decision-making
                                                                   under uncertainty?
                                                                   This multi-dimensional study of decision-making under uncertainty has profound public policy implications. An efficient incentive system is
                                                                   one in which people who have the appetite for the risk select to stay in hurricane-threatened areas. In part this appetite may be influenced
                                                                   by perceptions of place. What is an efficient policy? Does an "economically efficient" policy have sociological implications? How will such a
                                                                   policy impact the socio-economic, cultural and racial make-up of a community?
The Impact of Hurricane      Gross     M     St. Cloud    St.      The devastation resulting from Hurricane Katrina has elicited unprecedented levels of charitable giving on the part of the general public.
Katrina on Charitable        man,      N     State        Cloud    This event offers a unique opportunity to study many aspects of altruistic behavior, risk perceptions and risk attitudes, and the interaction
Giving: An Experimental      Philip          Universit             between risk perceptions and attitudes and altruistic giving. Furthermore, the event offers the opportunity to study how such an event
Study                                        y                     alters altruistic tendencies and risk perceptions and attitudes, and how these changes dissipate over time. We request funding under the
                                                                   SGER program because of the urgency of collecting data on perceptions and altruism as soon as possible after the disaster, before
                                                                   attitudes are changed by the passage of time. Our hypothesis is that perceptions of the probability of disasters and their potential cost are
                                                                   critical to the decision to donate. In this study we plan to use an established task-based measure of charitable giving used by the authors
                                                                   in previous studies, along with survey measures of sympathy, risk perceptions, and additional factors (such as experience) that might
                                                                   affect perceptions and/or charitable giving. This procedure will allow us to examine the impact of natural disasters on the magnitude and
                                                                   distribution (across charitable causes) of donations, and the mechanisms by which donations are affected.
                                                                   The broader impacts of the study are theoretical and methodological. First, we expect to achieve a better understanding of the role of
                                                                   highly salient catastrophes in shaping perceptions of need and preferences for charitable giving. Experimental economists and
                                                                   economists more generally are concerned with this issue, since economic models of decision making rarely include the possibility of an
                                                                   impact of salience, but the impact of highly public events is clearly substantial. It is our hope that data such as ours will help to shape the
                                                                   development of better theories of altruistic behavior. Second, since our study involves the general public, part of our effort will focus on
                                                                   developing appropriate behavioral instruments for subjects that may not have the math literacy skills of the typical convenience sample of
                                                                   university students.
SGER: Inferred and           Cuddy,    NJ    Rutgers      NEW      The proposed research will explore how people's perceptions of the emotional suffering of Hurricane Katrina victims - many of whom are
Experienced Intergroup       Amy             Universit    BRUNS    members of stigmatized groups -- influence their intentions to help or not to help. A growing body of evidence suggests that intergroup
Emotions as Predictors of                    y New        WICK     biases strongly influence people's inferences about the emotional states of others. People are less likely to attribute higher order, "human"
Helping of Victim Groups:                    Brunswic              emotions - like grief, or mourning - to members of stigmatized groups. However, research has not yet addressed how biased inferences
Helping When We -- not                       k                     about others' emotional suffering might influence how people respond to those others. The proposed studies examine the hypothesis that
They -- Need it Most                                               "dehumanization" of Hurricane Katrina victims will decrease people's intentions to help Hurricane Katrina victims, in general. The proposed
                                                                   research also measures a possible mediator of the effect of inferred emotions on helping - experienced emotions of observers. Because
                                                                   people are more likely to vicariously experience emotions of members of their own groups, they are less likely to experience the emotions
                                                                   of members of stigmatized groups. They literally fail to "feel the pain" of such individuals. In the proposed series of experiments,
                                                                   participants from student and non-student samples will read short newspaper articles about the victims of Hurricane Katrina, in which
                                                                   social category information, such as race, age, and socio-economic status, is varied. Using both direct and indirect methods, investigators
                                                                   will measure the effects of these social category manipulations on participants' inferences about victims' emotional states, participants'
                                                                   experienced emotions, and participants' helping behaviors toward Hurricane Katrina victims (via real opportunities to contribute money and
                                                                   time to aid organizations). The results of the proposed experiments would contribute to an understanding of how the inferred emotional
                                                                   suffering of victim groups affects how people respond to those victims, and more broadly, how emotions can influence potentially
                                                                   discriminatory behaviors.
Proximity to Extreme         Trumb     VT    Universit    BURLIN   There is a surprising lack of scientific understanding of how individuals in hurricane-prone areas perceive hurricane risk. One enduring
Events: The Effect of        o,              y of         GTON     problem with respect to human settlement and natural hazards in general is the tendency of individuals to underestimate the risk
Katrina-Rita on Optimistic   Craig           Vermont               associated with where they live. One way to possibly understand this is optimistic bias, which occurs when individuals see themselves as
Bias in Gulf Coast                           & State               being less likely than others to be harmed by events in the future. Optimistic bias is well documented for risky health behaviors (e.g.,
Counties                                     Agricultur            smoking) and has also been observed in a variety of natural hazard contexts, including floods and earthquakes. This study will look at how
                                             al                    individuals in Gulf Coast counties perceive hurricane risk in the wake of the Katrina-Rita extreme event: two major hurricanes making

                                                                                                    7
Title                        Princi     St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
                             pal        ate   ation       zation
                             Investi                      City
                             gator
                                              College               landfall within 25 days and approximately 300 miles of each other. The study will examine optimistic bias for hurricane risk as a function of
                                                                    distance from the Katrina-Rita landfall zone to see if the proximity of such an extreme event has any effect on the degree of optimistic bias
                                                                    for hurricane risk. The hypothesis is that higher levels of optimistic bias for hurricane risk will be seen at greater distances from the
                                                                    extreme event.
                                                                    We will conduct a mail survey of individuals in counties that lie immediately on the Gulf Coast (excluding the area of extreme destruction
                                                                    from Katrina-Rita). This 70-mile wide strip of land has maximum hurricane risk and is home to nearly 7 million people, with an average of
                                                                    300 persons per square mile. The sampling strategy will result in a dataset of approximately 800 responses distributed randomly around
                                                                    the Gulf.
                                                                    A better understanding of how people orient toward hurricane risk is of increasing urgency given the continued growth of the coastal
                                                                    population, the role of coastal development in the economic impact of hurricanes, and a trend toward stronger hurricanes in the future.
                                                                    Coastal communities, states, and the federal government are beginning to reassess their hurricane emergency planning. Community
                                                                    planners also face difficult questions with respect to coastal development, as does the insurance industry. This study will provide insight
                                                                    into individuals' orientation toward hurricane risk and will inform the development and implementation of risk communications designed to
                                                                    best inform individuals about both impending and long-term hurricane risks.
Emotional responses to       Hankin     SC    Universit   Columbi   Many individuals who lived through Hurricane Katrina experienced extreme levels of negative emotions (e.g., sadness, anger, anxiety) in
Hurricane Katrina: Nature-   ,                y South     a         the short-term, and some of these individuals will continue to experience these emotions in the long-term as well. However, not every
Nuture influences            Benja            Carolina              individual from the affected areas will experience the same initial levels and course of emotions over time, and not every individual will
                             min              Researc               cope with the disaster in the same way. This study will examine both psychological/behavioral resiliencies (e.g., sense of control, social
                                              h                     support, coping, hope, personality) and molecular genetics influences (i.e., neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin, that are known to
                                              Foundati              influence emotions) that may affect the unfolding of emotional responses after experiencing the stress from Hurricane Katrina and its
                                              on                    aftermath. As such, this study is poised to advance basic knowledge on fundamental "Nature-Nurture" questions and to explicate how bio-
                                                                    behavioral factors influence emotion regulation. In this study, the researchers will recruit and follow Hurricane Katrina survivors, now living
                                                                    in Columbia, SC, and community members who did not go through the Hurricane, to examine changes in basic emotions over time.
                                                                    Participants will be assessed at baseline for levels of negative and positive emotions, recent positive and negative events, and individual
                                                                    resiliencies; and genetic material will be collected and assayed. Following this initial assessment, individuals will report weekly for 3
                                                                    months on levels of basic emotions as well as positive and negative events. Based on this multi-wave study, the researchers hope to
                                                                    understand how genetic and psychosocial factors influence trajectories of positive and negative emotions, and how evacuees are coping
                                                                    with the stress and aftermath from Katrina.
                                                                    Results from this study have important implications for educating the broader society about how substantial, uncontrollable natural
                                                                    disasters affect emotional experience over time and how individuals' genetic and psychological factors operate and interact to regulate
                                                                    emotions. Disseminated widely, such information should be of immediate interest given society's desire for understanding how Hurricane
                                                                    Katrina survivors will cope, as well as the society's innate and enduring interest in learning more about "Nature-Nurture" issues.
Establishment and            Phillips   OK    Oklahom     STILLW    This research examines how emergency and temporary shelters were established and operated after Hurricane Katrina. The project
Operation of Shelters        ,                a State     ATER      focuses on shelters serving socially vulnerable populations, particularly those requiring special needs support. Although the publicly
Serving Socially             Brenda           Universit             recognizable, formal Red Cross shelters serve many in need, the staggering numbers of displaced persons required that many informal
Vulnerable Populations: A                     y                     shelters open as well. Accordingly, this study tries to understand the range of shelter types that opened to serve the hundreds of
Socio-spatial Analysis                                              thousands of displaced persons, many of whom were low-income, the elderly, women and children, racial and ethnic minorities and
                                                                    persons with disabilities.
                                                                    The research aims to: (1) add to the limited body of knowledge on shelter operations as well as socially and economically vulnerable
                                                                    populations; (2) focus on shelters that serve persons with special needs; (3) identify recommendations for policy and practice; (4) involve a
                                                                    diverse set of undergraduate and graduate students in scientific inquiry, including students in emergency management, disaster planning,
                                                                    sociology, family studies and geography; (5) develop a set of videos for use in emergency management classrooms at participating
                                                                    institutions.
                                                                    To reach these goals, an interdisciplinary team of researchers from Oklahoma State University, Mississippi State University, and Texas
                                                                    A&M University will study the establishment and operations of shelters across Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and Oklahoma. The team will
                                                                    use geographic information sciences to understand how shelters were located and to document the spread of evacuees across four states.
                                                                    Researchers will also interview shelter managers for their perspectives and will conduct surveys with shelter residents. A unique feature of
                                                                    the study will ask shelter residents to photograph "a day in their life."
                                                                    Focusing on problems and resolutions for vulnerable populations should result in more effective shelter operations. Consequently, the
                                                                    main societal benefit of this research is the reduction of human suffering in future events.




                                                                                                     8
Title                       Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
                            pal       ate   ation        zation
                            Investi                      City
                            gator
Decision-Making Among       Lam,      LA    Louisian     Baton    This project seeks to understand the commercial side of resettlement of residents in urban environments after a catastrophe. The
Businesses in Post-         Nina            a State      Rouge    overarching research question is: how businesses make spatial decisions on whether to return or relocate and how these decisions in turn
Catastrophe Uncertainty:                    Universit             impact the landscape and its economy. Specifically, the project will collect and analyze time-critical data on what, where, how, why, and
How Economic                                y&                    when businesses return to New Orleans following the repopulation of the city after Hurricane Katrina. Both telephone surveys and street
Geographies Re-Form in                      Agricultur            surveys of businesses will be conducted periodically. The street surveys will include a complete survey of three major commercial corridors
New Orleans                                 al and                in New Orleans every two weeks, tracking where, when, and what businesses return and survive (or fail). The telephone surveys,
                                            Mechani               conducted every 2~3 weeks for 5 rounds, will target businesses throughout the entire city. In each round, a random sample of 500
                                            cal                   complete surveys stratified by census tract and by a few business categories will be conducted. Both sets of survey data will then be
                                            College               mapped and integrated with census, flood damage, and other GIS (geographic information system) data layers. This will provide a
                                                                  valuable, time-critical spatial-temporal data set that can serve to answer a number of specific research questions.
                                                                  Very little research has focused on collecting time-critical, empirical data on how businesses make spatial decisions on whether they
                                                                  remain or relocate after a catastrophe, especially a catastrophe as deep and wide as we have seen in Hurricane Katrina that affects an
                                                                  entire metropolis of New Orleans. The time-critical data collected for this project will provide unique information on how decisions among
                                                                  businesses are made in this unprecedented case. The coupling and tracking of street and telephone surveys over time will provide vital
                                                                  information for research on human-social-economic dynamics over space and time. The data will serve as an important benchmark
                                                                  dataset for subsequent research and for comparisons with other studies (e.g. studies on decisions made by individuals). Results from this
                                                                  project will also help governmental and planning agencies in devising effective policies for economic recovery in the region.
Collaborative Research:     Wallac    NY    Renssela     TROY     This project, funded as a NSF SGER in response to Hurricane Katrina, is a scholarly study of organizational constraints on federal disaster
Organizational Design       e,              er                    activities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Coast Guard. The research will consist of data collection
Issues in Emergency         William         Polytech              about perceptions of each organization's performance in Hurricane Katrina, analysis of rule-making and budgetary changes in affecting
Management                                  nic                   each organization's outputs, and initial development of a dynamic model of organizational processes. The organizational process model
                                            Institute             will focus on the dynamics of agency adoption of new missions where agency information processing capacity is serial rather than parallel.
                                                                  The project team will collect secondary data from publicly available data archives and a limited number of interviews in order to better
                                                                  understand the changes over time in organizational structures and responsibilities for federal emergency management. These interviews
                                                                  are to be selected as a dozen or so individuals among current and prior congressional and agency staff who can provide insights about
                                                                  these issues. The data will be used to develop the model and to report on the particular organizational bottlenecks in emergency
                                                                  management.
SGER: Collaborative         Kaiser,   MI    Michigan     EAST     In the weeks following Hurricane Katrina, Americans increasingly asked: "Why were the rescue efforts so slow?" There were many types of
Research: Racialized        Cheryl          State        LANSIN   explanations offered for the slow official response to the disaster, but only one that suggested that racism was the real culprit. These
Explanations:                               Universit    G        experiments examine the racialized explanations (i.e., explanations based upon racism) for the slow rescue efforts to Hurricane Katrina,
Consequences for                            y                     and contribute to the growing body of research on the costs of claiming to be a victim of discrimination. Research in this area has
Intergroup and Intragroup                                         demonstrated that when Black Americans blame events on discrimination rather than on other causes, they are derogated. However, this
Processes                                                         work has tended to focus on Whites' reactions (e.g., interpersonal processes such as liking) toward individual Black claimants. Much less
                                                                  is known about how Black Americans react when other Blacks claim that racial discrimination is to blame. Even less is known about the
                                                                  way that these types of claims affect social identification processes among Blacks and Whites. This research examines the intergroup and
                                                                  intragroup consequences of racialized explanations. The PIs hypothesized that racialized explanations increase racial awareness as well
                                                                  as the extent to which individuals identify with specific racial groups. Racialized explanations are generally thought to be threatening to
                                                                  both Black and White Americans, and when people encounter threats to important aspects of the self, they turn to their identities to
                                                                  alleviate these threats. For White Americans, who are more likely than Black Americans to believe that American society is one in which all
                                                                  citizens have equal opportunities and life chances, racial discrimination claims challenge deeply-held beliefs. For Black Americans,
                                                                  racialized explanations are also threatening to the self because they remind them that an important part of the self (i.e., one's racial
                                                                  identity) is chronically and pervasively devalued. Consequently, racial discrimination claims should cause members of disadvantaged
                                                                  groups to turn to fellow ingroup members for support and collective validation. A second set of hypotheses that guided this research
                                                                  involves individuals' willingness to help victims of the hurricane. The PIs hypothesized that increases in racial awareness and identification
                                                                  would lead Whites to decrease their willingness to empathize with and help the predominantly Black hurricane survivors; whereas
                                                                  increases in racial awareness and identification would lead Blacks to be more willing to empathize with and help Black hurricane survivors.
                                                                  Finally, this research also examines the factors that may help to attenuate intergroup bias and increase overall willingness to help
                                                                  hurricane victims. By drawing from research on altruism the PIs hypothesized that by effectively increasing individuals' empathetic feelings
                                                                  towards victims, less divisive intergroup attitudes result, and this in turn increases willingness to help survivors regardless of their race.
                                                                  Findings from this research can inform understanding of the effects of racial discrimination claims upon intergroup perceptions, biases and
                                                                  relationships.



                                                                                                  9
Title                        Princi    St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
                             pal       ate   ation       zation
                             Investi                     City
                             gator
SGER: Collaborative          Ecclest   NY    Syracuse    SYRAC     In the weeks following Hurricane Katrina, Americans increasingly asked: "Why were the rescue efforts so slow?" There were many types of
Research: Racialized         on,             Universit   USE       explanations offered for the slow official response to the disaster, but only one that suggested that racism was the real culprit. These
Explanations:                Collett         y                     experiments examine the racialized explanations (i.e., explanations based upon racism) for the slow rescue efforts to Hurricane Katrina,
Consequences for             e                                     and contribute to the growing body of research on the costs of claiming to be a victim of discrimination. Research in this area has
Intergroup and Intragroup                                          demonstrated that when Black Americans blame events on discrimination rather than on other causes, they are derogated. However, this
Processes                                                          work has tended to focus on Whites' reactions (e.g., interpersonal processes such as liking) toward individual Black claimants. Much less
                                                                   is known about how Black Americans react when other Blacks claim that racial discrimination is to blame. Even less is known about the
                                                                   way that these types of claims affect social identification processes among Blacks and Whites. This research examines the intergroup and
                                                                   intragroup consequences of racialized explanations. The PIs hypothesized that racialized explanations increase racial awareness as well
                                                                   as the extent to which individuals identify with specific racial groups. Racialized explanations are generally thought to be threatening to
                                                                   both Black and White Americans, and when people encounter threats to important aspects of the self, they turn to their identities to
                                                                   alleviate these threats. For White Americans, who are more likely than Black Americans to believe that American society is one in which all
                                                                   citizens have equal opportunities and life chances, racial discrimination claims challenge deeply-held beliefs. For Black Americans,
                                                                   racialized explanations are also threatening to the self because they remind them that an important part of the self (i.e., one's racial
                                                                   identity) is chronically and pervasively devalued. Consequently, racial discrimination claims should cause members of disadvantaged
                                                                   groups to turn to fellow ingroup members for support and collective validation. A second set of hypotheses that guided this research
                                                                   involves individuals' willingness to help victims of the hurricane. The PIs hypothesized that increases in racial awareness and identification
                                                                   would lead Whites to decrease their willingness to empathize with and help the predominantly Black hurricane survivors; whereas
                                                                   increases in racial awareness and identification would lead Blacks to be more willing to empathize with and help Black hurricane survivors.
                                                                   Finally, this research also examines the factors that may help to attenuate intergroup bias and increase overall willingness to help
                                                                   hurricane victims. By drawing from research on altruism the PIs hypothesized that by effectively increasing individuals' empathetic feelings
                                                                   towards victims, less divisive intergroup attitudes result, and this in turn increases willingness to help survivors regardless of their race.
                                                                   Findings from this research can inform understanding of the effects of racial discrimination claims upon intergroup perceptions, biases and
                                                                   relationships.
SGER The "New" New           Kruse,    NC    East        Greenvi   In the wake of near total destruction of infrastructure in some parts of the city of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, policy makers are
Orleans: evaluating          Jamie           Carolina    lle       faced with a quandary. New Orleans has considerable economic value, not only as a commercial port, manufacturing hub, and tourist
preferences for rebuilding                   Universit             destination, but has a rich and colorful history and thus unique cultural value. However, the present location of New Orleans and the
plans after Hurricane                        y                     legacy of engineering interventions have created a city so vulnerable that catastrophe was inevitable. It is apparent that any
Katrina                                                            redevelopment of the current location must contend with present and future vulnerabilities. To evaluate possible future planning options for
                                                                   the restoration of New Orleans, it is necessary to consider the contributions of three primary planning disciplines, Environmental Planning,
                                                                   Urban Planning, and Housing Planning. Each of these three components, when bound to the evolved city, is essential in defining the
                                                                   possible options for reconstruction. This project submitted under the Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) program investigates
                                                                   public attitudes toward different options for the future New Orleans. To assess the social value of different restoration plans for the New
                                                                   Orleans area, a survey will be administered to a cross-section of the United States population. In order to be sure that there is sufficient
                                                                   information on preferences across diverse households, data will be gathered from a stratified random sample, composed of (i) New
                                                                   Orleans residents and evacuees, (ii) regional households, and (iii) households in other parts of the nation. This study will elicit local and
                                                                   national valuation of the historic and cultural attributes that make New Orleans unique. The study will also elicit public valuation of
                                                                   mitigation that can harden the city against future hurricanes and tropical storms. The results of this study will be useful for policy makers at
                                                                   the city, state, and national level as they formulate a restoration plan for the city of New Orleans.
Collaborative Proposal: A    Luttme    M     National    Cambri    This project will study determinants of the nation's generosity towards Hurricane Katrina victims. While media reports have been rife with
Randomized Experiment        r, Erzo   A     Bureau      dge       allegations that the nation would have responded more strongly if these victims had not come to a large extent from minority groups and
on the Causal Effect of                      of                    economically disadvantaged backgrounds, there is no scientific evidence to rebut or support these allegations. More generally, does the
Recipients' Race and                         Economi               public's generosity towards Katrina victims depend on the needs, behaviors and characteristics of these victims? This study will answer
Social Circumstances on                      c                     these questions using a randomized experiment on a nationally representative sample in which individuals' generosity towards Katrina
the Provision of Disaster                    Researc               victims is measured by giving them the opportunity to divide a sum of money between themselves and a charitable organization helping
Relief to Katrina Victims                    h Inc                 Katrina victims. Prior to measuring their generosity to Katrina victims, the experiment will elicit beliefs about Katrina victims by asking a set
                                                                   of questions that have objective answers, such as the racial composition of the victims, the amount of federal aid given to each victim, or
                                                                   the fraction of victims who owned cars that they could have used to evacuate themselves before the storm. Next, the correct answers to a
                                                                   randomly selected subset of these questions will be provided, thus changing some of the subjects' beliefs. These changes in beliefs allow
                                                                   one to estimate the causal effect of the victims' characteristics, needs or behaviors on the generosity of support.

                                                                   The scientific impact of this project is fundamental because researchers only have a limited understanding of determinants of actual
                                                                   redistribution in a nationally representative sample. Most of what is known comes from survey data containing self-reported preferences

                                                                                                   10
Title                        Princi    St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
                             pal       ate   ation       zation
                             Investi                     City
                             gator
                                                                   for redistribution, voting behaviors or charitable activities. However, self-reported data on even the simplest objective questions (e.g., how
                                                                   one voted in the last election) are highly prone to systematic error. To address this, a handful of studies have been conducted on the
                                                                   determinants of giving to real charities and real poor people in laboratory experiments. However, these studies have obvious limitations as
                                                                   well such as the fact that they are not conducted on nationally representative samples. There is also great methodological value to the
                                                                   proposed study because it will illuminate how findings from survey data and laboratory experiments replicate when real behavior is
                                                                   measured in a nationally representative sample. Finally, this study has a broader impact. Our nation has become increasingly concerned
                                                                   about how to respond to disasters as threats of terrorism have increased. There are two classes of response to such threats: prevention
                                                                   and preparation beforehand and responses afterward. This study will deepen our understanding of how and why Americans respond after
                                                                   a man-made or natural disaster has struck.
SGER: Katrina and the        Logan,    RI    Brown       Provide   Hurricanes Katrina and Rita are likely to have long-term effects on the cities and towns of the Gulf Coast. This project identifies which
Built Environment: Spatial   John            Universit   nce       communities were most affected, which will be rebuilt and how they will be different from before. It will integrate remotely sensed
and Social Impacts                           y                     ecological data with environmental hazard information as well as demographic and socioeconomic data to understand the social and
                                                                   ecological vulnerabilities of impacted communities. By studying which population groups lived in different areas, it will identify with
                                                                   precision the differential impacts of the disaster. It will also follow the progress of post-disaster adjustment, identifying new configurations
                                                                   of what are considered safe or desirable areas, choices about public infrastructure investments, and locational decisions made by past and
                                                                   potential new residents.
                                                                   In addition to the demographic and sociological aspects of displacement and rebuilding, the project will incorporate perspectives from
                                                                   environmental science and ecology. It will study how the physical environment, particularly wetlands and patterns of groundcover, may
                                                                   have protected some areas, as well as how the post-hurricane environment affects redevelopment. A scientific understanding of the
                                                                   effects of these hurricanes will be valuable for public policymaking, both in the short term (investments in the region over the next several
                                                                   years) and in the long term (planning for the security of coastal zones). The project will also provide information that can be of use to
                                                                   future studies, including surveys of returning and relocated residents and risk assessments of other areas.
New Orleans, the             Frode     TX    Universit   DENTO     The multi-institutional initiative New Directions: Science, Humanities, Policy (http://newdirections.unt.edu) will to conduct a four-day
Mississippi Delta, and       man,            y of        N         workshop in New Orleans early in 2006 on the theme of "New Orleans, the Mississippi Delta, and Katrina - Lessons from the Past,
Katrina: Lessons from the    Robert          North                 Lessons for the Future." This workshop builds on previous New Directions efforts to promote the integration of ethics and values concerns
Past, Lessons for the                        Texas                 with scientific and technical knowledge to address pressing societal issues. This workshop will focus on the environmental and societal
Future                                                             challenges surrounding New Orleans/Mississippi Delta in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Responding to the devastation followed by
                                                                   Katrina requires an appreciation of the interrelated perspectives of various fields, such as geology, hydrology, historical geography,
                                                                   ecology, economics, history, ethics, urban planning, policy, cultural analysis, and a host of other disciplines. This workshop will provide a
                                                                   forum to explore how to improve communication and integration across these fields. How do we identify and integrate the pertinent
                                                                   knowledge necessary for addressing this catastrophe, as well as for anticipating and responding to similar possibilities in the future? Each
                                                                   day's session will be structured around two or three themes, where specialists will give presentations on relevant topics, which will then be
                                                                   treated as catalysts for interdisciplinary discussion on the two overarching themes of the workshop. The intellectual merit of this project is
                                                                   that it will deepen our understanding of the interconnections between disciplines in addressing societal challenges. The natural sciences
                                                                   and engineering are good at providing knowledge about the physical world. The social sciences and humanities are good at providing
                                                                   knowledge of the social world. But as Katrina's devastation has demonstrated, we must also understand the intersection between things
                                                                   and people: between the natural environment, science and engineering, and social orders. The broader impact of this proposal lies in its
                                                                   potential for improving the relevance of scientific and engineering knowledge to the social realm. Results from this workshop will include
                                                                   publications and course development using New Orleans and the Mississippi Delta as means for exploring the importance of
                                                                   interdisciplinary research in order to properly respond to crises like Katrina. Less standard deliverables will include the creation of new
                                                                   partnerships between academia, decision makers, and the public at large. Workshop and related materials will also be collected on the
                                                                   web for use by science, engineering, social science, humanities, policy classes, decision-makers, and the public to further interdisciplinary
                                                                   problem solving.
Aging Families in the        Hender    VA    Virginia    BLACK     Social science literature that addresses catastrophic natural disasters, including hurricanes has focused on disaster planning, disaster
Aftermath of Hurricane       son,            Polytech    SBURG     relief, and the stressors and strains placed on individuals and communities at-large. Little attention has been given to older families,
Katrina                      Tamm            nic                   especially African American families with special care needs who typically rely on a combination of a strong kinship care network and
                             y               Institute             formal resources for day-to-day support. In the case of Hurricane Katrina, evacuees are facing prolonged dislocation compounded by
                                             and                   separation from family and property loss. This long-term crisis presents significant challenges not only to older family members who
                                             State                 relocated to Baton Rouge but also to the families and communities that opened their doors to evacuees. For example, more than 400,000
                                             Universit             residents from New Orleans and other Gulf areas hit by Hurricane Katrina are now calling the city of Baton Rouge home. Overnight, size of
                                             y                     the city has doubled; yet, little attention is being given to the impact this growth is having on its permanent residents.
                                                                   We integrate constructs from two theoretical frameworks - the life course perspective and the ecological model of human development - to
                                                                   examine the functioning of aging families in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Interviews will be conducted with 100 aging families,

                                                                                                   11
Title                       Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
                            pal       ate   ation       zation
                            Investi                     City
                            gator
                                                                 defined as two or more adults, 60 years of age or older, grandparents parenting grandchildren, or elderly persons being cared for by their
                                                                 adult children or other family members, who have been displaced as a result of Hurricane Katrina and 100 aging families who are long-
                                                                 term residents of Baton Rouge coping with the overnight transformation of their community. In addition, 100 displaced families will be
                                                                 invited to continue participation in the study for one-month beyond the initial interview. Those who agree will be given a notebook and
                                                                 disposable camera to provide a brief account of events and decisions as they establish a sense of normalcy to their lives. The camera, a
                                                                 basic art form, will allow persons who are regularly exposed to the arts to capture their experiences using a familiar medium. Telephone
                                                                 interviews will be conducted with participants who return the notebook and camera to clarify any of the written information, and obtain the
                                                                 "story" behind selected pictures. The combined forms of data - the written word, photos, and confirmatory interviews - will provide further
                                                                 insights about their experiences as they work through changes in their lives.
                                                                 We anticipate that personal resources (e.g., education, income, health, self perceptions) and ongoing family and other informal
                                                                 relationships coalesce into an explanation of their overall family functioning. Study findings will advance theory and understanding of aging
                                                                 families' functional capacities in the aftermath of a major natural disaster and nonnormative events, especially for underrepresented
                                                                 groups, such as poor, African American, and Asian citizens. Findings will be widely disseminated through scientific presentations,
                                                                 publications, and the development of a Research Brief distributed to community leaders, service providers, and policymakers.
Collaborative Proposal: A   Fong,     PA    Carnegie    PITTSB   This project will study determinants of the nation's generosity towards Hurricane Katrina victims. While media reports have been rife with
Randomized Experiment       Christi         -Mellon     URGH     allegations that the nation would have responded more strongly if these victims had not come to a large extent from minority groups and
on the Causal Effect of     na              Universit            economically disadvantaged backgrounds, there is no scientific evidence to rebut or support these allegations. More generally, does the
Recipients' Race and                        y                    public's generosity towards Katrina victims depend on the needs, behaviors and characteristics of these victims? This study will answer
Social Circumstances on                                          these questions using a randomized experiment on a nationally representative sample in which individuals' generosity towards Katrina
the Provision of Disaster                                        victims is measured by giving them the opportunity to divide a sum of money between themselves and a charitable organization helping
Relief to Katrina Victims                                        Katrina victims. Prior to measuring their generosity to Katrina victims, the experiment will elicit beliefs about Katrina victims by asking a set
                                                                 of questions that have objective answers, such as the racial composition of the victims, the amount of federal aid given to each victim, or
                                                                 the fraction of victims who owned cars that they could have used to evacuate themselves before the storm. Next, the correct answers to a
                                                                 randomly selected subset of these questions will be provided, thus changing some of the subjects' beliefs. These changes in beliefs allow
                                                                 one to estimate the causal effect of the victims' characteristics, needs or behaviors on the generosity of support.
                                                                 The scientific impact of this project is fundamental because researchers only have a limited understanding of determinants of actual
                                                                 redistribution in a nationally representative sample. Most of what is known comes from survey data containing self-reported preferences
                                                                 for redistribution, voting behaviors or charitable activities. However, self-reported data on even the simplest objective questions (e.g., how
                                                                 one voted in the last election) are highly prone to systematic error. To address this, a handful of studies have been conducted on the
                                                                 determinants of giving to real charities and real poor people in laboratory experiments. However, these studies have obvious limitations as
                                                                 well such as the fact that they are not conducted on nationally representative samples. There is also great methodological value to the
                                                                 proposed study because it will illuminate how findings from survey data and laboratory experiments replicate when real behavior is
                                                                 measured in a nationally representative sample. Finally, this study has a broader impact. Our nation has become increasingly concerned
                                                                 about how to respond to disasters as threats of terrorism have increased. There are two classes of response to such threats: prevention
                                                                 and preparation beforehand and responses afterward. This study will deepen our understanding of how and why Americans respond after
                                                                 a man-made or natural disaster has struck.
Small Grant for             Huddy,    NY    SUNY at     STONY    Objectives and Intellectual Merit: This study examines the political consequences of the Hurricane Katrina disaster. With estimates of
Exploratory Research:       Leonie          Stony       BROOK    disaster relief and rebuilding costs mounting to over $200 billion, only strong and sustained public support for disaster victims and the
Americans Respond to                        Brook                government will provide the necessary political capital to ensure funds needed for the restoration effort. However, in the aftermath of the
Hurricane Katrina                                                hurricane, Americans report diminished trust in government, especially in the ability of government to deal with natural disasters and
                                                                 possible future terrorism. And there is increasing debate about the best way for the government to pay for reconstruction efforts.
                                                                 Ultimately, Katrina's long-term political consequences will depend to a large degree on the underpinnings of public reactions to the disaster
                                                                 and its victims, views which are currently far from uniform. Some Americans continue to trust the government while others do not. Some
                                                                 wish to see foreign and domestic spending reduced while others want to postpone tax cuts. Some view race and class as defining factors
                                                                 in the human and social disaster in New Orleans, others reject such reasoning.
                                                                 The investigators focus specifically on Americans' beliefs about race as a possible defining factor in understanding public reactions to the
                                                                 government's obligation to disaster victims and its performance in handling relief efforts. A great deal of research has shown that divergent
                                                                 beliefs about race and the origins of racial inequities are a powerful source of division among Americans concerning government social
                                                                 welfare policy, anti-poverty programs, and an array of government assistance programs very generally. News media coverage of the
                                                                 Katrina disaster has made clear that poor, African-Americans dominated the ranks of those initially left behind in New Orleans.
                                                                 To more fully assess the possibly divisive role of racial attitudes in conditioning responses to government relief efforts in response to
                                                                 Katrina, the researchers extend an ongoing NSF-funded research project into Americans' racial attitudes. Specifically, they re-interview
                                                                 respondents included in the American Racial Opinion Survey (AROS). The survey is based on a national telephone sample conducted

                                                                                                 12
Title                   Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
                        pal       ate   ation        zation
                        Investi                      City
                        gator
                                                              initially in late 2003 and early 2004, funded by the National Science Foundation (SES-030318800). The first wave of the interview was
                                                              conducted with 1,583 individuals. They then attempted re-interviews with all whites in the study (N=1,229) in early 2004 (February till
                                                              June), and obtained completed interviews with 868 non-Hispanic, non-Asian whites. The second wave interview focused exclusively on
                                                              whites in order to obtain very detailed assessment of their racial attitudes. The two interviews provide a detailed understanding of the
                                                              respondents' ideological values, views of government, and, most importantly, a number of measures of their racial attitudes and beliefs. In
                                                              the new interviews they will focus on responses to the Katrina disaster: attitudes toward the victims, assessments of the government's
                                                              performance, and support for policies to assist the victims and rebuild New Orleans. The research design makes possible a more subtle
                                                              exploration of the political effects of racial attitudes than in the typical cross-sectional public opinion survey. As a consequence, the
                                                              researchers are well positioned to assess both overt and more subtle political effects of racial attitudes in accounting for American
                                                              responses to the disaster.



                                                              Broader Impact: From a broader perspective, this research will extend policy makers' understanding of how the public responds to
                                                              disasters and government efforts to deal with such events. The study will also provide evidence on the extent to which victims' race and
                                                              class shapes public support for government efforts to respond to various kinds of disasters. Efforts to rebuild New Orleans and assist its
                                                              residents may be seriously undermined by any negative reactions to the hurricane's predominantly poor and black victims. Views of the
                                                              hurricane's victims may also affect the degree to which trust in government has been undermined by the relief effort in New Orleans. A
                                                              number of polls have reported some mistrust in government's future ability to handle disasters in the aftermath of the hurricane. The extent
                                                              to which any given disaster undermines faith in government may also depend on perceptions of the class and racial background of
                                                              affected citizens.
Effects of Hurricane    Gladwi    FL    Florida      MIAMI    In this panel study a geo-coded sample of householders in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana who were first interviewed after
Katrina on Evacuation   n,              Internatio            Hurricane Ivan will be re-interviewed related to their hurricane knowledge, attitudes, behavior and future intent. The purpose is to assess
Intent: A Panel Study   Hugh            nal                   the effects of different types or levels of experience with the 2005 hurricanes (including the "virtual" experience of watching the
                                        Universit             evacuations and hurricane impacts on television) on the attitudes and behavior, particularly those related to evacuation. Specific objectives
                                        y                     include: 1) To document the extent to which each household experienced and responded to Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita; 2) To
                                                              determine how these households assessed their level of risk, including the information sources used; 3) To analyze household decision
                                                              processes related to preparing and/or evacuating, including choice of routes. 4) To identify factors that promoted and constrained
                                                              evacuation decisions; 5) To compare hurricane-related knowledge and attitudes before and after the 2005 hurricanes; 6) To analyze the
                                                              relationship between the nature of their 2005 experiences and any revealed changes in attitudes, including future intentions; and 7) To
                                                              develop a set of recommendations to policymakers and responders to improve hurricane response, including evacuation compliance,
                                                              particularly among those at highest risk. An experienced interdisciplinary team of social scientists and a traffic engineer is designing and
                                                              implementing the study, and interpreting the results. The research focuses on four areas which are essential considerations in any
                                                              comprehensive model of evacuation behavior: Hurricane message and risk communication; time issues and decision constraints;
                                                              transportation constraints; and high-risk populations. The major part of the data collection consists of Computer Assisted Telephone
                                                              Interviewing (in English or Spanish) of as many of the original GIS-based random sample of 3200 households as possible. The Co-PI's
                                                              have extensive experience in hurricane behavioral research, including evacuation decision-modeling, family and household response, and
                                                              GIS-based data analysis.
                                                              Panel studies are rare in disaster research. This project will provide unique information about the effects of subsequent hurricanes on the
                                                              attitudes and behavior of the same respondents. In addition to their reported experience, the GIS-based data set will allow the researchers
                                                              to geographically locate each household in relation to subsequent storms, including an analysis of reported evacuation routes. Another
                                                              factor adding to the intellectual merit of this work is that the decision-making model refined using these data will add to a better
                                                              understanding of cognitive processes related to how people define and react to risk. The findings from this project will be widely
                                                              disseminated to researchers and practitioners through papers and publications, as well as posting of the report and data on a website. The
                                                              work will result in recommendations to improve evacuation compliance, and thus promote the safety of coastal populations, including those
                                                              most at risk.




                                                                                             13
Title                         Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
                              pal       ate   ation       zation
                              Investi                     City
                              gator
SGER Collaborative            Airries   IN    Ball        Muncie   The flooding of New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina on August 30 revealed several fissures in local, state, and national
Research: Surviving           s,              State                strategies for emergency preparedness and disaster relief. Geographically, the hardest hit areas were those inhabited by
Katrina and its Aftermath:A   Chris           Universit            socioeconomically marginalized communities; these also were the areas that had restricted access to communications about evacuation,
Comparative Analysis of                       y                    the extent of the flooding, and evacuation procedures. The Katrina disaster serves as a wake-up call and reveals how racial inequality and
Community Mobilization                                             economic disparities are still a societal reality. There is an urgent need to analyze the spatial, socioeconomic, and psychological
and Access to Emergency                                            consequences of Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath on the most vulnerable segments of our society: those who are economically
Relief by Vietnamese and                                           marginalized, racially marked, spatially segregated, and/or linguistically isolated.
African Americans                                                  The interdisciplinary team consists of geographers, Asian- and African-Americanists, Vietnamese language specialists, a nursing scientist,
                                                                   sociologist, and historian with complementary analytical and language skills. The study area is located in the easternmost sections of New
                                                                   Orleans residential subdivisions that have an almost equal distribution of Vietnamese Americans and African Americans.
                                                                   The research will address: (1) The pre-Katrina socio-spatial configuration of the Vietnamese American and African American communities
                                                                   in the study area, and what damage Katrina caused to these communities. (2) Whether previous experiences of involuntary geographic
                                                                   displacement of evacuees, especially among Vietnamese Americans, as well as gender, cultural, linguistic, legal status, geographic, and
                                                                   socioeconomic differences affect their perceptions of risk and uncertainty, access to emergency relief services. Also, it will examine which
                                                                   similarities and differences exist between the two communities in how each community negotiates evacuation and access to emergency
                                                                   relief services, relocation assistance and rebuilding funds through existing racial/ethnic and/or faith-based community networks, as well as
                                                                   their adaptation to temporary or permanent resettlement of their community and business rebuilding efforts in New Orleans. (3) The
                                                                   similarities and differences in physical and psychological vulnerability between the two groups of interests after the disaster and what are
                                                                   the critical factors contributing to their physical and psychological outcomes.
                                                                   This study will evaluate the mental and organizational decision-making process by the two study groups in the face of uncertainty and
                                                                   produce policy recommendations to better serve the needs of such communities during the recovery period and better prepare for similar
                                                                   disasters in future.
Temporal Changes in           Hunt,     NE    Universit   LINCOL   Prejudice and stereotyping are dynamic processes that shift over time as a function of individuals' experiences with stigmatized groups.
Prejudice and                 Jennife         y of        N        Changes in prejudice and stereotyping can be caused by numerous factors; for example, positive intergroup contact and new information
Stereotyping in Relocation    r               Nebrask              about the personal characteristics of stigmatized group members can reduce prejudice and stereotyping, whereas perceptions that another
Communities Following                         a-Lincoln            group threatens the well-being of one's own group can increase those biases. However, very little research has examined the course of
the Evacuation of                                                  prejudice and stereotyping over time or the interactive effects between the different factors that influence intergroup bias. The relocation of
Hurricane Katrina Victims                                          African American victims of Hurricane Katrina into predominantly European American communities provides a unique opportunity to
                                                                   examine dynamic processes in prejudice and stereotyping as a function of different mechanisms. Residents of relocation communities will
                                                                   undergo substantial increases in contact with and knowledge about African Americans, as well as have the responsibility for providing the
                                                                   evacuees with resources (e.g., shelter, education, social services), which could lead to perceptions of threat. In the current research,
                                                                   prejudice against and stereotyping of African Americans among residents of relocation communities will be assessed at three points in
                                                                   time to examine temporal changes. In addition, we will investigate how perceived threat, intergroup contact, and personal information
                                                                   independently and interactively contribute to changes in intergroup bias. This research is significant because its findings will expand
                                                                   theoretical models of prejudice and stereotyping as dynamic processes that both reflect and predict experiences with stigmatized groups.
                                                                   These findings will also inform interventions that can reduce intergroup hostility, and may be particularly useful for developing plans to
                                                                   relocate disaster victims while minimizing racial tensions.
SGER: The Parallel            Angel,    TX    Universit   Austin   This research project investigates the ways in which the actions of governmental and non-governmental agencies and organizations affect
Strengths and                 Ronald          y of                 the ability of disaster victims to recover psychologically, economically, and socially, while dealing with grief and loss and adapting to new
Weaknesses of the Civil                       Texas at             situations. The response to hurricane Katrina makes it clear that local human services organizations, while extremely valuable, are unable
Society and the State: The                    Austin               to address the full range of needs of disaster victims, and that federal and state governments must provide basic coordination, as well as
Example of Katrina                                                 large-scale resources. By examining both the failures and successes of both governmental and nongovernmental organizations in
Survivors                                                          response to the human crisis the research provides practical insights into the most effective division of roles between different levels of
                                                                   government and civil society. The wide-ranging crisis precipitated by Hurricane Katrina provides the opportunity to better understand the
                                                                   complementary roles of government, non-governmental organization, and the smaller informal networks composed of relatives and friends
                                                                   in determining the long-term consequences of disasters, as well as more chronic difficulties.
                                                                   The data relate to the period most proximate to the disaster and represent an invaluable baseline on which future research will build. The
                                                                   research team will identify and contact a diverse group of evacuees to Texas and remain in contact with them over time in order to identify
                                                                   how the actions of various agencies influences a family's long-term adaptation. The panel of evacuees will consist of individuals from
                                                                   various racial and ethnic groups and will represent different socioeconomic strata. Ethnographically oriented interviews investigate
                                                                   families' situation and activities prior to the storm, and their activities and movements during the storm and afterwards. The interviews
                                                                   focus specifically on contact with all forms of help providers, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and more
                                                                   informal community and kin networks. The objective is the development of a qualitative database that will make it possible to develop

                                                                                                   14
Title                       Princi     St    Organiz       Organi   Abstract
                            pal        ate   ation         zation
                            Investi                        City
                            gator
                                                                    generalizations concerning the different ways in which evacuees sought and received help, and how their strategies related to their race,
                                                                    ethnicity, and socio-economic status, their personal resources and the eventual outcomes. The project includes on-going follow-up with
                                                                    evacuees over the period of a year. The study is being carried out in Austin, Texas, which received a substantial population of evacuees
                                                                    and sponsors a range of helping organizations.
                                                                    This research contributes theoretically and practically to a better understanding of how both governmental and non-governmental
                                                                    organizations enhance resiliency and mediate the impact of loss on human behavior, social inequities in disaster relief efforts, and the
                                                                    relationship of individual capabilities to the effective access to both government and civil supports and benefits.
SGER: Collaborative         Contra     IL    Universit     CHAMP    When Hurricane Katrina slammed the Gulf coast, many organizations and individuals acted to try to respond to the needs of the thousands
Research: Mapping and       ctor,            y of          AIGN     of people affected and to restore order in the chaotic aftermath of the storm. As is typical of disaster-response scenarios, these efforts
Analyzing Emergent          Noshir           Illinois at            involved multiple organizations with different areas of focus, making coordination of activities essential in order to avoid fragmentation,
Multiorganizational                          Urbana-                gaps in service, and wasteful duplication of services.
networks in the Hurricane                    Champai                This coordination is achieved largely through interorganizational networks, which serve as conduits for directives, information, and
Katrina Responsee                            gn                     resources. The unfolding of these networks over time is a critical element of the response process, and the networks provide insight into
                                                                    the nature of interorganizational coordination during disasters.
                                                                    This project seeks to advance our understanding of interorganizational coordination in disaster response by analyzing the emergent multi-
                                                                    organization networks (EMONs) involved in the response to Hurricane Katrina and by exploring the potential for real-time intervention in
                                                                    such EMONs. Using novel computational and statistical methods, the research will capture, validate, and integrate data from news reports,
                                                                    official documents, and other information sources (such as blogs) to produce estimates of interorganizational interaction over time.
                                                                    The data produced by this research will be a key resource for social scientists, disaster researchers, information technologists, and policy
                                                                    analysts studying problems related to the Katrina response, and the findings, tools and methodologies derived from the research will be
                                                                    generalizable to a wide range of disaster-response situations.
SGER: Governmental and      Sterett,   C     Universit     Denver   Hurricane Katrina required an extraordinary response from government and voluntary organizations. While the most devastating impact
Voluntary Association       Susan      O     y of                   was in the Gulf Coast and neighboring states, states throughout the country accepted evacuees. Colorado received well over 2000
Coordination and                             Denver                 evacuees in the initial weeks following the Hurricane, many housed in a temporary shelter at an old air force base in a county neighboring
Evacuees' Experience of                                             Denver. Evacuees continued arriving even a month later, with as many as 30 new evacuees a day arriving in need of services in mid-
Assistance in Colorado                                              October when temporary shelters in Lousiana were phased out. To respond to this substantial need, state and local officials had to
                                                                    determine where to provide housing, how to provide medical care, what cash assistance evacuees needed, and how to get children settled
                                                                    into schools. A significant portion of these efforts relied on the work of private agencies, as they become increasingly central to provision of
                                                                    aid. This research examines how Colorado coordinated delivery of services to evacuees. How did the churches and other charities
                                                                    advocate for evacuees, provide goods, and assist in accessing social services? Who coordinated crisis services and will there be a
                                                                    coordinated long-term response?
                                                                    Evacuees suffered a trauma in fleeing their homes. This research also examines how evacuees experienced that trauma? What aspects
                                                                    of the experience were most stressful for them? What external supports and resources and which internal coping skills helped evacuees
                                                                    get through the days, weeks, and months following involuntary relocation to a new state? Did they come with friends or family or
                                                                    community members, and to what extent have they been able to connect with communities in Colorado? How did evacuees experience
                                                                    receipt of services and how are evacuees faring psychologically now and over time? How has poverty compounded the experience of
                                                                    being an evacuee?
                                                                    Finally, the news has been full of stories about evacuees. Most Americans learn about evacuees from the news rather than from personal
                                                                    experience. This research also examines the type, range, and depth of the information presented by the print and televised news media.
                                                                    We will track and analyze news coverage in Colorado over the course of a year to examine the media's initial response, and also how
                                                                    coverage changes as the disaster fades from public consciousness.
SGER: Collaborative         Butts,     CA    Universit     IRVINE   When Hurricane Katrina slammed the Gulf coast, many organizations and individuals acted to try to respond to the needs of the thousands
Research: Mapping and       Carter           y of                   of people affected and to restore order in the chaotic aftermath of the storm. As is typical of disaster-response scenarios, these efforts
Analyzing Emergent                           California             involved multiple organizations with different areas of focus, making coordination of activities essential in order to avoid fragmentation,
Multiorganizational                          -Irvine                gaps in service, and wasteful duplication of services.
networks in the Hurricane                                           This coordination is achieved largely through interorganizational networks, which serve as conduits for directives, information, and
Katrina Responsee                                                   resources. The unfolding of these networks over time is a critical element of the response process, and the networks provide insight into
                                                                    the nature of interorganizational coordination during disasters.
                                                                    This project seeks to advance our understanding of interorganizational coordination in disaster response by analyzing the emergent multi-
                                                                    organization networks (EMONs) involved in the response to Hurricane Katrina and by exploring the potential for real-time intervention in
                                                                    such EMONs. Using novel computational and statistical methods, the research will capture, validate, and integrate data from news reports,
                                                                    official documents, and other information sources (such as blogs) to produce estimates of interorganizational interaction over time.
                                                                    The data produced by this research will be a key resource for social scientists, disaster researchers, information technologists, and policy

                                                                                                    15
Title                         Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
                              pal       ate   ation       zation
                              Investi                     City
                              gator
                                                                   analysts studying problems related to the Katrina response, and the findings, tools and methodologies derived from the research will be
                                                                   generalizable to a wide range of disaster-response situations.




SGER Collaborative            Li, Wei   AZ    Arizona     TEMPE    The flooding of New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina on August 30 revealed several fissures in local, state, and national
Research: Surviving                           State                strategies for emergency preparedness and disaster relief. Geographically, the hardest hit areas were those inhabited by
Katrina and its Aftermath:A                   Universit            socioeconomically marginalized communities; these also were the areas that had restricted access to communications about evacuation,
Comparative Analysis of                       y                    the extent of the flooding, and evacuation procedures. The Katrina disaster serves as a wake-up call and reveals how racial inequality and
Community Mobilization                                             economic disparities are still a societal reality. There is an urgent need to analyze the spatial, socioeconomic, and psychological
and Access to Emergency                                            consequences of Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath on the most vulnerable segments of our society: those who are economically
Relief by Vietnamese and                                           marginalized, racially marked, spatially segregated, and/or linguistically isolated.
African Americans                                                  The interdisciplinary team consists of geographers, Asian- and African-Americanists, Vietnamese language specialists, a nursing scientist,
                                                                   sociologist, and historian with complementary analytical and language skills. The study area is located in the easternmost sections of New
                                                                   Orleans residential subdivisions that have an almost equal distribution of Vietnamese Americans and African Americans.
                                                                   The research will address: (1) The pre-Katrina socio-spatial configuration of the Vietnamese American and African American communities
                                                                   in the study area, and what damage Katrina caused to these communities. (2) Whether previous experiences of involuntary geographic
                                                                   displacement of evacuees, especially among Vietnamese Americans, as well as gender, cultural, linguistic, legal status, geographic, and
                                                                   socioeconomic differences affect their perceptions of risk and uncertainty, access to emergency relief services. Also, it will examine which
                                                                   similarities and differences exist between the two communities in how each community negotiates evacuation and access to emergency
                                                                   relief services, relocation assistance and rebuilding funds through existing racial/ethnic and/or faith-based community networks, as well as
                                                                   their adaptation to temporary or permanent resettlement of their community and business rebuilding efforts in New Orleans. (3) The
                                                                   similarities and differences in physical and psychological vulnerability between the two groups of interests after the disaster and what are
                                                                   the critical factors contributing to their physical and psychological outcomes.
                                                                   This study will evaluate the mental and organizational decision-making process by the two study groups in the face of uncertainty and
                                                                   produce policy recommendations to better serve the needs of such communities during the recovery period and better prepare for similar
                                                                   disasters in future.
Evacuees Perceptions of       Swans     M     Universit   UNIVE    The central question of the study is about the role that social (and kinship) networks in determining a person's success in the aftermath of
Disaster Relief and           on,       S     y of        RSITY    a natural disaster such as Hurricane Katrina. "Success" refers to the individual's capacity to obtain physical and emotional relief as well as
Recovery: Analyzing the       David           Mississip            to maintain a strong perception of eventual community recovery in the immediate disaster aftermath.
Importance of Social and                      pi                   Social networks serve as the glue holding individuals together, they form much of the structure from which the information comes that we
Kinship Networks Among                                             use to make decisions and take actions. Social networks may protect individuals from disasters like Hurricane Katrina and they may act as
Hurricane Evacuees on                                              an emergency response system to aid recovery after such disasters. Some social networks are strong while others are weak. Some
the Mississippi Gulf Coast                                         individuals with the same level of wealth may have suffered a similar level of damage to their lives from Hurricane Katrina, but some cope
                                                                   well personally and economically while others do not. Many individual attributes affect the responses as do attributes of social networks.
                                                                   Understanding the attributes of these social networks could prove valuable in both preparing for and recovering from future disasters. For
                                                                   example, extensive local area family ties, strong ties with neighbors, or the development of neighborhood and civic organizations may
                                                                   each be key to having people both be better prepared for a future disaster and recover from it. If so, then for those communities without
                                                                   strong local family ties, the neighborhood and civic organizations may more frequently necessary to prepare for disaster preparation. .
                                                                   To study the role that social networks play, the researchers will conduct a field survey in Hancock and Harrison counties, two of the
                                                                   hardest counties in the Mississippi Gulf Coast region. The survey instruments will measure the strength and number of kinship and
                                                                   neighbor relationships for individuals within various Mississippi Gulf Coast communities. The analysis will provide a measure of bonding
                                                                   and bridging networks within their immediate community. Measures of personal relief and perceptions of recovery will be examined in a
                                                                   statistical analysis. A similar analysis will be used to look at the effects of individuals' social and kinship networks versus their socio-
                                                                   economic standings on disaster relief and recovery perceptions. The broader impact of this research is that it will enhance the ability of
                                                                   communities and groups to understand how aspects of public policy, health, safety and public welfare can be addressed in advance and in

                                                                                                   16
Title                       Princi    St    Organiz      Organi    Abstract
                            pal       ate   ation        zation
                            Investi                      City
                            gator
                                                                   the aftermath of catastrophic natural events by identifying community social networks.




SGER: Reactions to          Van       C     Universit    Boulder   How do people's emotional reactions to Hurricane Katrina influence their evaluation of public policies and governmental bodies such as
Katrina--Emotions,          Boven,    O     y of                   FEMA, the Presidential Administration, Congress, and local/state governments? How do people's emotional reactions influence their
Stereotypes, and Policy     Leaf            Colorado               stereotype usage and attitudes toward racial issues regarding Hurricane Katrina? This project will seek answers to questions such as
Evaluation                                  at                     these by building on research indicating that because emotions such as anger are associated with appraisals of certainty whereas
                                            Boulder                emotions such as fear and sadness are associated with appraisals of uncertainty, individuals who experience anger are less likely than
                                                                   those who experience fear or sadness to engage in critical thinking, and are more likely to exhibit stereotypic behavior. The proposal will
                                                                   test three hypotheses: first, individuals in emotional states associated with certainty will exhibit more stereotype usage compared with
                                                                   individuals in emotional states associated with uncertainty; second, individuals in emotional states associated with certainty will exhibit
                                                                   more politically polarized attitudes and policy evaluations compared with individuals in emotional states associated with uncertainty; and,
                                                                   third, that these influences of specific emotions will be accentuated by individuals' physical and social proximity to Hurricane Katrina. The
                                                                   proposal will advance basic scientific knowledge in social psychology, law, and judgment and decision making regarding the interplay
                                                                   between specific emotions, stereotypic behavior, public policy evaluation, and political polarization. Understanding these processes will
                                                                   allow citizens and lawmakers to have more informed discussions and to craft more deliberate laws and policies about these very important
                                                                   issues.
SGER: Loss and Survival:    Brown     C     Colorado     Fort      How human beings respond to abrupt and profound loss varies. This project will investigate that variation among the 400-500 former
Culture, Community, and     e,        O     State        Collins   residents of New Orleans' Ninth Ward who now are housed at Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, Colorado. The Ninth Ward was 98 per cent
Family Following            Katheri         Universit              African American, about half of very limited means and about half well enough off to own a home. Earlier research by other social
Hurricane Katrina           ne              y                      scientistis has found that some less affluent African American families sometimes cope with material scarcity by depending on extended
                                                                   families for sharing resources such as food, income, childcare, and eldercare; in contrast, middle class African American families were
                                                                   found often to be more autonomous. This project will look at representative families from each group and compare their coping strategies.
                                                                   The researchers also plan a future project that will follow the families over the longer run.
                                                                   The project employs a team consisting of one anthropologist (with extensive research experience among African-descended populations in
                                                                   the Caribbean, who have similar social structure to African Americans); one sociologist (with extensive research experience among
                                                                   disaster victims); an Emmy Award-winning filmmaker; and a graduate student. They will film interviews with the refugees in their current
                                                                   situation; collect kinship information; and have the refugees keep written and audio diaries. This work will allow them to examine whether
                                                                   or not the predicted variability by class is in fact occurring as well as provide a baseline for future study.
                                                                   The project will contribute to the development of better social policies for helping displaced populations and to filling the large gaps in the
                                                                   social science literature on African American culture and social organization. The project also will provide an unusual opportunity for a
                                                                   graduate student to engage in urgent research.
HSD SGER: Assessing         Shoaf,    CA    Universit    LOS       Public health concerns from Katrina, especially the potential for infectious disease, are significant. Surveillance conducted in the shelters in
the Public Health Impacts   Kimber          y of         ANGEL     Houston following Katrina indicated significant numbers of individuals with respiratory and diarrheal disease, including those caused by
of Hurricane Katrina        ley             California   ES        Norovirus and possibly Shigella. While a significant amount of research exists documenting the public health impacts of natural disasters,
                                            -Los                   very little research exists that examines the correlation of those health impacts with measures of the hazard and resultant damage to the
                                            Angeles                built and natural environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between health outcomes for people in the impacted
                                                                   areas and hazardous conditions to which they may have been exposed including: 1) structural damage which presents a potential for
                                                                   physical injuries; 2) exposure to environmental contaminants in the water and air, including toxic substances and infectious agents; 3)
                                                                   length of time exposed to the elements prior to evacuation; 4) time with limited access to food and/or water; and 5) length of time without
                                                                   access to medical care, including access to necessary medications.
                                                                   Primary data collection will focus on data related to the population's exposure to potentially hazardous conditions. Information on the flood
                                                                   levels, wind speed, and the nature of contamination will be obtained from secondary sources as well as a contemporaneous environmental
                                                                   study by one of the co-investigators. HAZUS software will be used to estimate building damage on a census tract level (hurricane) or a
                                                                   census block level (flood) for the counties of interest. In-person interviews will be conducted in four selected impacted communities in
                                                                   January/February 2006 including Biloxi, MS; Gulfport, MS; Slidell, LA; and if possible New Orleans, LA. A predictive risk model will be
                                                                   developed to elucidate relationships between the various independent variables and the dependent variables (health outcomes). As the
                                                                   variables are interrelated, multivariate analyses will be utilized to operationalize the model. Appropriate analytic software will be used to
                                                                   take the sampling methodology into consideration and minimize the effect on the variance. The resulting model will provide essential
                                                                   information which can be used to improve decision-making regarding mitigation, preparedness, and response activities that can reduce the
                                                                                                   17
Title                       Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
                            pal       ate   ation       zation
                            Investi                     City
                            gator
                                                                 potential for short and long-term health burdens as a result of hurricanes, and it may allow for extrapolation to other types of disaster as
                                                                 well.




Confronting Katrina:        Markus    CA    Stanford    STANF    Coping with a disaster like Katrina requires a framework of meaning, a set of shared understandings about what happened and why. The
Socioculturally divergent   , Hazel         Universit   ORD      prevailing assumption of many journalists, responders, and observers, was that any sensible person--taking appropriate personal
models of agency shape                      y                    responsibility, making choices based on official warnings, and acting to control the situation--would evacuate. This understanding of how to
responses to disaster                                            act reflects a particular model of agency, one especially prevalent in European American middle class contexts (Kitayama & Uchida, 2005;
                                                                 Markus & Kitayama, 2003). Notably, however, the marked variation associated with social class, race, and ethnicity in U.S. sociocultural
                                                                 contexts has given rise to multiple models of how a person should act. Many who did not evacuate lived in largely working class and
                                                                 African American contexts where other models of agency, models that diverge from those invoked by the media and most observers and
                                                                 responders, were prevalent. The failure to understand that people engaged in different sociocultural contexts may have had different
                                                                 understandings of what they should have been doing and why, and that they may have needed different types of relief, is likely to have
                                                                 been a critical element in the system failure that accompanied Katrina.
                                                                 A team of interviewers from diverse racial and social class backgrounds will interview Katrina survivors, contrasting the perspectives of
                                                                 those who stayed and those who fled prior to the disaster. The interviews will consist of a series of open-ended and multiple-choice
                                                                 questions designed to capture participants' models of agency-implicit ideas about how to be a normatively appropriate person. In
                                                                 explaining their behavior, those who evacuated prior to Katrina are expected to draw on a model of agency that is prevalent in middle class
                                                                 European American contexts, one that emphasizes independence, choice, personal control, and future-mindedness. In contrast, those
                                                                 who stayed are expected to be relatively more likely to explain their own behavior in terms of a model of agency prevalent in working class
                                                                 contexts, one that emphasizes interdependence with one's community and kin, staying tough and enduring hardship, maintaining integrity,
                                                                 and making the best of difficult circumstances. The goal of this research is not just to document differences among people, but rather to
                                                                 focus on a catastrophic event to demonstrate that differences in how people understand action can have profound consequences for their
                                                                 lived experiences, as well as for the policies and institutions that regulate relief efforts.
                                                                 Applying a models-of-agency perspective to emergencies provides a basis for predicting why people respond differently to a call to
                                                                 evacuate. These differences in models of agency are not just of theoretical interest. Such knowledge is crucial for emergency
                                                                 preparedness. Preparing for disaster and effectively responding to it requires understanding the different meanings of the events and
                                                                 actions for those affected by the disaster. Without acknowledging these differences, it becomes difficult to formulate an effective response.
                                                                 Understanding that other models of agency organize behavior should allow emergency management to better prepare people for future
                                                                 situations, and to anticipate potential divergence in their response to emergency guidelines and aid.
Adversity and resilience:   Rhode     M     Universit   Dorche   The goal of this study is to examine how a group of 200 low-income parents from New Orleans, all of whom registered for community
Understanding the effects   s, Jean   A     y of        ster     college in 2004, have coped with the effects of Hurricane Katrina. The researchers will study how the pre-hurricane resources and
of Hurricane Katrina on                     Massach              capacities of individuals--defined to include their mental and physical health, social networks, and economic resources--affect their ability
vulnerable populations                      usetts               to successfully adjust to a major life trauma. The researchers will also examine the determinants of successful social and economic
                                            Boston               adjustment, including the re-establishment of social networks and resumption of employment and educational activities. Quantitative
                                                                 analyses will provide empirical evidence on the effects of the disaster on a vulnerable segment of the population. In-depth qualitative
                                                                 interviews will add richness to the quantitative work, and will provide a record of the experiences of the hurricane for the group being
                                                                 studied.
                                                                 This research will be drawing on a rich base of data, which were collected shortly before Hurricane Katrina. As such, the researchers can
                                                                 study the pathways through which low initial levels of health, social, and economic resources might impact post-hurricane outcomes.
                                                                 Another advantage of this study is that the subjects are part of a randomized design intervention that provided some sample members with
                                                                 additional resources through a community-based program. By examining whether those in the intervention group experienced better
                                                                 outcomes, the researchers can assess whether the ability to cope in the aftermath of a disaster is modifiable through social programs.
                                                                 Additionally, the sample of low-income, primarily single, African-American parents (mostly mothers) is an especially relevant group to
                                                                 study. There was great deal of heterogeneity in the resources and capabilities of members of this group prior to the hurricane, making it
                                                                 possible to study how these resources and capabilities relate to their experiences of and adjustments after the hurricane.




                                                                                                 18
Title                      Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
                           pal       ate   ation        zation
                           Investi                      City
                           gator
Collaborative Proposal:    Hauser    NC    Universit    CHARL    The proposed work will undertake a multistage cluster sample of household addresses in New Orleans, supplemented by a phone banks
SGER: Social Measures      , Edwin         y of         OTTE     survey. The goal is to collect 500 respondents by May 2006.
of the Katrina Aftermath                   North                 The survey questionnaire will ask about the decision to evacuate, survival experiences, demographic data, the kinds of needs that people
                                           Carolina              had a different timepoints before, during, and after the hurricane. The survey has been designed by Edd Hauser, and will be piloted on
                                           at                    refugees at UNC-Charlotte and Duke before used in the field. The first draft is under preliminary review by Duke Institutional Review
                                           Charlotte             Board, and will be modified according to their feedbackThe first part of the analysis will summarize the survey data, and provide cross-
                                                                 tabulations that show how different survival experiences are associated with age, pet ownership, income, and so forth. This is standard
                                                                 statistical analysis, but will help identify which aspects played dominant roles at different phases of the emergency.
                                                                     The second part of the analysis will fit a social network model to the data, extending previous work on mathematical models for the
                                                                 kinds of help people need and from whom they get help. The nodes in the social network model will be people or agencies, and the edges
                                                                 in the network describe the kind of help that is required.
                                                                     The research will be conducted jointly by David Banks, Edd Hauser, and John Lefante (working with Maria Sirois). David Banks and
                                                                 John Lefante are in charge of the survey design and data analysis. Edd Hauser, head of the Regional Center for Homeland Security and
                                                                 Major Disaster Management, is in charge of questionnaire design. Maria Sirois is a graduate student in Biostatistics in the School of Public
                                                                 Health and Tropical Medicine at Tulane; she and John Lefante are in charge of data collection. Maria Sirois is a member of the National
                                                                 Guard, the Louisiana Search and Rescue Team, and a certified first-responder.
                                                                 The intellectual merit of the proposed research is twofold. First it will provide a statistical analysis of the factors affecting the survival
                                                                 experience of people in New Orleans before, during and after Katrina. Second, it will extend the social networks models applied in
                                                                 previous studies of disaster response by using the new class of latent space models and the data obtained from the Katrina event.
                                                                     The broader impact of the proposed research is that it will provide guidance and insight for future disaster relief efforts, and highlight the
                                                                 interactions between people and agencies that were most/least effective at various stages of the response.
SGER: Early Childhood      Bucha     LA    Louisian     Baton    Very little is known about the immediate response of classroom teachers to natural disasters. Even less is known about early childhood
Educators' Responses to    nan,            a State      Rouge    educators' responses or about the impact of those young children's learning. This research will investigate these topics in the aftermath of
Katrina and Child          Teresa          Universit             Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. One objective of the study is to collect information about teachers' classroom responses to Hurricanes
Outcomes                                   y&                    Katrina and Rita. Teachers' responses to the hurricanes will be measured with a survey about teacher and child classroom activities. The
                                           Agricultur            teacher sample will include preschool, kindergarten, and primary-grade teachers from Louisiana, another hurricane-prone state, and a
                                           al and                state that is not threatened by hurricanes. Teacher responses are expected to differ according to classroom characteristics (location and
                                           Mechani               grade level) and reported teaching practices. Multiple regression analysis of responses will control for teacher characteristics (certification
                                           cal                   area, educational background, refugee status, etc.) and emotional well-being. The second objective is to investigate how teachers'
                                           College               responses are related to child learning and behavior outcomes. For this aspect of the study, classrooms will be selected using purposive
                                                                 random sampling: Classrooms in which teachers report doing a lot of classroom work in response to the hurricanes, a moderate number
                                                                 hurricane-related activities, and few or no hurricane-related activities. Researchers will use time sampling to document observed child
                                                                 stress-related behaviors. An innovative play-based interview technique, using a modified story-stem methodology in the context of
                                                                 "Hurricane Centers," will be used to measure children's knowledge. Analysis of covariance will compare child outcomes across age levels
                                                                 and teacher-response groups.
                                                                 The knowledge gained from this research will help answer important questions. First, how do educators address such events in their
                                                                 classrooms? Second, do teachers who typically use developmentally appropriate teaching practices respond to these events differently
                                                                 than other teachers? Third, to what extent do differential teacher responses to these disasters affect young children's behaviors and
                                                                 understanding of hurricanes? As those questions are answered, our knowledge about how education and children are impacted by
                                                                 disasters will be advanced in ways that have important implications for teachers, teacher educators, and psychologists. Specifically,
                                                                 because this research uses a standard methodology to measure children's knowledge across a range of ages, the results will contribute
                                                                 new insights into understanding age-related differences in children's knowledge of a specific type of natural disaster. The research will
                                                                 also contribute significantly to the existing literature on children's understanding of natural phenomena. The information gathered from this
                                                                 project will lead to (a) the development and dissemination of ideas about effective teaching strategies and curriculum for early childhood
                                                                 classrooms in regions impacted by cultural crises and upheavals related to natural disasters and (b) a general appreciation for the
                                                                 interaction between children's hurricane-related experiences and their understanding of natural disasters.




                                                                                                 19
Title                      Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
                           pal       ate   ation       zation
                           Investi                     City
                           gator
Collaborative Proposal:    Lefant    LA    Tulane      NEW      The proposed work will undertake a multistage cluster sample of household addresses in New Orleans, supplemented by a phone banks
SGER: Social Measures of   e, John         Universit   ORLEA    survey. The goal is to collect 500 respondents by May 2006.
the Katrina Aftermath                      y           NS           The survey questionnaire will ask about the decision to evacuate, survival experiences, demographic data, the kinds of needs that
                                                                people had a different timepoints before, during, and after the hurricane. The survey has been designed by Edd Hauser, and will be
                                                                piloted on refugees at UNC-Charlotte and Duke before used in the field. The first draft is under preliminary review by Duke Institutional
                                                                Review Board, and will be modified according to their feedback.
                                                                    The first part of the analysis will summarize the survey data, and provide cross-tabulations that show how different survival experiences
                                                                are associated with age, pet ownership, income, and so forth. This is standard statistical analysis, but will help identify which aspects
                                                                played dominant roles at different phases of the emergency.
                                                                    The second part of the analysis will fit a social network model to the data, extending previous work on mathematical models for the
                                                                kinds of help people need and from whom they get help. The nodes in the social network model will be people or agencies, and the edges
                                                                in the network describe the kind of help that is required.
                                                                    The research will be conducted jointly by David Banks, Edd Hauser, and John Lefante (working with Maria Sirois). David Banks and
                                                                John Lefante are in charge of the survey design and data analysis. Edd Hauser, head of the Regional Center for Homeland Security and
                                                                Major Disaster Management, is in charge of questionnaire design. Maria Sirois is a graduate student in Biostatistics in the School of Public
                                                                Health and Tropical Medicine at Tulane; she and John Lefante are in charge of data collection. Maria Sirois is a member of the National
                                                                Guard, the Louisiana Search and Rescue Team, and a certified first-responder.
                                                                    The intellectual merit of the proposed research is twofold. First it will provide a statistical analysis of the factors affecting the survival
                                                                experience of people in New Orleans before, during and after Katrina. Second, it will extend the social networks models applied in
                                                                previous studies of disaster response by using the new class of latent space models and the data obtained from the Katrina event.
                                                                    The broader impact of the proposed research is that it will provide guidance and insight for future disaster relief efforts, and highlight the
                                                                interactions between people and agencies that were most/least effective at various stages of the response.
Collaborative Proposal:    Banks,    NC    Duke        DURHA    The proposed work will undertake a multistage cluster sample of household addresses in New Orleans, supplemented by a phone banks
SGER: Social Measures of   David           Universit   M        survey. The goal is to collect 500 respondents by May 2006.
the Katrina Aftermath                      y                        The survey questionnaire will ask about the decision to evacuate, survival experiences, demographic data, the kinds of needs that
                                                                people had a different timepoints before, during, and after the hurricane. The survey has been designed by Edd Hauser, and will be
                                                                piloted on refugees at UNC-Charlotte and Duke before used in the field. The first draft is under preliminary review by Duke Institutional
                                                                Review Board, and will be modified according to their feedback.
                                                                    The first part of the analysis will summarize the survey data, and provide cross-tabulations that show how different survival experiences
                                                                are associated with age, pet ownership, income, and so forth. This is standard statistical analysis, but will help identify which aspects
                                                                played dominant roles at different phases of the emergency.
                                                                    The second part of the analysis will fit a social network model to the data, extending previous work on mathematical models for the
                                                                kinds of help people need and from whom they get help. The nodes in the social network model will be people or agencies, and the edges
                                                                in the network describe the kind of help that is required.
                                                                    The research will be conducted jointly by David Banks, Edd Hauser, and John Lefante (working with Maria Sirois). David Banks and
                                                                John Lefante are in charge of the survey design and data analysis. Edd Hauser, head of the Regional Center for Homeland Security and
                                                                Major Disaster Management, is in charge of questionnaire design. Maria Sirois is a graduate student in Biostatistics in the School of Public
                                                                Health and Tropical Medicine at Tulane; she and John Lefante are in charge of data collection. Maria Sirois is a member of the National
                                                                Guard, the Louisiana Search and Rescue Team, and a certified first-responder.
                                                                    The intellectual merit of the proposed research is twofold. First it will provide a statistical analysis of the factors affecting the survival
                                                                experience of people in New Orleans before, during and after Katrina. Second, it will extend the social networks models applied in
                                                                previous studies of disaster response by using the new class of latent space models and the data obtained from the Katrina event.
                                                                    The broader impact of the proposed research is that it will provide guidance and insight for future disaster relief efforts, and highlight the
                                                                interactions between people and agencies that were most/least effective at various stages of the response.




                                                                                                20
Title                    Princi    St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
                         pal       ate   ation       zation
                         Investi                     City
                         gator
The Dynamics of          Robins    TX    Universit   Richard   Abstract
Collaboration in         on,             y of        son
Emergency Planning for   Scott           Texas at              CMS-0555993(Robinson)
America's Schools                        Dallas


                                                               The Dynamics of Collaboration in Emergency Planning for America's Schools



                                                               The chaos following Hurricane Katrina made clear that effective emergency response requires the collaboration of many different types of
                                                               organizations. A central question in emergency response after Katrina will be how to achieve successful collaboration. This study will
                                                               provide insight into the factors promoting high quality emergency planning in schools (with special attention to the role of collaboration in
                                                               the emergency planning process) and the dynamics of collaboration on planning in public agencies generally. The research will involve a
                                                               multi-strategy assessment of emergency preparedness planning processes in K-12 school campuses and districts in Texas (with a focused
                                                               study of North Texas). The project will gather information on these campuses and districts through a survey, a collection of primary
                                                               documents from many of these educational organizations, and a detailed interview protocol for a sub-sample of districts. This study will
                                                               contribute to scientific knowledge about educational organizations, emergency planning, and the role of collaboration on hazard and
                                                               emergency preparedness in public organizations
Survey and Analysis of   Patel,    CA    Rand        SANTA     The researchers propose to conduct a follow up survey of populations displaced by hurricane Katrina. They are aware of previous studies
Decision Making in the   Kavita          Corporati   MONIC     of disasters using survey approaches and have proposed a coherent model of interactions of social and human nature following disasters.
Displaced Populations                    on          A         RAND had already collected data from 1100 persons in September 2005 and proposes to follow up with further surveys of 300 evacuees
from Hurricane Katrina                                         in Jackson and Mobile. They would focus questions on decision making for efforts to repatriate or relocate to other communities. They
                                                               propose to develop a broad analytic framework for simulation modeling of large populations base in utility theory, evacuation network
                                                               theory, health beliefs, economic theory, and social network theory.



                                                               The study will collect information from displaced persons to answer questions about their safety and health, their socio-economic
                                                               background, factors that influenced their decisions during evacuation, and their plans for employment and housing. Their data will permit a
                                                               descriptive and analytic examination of how their decisions were influenced by factors such as income, religion, and education.



                                                               They would develop an analytic framework for future follow-up survey data collection efforts. The empirical results of the prior surveys
                                                               would be analyzed in light of decision-making theories to improve the existing frameworks. They would plan an instrument to follow up
                                                               evacuees who return to the disaster areas. And finally, they would make progress in developing a general analytic framework for
                                                               simulation modeling of behaviors of large populations in disaster situations.
SGER: KATRINA            McLac     LA    Tulane      NEW       Hurricane Katrina caused destruction and disruption on an unprecedented scale in a three state area larger than the United Kingdom and
ENVIRONMENTAL            hlan,           Universit   ORLEA     the additional havoc caused by Hurricane Rita expands the area of concern into southwestern Louisiana and Texas. Both the impact of
RESEARCH AND             John            y           NS        the hurricane on the gulf coast environment and processes for environmental change and recovery are being actively studied by
RESTORATION                                                    researchers from across the country supported by a wide variety of governmental (federal, state and local) and private entities. Ensuring
NETWORK (KERRN)                                                maximum benefit and avoiding duplication of effort will require coordination and collaboration among the many research teams working in
                                                               the area. Such coordination and collaboration can only be achieved if researchers are readily able to determine what work is being or has
                                                               previously been done and can interact with others whose experience and expertise can complement their own efforts. There is an
                                                               immediate need for an information resource for investigators who are working in the area now, gathering time-sensitive data, and providing
                                                               information that will be essential for planning processes (including those already underway). The Katrina Environmental Research and
                                                               Restoration Network (KERRN) supported by an NSF Small Grant for Exploratory Research (SGER) provides such an information
                                                               resource. The KERRN network serves as a source of information about the wide range of environmental research efforts focused on
                                                               understanding and responding to one of our nation's largest hurricane events. The network enables scientists and others, who may be
                                                               supported by different agencies or affiliated with various institutions, to be aware of the full range of research efforts in order to collaborate
                                                               and to coordinate their efforts. The broader impacts of KERRN are substantial. Using the network, scientists from a wide range of
                                                               disciplines can combine their efforts to synthesize a broader understanding of the environmental processes at work in the hurricane-

                                                                                               21
Title                        Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
                             pal       ate   ation       zation
                             Investi                     City
                             gator
                                                                  impacted gulf coast region. These insights can be used in future planning, mitigation, and restoration efforts. Online access to the
                                                                  network also eliminates geographical barriers to participation in this important effort. The network will also encourage interdisciplinary
                                                                  efforts, allowing students and others engaged in the research to learn how to apply concepts and strategies from other disciplines and to
                                                                  work across intellectual boundaries.

Possible Health Effects of   Schoo     NY    SUNY at     STONY    Abstract
Hurricane-Deposited          nen,            Stony       BROOK    EAR-0601994
Sediments: the Role of       Martin          Brook                SCHOONEN
Pyrite                                                            Hurricane Katrina caused wide spread flooding in New Orleans and surrounding
                                                                  Parishes. Sediment deposited in the affected area contains as much as 5 weight %
                                                                  framboidal pyrite. The pyrite in the sediment is in a respirable size fraction. As the sediment is drying out and the cleanup and rebuilding
                                                                  effort gets underway, workers and citizens returning to the area may be exposed to framboidal pyrite via inhalation. Recent work has
                                                                  shown that pyrite produces hydrogen peroxide spontaneously and decomposes nucleic acids (RNA and DNA). Human lung cells exposed
                                                                  to pyrite show the production of hydrogen peroxide within the cell as well as cytokines, which are a signature of inflammation of the cell.
                                                                  These recent results give rise to a concern that workers and returning citizens may experience adverse health effects as they are exposed
                                                                  to the sediment during the clean up and reconstruction effort.
                                                                  In the proposed study, sediments collected and characterized by the USGS, will be tested for their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide,
                                                                  decompose nuclei acids, and disregulate human lung cells. In addition, the trace metal concentration and their distribution in framboidal
                                                                  pyrite will be determined using synchrotron-based XRF. The study will be tightly integrated with the ongoing effort by the USGS team, led
                                                                  by collaborator Dr. Geoff Plumlee.
                                                                  Intellectual Merit. The proposed study will provide a rapid first assessment of the cytotoxcity of the sediment deposited as a result of the
                                                                  hurricane-related flooding.
                                                                  The proposed work also provides a blue print for future studies involving other earth materials.
                                                                  Broader Impact. The specific results of the work may be of use to local officials in the affected area and provide guidance on the possible
                                                                  health effects of the sediment.
                                                                  Long-term medical studies will need to be conducted to determine the impact of exposure to the muck, but the results of this study will
                                                                  provide a useful rapid first assessment. The proposed study integrates concepts and techniques from the fields of geochemistry and
                                                                  biochemistry. The integration of these fields will provide new avenues of research for geochemists and attract students with an interest in
                                                                  health-related problems to the
                                                                  Geosciences. The results of this work will be published as joint publications with the
                                                                  USGS. The results will also be presented in a lecture for the general public in November 2005 and at an upcoming short course in 2006.
SGER: Intrusive Thought      Sprung    M     Universit   HATTIE   Consciousness entails experiences of a constant flow of thought, consisting of a continuous succession of mental states and contents
and Social-Cognitive         ,         S     y of        SBURG    (thoughts, percepts, feelings, etc.). This stream of consciousness continues even when individuals expend considerable effort to inhibit
Development following        Manuel          Southern             unwanted thoughts. Expressions like "my mind wandered" and claims such as "I can't get that song out of my head" reflect adults' sense
Hurricane Katrina.                           Mississip            that the mind is partially uncontrollable. Unlike adults, kindergartners and elementary school children typically have only limited knowledge
                                             pi                   of the constant flow of thought and its uncontrollability. These basic findings argue for the hypothesis that young children will have
                                                                  difficulty monitoring and reporting intrusive thoughts following potentially traumatic events, such as Hurricane Katrina. This project will
                                                                  investigate whether children's "theories" of the mind's operations underlie their abilities to monitor intrusive thoughts. Children living in
                                                                  areas directly affected by Hurricane Katrina, and control children in areas not directly affected by Katrina, will be interviewed on intrusive
                                                                  thoughts and tested for theory of mind development, self-control, language skills, and general intelligence. Children who experienced
                                                                  Hurricane Katrina directly are expected to report more intrusive thoughts than other children. In addition, children's level of theory of mind
                                                                  is expected to predict their ability to notice and report intrusive thoughts. Levels of self-control, language skills, general intelligence and
                                                                  family socio-economic status are expected to be either independent predictors or covariates of theory of mind in predicting intrusive
                                                                  thoughts. Recent research has also shown that theory of mind development can be delayed following traumatizing events, such as
                                                                  maltreatment or abuse. It is therefore expected that children who experienced Hurricane Katrina directly will be delayed in theory of mind
                                                                  development. Stronger support for this hypothesis is expected for preschool age children than for older children.
                                                                  Unwanted intrusive thoughts and flashbacks are potential threats to psychological health and everyday functioning, especially after
                                                                  potentially traumatizing events like Hurricane Katrina. This project will be the first empirical study of the relationships among intrusive
                                                                  thoughts, children's level of knowledge about the mind, and experiences with a natural disaster. If children's level of theory of mind does
                                                                  indeed predict intrusive thoughts, and if younger children have difficulties monitoring and reporting intrusive thoughts because their
                                                                  understanding of the mind's operations is not fully developed, then children who suffer from recurring intrusive thoughts--and specifically,
                                                                  negative thoughts Hurricane Katrina--may be at risk for developing behavioral problems. By contrast, higher levels of theory of mind
                                                                  development may be associated with advanced social skills and resilience to psychopathology. Given the importance of theory of mind
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Title                         Princi    St    Organiz     Organi     Abstract
                              pal       ate   ation       zation
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                                                                     development to social functioning, evidence for delays in theory of mind development subsequent to a natural disaster would have
                                                                     significant clinical and educational implications. The hypothesized findings from this project would suggest that theory of mind should be
                                                                     an integral part of preventive interventions aimed at children who experience traumatizing events, such as abuse, natural disasters, war,
                                                                     and terrorism.

Collaborative SGER:           Smyth,    NY    Columbia    NEW        The aim of this research is to determine the vulnerability in the Katrina event of the poorest sectors of New Orleans, to identify
Disaster Vulnerability in     Andre           Universit   YORK       interventions that might potentially speed up or hinder the recovery process and, based on our observations, to suggest policies that will
Relation to Poverty in the    w               y                      reduce risk exposure to future disasters. Vulnerability to natural hazards appears through weaknesses in the complex relations that
Katrina Event:                                                       humans have with their built and natural environment. In particular, we will analyze four systems and their interactions: the poor of New
Reconnaissance Survey                                                Orleans, the infrastructure in the parishes where they live, the financial and risk transfer tools available to them, and the natural resources
and Preliminary Analysis                                             that they use for their livelihood.
                                                                     This study is composed of three phases. In the first, we will survey the infrastructure systems and their failures. In the second, we will
                                                                     consider a set of study cases of small businesses in these economically depressed areas and, through surveys and personal interviews,
                                                                     we will determine their disaster preparedness level as well as the usage of their environment to carry out their normal activity previous to
                                                                     the impact of Katrina. This information will allow us to preliminarily assess the vulnerability of the economic structure. In the third phase, as
                                                                     we monitor the return of these businesses, we will test existing theories of recovery and pinpoint milestones in the process that show
                                                                     exceptional success or failure. As the reconstruction progresses, these observations will help us formulate recommendations for more
                                                                     efficient policies to reduce future vulnerability and to encourage speedier post-disaster recoveries.
Collaborative SGER:           Taylor,   LA    Tulane      NEW        The aim of this research is to determine the vulnerability in the Katrina event of the poorest sectors of New Orleans, to identify
Disaster Vulnerability in     Catheri         Universit   ORLEA      interventions that might potentially speed up or hinder the recovery process and, based on our observations, to suggest policies that will
Relation to Poverty in the    ne              y           NS         reduce risk exposure to future disasters. Vulnerability to natural hazards appears through weaknesses in the complex relations that
Katrina Event:                                                       humans have with their built and natural environment. In particular, we will analyze four systems and their interactions: the poor of New
Reconnaissance Survey                                                Orleans, the infrastructure in the parishes where they live, the financial and risk transfer tools available to them, and the natural resources
and Preliminary Analysis                                             that they use for their livelihood.
                                                                     This study is composed of three phases. In the first, we will survey the infrastructure systems and their failures. In the second, we will
                                                                     consider a set of study cases of small businesses in these economically depressed areas and, through surveys and personal interviews,
                                                                     we will determine their disaster preparedness level as well as the usage of their environment to carry out their normal activity previous to
                                                                     the impact of Katrina. This information will allow us to preliminarily assess the vulnerability of the economic structure. In the third phase, as
                                                                     we monitor the return of these businesses, we will test existing theories of recovery and pinpoint milestones in the process that show
                                                                     exceptional success or failure. As the reconstruction progresses, these observations will help us formulate recommendations for more
                                                                     efficient policies to reduce future vulnerability and to encourage speedier post-disaster recoveries.
A Planning Initiative for a   Kelley-   M     Mississip   Perkinst   The project is a cooperative planning initiative involving Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College, Jones County Junior College, Pearl
Gulf Region Technology        Winder    S     pi Gulf     on         River Community College, and Mississippi State University and their industrial partners to develop a model for an educational system to
Education Project for         s,              Coast                  produce a multi-skill technological workforce for disaster protection and response (DPR). The planning process is engaging business,
Disaster Preparedness         Anna            Commun                 industry, emergency management and educational institutions in activities to develop an understanding of the needed skill level in
and Recovery                  Faye            ity                    emerging and converging technologies applicable to DPR; to develop and realign curriculum; and to validate the essential technology
                                              College                skills, knowledge, and competencies required in DPR. These efforts are converging on a plan to produce a technology workforce
                                                                     development system based on a skills assessment and gap analysis that relates to current workforce needs in disaster preparedness and
                                                                     recovery. Workshop forums, consultation with industry, and collaboration among employers and education providers is enabling the
                                                                     evaluation of the technology programs in relation to skills sets required for DPR related jobs. Specific technologies being examined are
                                                                     integrated systems, interoperability networks and systems, security, wireless, converged network systems with integrated mobile and fixed
                                                                     access, Internet protocol, enabled multi services networks to converge data transport, voice and video communication, data storage, and
                                                                     other services that use multi protocol label switching technology. An external evaluator is assessing the planning project using a mixed
                                                                     method evaluation process in relation to meeting the stated expected outcomes. The broader impacts of the Initiative extend beyond the
                                                                     community college educational partners to K-12 education, universities, and the workplace. With the rebuilding of a post-Katrina economy,
                                                                     designing and developing a plan to reposition the workplace to embrace emerging and converging technologies will have regional and
                                                                     national implications for workforce development.




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Title                        Princi    St    Organiz      Organi   Abstract
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SGER: Hurricane Katrina      Seed,     CA    Universit    BERKE    Award: CMS-0611632
and Lessons for              Raymo           y of         LEY      PI: Raymond Seed
Prevention of Catastrophic   nd              California            Institution: University of California, Berkeley
Levee Failures Applicable                    -Berkeley             Title: SGER: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons for the Prevention of Catastrophic Levee Failures Applicable to Other Similarly Threatened
to Other Similarly                                                 Areas in the U.S.
Threatened Areas in the                                            The research team conducted an NSF-sponsored field investigation (CMS-0553197) in the months following Hurricane Katrina that
U.S.                                                               successfully captured and documented vital perishable data and observations related to levee failures in New Orleans. The observations
                                                                   from the first SGER are contained in the following report (also available from the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and
                                                                   Governmental Affairs: Seed, R.B., Nicholson, P.G., Dalrymple, R.A., Battjes, J., Bea, R.G., Boutwell, G., Bray, J.D., Collins, B.D., Harder,
                                                                   L.F., Headland, J.R., Inamine, M., Kayen, R.E., Kuhr, R., Pestana, J.M., Silva-Tulla, F., Storesund, R., Tanaka, S., Wartman, J., Wolff,
                                                                   T.F., Wootem, L. and Zimmie, T. (2005) Preliminary Report on the Performance of the New Orleans Levee Systems in Hurricane Katrina
                                                                   on August 29, 2005, Report No. UCB/CITRIS 05/01, CITRIS Center, University of California, Berkeley, November 16, 2005. This new
                                                                   project will continue the collection of perishable data, but will concentrate on the analysis of these important field performance case
                                                                   studies.
                                                                   With the Nation now engaged in emergency reconstruction of the heavily damaged New Orleans flood protection system, there is an
                                                                   unusual urgency in learning and applying lessons from Katrina to these systems currently under urgent repair. These lessons will also,
                                                                   however, be extremely valuable over the long term for levee systems throughout the Nation, and throughout the world. The multiple
                                                                   failures of the New Orleans flood protection system during the Katrina event resulted in catastrophic flooding that has to date claimed
                                                                   1,063 lives, devastated a major U.S. city and metropolitan area, and produced estimated (direct and indirect) damages ranging between
                                                                   $200 to $400 billion. This represents the single most costly engineered system failure in world history. There are lessons of potentially
                                                                   vital importance to be learned from the performance of the New Orleans levee systems, and from the experiences with emergency repair
                                                                   and pumping to dewater the inundated areas. Overtopping scour erosion, unbracing of structural floodwalls and sheetpile cut-off wall
                                                                   systems and resultant wall system failures, and underseepage-induced stability failures of earthen levee embankments are all represented
                                                                   among the several dozen flood protection system failures that occurred in New Orleans. Successful performance of similar, nearby flood
                                                                   protection system elements, with small variations in materials, geometry and other design details, represents a striking contrast and a
                                                                   unique opportunity to learn critical lessons and to improve our understanding of the various mechanisms involved. The findings of this
                                                                   study will significantly influence the future analysis, design and construction of these systems, not only in the New Orleans region but
                                                                   throughout the nation as well.
                                                                   Recent advances concerning prediction of storm runoff, hurricane frequency and seismic risks suggest that levee systems are more fragile
                                                                   than is generally understood. In the absence of a coherent national levee safety program (such as with the National Dam Safety
                                                                   Program), research in this area lags as well, and levee systems currently represent an unacceptable level of national risk that is generally
                                                                   both poorly documented and poorly understood. It is critical that we learn the lessons to be learned from the catastrophic failures of the
                                                                   New Orleans flood protection system in Hurricane Katrina so that they can be applied in the future to reduce our nations exposure to
                                                                   similarly catastrophic disasters in other regions.
SGER Collaborative           Platt,    LA    Louisian     Baton    Hurricanes affect coastal landscapes in the context of ongoing sea-level rise. This project will test the hypothesis that disassembly of
Research: Do Hurricanes      William         a State      Rouge    ecosystems from winds and high water interacts with increased salinity from storm-surges and sea-level rise to influence regeneration by
Spur Responses of                            Universit             plants and associated mycorrhizal fungi, causing landward shifts in species distributions and reassembly of ecosystems. The study site,
Coastal Communities to                       y&                    Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (WBNERR), Alabama, is experiencing chronic sea-level rise. Hurricane Ivan (2004)
Changing Sea Level?                          Agricultur            caused wind damage and a moderate-salinity storm-surge. Hurricane Katrina (2005) caused an extended high-salinity storm-surge and
                                             al and                extensive redistribution of sediments. Pre/post-Ivan vegetation surveys and post-Ivan/pre-Katrina sediment cores provide baseline data.
                                             Mechani               Sediments at different elevations will be re-cored to assess biophysical changes. Changes in vegetation will be measured in permanent
                                             cal                   plots along transects from estuarine marshes to terrestrial forests and in local areas of intense wind/water damage.
                                             College               By combining global climate change science with coastal disturbance ecology, this research will facilitate practical restoration and
                                                                   management in coastal areas experiencing hurricanes and sea level rise. In collaboration with WBNERR, results will be disseminated to
                                                                   professional audiences and will expose 5,000 visitors annually to interactive effects of hurricanes and global climate change on coastal
                                                                   habitats along the Gulf of Mexico.
SGER Collaborative           Battagl   IL    Southern     Carbon   Hurricanes affect coastal landscapes in the context of ongoing sea-level rise. This project will test the hypothesis that disassembly of
Research: Do Hurricanes      ia,             Illinois     dale     ecosystems from winds and high water interacts with increased salinity from storm-surges and sea-level rise to influence regeneration by
Spur Responses of            Loretta         Universit             plants and associated mycorrhizal fungi, causing landward shifts in species distributions and reassembly of ecosystems. The study site,
Coastal Communities to                       y at                  Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (WBNERR), Alabama, is experiencing chronic sea-level rise. Hurricane Ivan (2004)
Changing Sea Level?                          Carbond               caused wind damage and a moderate-salinity storm-surge. Hurricane Katrina (2005) caused an extended high-salinity storm-surge and
                                             ale                   extensive redistribution of sediments. Pre/post-Ivan vegetation surveys and post-Ivan/pre-Katrina sediment cores provide baseline data.
                                                                   Sediments at different elevations will be re-cored to assess biophysical changes. Changes in vegetation will be measured in permanent

                                                                                                  24
Title                     Princi    St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
                          pal       ate   ation       zation
                          Investi                     City
                          gator
                                                                plots along transects from estuarine marshes to terrestrial forests and in local areas of intense wind/water damage.
                                                                By combining global climate change science with coastal disturbance ecology, this research will facilitate practical restoration and
                                                                management in coastal areas experiencing hurricanes and sea level rise. In collaboration with WBNERR, results will be disseminated to
                                                                professional audiences and will expose ~5,000 visitors annually to interactive effects of hurricanes and global climate change on coastal
                                                                habitats along the Gulf of Mexico.
SGER Collaborative        Whitbe    LA    Universit   new       Hurricanes affect coastal landscapes in the context of ongoing sea-level rise. This project will test the hypothesis that disassembly of
Research: Do Hurricanes   ck,             y of New    orleans   ecosystems from winds and high water interacts with increased salinity from storm-surges and sea-level rise to influence regeneration by
Spur Responses of         Julie           Orleans               plants and associated mycorrhizal fungi, causing landward shifts in species distributions and reassembly of ecosystems. The study site,
Coastal Communities to                                          Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (WBNERR), Alabama, is experiencing chronic sea-level rise. Hurricane Ivan (2004)
Changing Sea Level?                                             caused wind damage and a moderate-salinity storm-surge. Hurricane Katrina (2005) caused an extended high-salinity storm-surge and
                                                                extensive redistribution of sediments. Pre/post-Ivan vegetation surveys and post-Ivan/pre-Katrina sediment cores provide baseline data.
                                                                Sediments at different elevations will be re-cored to assess biophysical changes. Changes in vegetation will be measured in permanent
                                                                plots along transects from estuarine marshes to terrestrial forests and in local areas of intense wind/water damage.
                                                                By combining global climate change science with coastal disturbance ecology, this research will facilitate practical restoration and
                                                                management in coastal areas experiencing hurricanes and sea level rise. In collaboration with WBNERR, results will be disseminated to
                                                                professional audiences and will expose 5,000 visitors annually to interactive effects of hurricanes and global climate change on coastal
                                                                habitats along the Gulf of Mexico.
Doctoral Dissertation     Fox,      NY    Columbia    NEW       Columbia University graduate student Matthew Sakakeeny, supervised by Dr. Aaron A. Fox, will undertake an ethnomusicological study of
Improvement Grant:        Aaron           Universit   YORK      local cultural practices in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. Jazz funerals, Mardi Gras Indian ceremonies, and parades called
Reconstituting New                        y                     "second lines" have occurred in predominantly African American neighborhoods for more than a century and are structured around
Orleans Culture in the                                          performances by marching bands and other musical groups. By tracking the role of these events in the city's recovery, this dissertation
Wake of Disaster                                                project will contribute to the anthropological understanding that musically organized sound is inseparable from social practice. The
                                                                research will be based primarily on interviews with musicians and other practitioners and observation of cultural practices. This
                                                                ethnographic data will be interpreted to answer the questions: How will New Orleans culture be reconstituted, what cultural changes are
                                                                occurring in the aftermath of Katrina, and how should this crisis be situated within a larger history?
                                                                The practices of local culture resonate beyond the local level and inevitably connect to governmental policiehat create patterns of
                                                                vulnerability. Despite public discourses of racial equality, class lines in New Orleans generally reflect racial lines. Systemic poverty in the
                                                                neighborhoods where the jazz funerals and parades take place left African American residents vulnerable to disaster, and made Hurricane
                                                                Katrina one more tragedy intensified by a system of unequal power relations. The discourse of African American cultural practitioners will
                                                                be the basis of this field research, including individuals' motivations and reasoning for returning or not returning home. The dissertation will
                                                                analyze the multiple meanings of New Orleans culture, locating correspondences and discrepancies in governmental discourse, media
                                                                coverage, and the actual experiences of New Orleanians attempting to rebuild their lives.
Adapting to Evacuation:   Kraut,    PA    Carnegie    PITTSB    This research investigates how information and communication technologies played a role in the Hurricane Katrina disaster for
Using Information         Robert          -Mellon     URGH      disadvantaged populations. Research on the effects of disasters consistently shows that women and victims of lower socioeconomic status
Technology for Social                     Universit             are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of forced relocation. In what ways did information and communication technologies enable or
Support                                   y                     fail to enable significant help for these vulnerable groups?
                                                                Recent natural disasters forced thousands of people to relocate involuntarily and damaged or destroyed many communities. Information
                                                                and communication technologies appear to have played a significant role in helping victims cope with the aftermath of the disasters.
                                                                Informal reports suggest that evacuees, and people who helped evacuees, used the Internet to find family and friends, to search for
                                                                updates on the state of their neighborhoods, to search for housing and jobs, and to exchange needed services, goods, and monetary aid.
                                                                Many of the informal reports also suggest that great strides still need to be made if technology is to be used effectively in disasters. For
                                                                instance, a flood of poor quality information, such as misspellings of people's names, made searching quickly for family and friends through
                                                                people-locator sites difficult or impossible. This research focuses on how technology may have affected the exchange of help and support
                                                                after an involuntary relocation in the wake of this natural disaster and in the search for family and friends lost in evacuations.
                                                                Adjustment to effects of major disasters and involuntary relocation can take many months or even years. In order to obtain information
                                                                about technology use immediately after the disaster and to assess rates of adjustment post-disaster, this project will conduct two rounds of
                                                                retrospective interviews and a self-report survey over the course of 4-6 months. Because this research is focused on the effectiveness of
                                                                help, the study participants are residents of Baton Rouge and New Orleans who were affected by Hurricane Katrina, and on-the-ground
                                                                volunteers who have continued to work in temporary accommodations there. This research examines the coping mechanisms that
                                                                displaced individuals employed to deal with the aftermath of the hurricane and the technologies they found most useful. It also examines
                                                                how volunteers used technology and their ability to help those hurricane victims who did not have direct access to the Internet or cellular
                                                                phones. The researchers will study whether volunteer-run support, people-locator and in-kind donation websites were able to reach
                                                                populations most needing support.
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Title                        Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
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                                                                  The results will simultaneously be of interest to computer scientists interested in innovative uses of technology that worked and did not
                                                                  work in this disaster and to social scientists concerned with the processes underlying social support and disaster coping. This research
                                                                  would also be of interest to policy makers who need hard information about the role played by information and communication technology
                                                                  in the disaster and where investments need to be made to alleviate the effects of future disasters. The intellectual merit of this work is that
                                                                  it examines use of information and communication technologies in understudied populations during a unique disaster event. The broader
                                                                  impact of this work is to provide important insights for policy makers and technology developers about the types of information and
                                                                  communication technologies that are most useful, and would be most useful. The findings will lead to recommendations for the design of
                                                                  new technologies and services that would be of most use to displaced persons in a disaster situation, especially those who are most
                                                                  disadvantaged.
Dynamic Cognitive and        Jost,     NY    New         NEW      The aim of this project is to investigate human responses to threats directed at existing social systems. Threats to the status quo may be
Motivational Properties of   John            York        YORK     direct, as when the American system was attacked on 9/11, or indirect, as when its faults are exposed, as in the aftermath of Hurricane
System Justification                         Universit            Katrina. Such threats tend to provoke negative affect and motivate people to defend and bolster the social system. This defensive
                                             y                    response serves to reestablish positive affect, but it can have unanticipated and sometimes deleterious consequences. System
                                                                  justification, which refers to the psychological process whereby the status quo is defended and upheld simply because it exists, has been
                                                                  associated with increased stereotyping, victim-blaming, and resistance to change. System-justifying responses are elicited and
                                                                  accentuated by threats to the system, and they can help maintain an imperfect but established state. Three experimental studies will
                                                                  examine the cognitive-motivational basis of system justification. In Study 1, the investigators will determine whether system justification is
                                                                  a motivated, goal-oriented process. If the system justification goal is indeed activated when the system is threatened, the motivation to
                                                                  restore system legitimacy should drive behavior until it is achieved. Insofar as a goal can be attained through various means, these means
                                                                  should be substitutable. While system threat should lead participants to experience feelings of discomfort, the goal of system justification
                                                                  can be met by affirming any of several positive features of the system, thereby restoring positive affect. In Study 2, the investigators will
                                                                  address the motivational property of goal-resumption by observing whether people for whom the system justification goal has been
                                                                  activated by system threat are more likely to fulfill the goal after it has been interrupted, in comparison with people for whom the goal has
                                                                  not been activated. In Study 3, the investigators will determine whether system justification is a goal that is distinct from self-enhancement
                                                                  and ingroup favoritism by comparing responses of high vs. low socio-economic status participants to system threat. The hypothesis is that
                                                                  self- affirmation and group-affirmation are not substitutable as routes to affirming the value of the social system, so that affirming oneself or
                                                                  one's group should not deactivate the system justification goal--unless one's group is seen as highly representative of the system. This
                                                                  research will promote scientific training, teaching, and learning, because undergraduate and graduate students will be involved in all
                                                                  phases of the research. As in previous work, the PI will work closely with a diverse group of students and collaborators. The research
                                                                  results will be disseminated widely to a public and scientific audience.
Doctoral Dissertation        Leonar    M     Universit   COLLE     It is now generally accepted that social networks are import institutions that influence many economic decisions and outcomes. However,
Research: Do Social          d,        D     y of        GE       analyzing the causal effects of social networks is difficult because of endogenously problems. This doctoral dissertation research will use
Networks Influence           Kennet          Maryland    PARK     a unique data set from Uganda to investigate whether social networks impact household investment in human capital. The effect of the
Households' Human            h               College              Ugandan insurgency on social networks varies with the ways that households were displaced. While some households maintained much of
Capital Investments?                         Park                 their original networks, others moved with very little of their former network into camps with people from different villages. Since the
                                                                  conditions of displacement was not by choice, this camp setting provides a natural experiment for analyzing the effect of social network
                                                                  quality on household human capital investment. This research will collect data on the variations in household displacement experiences,
                                                                  using household interviews and secondary sources regarding the history of camps and government displacement practices, to instrument
                                                                  for social network quality in analyzing the impact of social networks on human capital investment behavior. The data collection coincides
                                                                  with a randomized trial of a World Food Programme school-based feeding program that begins soon. This program represents an
                                                                  exogenous shock to household income, which households may use to invest in children's nutrition. Comparing preschooler's pre- and post-
                                                                  treatment anthropometric z-scores identifies which households make this human capital investment. The data on variations in social
                                                                  network quality and the data from the nutrition experiment allow the PI to exploit two sources of exogenous variation to identify the effects
                                                                  of social networks on human-capital-investment behavior.
                                                                  Identifying a causal relationship between social networks and economic decision making is difficult because the quality of a household's
                                                                  social network is typically endogenous to household behavior. Moreover, the opportunity to identify household investment in human
                                                                  capital, rather than simply nutritional outcomes (a function of investment, income and genetics, among other things), is equally difficult.
                                                                  Being one of the first to examine how social networks impact nutritional investment behavior rather than simply networks' impact child on
                                                                  nutritional outcomes, this doctoral dissertation research will contribute significantly to economic science. The methodology developed in
                                                                  this research can be applied to the analysis of household investments in many settings where large numbers of families are displaced, as
                                                                  happened with hurricane Katrina. The result of this research also has implication for government displacement practices that aim to
                                                                  preserve social networks to curb long-term negative effects of displacement on household welfare. This project provides evidence of the
                                                                  contributions of social networks to investment behavior. The result of this research has development policy implications generally.

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Social Communication       Magdo      NY    Renssela    TROY     This is a small grant for exploratory research to gather data on how the global communication network functioned around Hurricane
Networks for Early         n-               er                   Katrina, in terms of its use by various social groups. This timely research will provide insights into how emergency warning messages can
Warning in Disasters       Ismail,          Polytech             be propagated through the social network. It will start by building an understanding of the nature of the communication network in New
                           Malik            nic                  Orleans and the Gulf Coast, including connections with global communication networks, and the nature of the social group structure that
                                            Institute            overlay this communication network. The basic research questions to be addressed are: building models of how information flows in a
                                                                 communication network and taking into account the "trustability" of the information.
                                                                 The enormity of the tragedy following Hurricane Katrina indicates a failure in an apparently otherwise well functioning global
                                                                 communication network, wired and wireless. Despite the fact that two to three days before Hurricane Katrina hit, the level of danger was
                                                                 known and broadcast, a large fraction of the population and the local administration did not trust the forecasts enough to take action.
                                                                 Technology by itself cannot ensure that the data are processed into information and delivered in a timely fashion in a form that is
                                                                 meaningful to the user and of value in emergency response decision-making. A significant component of how information flows through the
                                                                 society is intertwined with the social network dynamics of the society.
                                                                 Individuals will not act upon information unless they consider the information trustworthy. This fact takes on special significance during a
                                                                 time of technological transition, as traditional mass media like newspapers and network television are supplemented or supplanted by
                                                                 online news and other computer-enabled communication media. The theoretical approach of this research postulates that there must be
                                                                 multiple trustworthy paths from the source of the information to the individual before some action is taken. This idea is used to build new
                                                                 measures of the quality of a social communication network relating to how well it will perform in conveying emergency warning messages.
                                                                 In turn, these measures can provide specific recommendations regarding how the network could be improved.
Doctoral Dissertation      Elliott,   LA    Tulane      NEW      Recent research shows that on average, Latinos are discriminated against in one in four attempts to acquire rental housing in U.S. cities
Research: Discrimination   James            Universit   ORLEA    as compared to one in five attempts for African Americans, yet relatively little research in this area has focused on Latinos. While
in the Rental Market, a                     y           NS       discrimination against African Americans continues to be an important topic worthy of scholarly investigation, it is important that
Focus on Latinos                                                 researchers also give due attention to the fastest growing and largest minority group in the U.S. In this area, those studies of Latinos that
                                                                 do exist are limited in important ways. They do not include any cities in the Southeast, the region of the country with the fastest growing
                                                                 Latino population; they do not include cities in which Latino in-migration is a relatively new phenomenon; they do not address the issue of
                                                                 linguistic profiling and the possibility for phone-based housing discrimination; and they do not include any analyses of the targets'
                                                                 perspectives or lived experiences. This research addresses these important gaps with an in-depth analysis of the Gulfport-Biloxi-
                                                                 Pascagoula housing market, the area of Mississippi most intensely affected by hurricane Katrina. Three questions drive this research.
                                                                 First, do local market and neighborhood characteristics make discrimination more likely in some areas? Second, are some Latinos more
                                                                 vulnerable to housing discrimination and are some types of housing agents more likely to discriminate? Third, how do Latinos interpret
                                                                 their experiences in the housing market? This study is based on two data sources: one, phone audits intended to test local rental agents'
                                                                 compliance with Fair Housing laws in 2004 and 2006; and two, in-depth interviews with Latinos living on the Gulf Coast after hurricane
                                                                 Katrina. In contrast to the variable-oriented approach of the audits, the interviews will provide insight into the lived experiences and
                                                                 perspectives of Latinos in the area giving voice to an often-underrepresented group, Latino migrants.
                                                                 Broader Impacts: Improved understanding of which social forces systematically affect the likelihood of discrimination and how Latinos
                                                                 interpret their experiences in the housing market can both inform local and federal policy and help improve enforcement and education
                                                                 efforts by governmental and non-profit organizations concerned with Fair Housing legislation. More generally, this analysis will provide
                                                                 important insights into how Latino migrants are incorporated into a new destination, power dynamics between minority and majority group
                                                                 members, and whether group relations change in a U.S. housing market after a disaster.




                                                                                                27
Title                       Princi    St    Organiz     Organi    Abstract
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                            Investi                     City
                            gator
AOC: Disaster, Resilience   Logan,    RI    Brown       Provide   Abstract: Disaster, Resilience and the Built Environment on the Gulf Coast
and the Built Environment   John            Universit   nce       This project studies the resilience of the built environment in coastal communities that are subject to chronic wind and water damage from
on the Gulf Coast                           y                     hurricanes. It is partly a case study of the impacts of the Katrina hurricane on New Orleans and the Mississippi Coast and the national and
                                                                  regional pattern of displacement of residents and their assimilation into other places. It asks whose communities were most affected,
                                                                  which will be rebuilt and how they will be different from before, and which segments of the population will be permanently displaced.
                                                                  This Katrina case study will be embedded within a larger project on the relationship between hurricane damage, natural environment, and
                                                                  the built environment. It will assess the cumulative storm risk on the Gulf Coast during the last fifty years, and ask how the natural
                                                                  environment (forest cover) and the built environment (residential land use) have been affected by these events. Historical data on storms
                                                                  and remote sensing information on forest cover will be analyzed together with fine-grained census data at ten-year intervals for 1950-2000.
                                                                  A scientific understanding of the effects of Katrina and other storms will be valuable for public policymaking, both in the short term
                                                                  (investments in the region over the next several years) and in the long term (planning for the security of coastal zones). The project will
                                                                  provide a map of vulnerability to storm risks for the Gulf Coast, and results will be widely disseminated to the public and environmental
                                                                  organizations.




SGER: A Web                 Garcia-   CA    Stanford    STANF     Proposal ID:          IIS-0624725
Sociologist's Workbench     Molina,         Universit   ORD       PI:            Garcia-Molina, Hector
                            Hector          y                     Institution:          Stanford University
                                                                  Title:               SGER: A Web Sociologist's Workben
                                                                  Abstrac
                                                                  This proposal is to design and build integrated software tools that will help social scientists analyze large time series snapshots of World
                                                                  Wide Web materials. The researchers' WebBase facility has been generating such topic specific Web collections since 2001. During the
                                                                  aftermath of the Katrina hurricane disaster pages were collected from a set of 400 Web sites every day. The site set was selected by
                                                                  personnel at the Library of Congress and the California Digital Library. The proposed tools will help social scientists track the development
                                                                  of topics across a time series such as the Katrina collections. The software architecture proposed is modular. Requirements, attributes,
                                                                  and associated functionalities were identified from discussions between the Computer Science researchers and faculty at Stanford's
                                                                  Communications Department where such social science applications and analyses are pursued. This project is inherently cross
                                                                  disciplinary, challenging and innovative. As such, it involves risk in pushing the boundaries of research capability. Successful outcome will
                                                                  broadly impact the social sciences by providing new means for conducting research over World Wide Web content. Data collected will be
                                                                  publicly available., as well as the new software tools coming out of this effort.




SGER: WebTrack -            Tejada    LA    Tulane      NEW       Hurricane Katrina disrupted many social networks. Over 1.5 million people evacuated New Orleans. Companies, schools, and families
Learning Geographical       ,               Universit   ORLEA     were geographically separated after the storm, and they needed to rediscover the locations of their members. A "burst" of new data
Movements of Social         Sheila          y           NS        sources, generated on the web by disaster relief organizations, news outlets, employers, and hurricane survivors, aided those affected by
Networks through the Web                                          the storm in searching for members of their social groups. This project investigates methods to automate tracking the geographical
                                                                  movements of social networks using the variety of information sources available on the web. As more time passes from Hurricane Katrina,
                                                                  these sources become increasingly inaccessible; therefore, the first step is to quickly harvest these Katrina-related blogs and forums,
                                                                  survivor databases and websites. Next, this project explores new link analysis techniques that utilize these new heterogeneous data
                                                                  sources to track the geographical movement of the network members, given information about the social networks prior to the disruption.
                                                                  These new techniques combine previous work in social network analysis, based on the study of the patterns of connections between
                                                                  members or subgraphs in a social networks, and link analysis methods, which determine whether a connection or link exist between
                                                                  members.

                                                                  The project will result in a range of broader impacts. The project will aid in harvesting and archiving Hurricane Katrina-related highly
                                                                  perishable data that will provide a historical record of the disaster. The resulting information resource will allow researchers to access an

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Title                         Princi    St    Organiz     Organi   Abstract
                              pal       ate   ation       zation
                              Investi                     City
                              gator
                                                                   extensive dataset to develop new research in social networks and disaster recovery. The new link analysis developed in this project will
                                                                   assist in automating the social network reconnection task for Hurricane Katrina victims and make us better prepared to handle future
                                                                   disasters. The project Web site (http://www.eecs.tulane.edu/tejada/katrina) provides access to more information about the research and
                                                                   the results.

Gulf Coast Post-Katrina       Khons     LA    Louisian    Baton    The EPSCoR leadership in Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi has joint efforts to submit a proposal for planning and implementing a two-
Forum                         ari,            a Board     Rouge    day Gulf coast workshop aimed at developing more effective approaches to natural and human-induced disaster research. The need for
                              Michae          of                   the proposed workshop emerges from the experience and learning from the devastation caused by both Katrina and Rita hurricanes,
                              l               Regents              including the lost of decades of research data and infrastructure. The region's long-term strategic investments in human and material
                                                                   resources to advance knowledge and education in the fields of science and engineering have been disrupted, damaged, and in many
                                                                   instances, destroyed.
                                                                   This proposal constitutes a tri-state collaboration (i.e., Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi) to hold a Gulf Coast forum, which will bring
                                                                   together regional and national experts to develop approaches to natural disaster research. The three states will work together in all stages
                                                                   of the planning and implementation of the pursued forum through a tri-state strategic planning committee. The forum will serve to widen the
                                                                   scope of the previously held forum in Louisiana and advance by further refining and focusing on specific opportunities for revitalizing and
                                                                   re-establishing the pre-disaster scientific research trajectories of the affected states. Thus, the main purpose of the forum is to establish a
                                                                   path towards developing successful, high-impact, and sustainable research supporting the Gulf coast by bringing together key participants
                                                                   and encouraging broader collaboration from diverse disciplines and research interests.
SGER: DHS and NSF             Staffor   MI    Universit   Ann      SES- 0649543
Collaboration: Aftermath of   d,              y of        Arbor    Frank Stafford
Hurricane Katrina:            Frank           Michigan             Katherine McGonagle
Tracking PSID Families in                     Ann                  Robert F. Schoeni
Louisiana, Mississippi, and                   Arbor                University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Alabama                                                            As the economic consequences of Hurricane Katrina are tallied this disaster will almost certainly be the single largest natural disaster to hit
                                                                   the US in the past 100 years. Large numbers of persons were evacuated from affected areas before and during the hurricane; it is possible
                                                                   that these persons may not return to their home states in the foreseeable future. Recent research, particularly in the aftermath of the
                                                                   September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City, has shown that large-scale mass traumatic events are likely to have substantial
                                                                   impact on population behavior with critical implications for population well-being in the long term. Previous population-based research has
                                                                   found an increase in depression, anxiety, substance use, among other behavior changes, after such events. This project will assemble a
                                                                   population-based sample that represents the pre-Katrina populations of the affected areas using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics
                                                                   (PSID), longitudinal survey of a nationally representative sample of US families that began in 1968. With primary sponsorship from NSF
                                                                   for 34 waves of data collected on the same families and their descendents as of 2005, the PSID can justly be considered a cornerstone of
                                                                   the data infrastructure for empirically based social science research in the US.
                                                                    The goal of the project is to track and locate families who are part of the longitudinal sample of the PSID in order to enhance the
                                                                   likelihood of their participation in the 2007 wave of the PSID. As these families represent approximately 7% (564 of 8041) of the total
                                                                   number of PSID families, their continued participation in the PSID is of critical importance for maintaining its response rate and
                                                                   representation of US families as a whole. Once the families are located they will complete a 40-minute questionnaire designed to assess
                                                                   exposures to Hurricane Katrina, its impact on a number of socio-economic and mental health outcomes, as well as examine the role
                                                                   played by socio-economic circumstances that existed prior to Katrina (as measured using PSID panel data) in shaping the impact of
                                                                   Katrina on these families. With many years of data collected on these families and their descendants prior to Katrina, this data collection
                                                                   takes advantage of the unique strengths of the PSID, but also contributes to enhancing and strengthening PSID data collection and
                                                                   analysis.
                                                                   Carrying out the aims proposed here by collecting information from these Gulf state families who have participated in the PSID is
                                                                   advantageous for the following reasons. First, a high annual continuation rate is critical to the success of a long panel study such as the
                                                                   PSID. In recent waves, the study has achieved unprecedented wave-to-wave response rates in the range of 96-98%. However, with
                                                                   approximately 7% of the families (who provided interviews during the 2005 from their residences in the three Gulf States, it is very likely
                                                                   that an unusually high proportion may have relocated since Katrina. Locating these families in order to secure their participation in 2007 is
                                                                   of critical importance to maintaining the national representativeness of the sample and response rate.
                                                                   Second, once the Gulf state families are successfully located, the administration of a questionnaire to the PSID Gulf state families takes
                                                                   advantage of the wealth of PSID data available on these families prior to the occurrence of Katrina. PSID has collected data from these
                                                                   same families and their descendants annually 1968-1997, and biennially ever since, with the most recent wave of data collection in 2005
                                                                   (with virtually all of data collection completed prior to Katrina). The collection of one-wave of follow-up data on these Gulf state families
                                                                   will, then, create a longitudinal panel study, with information from prior waves brought into the resultant data files. These longitudinal data
                                                                                                   29
Title   Princi    St    Organiz   Organi   Abstract
        pal       ate   ation     zation
        Investi                   City
        gator
                                           describing the pre- and post-Katrina world of these families could be used to develop rich analytic models that allow us to study how pre-
                                           existing socio-economic characteristics and functioning prior to Katrina may have affected the impact of Katrina, and the return to baseline
                                           functioning.




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